Science.gov

Sample records for maturity modelling integrated

  1. Climbing the ladder: capability maturity model integration level 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Bryce; Lutteroth, Christof

    2011-02-01

    This article details the attempt to form a complete workflow model for an information and communication technologies (ICT) company in order to achieve a capability maturity model integration (CMMI) maturity rating of 3. During this project, business processes across the company's core and auxiliary sectors were documented and extended using modern enterprise modelling tools and a The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) methodology. Different challenges were encountered with regard to process customisation and tool support for enterprise modelling. In particular, there were problems with the reuse of process models, the integration of different project management methodologies and the integration of the Rational Unified Process development process framework that had to be solved. We report on these challenges and the perceived effects of the project on the company. Finally, we point out research directions that could help to improve the situation in the future.

  2. An integrative model of the maturation of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Luna, Beatriz; Marek, Scott; Larsen, Bart; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden; Chahal, Rajpreet

    2015-07-08

    Brains systems undergo unique and specific dynamic changes at the cellular, circuit, and systems level that underlie the transition to adult-level cognitive control. We integrate literature from these different levels of analyses to propose a novel model of the brain basis of the development of cognitive control. The ability to consistently exert cognitive control improves into adulthood as the flexible integration of component processes, including inhibitory control, performance monitoring, and working memory, increases. Unique maturational changes in brain structure, supported by interactions between dopaminergic and GABAergic systems, contribute to enhanced network synchronization and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. In turn, these factors facilitate the specialization and strengthening of connectivity in networks supporting the transition to adult levels of cognitive control. This model provides a novel understanding of the adolescent period as an adaptive period of heightened experience-seeking necessary for the specialization of brain systems supporting cognitive control.

  3. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  4. Proteolysis regulates cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integration

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryuichi; Gunawan, Felix; Beisaw, Arica; Jimenez-Amilburu, Vanesa; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Kostin, Sawa; Kawakami, Koichi; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue integrity is critical for organ formation and function. During heart development, cardiomyocytes differentiate and integrate to form a coherent tissue that contracts synchronously. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac tissue integrity are poorly understood. Here we show that proteolysis, via the E3 ubiquitin ligase ASB2, regulates cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integrity. Cardiomyocytes in asb2b zebrafish mutants fail to terminally differentiate, resulting in reduced cardiac contractility and output. Mosaic analyses reveal a cell-autonomous requirement for Asb2b in cardiomyocytes for their integration as asb2b mutant cardiomyocytes are unable to meld into wild-type myocardial tissue. In vitro and in vivo data indicate that ASB2 negatively regulates TCF3, a bHLH transcription factor. TCF3 must be degraded for cardiomyocyte maturation, as TCF3 gain-of-function causes a number of phenotypes associated with cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation. Overall, our results show that proteolysis has an important role in cardiomyocyte maturation and the formation of a coherent myocardial tissue. PMID:28211472

  5. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  6. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  7. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  8. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  9. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  10. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  11. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  12. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  13. How to Be a Better Consumer of Security Maturity Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-21

    cybersecurity and resilience domains • Be aware of caution flags when dealing with maturity models • Determine how to choose the right model for your... cybersecurity program? Maturity Models Member Query 17 Maturity Models Member Query – Q1 Have you or your organization ever used any type of maturity...networked systems CERT – Anticipating and solving our nation’s cybersecurity challenges • Largest technical program at SEI • Focused on internet

  14. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Maturity Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-23

    Types of Maturity Models • Examples of Maturity Models 11 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Maturity Model Defined An organized way to convey a...path of experience, wisdom, perfection, or acculturation . Depicts an evolutionary progression of an attribute, characteristic, pattern, or...practice. The subject of a maturity model can be objects or things, ways of doing something, characteristics of something, practices, controls, or

  15. Sex Differences in a Causal Model of Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Studied sex differences among high school students (N=318) in career development process to determine whether sex differences exist in way six independent variables interact in career maturity causal model of career maturity and to compare each variable's effect on career maturity. Results suggest significant sex differences consistent with…

  16. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  17. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter.

  18. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  19. Affinity maturation of antibodies requires integrity of the adult thymus.

    PubMed

    AbuAttieh, Mouhammed; Bender, Diane; Liu, Esther; Wettstein, Peter; Platt, Jeffrey L; Cascalho, Marilia

    2012-02-01

    The generation of B-cell responses to proteins requires a functional thymus to produce CD4(+) T cells which helps in the activation and differentiation of B cells. Because the mature T-cell repertoire has abundant cells with the helper phenotype, one might predict that in mature individuals, the generation of B-cell memory would proceed independently of the thymus. Contrary to that prediction, we show here that the removal of the thymus after the establishment of the T-cell compartment or sham surgery without removal of the thymus impairs the affinity maturation of antibodies. Because removal or manipulation of the thymus did not decrease the frequency of mutation of the Ig variable heavy chain exons encoding antigen-specific antibodies, we conclude that the thymus controls affinity maturation of antibodies in the mature individual by facilitating the selection of B cells with high-affinity antibodies.

  20. NATO NEC C2 Maturity Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    This broader construct demands greater agility on the part of both military and non-military leadership and organisations. Therefore, agility must be...the situation; • infrastructure (availability, quality); • clarity, unity of intent (purpose), and strategy ; • nature of effects space (PMESII...in time, energy , and resources needed for higher levels of C2 maturity is clear from the analysis in these experiences. From the perspective of the

  1. Thermal and hydrocarbon maturation models for coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1985-02-01

    Hydrocarbon maturation models for coastal California must consider thermal and geochemical constraints imposed by plate tectonics, diagenetic reactions, and the sedimentation history of the region. Plate tectonism drastically effects the thermal history of California basins in many ways. Initially, temperatures in the crust of coastal California are suppressed during subduction of the Farallon plate. With the passage of the Mendocino triple junction, subduction ceases and a void is created into which asthenosphere moves. This elevates temperatures in the basins in a complex manner depending on the time of passage of the Mendocino triple junction and the location of a specific basin. Finite-difference numerical models were developed to approximate the thermal effects of subduction and lithospheric upwelling. Diagenetic reactions and sedimentation history affect both the maturation model and thermal history of a basin. Diagenetic reactions through time in the Miocene Monterey Formation may change thermal conductivity values by 70%. Facies changes also have an important effect on sediment thermal conductivity and hence sediment temperatures. Maturation models indicate varying levels of maturity depending on the method used. Models using the Time Temperature Index of Lopatin indicate the lowest level of maturity. Tissot and Espitalie's method, which uses multiple activation energies and varying constants for the kerogen types, results in an intermediate level of maturity. The highest level of maturity results in an intermediate level of maturity. The highest level of maturity results from the use of the Tissot and Espitalie method modified by using a single activation energy of 178.69 kJ mole/sup -1/ and a constant of 4.92 x 10/sup 13/ hour/sup -1/ as reported by M.D. Lewan for shale from the Phosphoria Formation.

  2. Migration, integration and maturation of photoreceptor precursors following transplantation in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Warre-Cornish, Katherine; Barber, Amanda C; Sowden, Jane C; Ali, Robin R; Pearson, Rachael A

    2014-05-01

    Retinal degeneration leading to loss of photoreceptors is a major cause of untreatable blindness. Recent research has yielded definitive evidence for restoration of vision following the transplantation of rod photoreceptors in murine models of blindness, while advances in stem cell biology have enabled the generation of transplantable photoreceptors from embryonic stem cells. Importantly, the amount of visual function restored is dependent upon the number of photoreceptors that migrate correctly into the recipient retina. The developmental stage of the donor cells is important for their ability to migrate; they must be immature photoreceptor precursors. Little is known about how and when donor cell migration, integration, and maturation occurs. Here, we have performed a comprehensive histological analysis of the 6-week period following rod transplantation in mice. Donor cells migrate predominately as single entities during the first week undergoing a stereotyped sequence of morphological changes in their translocation from the site of transplantation, through the interphotoreceptor matrix and into the recipient retina. This includes initial polarization toward the outer nuclear layer (ONL), followed by formation of an apical attachment and rudimentary segment during migration into the ONL. Strikingly, acquisition of a nuclear architecture typical of mature rods was accelerated compared with normal development and a feature of migrating cells. Once within the ONL, precursors formed synaptic-like structures and outer segments in accordance with normal maturation. The restoration of visual function mediated by transplanted photoreceptors correlated with the later expression of rod α-transducin, achieving maximal function by 5 weeks.

  3. Maturity Models 101: A Primer for Applying Maturity Models to Smart Grid Security, Resilience, and Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    needed to meet challenge problems. These models have been sponsored by governments, individual organizations, and consortia (including industry -specific...power industry , leading to the introduction of many new systems, business processes, markets, and enterprise integration approaches. How do you manage the...in technology and its application in the electric power industry , leading to the introduction of many new systems, business processes, markets, and

  4. Methodology Investigation of Software Maturity Model Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-13

    Cassondra Renfro provided helpful coments in the review of the report. I SEcTON 1. SUMALR 1.1 BACIRUND. Software h~s become a major part of Comuand...example, is that each software fault that is discovered is either corrected or not counted again. Brooks and Motley’s Models, on the other hand, assume...Between Error Occurrence ERROR COUNT MODELS 1 The Generalized Poisson Model 2 The Non - Homogeneous Poisson Model 3 The Brooks and Motley Model 4 The

  5. Software maturity model applied to SDI. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Springsteen, B.

    1991-09-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) is undertaking initiatives to mitigate software risks and to stimulate the DoD contractor community to improve its software practices. To that end, IDA assessed the Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) software process maturity model and developed an implementation plan for its use within the SDI program. Under this plan, SDI element programs will use the SEI method to select software contractors with mature practices and to monitor contracts after they have been awarded. This document describes the SEI maturity model and the experience of contractors and government agencies. It also explains SDIO's plans to implement the model program-wide and the benefits and lessons learned from using the model on two contracts.

  6. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Robert Y.

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Avionic Systems Division's implementation of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for improvements in the software development process. The presentation reviews the process involved in implementing the model and the benefits of using CMM to improve the software development process.

  7. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE TENSILE INTEGRITY: MODULATION BY MATRIX DEPLETION IS MATURATION-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Asanbaeva, Anna; Tam, Johnny; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Klisch, Stephen M.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Articular cartilage function depends on the molecular composition and structure of its extracellular matrix (ECM). The collagen network (CN) provides cartilage with tensile integrity, but must also remodel during growth. Such remodeling may depend on matrix molecules interacting with the CN to modulate the tensile behavior of cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasingly selective matrix depletion on tensile properties of immature and mature articular cartilage, and thereby establish a framework for identifying molecules involved in CN remodeling. Depletion of immature cartilage with guanidine, chondroitinase ABC, chondroitinase AC, and Streptomyces hyaluronidase markedly increased tensile integrity, while the integrity of mature cartilage remained unaltered after depletion with guanidine. The enhanced tensile integrity after matrix depletion suggests that certain ECM components of immature matrix serve to inhibit CN interactions and may act as modulators of physiological alterations of cartilage geometry and tensile properties during growth/maturation. PMID:18394422

  8. Porosity and Cell Preseeding Influence Electrospun Scaffold Maturation and Meniscus Integration In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Lara C.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning generates fibrous scaffolds ideal for engineering soft orthopedic tissues. By modifying the electrospinning process, scaffolds with different structural organization and content can be generated. For example, fibers can be aligned in a single direction, or the porosity of the scaffold can be modified through the use of multi-jet electrospinning and the removal of sacrificial fibers. In this work, we investigated the role of fiber alignment and scaffold porosity on construct maturation and integration within in vitro meniscus defects. Further, we explored the effect of preseeding expanded meniscus fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) onto the scaffold at a high density before in vitro repair. Our results demonstrate that highly porous electropun scaffolds integrate better with a native tissue and mature to a greater extent than low-porosity scaffolds, while scaffold alignment does not influence integration or maturation. The addition of expanded MFCs to scaffolds before in vitro repair improved integration with the native tissue, but did not influence maturation. In contrast, preculture of these same scaffolds for 1 month before repair decreased integration with the native tissue, but resulted in a more mature scaffold compared to implantation of cellular scaffolds or acellular scaffolds. This work will inform scaffold selection in future in vivo studies by identifying the ideal scaffold and seeding methods for meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:22994398

  9. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

  10. Case Study and Maturity Model for Business Process Management Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohloff, Michael

    This paper presents the implementation of Business Process Management in a large international company. The business case illustrates the main objectives and approach taken with the BPM initiative. It introduces a process management maturity assessment which was developed to assess the implementation of Business Process Management and the achievements. The maturity model is based on nine categories which comprehensively cover all aspects which impact the success of Business Process Management. Some findings of the first assessment cycle are pinpointed to illustrate the benefits and best practice exchange as a result of the assessment.

  11. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE PAGES

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  12. Integrated Modeling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Summer 1979). WMSI Working Paper No. 291A. 173 Dyer , J. and R. Sarin. "Measurable Multiattribute Value Functions," Operations Research. 27:4 (July...J. McCall. "Expected Utility Maximizing Job Search," Chapter 7 of Studies in the Economics of Search, 1979, North-Holland. WMSI Working Paper No. 274...model integration, solver integration, and integration of various utilities . Model integration is further divided into four subtypes based on a four-level

  13. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization.

    PubMed

    Oron Semper, Jose V; Murillo, Jose I; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning.

  14. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Oron Semper, Jose V.; Murillo, Jose I.; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012

  15. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Freiere deCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) are to develop an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to crew health and mission planners and to help align science, technology, and operational activities intended to optimize crew health, safety, and mission success. Presentation slides address scope and approach, beneficiaries of IMM capabilities, history, risk components, conceptual models, development steps, and the evidence base. Space adaptation syndrome is used to demonstrate the model's capabilities.

  16. Integrated Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Gary; Stone, Paul; Holtery, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Modeling Environment (IME) is a software system that establishes a centralized Web-based interface for integrating people (who may be geographically dispersed), processes, and data involved in a common engineering project. The IME includes software tools for life-cycle management, configuration management, visualization, and collaboration.

  17. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  18. Structural model integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Lahey, R. S.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the practical aspects and problems of ensuring the integrity of a structural model are discussed, as well as the steps which have been taken in the NASTRAN system to assure that these checks can be routinely performed. Model integrity as used applies not only to the structural model but also to the loads applied to the model. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that when dealing with substructure analysis, all of the checking procedures discussed should be applied at the lowest level of substructure prior to any coupling.

  19. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  20. Creativity, Spirituality, and Transcendence: Paths to Integrity and Wisdom in the Mature Self. Publications in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melvin E., Ed.; Cook-Greuter, Susanne R., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on creativity, spirituality, and transcendence as paths to integrity and wisdom in the mature self. The book begins with the paper "Introduction--Creativity in Adulthood: Personal Maturity and Openness to Extraordinary Sources of Inspiration" (Susanne R. Cook-Greuter, Melvin E. Miller). The next four papers,…

  1. Towards a theory of PACS deployment: an integrative PACS maturity framework.

    PubMed

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Owing to large financial investments that go along with the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployments and inconsistent PACS performance evaluations, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of the implications of PACS deployment in hospitals. We claim that there is a gap in the research field, both theoretically and empirically, to explain the success of the PACS deployment and maturity in hospitals. Theoretical principles are relevant to the PACS performance; maturity and alignment are reviewed from a system and complexity perspective. A conceptual model to explain the PACS performance and a set of testable hypotheses are then developed. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM), i.e. causal modeling, is applied to validate the model and hypotheses based on a research sample of 64 hospitals that use PACS, i.e. 70 % of all hospitals in the Netherlands. Outcomes of the SEM analyses substantiate that the measurements of all constructs are reliable and valid. The PACS alignment-modeled as a higher-order construct of five complementary organizational dimensions and maturity levels-has a significant positive impact on the PACS performance. This result is robust and stable for various sub-samples and segments. This paper presents a conceptual model that explains how alignment in deploying PACS in hospitals is positively related to the perceived performance of PACS. The conceptual model is extended with tools as checklists to systematically identify the improvement areas for hospitals in the PACS domain. The holistic approach towards PACS alignment and maturity provides a framework for clinical practice.

  2. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Douglas J.; Kerstman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and approach for the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software decision support tool that forecasts medical events during spaceflight and optimizes medical systems during simulations. It includes information on the software capabilities, program stakeholders, use history, and the software logic.

  3. An Integrated Model Recontextualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Saltmarsh, John

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, authors KerryAnn O'Meara and John Saltmarsh reflect on their 2008 "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement" article "An Integrated Model for Advancing the Scholarship of Engagement: Creating Academic Homes for the Engaged Scholar," reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of…

  4. Evaluation of organizational maturity based on people capacity maturity model in medical record wards of Iranian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Tavakoli, Nahid; Shams, Assadollah; Hatampour, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Context: People capacity maturity model (PCMM) is one of the models which focus on improving organizational human capabilities. Aims: The aim of this model's application is to increase people ability to attract, develop, motivate, organize and retain the talents needed to organizational continuous improvement. Settings and Design: In this study, we used the PCMM for investigation of organizational maturity level in medical record departments of governmental hospitals and determination strengths and weaknesses of their staff capabilities. Materials and Methods: This is an applied research and cross sectional study in which data were collected by questionnaires to investigation of PCMM model needs in medical record staff of governmental hospitals at Isfahan, Iran. We used the questionnaire which has been extracted from PCMM model and approved its reliability with Cronbach's Alpha 0.96. Statistical Analysis Used: Data collected by the questionnaire was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions descriptive statistics were used. Results: Our findings showed that the mean score of medical record practitioners, skill and capability in governmental hospitals was 35 (62.5%) from maximum 56 (100%). There is no significant relevance between organizational maturity and medical record practitioners, attributes. Conclusions: Applying PCMM model is caused increasing staff and manager attention in identifying the weaknesses in the current activities and practices, so it will result in improvement and developing processes. PMID:25077147

  5. Integrated development and maturation of the hearing system. A critical review article.

    PubMed

    Fisch, L

    1983-08-01

    The understanding of development and maturation of the auditory system is essential for many reasons, including the practical aspects of auditory behaviour, testing, and teaching a hearing-impaired child to communicate effectively. The study of maturation of the auditory system is gaining increasing importance also because it should help us to interpret correctly certain aspects of auditory behaviour in infants. When studying the auditory system we should not be concerned solely with development of function in isolation; the emphasis is on integrated development. Understanding a process of integrated development enables us to understand the peculiarities of auditory behaviour in infants. Sound became the raw material of human language for good reasons. It is the only medium which made it possible to transmit efficiently complex information encoded in human language. Phylogenetically, hearing in vertebrates is a late development, and because of this, in certain unfavourable circumstances the hearing system is more vulnerable than other phylogenetically older systems. Within the auditory system, high-frequency hearing is also phylogenetically a late development, and therefore more vulnerable to certain unfavourable metabolic influences. In all species there is a 'best frequency' range, usually the one which is most vital for communication. In humans the best frequency range is the one which is most important for transmitting speech sounds. This is already noticeable in newborn and very young infants, that is, we can obtain the best reactions in the frequencies which are important for speech. Higher sensitivity for perception of patterns is already developed in newborn and young infants (and acquires a special significance). Direction detection and localisation of sound source develops gradually. It is fully developed only when the auditory pathway matures and when the function is well integrated with the maturing motor system. The ears of the young are more

  6. A Maturity Model for Assessing the Use of ICT in School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar, Mauricio; Sabattin, Jorge; Parada, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an ICT-based and capability-driven model for assessing ICT in education capabilities and maturity of schools. The proposed model, called ICTE-MM (ICT in School Education Maturity Model), has three elements supporting educational processes: information criteria, ICT resources, and leverage domains. Changing the traditional…

  7. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  8. Scleraxis is required for maturation of tissue domains for proper integration of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Yuki; Takimoto, Aki; Watanabe, Hitomi; Hiraki, Yuji; Kondoh, Gen; Shukunami, Chisa

    2017-01-01

    Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed persistently in tendons/ligaments, but transiently in entheseal cartilage. In this study, we generated a novel ScxCre knock-in (KI) allele, by in-frame replacement of most of Scx exon 1 with Cre recombinase (Cre), to drive Cre expression using Scx promoter and to inactivate the endogenous Scx. Reflecting the intensity and duration of endogenous expression, Cre-mediated excision occurs in tendinous and ligamentous tissues persistently expressing Scx. Expression of tenomodulin, a marker of mature tenocytes and ligamentocytes, was almost absent in tendons and ligaments of ScxCre/Cre KI mice lacking Scx to indicate defective maturation. In homozygotes, the transiently Scx-expressing entheseal regions such as the rib cage, patella cartilage, and calcaneus were small and defective and cartilaginous tuberosity was missing. Decreased Sox9 expression and phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and Smad3 were also observed in the developing entheseal cartilage, patella, and deltoid tuberosity of ScxCre/Cre KI mice. These results highlighted the functional importance of both transient and persistent expression domains of Scx for proper integration of the musculoskeletal components. PMID:28327634

  9. Effects of melatonin on oocyte maturation in PCOS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nikmard, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Elham; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Amidi, Fardin; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of oocyte in vitro maturation is generation of mature oocytes that could support future development. Efforts have been made to enhance oocyte developmental competence by developing optimal culture conditions. The present study is conducted to determine melatonin effects on quality of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) oocytes when it has been added during in vitro maturation, and immature oocytes were cultured in defined conditioned medium with and without different melatonin concentrations. Melatonin could significantly improve nuclear maturation of PCOS oocytes (81.1% vs. 56.3%, P < 0.05 were achieved with 10(-6) mol/L concentration). Cleavage rate was significantly higher in 10(-5) mol/L concentration compared to untreated oocytes in PCOS (54% vs. 35%, respectively) and it was significantly higher with 10(-6) mol/L concentration in the control group, 55% versus 38%, compared to untreated oocytes. This study showed that melatonin has the potential to induce oocyte nuclear maturation and guarantee fertilization potential. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  11. Integration of Posttranscriptional Gene Networks into Metabolic Adaptation and Biofilm Maturation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Paul F.; Lo, Tricia L.; Quenault, Tara; Dagley, Michael J.; Bellousoff, Matthew; Powell, David R.; Beilharz, Traude H.; Traven, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Although both commensalism and pathogenesis depend on metabolic adaptation, the regulatory pathways that mediate metabolic processes in C. albicans are incompletely defined. For example, metabolic change is a major feature that distinguishes community growth of C. albicans in biofilms compared to suspension cultures, but how metabolic adaptation is functionally interfaced with the structural and gene regulatory changes that drive biofilm maturation remains to be fully understood. We show here that the RNA binding protein Puf3 regulates a posttranscriptional mRNA network in C. albicans that impacts on mitochondrial biogenesis, and provide the first functional data suggesting evolutionary rewiring of posttranscriptional gene regulation between the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans. A proportion of the Puf3 mRNA network is differentially expressed in biofilms, and by using a mutant in the mRNA deadenylase CCR4 (the enzyme recruited to mRNAs by Puf3 to control transcript stability) we show that posttranscriptional regulation is important for mitochondrial regulation in biofilms. Inactivation of CCR4 or dis-regulation of mitochondrial activity led to altered biofilm structure and over-production of extracellular matrix material. The extracellular matrix is critical for antifungal resistance and immune evasion, and yet of all biofilm maturation pathways extracellular matrix biogenesis is the least understood. We propose a model in which the hypoxic biofilm environment is sensed by regulators such as Ccr4 to orchestrate metabolic adaptation, as well as the regulation of extracellular matrix production by impacting on the expression of matrix-related cell wall genes. Therefore metabolic changes in biofilms might be intimately linked to a key biofilm maturation mechanism that ultimately results in untreatable fungal disease. PMID:26474309

  12. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  13. Glacial integrative modelling.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, Andrey

    2003-09-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes.

  14. ISO 9000 and/or Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gholston, Sampson E.

    2002-01-01

    For businesses and organizations to remain competitive today they must have processes and systems in place that will allow them to first identify customer needs and then develop products/processes that will meet or exceed the customers needs and expectations. Customer needs, once identified, are normally stated as requirements. Designers can then develop products/processes that will meet these requirements. Several functions, such as quality management and systems engineering management are used to assist product development teams in the development process. Both functions exist in all organizations and both have a similar objective, which is to ensure that developed processes will meet customer requirements. Are efforts in these organizations being duplicated? Are both functions needed by organizations? What are the similarities and differences between the functions listed above? ISO 9000 is an international standard of goods and services. It sets broad requirements for the assurance of quality and for management's involvement. It requires organizations to document the processes and to follow these documented processes. ISO 9000 gives customers assurance that the suppliers have control of the process for product development. Systems engineering can broadly be defined as a discipline that seeks to ensure that all requirements for a system are satisfied throughout the life of the system by preserving their interrelationship. The key activities of systems engineering include requirements analysis, functional analysis/allocation, design synthesis and verification, and system analysis and control. The systems engineering process, when followed properly, will lead to higher quality products, lower cost products, and shorter development cycles. The System Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SE-CMM) will allow companies to measure their system engineering capability and continuously improve those capabilities. ISO 9000 and SE-CMM seem to have a similar objective, which

  15. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons. B.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  16. An Investigation into the Contruct Validity of Crites' Career Maturity Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Sabir A.; Khan, Sar B.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated 142, 114, 112, and 71 students from grades 9, 10, 11, and 12, respectively, to examine career maturity. Found intercorrelations among the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) Attitude Scale and five parts of the CMI Competence Test to be more consistent with Crites' model than those reported by others. (Author/HLM)

  17. Branes and integrable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Junya

    2017-01-01

    This is a brief review of my work on the correspondence between four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetric field theories realized by brane tilings and two-dimensional integrable lattice models. I explain how to construct integrable lattice models from extended operators in partially topological quantum field theories, and elucidate the correspondence as an application of this construction.

  18. Development of Systems Engineering Maturity Models and Management Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-21

    Integration & Test Team roles and responsibilities have been updated 0.03 0.15 0.58 0.21 0.03 0.18 0.79 2.14 Formal integration studies have been...requirements (facilities, hardware, software, surrogates, etc.) have been defined/identified 0.09 0.36 0.30 0.18 0.06 0.45 0.48 1.10 Integration & Test Team ... roles and responsibilities have been defined 0.12 0.24 0.33 0.24 0.06 0.36 0.58 UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002, TO

  19. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Laura M.; Ledley, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures. PMID:28346525

  20. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Laura M; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures.

  1. Integrability of the Rabi Model

    SciTech Connect

    Braak, D.

    2011-09-02

    The Rabi model is a paradigm for interacting quantum systems. It couples a bosonic mode to the smallest possible quantum model, a two-level system. I present the analytical solution which allows us to consider the question of integrability for quantum systems that do not possess a classical limit. A criterion for quantum integrability is proposed which shows that the Rabi model is integrable due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. Moreover, I introduce a generalization with no symmetries; the generalized Rabi model is the first example of a nonintegrable but exactly solvable system.

  2. Integrated Models in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Por, Nava

    1979-01-01

    Examines educational change in Israeli junior high schools which was intended to integrate ethnic, social, and ability groups into a single national entity. Topics discussed include peer tutoring, busing, tutorial work given by gifted students to slow learners, and student motivation. Journal availability: see SO 507 297. (DB)

  3. Integrated Computational Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    specific material properties. 15. SUBJECT TERMS alloy design, microstructure, mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, crack growth behavior...microstructure, processing, constitution, or alloy might not be correct. A critical piece of ICME is the “integration.” For years materials laboratories...experimental techniques. These four areas are explained in more detail below. Alloy Selection Processing Microstructure Lifing Properties Life Prediction Risk

  4. Integrating Social-Contextual and Intrapersonal Mechanisms of “Maturing Out”: Joint Influences of Familial-Role Transitions and Personality Maturation on Problem-Drinking Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Maturing out” of problem drinking is associated with both role transitions (e.g., getting married) and personality development. However, little is known concerning how these two mechanisms jointly influence problem-drinking desistance. This study investigated whether salutary effects of role transitions and personality occur at different points in young-adult development and whether they mediate one another’s effects. Methods Participants were initially recruited as first-year undergraduates, with family history of alcoholism overrepresented by design (N=489; Sher et al., 1991). Using four waves of data at roughly ages 21, 25, 29, and 34, cross-lagged panel models estimated prospective relations among familial-role transitions (marriage or parenthood), personality (disinhibition, conscientiousness, and neuroticism), and problem drinking. Results Mixed support was found for the prediction of roles being more strongly associated with earlier maturing out of problem drinking and personality being more strongly associated with later maturing out. Regarding mediation, no evidence was found for the expectation that role effects would be mediated by personality. However, results did support mediation of personality effects by role transitions. Specifically, lower disinhibition and higher conscientiousness in emerging adulthood predicted role adoption, which, in turn, predicted later problem-drinking reductions. Family history of alcoholism also distally influenced these mediation processes. Conclusions The differential timing of role and personality effects is consistent with the notion of decreasing contextual influences and increasing intrapersonal influences across development. In light of role incompatibility theory, results suggest that, over the course of development, the association of familial roles with problem drinking may increasingly reflect problem-drinking effects on role entry (i.e., role selection) and decreasingly reflect role entry

  5. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1.

  6. A Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model, Version 1.1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    Ongoing Skills and Knowledge 4-113 PA 18: Coordinate with Suppliers 4-120 Part 3: Appendices Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D...Ward-Callan, C. Wasson, A. Wilbur, A.M. Wilhite, R. Williams, H. Wilson, D. Zaugg, and C. Zumba . continued on next page SM CMM and Capability...Model (SE-CMM) was developed as a response to industry requests for assistance in coordinating and publishing a model that would foster improvement

  7. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  8. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  9. Modelling the cooking doneness via integrating sensory evaluation and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingpeng; Deng, Li; Jin, Zhengyu; Yan, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current work was to develop a novel method to model and quantitatively determine cooking doneness via integrating sensory evaluation and kinetics based on the maturity value (M value) which was redefined. The well-done food was first selected from a series of samples with different M values by sensory evaluation, the average termination maturity values (AMT values) were obtained in accordance with the weighted M values of the selected doneness samples. Among, the changes of M values were assumed to be accorded with the first-order reaction kinetic model and a specific zM value was set as well. The zM value was then obtained due to the rationality of the hypothesis, which was validated by rigorous data analysis. Results showed that maturity time values (MT values) were existing and stable for specific types of materials and a specific population. Quantitative determination of the degree of doneness has profound significance in industrial production.

  10. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  11. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  12. Integrated modeling for the VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Michael; Wilhelm, Rainer C.; Baier, Horst J.; Koch, Franz

    2004-07-01

    Within the scope of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) project, ESO has developed a software package for integrated modeling of single- and multi-aperture optical telescopes. Integrated modeling is aiming at time-dependent system analysis combining different technical disciplines (optics, mechanical structure, control system with sensors and actuators, environmental disturbances). This allows multi-disciplinary analysis and gives information about cross-coupling effects for system engineering of complex stellar interferometers and telescopes. At the moment the main components of the Integrated Modeling Toolbox are BeamWarrior, a numerical tool for optical analysis of single- and multi-aperture telescopes, and the Structural Modeling Interface, which allows to generate Simulink blocks with reduced size from Finite Element Models of a telescope structure. Based on these tools, models of the various subsystems (e.g. telescope, delay line, beam combiner, atmosphere) can be created in the appropriate disciplines (e.g. optics, structure, disturbance). All subsystem models are integrated into the Matlab/Simulink environment for dynamic control system simulations. The basic output of the model is a complete description of the time-dependent electromagnetic field in each interferometer arm. Alternatively, a more elaborated output can be created, such as an interference fringe pattern at the focus of a beam combining instrument. The concern of this paper is the application of the modeling concept to large complex telescope systems. The concept of the Simulink-based integrated model with the main components telescope structure, optics and control loops is presented. The models for wind loads and atmospheric turbulence are explained. Especially the extension of the modeling approach to a 50 - 100 m class telescope is discussed.

  13. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  14. Maturity Matrices for Quality of Model- and Observation-Based Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höck, Heinke; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea; Kaspar, Frank; Stockhause, Martina; Toussaint, Frank; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the field of Software Engineering the Capability Maturity Model is used to evaluate and improve software development processes. The application of a Maturity Matrix is a method to assess the degree of software maturity. This method was adapted to the maturity of Earth System data in scientific archives. The application of such an approach to Climate Data Records was first proposed in the context of satellite-based climate products and applied by NOAA and NASA. The European FP7 project CORE-CLIMAX suggested and tested extensions of the approach in order to allow the applicability to additional climate datasets, e.g. based on in-situ observations as well as model-based reanalysis. Within that project the concept was applied to products of satellite- and in-situ based datasets. Examples are national ground-based data from Germany as an example for typical products of a national meteorological service, the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Network, the ESA Climate Change Initiative, European Reanalysis activities (ERA-CLIM) and international in situ-based climatologies such as GPCC, ECA&D, BSRN, HadSST. Climate models and their related output have some additional characteristics that need specific consideration in such an approach. Here we use examples from the World Data Centre for Climate (WDCC) to discuss the applicability. The WDCC focuses on climate data products, specifically those resulting from climate simulations. Based on these already existing Maturity Matrix models, WDCC developed a generic Quality Assessment System for Earth System data. A self-assessment is performed using a maturity matrix evaluating the data quality for five maturity levels with respect to the criteria data and metadata consistency, completeness, accessibility and accuracy. The classical goals of a quality assessment system in a data processing workflow are: (1) to encourage data creators to improve quality to reach the next quality level, (2) enable data consumers to decide

  15. Multisensory Bayesian Inference Depends on Synapse Maturation during Training: Theoretical Analysis and Neural Modeling Implementation.

    PubMed

    Ursino, Mauro; Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference. The model consists of two chains of unisensory neurons (auditory and visual) topologically organized. They receive the corresponding input through a plastic receptive field and reciprocally exchange plastic cross-modal synapses, which encode the spatial co-occurrence of visual-auditory inputs. A third chain of multisensory neurons performs a simple sum of auditory and visual excitations. The work includes a theoretical part and a computer simulation study. We show how a simple rule for synapse learning (consisting of Hebbian reinforcement and a decay term) can be used during training to shrink the receptive fields and encode the unisensory likelihood functions. Hence, after training, each unisensory area realizes a maximum likelihood estimate of stimulus position (auditory or visual). In cross-modal conditions, the same learning rule can encode information on prior probability into the cross-modal synapses. Computer simulations confirm the theoretical results and show that the proposed network can realize a maximum likelihood estimate of auditory (or visual) positions in unimodal conditions and a Bayesian estimate, with moderate deviations from optimality, in cross-modal conditions. Furthermore, the model explains the ventriloquism illusion and, looking at the activity in the multimodal neurons, explains the automatic reweighting of auditory and visual inputs

  16. 3D thermal history and maturity modelling of the Levant Basin and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Ducros, Mathieu; Michel, Pauline; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The gas discoveries recorded in the Levant Basin in the last decade have redirected the industrial and academic communities' interest to this frontier basin and its surroundings. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its Margin. In this study we present a large scale 3D thermal history and maturity model of the Levant Basin and Margin, integrating all available calibration data, source rock information collected from onshore Lebanon, and published data. In the first part we will present the main input and assumptions that were made in terms of thicknesses, lithologies, and boundary conditions. In the second part we will discuss the analysed source rocks, their petroleum generation potential and their kinetics. In the third part we will present modelling results including depth maps for key isotherms in addition to transformation ratio and vitrinite reflectance maps for proven and speculative source rocks at different time steps. This will provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential thermogenic petroleum systems in the study area, and allow us to illustrate and discuss the differences between the basinal, marginal, and onshore part of the study area as well as the potential of the northern vis a vis the southern offshore Levant Basin. This model will also allow us to analyse the sensitivity of the system to the various poorly constrained parameters in frontier basins (e.g. crustal thickness, rifting phases, lithologies) and thus identify the most critical data to be collected for future exploration and de-risking strategies.

  17. (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; dos Santos Brito, Kellyton; Holanda do Nascimento, Clóvis; Campos da Costa, Luciana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Cardoso Garcia, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    The term definition "Smart City" still allows various interpretations, and this causes some difficulty in establishing parameters to measure how smart the cities can be. This paper presents a Maturity Model that uses a set of minimum domains and indicators that aim to encourage cities of different sizes to identify their potential and improve processes and public policies.

  18. Using a Capability Maturity Model to Build on the Generational Approach to Student Engagement Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, K.; Clarke, J.; Stoodley, I.; Creagh, T.

    2015-01-01

    The generational approach to conceptualising first-year student learning behaviour has made a useful contribution to understanding student engagement. It has an explicit focus on student behaviour and we suggest that a Capability Maturity Model interpretation may provide a complementary extension of that understanding as it builds on the…

  19. Zif268/egr1 gene controls the selection, maturation and functional integration of adult hippocampal newborn neurons by learning.

    PubMed

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Rochefort, Christelle; Kleine Borgmann, Felix B; Jessberger, Sebastian; Laroche, Serge

    2013-04-23

    New neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian brain. During the critical period of a few weeks after birth when newborn neurons progressively mature, a restricted fraction is competitively selected to survive in an experience-dependent manner, a condition for their contribution to memory processes. The mechanisms that control critical stages of experience-dependent functional incorporation of adult newborn neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we identify a unique transcriptional regulator of the functional integration of newborn neurons, the inducible immediate early gene zif268/egr1. We show that newborn neurons in zif268-KO mice undergo accelerated death during the critical period of 2-3 wk around their birth and exhibit deficient neurochemical and morphological maturation, including reduced GluR1 expression, increased NKCC1/KCC2b chloride cotransporter ratio, altered dendritic development, and marked spine growth defect. Investigating responsiveness of newborn neurons to activity-dependent expression of zif268 in learning, we demonstrate that in the absence of zif268, training in a spatial learning task during this critical period fails to recruit newborn neurons and promote their survival, leading to impaired long-term memory. This study reveals a previously unknown mechanism for the control of the selection, functional maturation, and experience-dependent recruitment of dentate gyrus newborn neurons that depends on the inducible immediate early gene zif268, processes that are critical for their contribution to hippocampal-dependent long-term memory.

  20. An integrated workflow to assess the remaining potential of mature hydrocarbon basins: a case study from Northwest Germany (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfang, Björn; Aigner, Thomas; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Irmen, Anton

    2016-06-01

    Mature hydrocarbon provinces require a high level of geological understanding in order to extend the lives of producing fields, to replace reserves through smaller targets and to reduce the risks of exploring for more and more subtle hydrocarbon traps. Despite a large number of existing wells in the area studied in this paper, the depositional environments and the stratigraphic architecture were still poorly known. In order to improve the geological understanding, we propose a workflow to assess the remaining reservoir potential of mature hydrocarbon areas, integrating cores, cuttings, well-logs, biostratigraphy and seismic data. This workflow was developed for and is exemplified with the northwest of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB), a mature hydrocarbon province in northwest Germany, but can be applied in a similar fashion to other areas. Systematic integration of lithofacies analysis, chrono- and sequence stratigraphy, combined with electrofacies analysis and modern digital methods like neural network-based lithology determination and 3D facies modelling provides a high-resolution understanding of the spatial facies and reservoir architecture in the study area. Despite widely correlatable litho-units in the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the LSB, complex heterogeneous sedimentary systems can be found in the basin's marginal parts. Two new play types were determined in the study area, showing a remaining potential for stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. The results of this exploration scale study also provide the basis for re-evaluations on a field development scale. On a basin scale, this study may encourage further data acquisition and re-evaluations to discover previously unknown reservoirs.

  1. Comparing two causal models of career maturity for hearing-impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    King, S

    1990-01-01

    Conte (1983) suggested that existing theories of career development are inadequate for disabled populations because they fail to take into consideration the special life events and characteristics of people with a disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if Conte's reservations about contemporary theories could be supported by data. To this end, two causal models of career development were developed: one with five variables unique to the experience of the hearing impaired and the other without. Using data collected from 71 hearing-impaired adolescents, path analyses were conducted and the two models were compared for their ability to explain variance in career maturity. The results suggest that, although the second model may be more descriptive of the career development process for the deaf, it is no more powerful than the first in explaining variance in career maturity.

  2. Enriching practice of dialectic behaviour therapy with the dynamic maturational model of attachment and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge for a clinician is integration of the wisdom available in the wide range of therapeutic paradigms available. I have found the principles guiding dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT; see Miller, Rathus, & Linehan, 2007, for applying DBT to adolescents) extremely useful in my practice running a general adolescent unit; similarly, the understanding of the different information processing and learning principles associated with each of the Type A and C attachment strategies, as understood in dynamic maturational model (DMM), has guided me through the dark corners of treatment. Specifically, how does DMM inform practice of DBT? As a 'DBTer' might say, 'Where is the wisdom in both points of view?' Nevertheless, DMM is not primarily about treatment. It concerns how different ways of adapting to developmental contingencies bias perceptual propensities, and hence the information available for reflective brain function. Recognition of these twists to knowing what is going on can then be used to inform a variety of therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this article is to look for the signposts in DBT and DMM which together help navigate the comprehensive approach necessary in complicated therapy. In the process, hopefully some more general principles for addressing discomfited adolescents arise for informing future practice. Although many steer shy of using personality disorder diagnoses for adolescents, clinicians are nevertheless addressing, directly or indirectly, the personality development of all adolescents in treatment, regardless of their classical axis I diagnoses, including both those with developing emotional instability and a group of avoidant over-controlled adolescents, which in Norway is growing in prominence.

  3. Integrated modeling: a look back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses applications and implementation approaches used for integrated modeling of structural systems with optics over the past 30 years. While much of the development work focused on control system design, significant contributions were made in system modeling and computer-aided design (CAD) environments. Early work appended handmade line-of-sight models to traditional finite element models, such as the optical spacecraft concept from the ACOSS program. The IDEAS2 computational environment built in support of Space Station collected a wider variety of existing tools around a parametric database. Later, IMOS supported interferometer and large telescope mission studies at JPL with MATLAB modeling of structural dynamics, thermal analysis, and geometric optics. IMOS's predecessor was a simple FORTRAN command line interpreter for LQG controller design with additional functions that built state-space finite element models. Specialized language systems such as CAESY were formulated and prototyped to provide more complex object-oriented functions suited to control-structure interaction. A more recent example of optical modeling directly in mechanical CAD is used to illustrate possible future directions. While the value of directly posing the optical metric in system dynamics terms is well understood today, the potential payoff is illustrated briefly via project-based examples. It is quite likely that integrated structure thermal optical performance (STOP) modeling could be accomplished in a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tool set. The work flow could be adopted, for example, by a team developing a small high-performance optical or radio frequency (RF) instrument.

  4. Designing and implementing maturity models in hospitals: An experience report from 5 years of research.

    PubMed

    Blondiau, André; Mettler, Tobias; Winter, Robert

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, a wide range of generic and domain-specific maturity models have been developed in order to improve organizational design and learning of healthcare organizations. While many of these studies describe methods on how to measure dedicated aspects of a healthcare organization's "maturity," little evidence exists on how to effectively implement and deploy them into practice. This article therefore delineates the encountered challenges during the design and implementation of three maturity models for distinct improvement areas in hospitals. On the one hand, this study's findings may serve as basis for refining existing maturity model design approaches. On the other hand, it may facilitate further research in domain-specific organizational design with maturity models.

  5. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). In comparison to control, percent inhibition by young coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  6. Pentraxins coordinate excitatory synapse maturation and circuit integration of parvalbumin interneurons.

    PubMed

    Pelkey, Kenneth A; Barksdale, Elizabeth; Craig, Michael T; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Sukumaran, Madhav; Vargish, Geoffrey A; Mitchell, Robert M; Wyeth, Megan S; Petralia, Ronald S; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A; Murata, Yasunobu; Colonnese, Matthew T; Worley, Paul F; McBain, Chris J

    2015-03-18

    Circuit computation requires precision in the timing, extent, and synchrony of principal cell (PC) firing that is largely enforced by parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking interneurons (PVFSIs). To reliably coordinate network activity, PVFSIs exhibit specialized synaptic and membrane properties that promote efficient afferent recruitment such as expression of high-conductance, rapidly gating, GluA4-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We found that PVFSIs upregulate GluA4 during the second postnatal week coincident with increases in the AMPAR clustering proteins NPTX2 and NPTXR. Moreover, GluA4 is dramatically reduced in NPTX2(-/-)/NPTXR(-/-) mice with consequent reductions in PVFSI AMPAR function. Early postnatal NPTX2(-/-)/NPTXR(-/-) mice exhibit delayed circuit maturation with a prolonged critical period permissive for giant depolarizing potentials. Juvenile NPTX2(-/-)/NPTXR(-/-) mice display reduced feedforward inhibition yielding a circuit deficient in rhythmogenesis and prone to epileptiform discharges. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for NPTXs in controlling network dynamics highlighting potential therapeutic targets for disorders with inhibition/excitation imbalances such as schizophrenia.

  7. Pentraxins coordinate excitatory synapse maturation and circuit integration of parvalbumin interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Pelkey, Kenneth A.; Barksdale, Elizabeth; Craig, Michael T.; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Sukumaran, Madhav; Vargish, Geoffrey A.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Wyeth, Megan S.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A.; Murata, Yasunobu; Colonnese, Matthew T.; Worley, Paul F.; McBain, Chris J.

    2015-01-01

    Circuit computation requires precision in the timing, extent, and synchrony of principal cell (PC) firing that is largely enforced by parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking interneurons (PVFSIs). To reliably coordinate network activity PVFSIs exhibit specialized synaptic and membrane properties that promote efficient afferent recruitment such as expression of high-conductance, rapidly gating, GluA4-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We found that PVFSIs upregulate GluA4 during the second postnatal week coincident with increases in the AMPAR clustering proteins NPTX2 and NPTXR. Moreover, GluA4 is dramatically reduced in NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice with consequent reductions in PVFSI AMPAR function. Early postnatal NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice exhibit delayed circuit maturation with a prolonged critical period permissive for giant depolarizing potentials. Juvenile NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice display reduced feedforward inhibition yielding a circuit deficient in rhythmogenesis and prone to epileptiform discharges. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for NPTXs in controlling network dynamics highlighting potential therapeutic targets for disorders with inhibition/excitation imbalances such as schizophrenia. PMID:25754824

  8. The integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  9. Altered postnatal maturation of striatal GABAergic interneurons in a phenotypic animal model of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Bode, Christoph; Richter, Franziska; Spröte, Christine; Brigadski, Tanja; Bauer, Anne; Fietz, Simone; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Richter, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    GABAergic disinhibition has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several basal ganglia disorders, including dystonia, a common movement disorder. Previous studies have shown a deficit of striatal GABAergic interneurons (IN) in the dt(sz) mutant hamster, one of the few phenotypic animal models of dystonia. However, mechanisms underlying this deficit are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the migration and maturation of striatal IN during postnatal development (18days of age) and at age of highest severity of dystonia (33days of age) in this hamster model. In line with previous findings, the density of GAD67-positive IN and the level of parvalbumin mRNA, a marker for fast spiking GABAergic IN, were lower in the dt(sz) mutant than in control hamsters. However, an unaltered density of Nkx2.1 labeled cells and Nkx2.1 mRNA level suggested that the migration of GABAergic IN into the striatum was not retarded. Therefore, different factors that indicate maturation of GABAergic IN were determined. While mRNA of the KCC2 cation/chloride transporters and the cytosolic carboanhydrase VII, used as markers for the so called GABA switch, as well as BDNF were unaltered, we found a reduced number of IN expressing the alpha1 subunit of the GABAA-receptor (37.5%) in dt(sz) hamsters at an age of 33days, but not after spontaneous remission of dystonia at an age of 90days. Since IN shift expression from alpha2 to alpha1 subunits during postnatal maturation, this result together with a decreased parvalbumin mRNA expression suggest a delayed maturation of striatal GABAergic IN in this animal model, which might underlie abnormal neuronal activity and striatal plasticity.

  10. Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature within adult degenerate retina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cordero, Anai; West, Emma L; Pearson, Rachael A; Duran, Yanai; Carvalho, Livia S; Chu, Colin J; Naeem, Arifa; Blackford, Samuel J I; Georgiadis, Anastasios; Lakowski, Jorn; Hubank, Mike; Smith, Alexander J; Bainbridge, James W B; Sowden, Jane C; Ali, Robin R

    2013-08-01

    Irreversible blindness caused by loss of photoreceptors may be amenable to cell therapy. We previously demonstrated retinal repair and restoration of vision through transplantation of photoreceptor precursors obtained from postnatal retinas into visually impaired adult mice. Considerable progress has been made in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro toward photoreceptor lineages. However, the capability of ESC-derived photoreceptors to integrate after transplantation has not been demonstrated unequivocally. Here, to isolate photoreceptor precursors fit for transplantation, we adapted a recently reported three-dimensional (3D) differentiation protocol that generates neuroretina from mouse ESCs. We show that rod precursors derived by this protocol and selected via a GFP reporter under the control of a Rhodopsin promoter integrate within degenerate retinas of adult mice and mature into outer segment-bearing photoreceptors. Notably, ESC-derived precursors at a developmental stage similar to postnatal days 4-8 integrate more efficiently compared with cells at other stages. This study shows conclusively that ESCs can provide a source of photoreceptors for retinal cell transplantation.

  11. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2017-03-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/ b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  12. Evaluation of deltamethrin kinetics and dosimetry in the maturing rat using a PBPK model

    SciTech Connect

    Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Kim, Hyo J.; Haines, Wendy T.; Bruckner, James V.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-04-15

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study (Kim et al., in press) revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90 days old. The objective of the current study was to modify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DLM disposition in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat (Mirfazaelian et al., 2006), so blood and target organ dosimetry could be accurately predicted during maturation. Age-specific organ weights and age-dependent changes in the oxidative and hydrolytic clearance of DLM were modeled with a generalized Michaelis-Menten model for growth and the summary equations incorporated into the PBPK model. The model's simulations compared favorably with empirical DLM time-courses in plasma, blood, brain and fat for the four age-groups evaluated (10, 21, 40 and 90 days old). PND 10 pups' area under the 24-h brain concentration time curve (AUC{sub 0-24h}) was 3.8-fold higher than that of the PND 90 adults. Our maturing rat PBPK model allows for updating with age- and chemical-dependent parameters, so pyrethroid dosimetry can be forecast in young and aged individuals. Hence, this model provides a methodology for risk assessors to consider age-specific adjustments to oral Reference Doses on the basis of PK differences.

  13. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities.

  14. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  15. Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM) is a decision-support software product for resource-and-capacity planning. Users can evaluate changing constraints on schedule performance, projected cost, and resource use. IRPM is a unique software tool that can analyze complex business situations from a basic supply chain to an integrated production facility to a distributed manufacturing complex. IRPM can be efficiently configured through a user-friendly graphical interface to rapidly provide charts, graphs, tables, and/or written results to summarize postulated business scenarios. There is not a similar integrated resource planning software package presently available. Many different businesses (from government to large corporations as well as medium-to-small manufacturing concerns) could save thousands of dollars and hundreds of labor hours in resource and schedule planning costs. Those businesses also could avoid millions of dollars of revenue lost from fear of overcommitting or from penalties and lost future business for failing to meet promised delivery by using IRPM to perform what-if business-case evaluations. Tough production planning questions that previously were left unanswered can now be answered with a high degree of certainty. Businesses can anticipate production problems and have solutions in hand to deal with those problems. IRPM allows companies to make better plans, decisions, and investments.

  16. B-Cell Depletion Reduces the Maturation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations in Murine Models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changbin; Shenkar, Robert; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Austin, Cecilia; Moore, Thomas; Lightle, Rhonda; Zhang, Lingjiao; Wu, Meijing; Cao, Ying; Gunel, Murat; Louvi, Angeliki; Rorrer, Autumn; Gallione, Carol; Marchuk, Douglas A; Awad, Issam A

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are relatively common vascular malformations, characterized by increased Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, vascular hyper-permeability and the presence of blood degradation products including non-heme iron. Previous studies revealed robust inflammatory cell infiltration, selective synthesis of IgG, in situ antigen driven B-cell clonal expansion, and deposition of immune complexes and complement proteins within CCM lesions. We aimed to evaluate the impact of suppressing the immune response on the formation and maturation of CCM lesions, as well as lesional iron deposition and ROCK activity. Two murine models of heterozygous Ccm3 (Pdcd10), which spontaneously develop CCM lesions with severe and milder phenotypes, were either untreated or received anti-mouse BR3 to deplete B cells. Brains from anti-mouse BR3-treated mice exhibited significantly fewer mature CCM lesions and smaller lesions compared to untreated mice. B cell depletion halted the progression of lesions into mature stage 2 lesions but did not prevent their genesis. Non-heme iron deposition and ROCK activity was decreased in lesions of B cell depleted mice. This represents the first report of the therapeutic benefit of B-cell depletion in the development and progression of CCMs, and provides a proof of principle that B cells play a critical role in CCM lesion genesis and maturation. These findings add biologics to the list of potential therapeutic agents for CCM disease. Future studies would characterize the putative antigenic trigger and further define the mechanism of immune response in the lesions.

  17. Predictive Maturity of Multi-Scale Simulation Models for Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Atamturktur, Sez; Unal, Cetin; Hemez, Francois; Williams, Brian; Tome, Carlos

    2015-03-16

    The project proposed to provide a Predictive Maturity Framework with its companion metrics that (1) introduce a formalized, quantitative means to communicate information between interested parties, (2) provide scientifically dependable means to claim completion of Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) activities, and (3) guide the decision makers in the allocation of Nuclear Energy’s resources for code development and physical experiments. The project team proposed to develop this framework based on two complimentary criteria: (1) the extent of experimental evidence available for the calibration of simulation models and (2) the sophistication of the physics incorporated in simulation models. The proposed framework is capable of quantifying the interaction between the required number of physical experiments and degree of physics sophistication. The project team has developed this framework and implemented it with a multi-scale model for simulating creep of a core reactor cladding. The multi-scale model is composed of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) code at the meso-scale, which represents the visco-plastic behavior and changing properties of a highly anisotropic material and a Finite Element (FE) code at the macro-scale to represent the elastic behavior and apply the loading. The framework developed takes advantage of the transparency provided by partitioned analysis, where independent constituent codes are coupled in an iterative manner. This transparency allows model developers to better understand and remedy the source of biases and uncertainties, whether they stem from the constituents or the coupling interface by exploiting separate-effect experiments conducted within the constituent domain and integral-effect experiments conducted within the full-system domain. The project team has implemented this procedure with the multi- scale VPSC-FE model and demonstrated its ability to improve the predictive capability of the model. Within this

  18. Adaptive Urban Dispersion Integrated Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wissink, A; Chand, K; Kosovic, B; Chan, S; Berger, M; Chow, F K

    2005-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for understanding the three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from contaminant releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). Utilization of the most accurate urban models, based on fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that solve the Navier-Stokes equations with incorporated turbulence models, presents many challenges. We address two in this work; first, a fast but accurate way to incorporate the complex urban terrain, buildings, and other structures to enforce proper boundary conditions in the flow solution; second, ways to achieve a level of computational efficiency that allows the models to be run in an automated fashion such that they may be used for emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We have developed a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability based on FEM3MP (Gresho and Chan 1998, Chan and Stevens 2000), a CFD model from Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The integrated capability incorporates fast embedded boundary mesh generation for geometrically complex problems and full three-dimensional Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Parallel AMR and embedded boundary gridding support are provided through the SAMRAI library (Wissink et al. 2001, Hornung and Kohn 2002). Embedded boundary mesh generation has been demonstrated to be an automatic, fast, and efficient approach for problem setup. It has been used for a variety of geometrically complex applications, including urban applications (Pullen et al. 2005). The key technology we introduce in this work is the application of AMR, which allows the application of high-resolution modeling to certain important features, such as individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features). It also allows the urban scale model to be readily interfaced with coarser resolution meso or regional scale models. This talk

  19. Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model SSE-CMM Model Description Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    DOD85 Department of Defense, “Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria,” DOD 5200.28-STD, December 1985. GAMBEL93 Gambel, Daniel ...Systems Engineering Symposium, July 1996. HOSY95 Hosy, H.; Roussely , B., “Industrial Maturity and Information Technology Security,” Proceedings of the

  20. Ethanol exposure during neurogenesis induces persistent effects on neural maturation: evidence from an ex vivo model of fetal cerebral cortical neuroepithelial progenitor maturation.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Cynthia; Miranda, Rajesh C

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a significant neuroteratogen. We previously used fetal cortical-derived neurosphere cultures as an ex vivo model of the second trimester ventricular neuroepithelium, and showed that ethanol directly induced fetal stem and progenitor cell proliferation and maturation without inducing death. However, ethanol is defined as a teratogen because of its capacity to persistently disrupt neural maturation beyond a specific exposure period. We therefore utilized a simplified neuronal maturation paradigm to examine the immediate and persistent changes in neuronal migration following ethanol exposure during the phase of neuroepithelial proliferation. Our data indicate that mRNA transcripts for migration-associated genes RhoA, Paxillin (Pxn), and CDC42 were immediately induced following ethanol exposure, whereas dynein light chain, LC8-type 1 (DYNLL1), and growth-associated protein (Gap)-43 were suppressed. With the exception of Gap43, ethanol did not induce persistent changes in the other mRNAs, suggesting that ethanol had an activational, rather than organizational, impact on migration-associated mRNAs. However, despite this lack of persistent effects on these mRNAs, ethanol exposure during the proliferation period significantly increased subsequent neuronal migration. Moreover, differentiating neurons, pretreated with ethanol during the proliferation phase, exhibited reduced neurite branching and an increased length of primary neurites, indicating a persistent destabilization of neuronal maturation. Collectively, our data indicate that ethanol-exposed proliferating neuroepithelial precursors exhibit subsequent differentiation-associated increases in migratory behavior, independent of mRNA transcript levels. These data help explain the increased incidence of cerebral cortical neuronal heterotopias associated with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

  1. ENDOGENOUS SIGNALING THROUGH α7-CONTAINING NICOTINIC RECEPTORS PROMOTES MATURATION AND INTEGRATION OF ADULTBORN NEURONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Nolan R.; Fernandes, Catarina C.; Halff, Andrew W.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus occurs throughout adult mammalian life and is essential for proper hippocampal function. Early in their development, adultborn neurons express homomeric α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) and receive direct cholinergic innervation. We show here that functional α7-nAChRs are necessary for normal survival, maturation, and integration of adultborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. Stereotaxic retroviral injection into the dentate gyrus of wildtype and α7-knockout (α7KO) male and female mice was used to label and birthdate adultborn neurons for morphological and electrophysiological measures; BrdU injections were used to quantify cell survival. In α7KO mice, we find that adultborn neurons develop with truncated, less complex dendritic arbors, and display GABAergic postsynaptic currents with immature kinetics. The neurons also have a prolonged period of GABAergic depolarization characteristic of an immature state. In this condition they receive fewer spontaneous synaptic currents and are more prone to die during the critical period when adultborn neurons are normally integrated into behaviorally relevant networks. Even those adultborn neurons that survive the critical period retain long-term dendritic abnormalities in α7KO mice. Interestingly, local infection with retroviral constructs to knockdown α7-mRNA mimics the α7KO phenotype, demonstrating that the relevant α7-nAChR signaling is cell-autonomous. The results indicate a profound role for α7-nAChRs in adult neurogenesis and predict that α7-nAChR loss will cause progressive impairment in hippocampal circuitry and function over time as fewer neurons are added to the dentate gyrus and those that are added integrate less well. PMID:20592195

  2. Eco-genetic model to explore fishing-induced ecological and evolutionary effects on growth and maturation schedules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yu; Höök, Tomas O

    2009-08-01

    Eco-genetic individual-based models involve tracking the ecological dynamics of simulated individual organisms that are in part characterized by heritable parameters. We developed an eco-genetic individual-based model to explore ecological and evolutionary interactions of fish growth and maturation schedules. Our model is flexible and allows for exploration of the effects of heritable growth rates (based on von Bertalanffy and biphasic growth patterns), heritable maturation schedules (based on maturation reaction norm concepts), or both on individual- and population-level traits. In baseline simulations with rather simple ecological trade-offs and over a relatively short time period (<200 simulation years), simulated male and female fish evolve differential genetic growth and maturation. Further, resulting patterns of genetically determined growth and maturation are influenced by mortality rate and density-dependent processes, and maturation and growth parameters interact to mediate the evolution of one another. Subsequent to baseline simulations, we conducted experimental simulations to mimic fisheries harvest with two size-limits (targeting large or small fish), an array of fishing mortality rates, and assuming a deterministic or stochastic environment. Our results suggest that fishing with either size-limit may induce considerable changes in life-history trait expression (maturation schedules and growth rates), recruitment, and population abundance and structure. However, targeting large fish would cause more adverse genetic effects and may lead to a population less resilient to environmental stochasticity.

  3. Integrated Urban Dispersion Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2003-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for developing a detailed understanding of three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). The accurate and timely prediction of the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous materials in densely populated urban areas is a critical homeland and national security need for emergency preparedness, risk assessment, and vulnerability studies. The main challenges in high-fidelity numerical modeling of urban dispersion are the accurate prediction of peak concentrations, spatial extent and temporal evolution of harmful levels of hazardous materials, and the incorporation of detailed structural geometries. Current computational tools do not include all the necessary elements to accurately represent hazardous release events in complex urban settings embedded in high-resolution terrain. Nor do they possess the computational efficiency required for many emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We are developing a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability, able to efficiently predict dispersion in diverse urban environments for a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temporal and spatial scales, and release event scenarios. This new computational fluid dynamics capability includes adaptive mesh refinement and it can simultaneously resolve individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features), treat complex building and structural geometries (e.g., stadiums, arenas, subways, airplane interiors), and cope with the full range of atmospheric conditions (e.g. stability). We are developing approaches for seamless coupling with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models to provide realistic forcing of the urban-scale model, which is critical to its performance in real-world conditions.

  4. Minimal Model of Plankton Systems Revisited with Spatial Diffusion and Maturation Delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Tian, Jianjun Paul; Wei, Junjie

    2016-03-01

    This study revisits the minimal model for a plankton ecosystem proposed by Scheffer with spatial diffusion of plankton and the delay of the maturation period of herbivorous zooplankton. It deepens our understanding of effects of the nutrients and the predation of fish upon zooplankton on the dynamical patterns of the plankton system and also presents new phenomena induced by the delay with spatial diffusion. When the nutrient level is sufficient low, the zooplankton population collapses and the phytoplankton population reaches its carrying capacity. Mathematically, the global stability of the boundary equilibrium is proved. As the nutrient level increases, the system switches to coexistent equilibria or oscillations depending on the maturation period of zooplankton and the predation rate of fish on herbivorous zooplankton. Under an eutrophic condition, there is a unique coexistent homogeneous equilibrium, and the equilibrium density of phytoplankton increases, while the equilibrium density of herbivorous zooplankton decreases as the fish predation rate on herbivorous zooplankton is increasing. The study shows that the system will never collapses under the eutrophic condition unless the fish predation rate approaches infinite. The study also finds a functional bifurcation relation between the delay parameter of the maturation period of herbivorous zooplankton and the fish predation rate on herbivorous zooplankton that, above a critical value of the fish predation rate, the system stays at the coexistent equilibrium, and below that value, the system switches its dynamical patterns among stable and unstable equilibria and oscillations. The oscillations emerge from Hopf bifurcations, and a detailed mathematical analysis about the Hopf bifurcations is carried out to give relevant ecological predications.

  5. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  6. An improved radiative transfer model for estimating mineral abundance of immature and mature lunar soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei; Li, Lin; Sun, Ying

    2015-06-01

    An improved Hapke's radiative transfer model (RTM) is presented to estimate mineral abundance for both immature and mature lunar soils from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) dataset. Fundamental to this improved Hapke's model is the application of an alternative equation to describe the effects of larger size submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) (>50 nm) in the interior of agglutinitic glass that mainly darken the host material, contrasting to the darkening and reddening effects of smaller size SMFe (<50 nm) residing in the rims of mineral grains. Results from applying a nonlinear inversion procedure to the improved Hapke's RTM show that the average mass fraction of smaller and larger size SMFe in lunar soils was estimated to be 0.30% and 0.31% respectively, and the particle size distribution of soil samples is all within their measured range. Based on the derived mass fraction of SMFe and particle size of the soil samples, abundances of end-member components composing lunar soil samples were derived via minimizing the difference between measured and calculated spectra. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the fitted and measured spectra is lower than 0.01 for highland samples and 0.005 for mare samples. This improved Hapke's model accurately estimates abundances of agglutinitic glass (R-squared = 0.88), pyroxene (R-squared = 0.69) and plagioclase (R-squared = 0.95) for all 57 samples used in this study including both immature and mature lunar soils. However, the improved Hapke's RTM shows poor performance for quantifying abundances of olivine, ilmenite and volcanic glass. Improving the model performance for estimation of these three end-member components is the central focus for our future work.

  7. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, J.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Depressed intestinal calcium absorption (Ca abs.) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) are associated with less positive calcium balance in young 200 g rats exposed to skeletal unloading by hind-limb suspension than controls (C) . To determine the effect of the space flight model on calcium balance in mature rats, we exposed 6 mo. old males weighing 492 +/- 12g to the model for 4 weeks (S) and compared Ca in the diet, urine, feces and 1,25-D in S and C. Rats were fed diets containing sufficient Ca to satisfy metabolic needs, but not to cause deficiency (0.1%). At the end of 4 weeks, there was a 5 percent weight loss in S, but not in C; and no differences in dietary, urine (UCa) or fecal Ca (FCa) in S and C. Net Ca abs. (0.1 vs 2.7 %), 1,25-D (50 +/- 16 vs 47 +/- 14 pg/ml) and Ca balances (-1.8 +/- 4 vs -1.0 +/- 2.9 mg/d) were similar in C and S. UCa loss was added to the model by inducing calciuria with 8% salt diets (HiNa). A 4-fold increase in UCa in C and S was transiently higher in S than C after 1 week. After 4 weeks, loss in BW was greater in S than C, Ca abs was higher in C than S (32 +/- 10 vs 3.5 +/- 16%, p less than .05), 1,25-D greater in S than C (98 +/- 15 vs 79 +/- 14 pg/ml p less than .05) and Ca balance less in S than C (-5.2 +/- 4 vs -1.7 +/- 2 mg/d, p less than .05). Ca balance in the mature rat is unaffected by the space flight model unless calciuria intervenes and reveals the failure of the intestine to enhance Ca abs. and compensate for UCa loss.

  8. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1996-01-01

    Negative calcium balances are seen in humans during spaceflight and bed rest, an analog of space flight. Due to the infrequency and costliness of space flight and the difficulties, cost, and restraints in using invasive procedures in bed rest studies, several ground based animal models of space flight have been employed. The most useful and well developed of these models is hind limb unloading in the rat. In this model the hind limbs are non-weight bearing (unloaded) but still mobile; there is a cephalad fluid shift similar to that seen in astronauts in flight; the animals are able to feed, groom and locomote using their front limbs; the procedure is reversible; and, importantly, the model has been validated by comparison to space flight. Several laboratories have studied calcium balance using rats in hind limb unweighting. Roer and Dillaman used young male rats to study calcium balance in this model for 25 days. They found no differences in dietary calcium intake, percent calcium absorption, urinary and fecal excretion, hence indicating no differences in calcium balance between control and unloaded rats. In another study, employing 120 day old females, rats' hind limbs were unloaded for 28 days. While negative calcium balances were observed during a 25 day recovery period no balance measurements were possible during unweighting since the researchers did not employ appropriate metabolic cages. In a recent study from this laboratory, using 200 g rats in the space flight model for two weeks, we found depressed intestinal calcium absorption and increased fecal calcium excretion (indicating less positive calcium balances) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The above studies indicate that there remains a dearth of information on calcium balance during the hind limb unloading rat space flight model, especially in mature rats, whose use is a better model for planned manned space flight than juvenile or growing animals. With the aid of a newly designed

  9. An Integrated Bayesian Model for DIF Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Tufi M.; Goncalves, Flavio B.; Gamerman, Dani

    2009-01-01

    In this article, an integrated Bayesian model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is proposed. The model is integrated in the sense of modeling the responses along with the DIF analysis. This approach allows DIF detection and explanation in a simultaneous setup. Previous empirical studies and/or subjective beliefs about the item…

  10. Mature red blood cells: from optical model to inverse light-scattering problem

    PubMed Central

    Gilev, Konstantin V.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Chernyshova, Ekaterina S.; Strokotov, Dmitry I.; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Maltsev, Valeri P.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for characterization of mature red blood cells (RBCs) morphology, based on measurement of light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual RBCs with the scanning flow cytometer and on solution of the inverse light-scattering (ILS) problem for each LSP. We considered a RBC shape model, corresponding to the minimal bending energy of the membrane with isotropic elasticity, and constructed an analytical approximation, which allows rapid simulation of the shape, given the diameter and minimal and maximal thicknesses. The ILS problem was solved by the nearest-neighbor interpolation using a preliminary calculated database of 250,000 theoretical LSPs. For each RBC in blood sample we determined three abovementioned shape characteristics and refractive index, which also allows us to calculate volume, surface area, sphericity index, spontaneous curvature, hemoglobin concentration and content. PMID:27446656

  11. Transmembrane Signal Transduction in Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization: Focusing on Xenopus laevis as a Model Animal

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Fertilization is a cell biological phenomenon of crucial importance for the birth of new life in a variety of multicellular and sexual reproduction species such as algae, animal and plants. Fertilization involves a sequence of events, in which the female gamete “egg” and the male gamete “spermatozoon (sperm)” develop, acquire their functions, meet and fuse with each other, to initiate embryonic and zygotic development. Here, it will be briefly reviewed how oocyte cytoplasmic components are orchestrated to undergo hormone-induced oocyte maturation and sperm-induced activation of development. I then review how sperm-egg membrane interaction/fusion and activation of development in the fertilized egg are accomplished and regulated through egg coat- or egg plasma membrane-associated components, highlighting recent findings and future directions in the studies using Xenopus laevis as a model experimental animal. PMID:25546390

  12. Pretreatment of in vitro matured bovine oocytes with docetaxel before vitrification: Effects on cytoskeleton integrity and developmental ability after warming.

    PubMed

    Chasombat, Jakkhaphan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2015-10-01

    The stabilization of spindle fibersis important for successful vitrification of bovine oocytes because microtubules and other cytoskeleton fibers (CSF) can be damaged during vitrification, resulting in failure of fertilization after thawing. Docetaxel, a stabilizing agent, could potentially reduce CSF damage of bovine oocytes induced during vitrification. However, there have been no reports on the effects of docetaxel on their vitrification. Experiment 1 was conducted to investigate the effects of various doses of docetaxel (0.0, 0.05, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM) in preincubation medium of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes on their developmental ability after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The results show that 0.05 μM docetaxel had no adverse effect on embryo development, while docetaxel at a concentration of ⩾0.5 μM inhibited development. Experiments 2 and 3 were conducted to investigate the effects of preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min prior to vitrification-warming on CSF integrity (Experiment 2), and on oocyte survival and viability after IVF (Experiment 3). When preincubated with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification, post-thawed oocytes had less CSF damage and higher survival rates compared with those untreated with docetaxel before vitrification. Surviving oocytes also had higher rates of cleavage and development to the blastocyst stage after IVF. In conclusion, preincubation of IVM bovine oocytes with 0.05 μM docetaxel for 30 min before vitrification was effective at preventing CSF damage during vitrification, and improving oocyte viability after warming and subsequent cleavage and blastocyst formation after IVF.

  13. Maturation delay for the predators can enhance stable coexistence for a class of prey-predator models.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Malay; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-07

    Maturation time delay for the predators is introduced in prey-predator models to implicitly model the stage-structure of predators. Most of the prey-predator models with maturation delay are known to exhibit destabilization of coexistence steady-state. Discrete time delay induced destabilization is a common finding, however, this is due to the introduction of time delay with lack of ecological justification. The main objective of the present work is to show the stabilizing role of maturation delay for a class of delayed prey-predator model. To be specific, we consider prey-predator models with strong and weak Allee effects in prey growth and Michaelis-Menten type functional response. We provide ecological justification for the introduction of maturation delay parameter in predator's growth equation. We obtain the conditions for stable and oscillatory coexistence of prey and their specialist predator in case of strong as well as weak Allee effect for non-delayed and delayed models. Apart from the analytical results for the models under consideration, we perform extensive numerical simulations to construct the relevant bifurcation diagrams. Our analytical and supportive numerical findings reveal that delay is not always a destabilizing factor rather the stable coexistence in the presence of time delay depends upon the formulation of the delayed model. The biological implications of the current investigation are provided in the conclusion section. We also explain the validity of obtained results for other types of prey-predator models with a specialist predator.

  14. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response.

  15. Integration of Mature Adipocytes to Build-Up a Functional Three-Layered Full-Skin Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Birgit; Link, Antonia; Linke, Kirstin; Gehrke, Sandra A.; Winnefeld, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Large, deep full-thickness skin wounds from high-graded burns or trauma are not able to reepithelialize sufficiently, resulting in scar formation, mobility limitations, and cosmetic deformities. In this study, in vitro-constructed tissue replacements are needed. Furthermore, such full-skin equivalents would be helpful as in vivo-like test systems for toxicity, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical testing. Up to date, no skin equivalent is available containing the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, we composed a full-skin equivalent and evaluated three different media for the coculture of mature adipocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Therefore, adipocyte medium was supplemented with ascorbyl-2-phosphate and calcium chloride, which are important for successful epidermal stratification (Air medium). This medium was further supplemented with two commercially available factor combinations often used for the in vitro culture of keratinocytes (Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium). We showed that in all media, keratinocytes differentiated successfully to build a stratified epidermal layer and expressed cytokeratin 10 and 14. Perilipin A-positive adipocytes could be found in all tissue models for up to 14 days, whereas adipocytes in the Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium seemed to be smaller. Adipocytes in all tissue models were able to release adipocyte-specific factors, whereas the supplementation of keratinocyte-specific factors had a slightly negative effect on adipocyte functionality. The permeability of the epidermis of all models was comparable since they were able to withstand a deep penetration of cytotoxic Triton X in the same manner. Taken together, we were able to compose functional three-layered full-skin equivalents by using the Air medium. PMID:27334067

  16. An Instructional Model for Integrating the Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1987-01-01

    The design, selection, and organization of instructional materials that integrate calculators are described in relation to a model based on movement and representational level. Instructional resources and advantages of the model are described. (MNS)

  17. Diamondoid hydrocarbons as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity and oil cracking: Geochemical models from hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Zhang, S.; Hill, R.; Jarvie, D.M.; Wang, Hongfang; Song, F.; Fago, F.

    2007-01-01

    A series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was performed on immature sedimentary rocks and peats of different lithology and organic source input to explore the generation of diamondoids during the thermal maturation of sediments. Oil generation curves indicate that peak oil yields occur between 340 and 360 ??C, followed by intense oil cracking in different samples. The biomarker maturity parameters appear to be insensitive to thermal maturation as most of the isomerization ratios of molecular biomarkers in the pyrolysates have reached their equilibrium values. Diamondoids are absent from immature peat extracts, but exist in immature sedimentary rocks in various amounts. This implies that they are not products of biosynthesis and that they may be generated during diagenesis, not just catagenesis and cracking. Most importantly, the concentrations of diamondoids are observed to increase with thermal stress, suggesting that they can be used as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils. Their abundance is most sensitive to thermal exposure above temperatures of 360-370 ??C (R0 = 1.3-1.5%) for the studied samples, which corresponds to the onset of intense cracking of other less stable components. Below these temperatures, diamondoids increase gradually due to competing processes of generation and dilution. Calibrations were developed between their concentrations and measured vitrinite reflectance through hydrous pyrolysis maturation of different types of rocks and peats. The geochemical models obtained from these methods may provide an alterative approach for determining thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils, particularly in mature to highly mature Paleozoic carbonates. In addition, the extent of oil cracking was quantified using the concentrations of diamondoids in hydrous pyrolysates of rocks and peats, verifying that these hydrocarbons are valuable indicators of oil cracking in nature. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Carbon carry capacity and carbon sequestration potential in China based on an integrated analysis of mature forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, YingChun; Yu, GuiRui; Wang, QiuFeng; Zhang, YangJian; Xu, ZeHong

    2014-12-01

    Forests play an important role in acting as a carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Although global forests have huge carbon carrying capacity (CCC) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP), there were few quantification reports on Chinese forests. We collected and compiled a forest biomass dataset of China, a total of 5841 sites, based on forest inventory and literature search results. From the dataset we extracted 338 sites with forests aged over 80 years, a threshold for defining mature forest, to establish the mature forest biomass dataset. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the carbon density of Chinese mature forests and its controlling factors, we used carbon density of mature forests as the reference level, and conservatively estimated the CCC of the forests in China by interpolation methods of Regression Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted and Partial Thin Plate Smoothing Spline. Combining with the sixth National Forest Resources Inventory, we also estimated the forest CSP. The results revealed positive relationships between carbon density of mature forests and temperature, precipitation and stand age, and the horizontal and elevational patterns of carbon density of mature forests can be well predicted by temperature and precipitation. The total CCC and CSP of the existing forests are 19.87 and 13.86 Pg C, respectively. Subtropical forests would have more CCC and CSP than other biomes. Consequently, relying on forests to uptake carbon by decreasing disturbance on forests would be an alternative approach for mitigating greenhouse gas concentration effects besides afforestation and reforestation.

  19. MOS integrated circuit fault modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three digital simulation techniques for MOS integrated circuit faults were examined. These techniques embody a hierarchy of complexity bracketing the range of simulation levels. The digital approaches are: transistor-level, connector-switch-attenuator level, and gate level. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Failure characteristics are also described.

  20. Mobile Technology Integrated Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Arshia

    2014-01-01

    Integrated curricula and experiential learning are the main ingredients to the recipe to improve student learning in higher education. In the academic computer science world it is mostly assumed that this experiential learning takes place at a business as an internship experience. The intent of this paper is to schism the traditional understanding…

  1. Modelling of parameters for optimization of maturity in composting trimming residues.

    PubMed

    Bueno, P; Yañez, R; Rivera, A; Díaz, M J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, changes in physico-chemical parameters during trimmings residue composting (cation exchange capacity, germination index, self-heated, NH(4)/NO(3) ratio and C(FA)/C(HA) ratio) in relation to environmental composting parameters (time, aeration, moisture and particle size) of the composting process were studied. A central composite experimental design was used to obtain the polynomial model for each dependent variable. Results of the modelling showed that among the studied range, moisture was the highest influenced parameter in maturity evaluation, with respect to aeration and particle size. An exception was found for CEC evolution. In this parameter, the highest influence was found for particle size. Moreover, a product with acceptable chemical properties entails operating at medium moisture content (55%) and medium-to-high particle size (3-5 cm). Moderate to low aeration (0.2 m(3) air kg(-1) d(-1)) would be the best compromise to composting this residue, due to the scarce statistical influence of this independent variable.

  2. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  3. Integrative modeling of the cardiac ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Rice, John Jeremy; Greenstein, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology is a discipline with a rich 50-year history of experimental research coupled with integrative modeling which has enabled us to achieve a quantitative understanding of the relationships between molecular function and the integrated behavior of the cardiac myocyte in health and disease. In this paper, we review the development of integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte. We begin with a historical overview of key cardiac cell models that helped shape the field. We then narrow our focus to models of the cardiac ventricular myocyte and describe these models in the context of their subcellular functional systems including dynamic models of voltage-gated ion channels, mitochondrial energy production, ATP-dependent and electrogenic membrane transporters, intracellular Ca dynamics, mechanical contraction, and regulatory signal transduction pathways. We describe key advances and limitations of the models as well as point to new directions for future modeling research. PMID:20865780

  4. Delta Shell: Integrated Modeling by Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, G.; Jagers, B.; Baart, F.; Geer, P. V.

    2011-12-01

    We present the integrated modeling environment Delta Shell. It supports the full workflow of integrated environmental modeling: setup, configuration, simulation, analysis and reporting of results. Many components of the environment can be reused independently, allowing development of scientific, geospatial and other applications focused on data analysis, editing, visualization and storage. One of the unique features is that the Delta Shell environment integrates models from many different fields, such as hydrodynamics, hydrology, morphology, ecology, water quality, geospatial and decision support systems. This integration is possible due to flexible general data types, lightweight model coupling framework, the plugin system and the inclusion of a number of high quality open source components. Here we will use the open source morphological model XBeach as an example showing how to integrate models into the Delta Shell environment. Integration of XBeach adds a graphical interface which can be used to make testing coastal safety for complicated coastal areas easier. By using this example, we give an overview of the modeling framework and its possibilities. To increase the usability, the model is integrated with a coastal profile data set covering the whole coast of the Netherlands. This gives the end user a system to easily use the model for scanning the safety of the Dutch coast. The reuse of the components of the environment individually or combined is encouraged. They are available as separate components and have minimal or no dependencies on other components. This includes libraries to work with scientific multidimensional data, geospatial data (in particular geospatial coverages: values of some quantities defined on a spatial domain), editors, visualisation of time-dependent data and the modeling framework (projects, data linking, workflow management, model integration). Most components and the XBeach example are available as open source.

  5. Seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling of mature and immature transform faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Simon; Gerya, Taras; van Dinther, Ylona

    2016-04-01

    Transform faults (TF) are subdivided into continental and oceanic ones due to their markedly different tectonic position, structure, surface expression, dynamics and seismicity. Both continental and oceanic TFs are zones of rheological weakness, which is a pre-requisite for their existence and long-term stability. Compared to subduction zones, TFs are typically characterized by smaller earthquake magnitudes as both their potential seismogenic width and length are reduced. However, a few very large magnitude (Mw>8) strike-slip events were documented, which are presumably related to the generation of new transform boundaries and/or sudden reactivation of pre-existing fossil structures. In particular, the 11 April 2012 Sumatra Mw 8.6 earthquake is challenging the general concept that such high magnitude events only occur at megathrusts. Hence, the processes of TF nucleation, propagation and their direct relation to the seismic cycle and long-term deformation at both oceanic and continental transforms needs to be investigated jointly to overcome the restricted direct observations in time and space. To gain fundamental understanding of involved physical processes the numerical seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) modeling approach, validated in a subduction zone setting (Van Dinther et al. 2013), will be adapted for TFs. A simple 2D plane view model geometry using visco-elasto-plastic material behavior will be adopted. We will study and compare seismicity patterns and evolution in two end member TF setups, each with strain-dependent and rate-dependent brittle-plastic weakening processes: (1) A single weak and mature transform fault separating two strong plates (e.g., in between oceanic ridges) and (2) A nucleating or evolving (continental) TF system with disconnected predefined faults within a plate subjected to simple shear deformation (e.g., San Andreas Fault system). The modeling of TFs provides a first tool to establish the STM model approach for transform faults in a

  6. Smart Grid Maturity Model: SGMM Model Definition. Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    electricity (e.g., solar power and wind) to be connected to the grid. If this were the case, any excess generated electricity would flow onto the grid, and... solar panels to the grid or electric vehicles to the grid. CUST-4.7 A common residential customer experience has been integrated. This experience is...individual devices (e.g., appliances) has been deployed. CUST-5.3 Plug-and-play customer-based generation (e.g., wind and solar ) is supported. This

  7. Small-Maturity Asymptotics for the At-The-Money Implied Volatility Slope in Lévy Models

    PubMed Central

    Gerhold, Stefan; Gülüm, I. Cetin; Pinter, Arpad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We consider the at-the-money (ATM) strike derivative of implied volatility as the maturity tends to zero. Our main results quantify the behaviour of the slope for infinite activity exponential Lévy models including a Brownian component. As auxiliary results, we obtain asymptotic expansions of short maturity ATM digital call options, using Mellin transform asymptotics. Finally, we discuss when the ATM slope is consistent with the steepness of the smile wings, as given by Lee’s moment formula. PMID:27660537

  8. Social Ecological Model Analysis for ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagami, Jason

    2013-01-01

    ICT integration of teacher preparation programmes was undertaken by the Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project in all 39 Australian teacher education institutions and highlighted the need for guidelines to inform systemic ICT integration approaches. A Social Ecological Model (SEM) was used to positively inform integration…

  9. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modeling: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the need for microbial assessments and presents a road map associated with quantitative microbial risk assessments, through an integrated environmental modeling approach. A brief introduction and the strengths of the current knowledge are illustrated. W...

  11. Microcounselling Supervision: An Innovative Integrated Supervision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Chapin, Lori A.; Ivey, Allen E.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new integrated model of counselling supervision entitled the Microcounselling Supervision Model (MSM). This type of supervision is designed for supervisors and supervisees who favor eclecticism and work from multiple theoretical orientations. MSM successfully combines skills from various theories and supervision models by…

  12. Integrated dynamics modeling for supercavitating vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seonhong; Kim, Nakwan

    2015-06-01

    We have performed integrated dynamics modeling for a supercavitating vehicle. A 6-DOF equation of motion was constructed by defining the forces and moments acting on the supercavitating body surface that contacted water. The wetted area was obtained by calculating the cavity size and axis. Cavity dynamics were determined to obtain the cavity profile for calculating the wetted area. Subsequently, the forces and moments acting on each wetted part-the cavitator, fins, and vehicle body-were obtained by physical modeling. The planing force-the interaction force between the vehicle transom and cavity wall-was calculated using the apparent mass of the immersed vehicle transom. We integrated each model and constructed an equation of motion for the supercavitating system. We performed numerical simulations using the integrated dynamics model to analyze the characteristics of the supercavitating system and validate the modeling completeness. Our research enables the design of high-quality controllers and optimal supercavitating systems.

  13. Interrelationship of Career Choice Competencies and Career Choice Attitudes of Ninth-Grade Pupils: Testing Hypotheses Derived from Crites' Model of Career Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.

    1976-01-01

    Presents the results of a study examining whether the two dimensions of Career Choice Attitudes and Career Choice Competencies are interrelated as hypothesized in the Crites model of career maturity. To test six associational hypotheses derived from the Crites model three career maturity instruments were administered to ninth-grade pupils (N=90).…

  14. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

    PubMed

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits.

  15. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  16. An introduction to Space Weather Integrated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, D.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The need for a software toolkit that integrates space weather models and data is one of many challenges we are facing with when applying the models to space weather forecasting. To meet this challenge, we have developed Space Weather Integrated Modeling (SWIM) that is capable of analysis and visualizations of the results from a diverse set of space weather models. SWIM has a modular design and is written in Python, by using NumPy, matplotlib, and the Visualization ToolKit (VTK). SWIM provides data management module to read a variety of spacecraft data products and a specific data format of Solar-Interplanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) for the study of solar-terrestrial phenomena. Data analysis, visualization and graphic user interface modules are also presented in a user-friendly way to run the integrated models and visualize the 2-D and 3-D data sets interactively. With these tools we can locally or remotely analysis the model result rapidly, such as extraction of data on specific location in time-sequence data sets, plotting interplanetary magnetic field lines, multi-slicing of solar wind speed, volume rendering of solar wind density, animation of time-sequence data sets, comparing between model result and observational data. To speed-up the analysis, an in-situ visualization interface is used to support visualizing the data 'on-the-fly'. We also modified some critical time-consuming analysis and visualization methods with the aid of GPU and multi-core CPU. We have used this tool to visualize the data of SIP-CESE MHD model in real time, and integrated the Database Model of shock arrival, Shock Propagation Model, Dst forecasting model and SIP-CESE MHD model developed by SIGMA Weather Group at State Key Laboratory of Space Weather/CAS.

  17. Modeling for System Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K. D.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation describes some the data requirements needed for grid integration modeling and provides real-world examples of such data and its format. Renewable energy integration studies evaluate the operational impacts of variable generation. Transmission planning studies investigate where new transmission is needed to transfer energy from generation sources to load centers. Both use time-synchronized wind and solar energy production and load as inputs. Both examine high renewable energy penetration scenarios in the future.

  18. Effect of different manganese concentrations during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes on DNA integrity of cumulus cells and subsequent embryo development.

    PubMed

    Anchordoquy, J P; Anchordoquy, J M; Sirini, M A; Mattioli, G; Picco, S J; Furnus, C C

    2013-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element present in forages and cereals, and its concentration depends on soil status. Manganese deficiency in cattle, goats and ewes not only impairs oestrous cycle but reduces calf birth weight. The achievement of the first oestrus is delayed, and more attempts are necessary to obtain a successful conception. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the availability of supplemental Mn during IVM on DNA damage of cumulus cells and total glutathione (GSH) content in oocytes and cumulus cells. The effect of supplementary Mn during IVM on subsequent embryo development was also studied. The results reported here indicate (i) DNA damage in cumulus cells decreased with 0, 2, 5 and 6 ng/ml Mn supplementation during IVM (p < 0.05). (ii) Intracellular GSH-GSSG content increased (p < 0.01) with different Mn concentrations in oocytes and cumulus cells. Also, cumulus cell number per cumulus oocyte-complexes (COC) did not differ either before or after IVM. (iii) Addition of Mn to maturation medium resulted in similar cleavage rates (p > 0.05) at 0, 2, 5 and 6 ng/ml Mn. However, subsequent embryo development to blastocyst stage was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in oocytes matured with 5 and 6 ng/ml Mn. (iv) There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in mean cell number per blastocyst obtained from oocytes matured with 5 and 6 ng/ml respect to zero Mn (IVM alone) and 2 ng/ml Mn. This study provides evidence that optimal embryo development to the blastocyst stage was partially dependent on the presence of Mn during IVM. Moreover, the availability of Mn during oocyte maturation ensures 'normal' intracellular GSH content in COCs and protects DNA integrity of cumulus cells.

  19. Integrated radionuclide release: tests and model development (integrated testing)

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B

    1995-08-07

    The Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Credible bounding estimates of the type, concentration, and nature of the radionuclides that might potentially escape the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) (i.e., the source term) are necessary prerequisites to assessing the expected performance of a po- tential repository. Estimating the source term will require a combination of experimental and modeling tasks that are designed to assess the release of radionclides from the waste form and their transport through and interaction with the components of the EBS/NFE. The Integrated Radionuclidc Release: Tests and Model Development activity (Integrated Testing) at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory (LLNL) is an experimental and modeling activity that is specifically concerned with radionuclide transport through and interaction with the compo- nents of the EBS/NFE. As such, this activity is the link b!etween waste-form degradation activities and far-field transport activities. Performance analysis of the EBS/NFE subsystem is an important component of the total system performance analyses (TSPA) that will be used to evaluate reposi- tory performance.

  20. International summit on integrated environmental modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaber, Noha; Geller, Gary; Glynn, Pierre; Laniak, Gerry; Voinov, Alexey; Whelan, Gene; Roger, Moore; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Reston, VA, on 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universities and companies together with international organizations convened over a number of years, including: the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) workshop on Collaborative Approaches to Integrated Modeling: Better Integration for Better Decisionmaking (December, 2008); the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco (December 2009); and the International Congress on Environmental Modeling and Software (July 2010). From these meetings there is now recognition that many separate communities are involved in developing IEM. The aim of the Summit was to bring together two key groupings, the US and Europe, with the intention of creating a community open to all.

  1. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  2. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  3. Integrated facilities modeling using QUEST and IGRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Haan, E.R.

    1995-08-01

    A QUEST model and associated detailed IGRIP models were developed and used to simulate several workcells in a proposed Plutonium Storage Facility (PSF). The models are being used by team members assigned to the program to improve communication and to assist in evaluating concepts and in performing trade-off studies which will result in recommendations and a final design. The model was designed so that it could be changed easily. The added flexibility techniques used to make changes easily are described in this paper in addition to techniques for integrating the QUEST and IGRIP products. Many of these techniques are generic in nature and can be applied to any modeling endeavor.

  4. Development of a novel ex vivo porcine skin explant model for the assessment of mature bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingping; Phillips, Priscilla L; Sampson, Edith M; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Jin, Shouguang; Antonelli, Patrick; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been proposed to be a major factor contributing to the failure of chronic wounds to heal because of their increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents and the prolonged inflammation they cause. Phenotypic characteristics of bacterial biofilms vary depending on the substratum to which they attach, the nutritional environment, and the microorganisms within the biofilm community. To develop an ex vivo biofilm model that more closely mimics biofilms in chronic skin wounds, we developed an optimal procedure to grow mature biofilms on a central partial-thickness wound in 12-mm porcine skin explants. Chlorine gas produced optimal sterilization of explants while preserving histological properties of the epidermis and dermis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus developed mature biofilms after 3 days that had dramatically increased tolerance to gentamicin and oxacillin (∼100× and 8,000× minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively) and to sodium hypochlorite (0.6% active chlorine). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy verified extensive exopolymeric biofilm structures on the explants. Despite a significant delay, a ΔlasI quorum-sensing mutant of P. aeruginosa developed biofilm as antibiotic-tolerant as wild-type after 3 days. This ex vivo model simulates growth of biofilms on skin wounds and provides an accurate model to assess effects of antimicrobial agents on mature biofilms.

  5. Toward Teacher Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The essence of teacher maturity can be synthesized into personal, professional, and process domains. Although overlapping, these categories add a multidimensional approach to the search for what is good in teaching and provide a model for professional development. (MT)

  6. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  7. Data and Model Integration Promoting Interdisciplinarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.

    2014-12-01

    It is very difficult to reflect accumulated subsystem knowledge into holistic knowledge. Knowledge about a whole system can rarely be introduced into a targeted subsystem. In many cases, knowledge in one discipline is inapplicable to other disciplines. We are far from resolving cross-disciplinary issues. It is critically important to establish interdisciplinarity so that scientific knowledge can transcend disciplines. We need to share information and develop knowledge interlinkages by building models and exchanging tools. We need to tackle a large increase in the volume and diversity of data from observing the Earth. The volume of data stored has exponentially increased. Previously, almost all of the large-volume data came from satellites, but model outputs occupy the largest volume in general. To address the large diversity of data, we should develop an ontology system for technical and geographical terms in coupling with a metadata design according to international standards. In collaboration between Earth environment scientists and IT group, we should accelerate data archiving by including data loading, quality checking and metadata registration, and enrich data-searching capability. DIAS also enables us to perform integrated research and realize interdisciplinarity. For example, climate change should be addressed in collaboration between the climate models, integrated assessment models including energy, economy, agriculture, health, and the models of adaptation, vulnerability, and human settlement and infrastructure. These models identify water as central to these systems. If a water expert can develop an interrelated system including each component, the integrated crisis can be addressed by collaboration with various disciplines. To realize this purpose, we are developing a water-related data- and model-integration system called a water cycle integrator (WCI).

  8. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  9. Developmental Control of Oocyte Maturation and Egg Activation in Metazoan Models

    PubMed Central

    Von Stetina, Jessica R.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    Production of functional eggs requires meiosis to be coordinated with developmental signals. Oocytes arrest in prophase I to permit oocyte differentiation, and in most animals, a second meiotic arrest links completion of meiosis to fertilization. Comparison of oocyte maturation and egg activation between mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila reveal conserved signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms as well as unique adaptations for reproductive strategies. Recent studies in mammals and C. elegans show the role of signaling between surrounding somatic cells and the oocyte in maintaining the prophase I arrest and controlling maturation. Proteins that regulate levels of active Cdk1/cyclin B during prophase I arrest have been identified in Drosophila. Protein kinases play crucial roles in the transition from meiosis in the oocyte to mitotic embryonic divisions in C. elegans and Drosophila. Here we will contrast the regulation of key meiotic events in oocytes. PMID:21709181

  10. A Software Process Framework for the SEI Capability Maturity Model: Repeatable Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Vilfredo Pareto , that most effects I come from relatively few causes, i.e., 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. peer review - A review...to the next maturity level. Using the Pareto principle [Juran88b], the CMM prescribes the "vital few" key process areas to focus on depending on an...or interfacing with the individuals responsible for performing in the topic area. (See train for contrast.) Pareto analysis - The analysis of defects

  11. Mechanistic Studies and Modeling Reveal the Origin of Differential Inhibition of Gag Polymorphic Viruses by HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zeyu; Cantone, Joseph; Lu, Hao; Protack, Tricia; Yuan, Tian; Yang, Hong; Liu, Zheng; Drexler, Dieter; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Cockett, Mark; Krystal, Mark; Lataillade, Max; Dicker, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics. Antiviral assay data indicates that BVM does not achieve 100% inhibition of certain polymorphs, even at saturating concentrations. This results in the breakthrough of infectious virus (partial antagonism) regardless of BVM concentration. Reduced maximal percent inhibition (MPI) values for BVM correlated with elevated EC50 values, while rates of HIV-1 protease cleavage at CA/SP1 correlated inversely with the ability of BVM to inhibit HIV-1 Gag polymorphic viruses: genotypes with more rapid CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics were less sensitive to BVM. In vitro inhibition of wild type VLP CA/SP1 cleavage by BVM was not maintained at longer cleavage times. BMS-955176 exhibited greatly improved MPI against polymorphic Gag viruses, binds to Gag polymorphs with higher affinity/longer dissociation half-lives and exhibits greater time-independent inhibition of CA/SP1 cleavage compared to BVM. Virological (MPI) and biochemical (CA/SP1 cleavage rates, MI-specific Gag affinities) data were used to create an integrated semi-quantitative model that quantifies CA/SP1 cleavage rates as a function of both MI and Gag polymorph. The model outputs are in accord with in vitro antiviral observations and correlate with observed in vivo MI efficacies. Overall, these findings may be useful to further understand antiviral

  12. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  13. Fingernail Injuries and NASA's Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Butler, Doug

    2008-01-01

    The goal of space medicine is to optimize both crew health and performance. Currently, expert opinion is primarily relied upon for decision-making regarding medical equipment and supplies flown in space. Evidence-based decisions are preferred due to mass and volume limitations and the expense of space flight. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is an attempt to move us in that direction!

  14. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  15. International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Washington, DC 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universitie...

  16. Uncertainty quantification's role in modeling and simulation planning, and credibility assessment through the predictive capability maturity model

    DOE PAGES

    Rider, William J.; Witkowski, Walter R.; Mousseau, Vincent Andrew

    2016-04-13

    The importance of credible, trustworthy numerical simulations is obvious especially when using the results for making high-consequence decisions. Determining the credibility of such numerical predictions is much more difficult and requires a systematic approach to assessing predictive capability, associated uncertainties and overall confidence in the computational simulation process for the intended use of the model. This process begins with an evaluation of the computational modeling of the identified, important physics of the simulation for its intended use. This is commonly done through a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT). Then an assessment of the evidence basis supporting the ability to computationallymore » simulate these physics can be performed using various frameworks such as the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM). Several critical activities follow in the areas of code and solution verification, validation and uncertainty quantification, which will be described in detail in the following sections. The subject matter is introduced for general applications but specifics are given for the failure prediction project. In addition, the first task that must be completed in the verification & validation procedure is to perform a credibility assessment to fully understand the requirements and limitations of the current computational simulation capability for the specific application intended use. The PIRT and PCMM are tools used at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to provide a consistent manner to perform such an assessment. Ideally, all stakeholders should be represented and contribute to perform an accurate credibility assessment. PIRTs and PCMMs are both described in brief detail below and the resulting assessments for an example project are given.« less

  17. Uncertainty quantification's role in modeling and simulation planning, and credibility assessment through the predictive capability maturity model

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, William J.; Witkowski, Walter R.; Mousseau, Vincent Andrew

    2016-04-13

    The importance of credible, trustworthy numerical simulations is obvious especially when using the results for making high-consequence decisions. Determining the credibility of such numerical predictions is much more difficult and requires a systematic approach to assessing predictive capability, associated uncertainties and overall confidence in the computational simulation process for the intended use of the model. This process begins with an evaluation of the computational modeling of the identified, important physics of the simulation for its intended use. This is commonly done through a Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT). Then an assessment of the evidence basis supporting the ability to computationally simulate these physics can be performed using various frameworks such as the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM). Several critical activities follow in the areas of code and solution verification, validation and uncertainty quantification, which will be described in detail in the following sections. The subject matter is introduced for general applications but specifics are given for the failure prediction project. In addition, the first task that must be completed in the verification & validation procedure is to perform a credibility assessment to fully understand the requirements and limitations of the current computational simulation capability for the specific application intended use. The PIRT and PCMM are tools used at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to provide a consistent manner to perform such an assessment. Ideally, all stakeholders should be represented and contribute to perform an accurate credibility assessment. PIRTs and PCMMs are both described in brief detail below and the resulting assessments for an example project are given.

  18. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  19. FACETS -- Infrastructure for Integrated Fusion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Cary, John; Carlsson, Johan; Hakim, Ammar; Kruger, Scott; Miah, Mahmood; Pletzer, Alexander; Vadlamani, Srinath; Wade-Stein, David; Balay, Satish; McInnes, Lois; Zhang, Hong; Candy, Jeff; Fahey, Mark; Cohen, Ron; Epperly, Tom; Rognlien, Tom; Estep, Don; Pankin, Alexei; Malony, Allen; Morris, Alan; Shende, Sameer; Indireshkumar, Keshavamurthy; McCune, Douglas; Pigarov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    It is desirable that an infrastructure for integrated fusion modeling has support for: legacy and new components used interchangeably; consistent management of components lifecycle; allocating parallel resources consistent with the nature of participating components and the problem scope; components written in multiple programming languages; composition of sequentially and concurrently executing components respecting dependencies; tight and loose coupling of components; testing and validation of separate and integrated components; and use of multiple platforms from desktops to LCFs. In this poster we will describe the status of the FACETS with respect to these features.

  20. Paradox of integration-A computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The paradoxical aspect of integration of a social group has been highlighted by Blau (1964). During the integration process, the group members simultaneously compete for social status and play the role of the audience. Here we show that when the competition prevails over the desire of approval, a sharp transition breaks all friendly relations. However, as was described by Blau, people with high status are inclined to bother more with acceptance of others; this is achieved by praising others and revealing her/his own weak points. In our model, this action smooths the transition and improves interpersonal relations.

  1. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment.

    PubMed

    Zenzes, Maria Teresa; Bielecki, Ryszard

    2004-09-15

    We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II). Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV) stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II). The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M); 16 h nicotine (16N); 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N). Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M), or for 16 h (16N), resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%). Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%). A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N) resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%). Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  2. An overview of the model integration process: From pre-integration assessment to testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for buildin...

  3. Geohistory and thermal maturation in the Cherokee Basin (Mid-Continent, U.S.A.): results from modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forster, A.; Merriam, D.F.; Hoth, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Cherokee basin in southeastern Kansas contains a stratigraphic section consisting mostly of Permian-Pennsylvanian alternating clastics and thin carbonates overlying carbonates of Mississippian and Cambrian-Ordovician age on a Precambrian crytalline basement. Based on a conceptual model of events of deposition, nondeposition, and erosion, a burial history model for (1) noncompaction, and a series of models for (2) compaction are computed for a borehole location in the south-central part of the basin. The models are copled with the calculation of nonsteady-state geothermal conditions. Maximum temperatures during basin evolution of about 70??C at the base of the organic-rich Pennsylvanian are predicted by our models, assuming pure heat conduction and a heat flow from the basement of 60 m W/m2. The maturation of organic matter as indicated by three different vitrinite reflectance (Ro) models is on the order og 0.3-0.5% Ro for Pennsylvanian rocks and 0.6% Ro for the Devonian-Mississippian Cattanooga Shale. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on subsurface smaples from three wells. The measured values correlate in the upper part of the sequence with modeled data, but diverge slightly in the Lower Pennsylvanian and Cattanooga Shale. The differences in maturation may be a result of differing local geological conditions within the basin. The relatively high Ro-depth gradients observed in one borehole may be explained by conditions in the Teeter oil field, which is a typical plains-type anticline that has been affected by fluid flow through vertical faults. Higher Ro values correlate positively with the grade of sulfidfe mineralization in the sediment, which may be a hint of fluid impact. The high Ro values relative to the shallow depth of the Mississippian and the Chattanooga Shale in the Brown well are on the order of Ro values modeled for the same stratigraphic units at present-day greater depths and may reflect uplift of the Ozark dome, located further east, affecting

  4. A stage-structured predator-prey model with distributed maturation delay and harvesting.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, J F M

    2015-01-01

    A stage-structured predator-prey system with distributed maturation delay and harvesting is investigated. General birth and death functions are used. The local stability of each feasible equilibria is discussed. By using the persistence theory, it is proven that the system is permanent if the coexistence equilibrium exists. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariant principle, it is shown that the trivial equilibrium is globally stable when the other equilibria are not feasible, and that the boundary equilibrium is globally stable if the coexistence equilibrium does not exist. Finally, sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the coexistence equilibrium.

  5. Lunar iron and optical maturity mapping: Results from partial least squares modeling of Chang'E-1 IIM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lingzhi; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhongchen; Liu, Jianzhong

    2016-12-01

    Iron and optical maturity (OMAT) are two key geological marks of the Moon that closely related to its geochemical evolution and interactions between surface and space environment. We apply Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression to Chang'E-1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) (32 bands between 480 and 960 nm) in mapping lunar global FeO and OMAT, and the FeO and OMAT values are derived based on reasonable spectral parameters (absorbance, band ratios, TiO2 and maturity sensitive parameters, etc.). After been calibrated by the FeO map from Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS), the global FeO map derived from PLS modeling shows a quantitatively more reasonable result consistent with previous remote sensing results (LP) as well as lunar feldspathic meteorite studies and Chang'E-3 landing site. Based on the new FeO map by Chang'E-1, we discover a compositional inhomogeneity across lunar highland regions, which has not been suggested by previous datasets (e.g., Clementine UVVIS). Furthermore, we suggest that at least part of the FeO enrichments in highlands would be caused by mixing of highland and mare materials. The IIM derived OMAT map does not suggest a dichotomy of the lunar highlands and mare regions, implying the compositional differences between those two terrains have been suppressed. We further check the maturity effect for the young mare basalts (<3.0 Ga), and find that (1) the OMAT values of the young basaltic units with medium and high FeO and TiO2 show a linear decrease with ages; (2) units with ultrahigh-FeO (>20 wt%) and ultrahigh-TiO2 (>10 wt%) tend to have greater OMAT values and vary little with ages; (3) this may be due to the distinct optical maturity effects of ultramafic minerals (i.e., ultrahigh Fe and Ti) and/or the spectral blue shifts of abundant ilmenite.

  6. Integrated UV fluorescence/DIAL model

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    Current SNL CALIOPE modeling efforts have produced an initial model that addresses DIAL issues of wavelength, hardware design parameters, range evaluation, etc. Although this model is producing valuable results and will be used to support the planning and evaluations necessary for the first ground field experiment, it is expected to have limitations with the complex science issues that affect the CALIOPE program. In particular, the multi-dimensional effects of atmospheric turbulence, plume dynamics, speckle, etc., may be significant issues and must be evaluated in detail as the program moves to the detection of liquids and solids, longer ranges, and elevated platform environments. The goal of the integrated UV fluorescence/DIAL modeling effort is to build upon the knowledge obtained in developing and exercising the initial model to adequately support the future activities of this program. This paper will address the development of the integrated UV model, issues and limiting assumptions that may be needed in order to address the-complex phenomena involved, limits of expected performance, and the potential use of this model.

  7. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  8. Sexual maturity in growing dinosaurs does not fit reptilian growth models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew H; Werning, Sarah

    2008-01-15

    Recent histological studies suggest relatively rapid growth in dinosaurs. However, the timing of reproductive maturity (RM) in dinosaurs is poorly known because unambiguous indicators of RM are rare. One exception is medullary bone (MB), which is an ephemeral bony tissue that forms before ovulation in the marrow cavities of birds as a calcium source for eggshelling. Recently, MB also was described in a single specimen of the saurischian dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Here, we report two other occurrences of MB: in another saurischian dinosaur, Allosaurus, and in the ornithischian dinosaur Tenontosaurus. We show by counting lines of arrested growth and performing growth curve reconstructions that Tenontosaurus, Allosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus were reproductively mature by 8, 10, and 18 years, respectively. RM in these dinosaurs coincided with a transition from growth acceleration to deceleration. It also far precedes predictions based on the growth rates of living reptiles scaled to similar size. Despite relatively rapid growth, dinosaurs were similar to reptiles in that RM developed before reaching asymptotic size. However, this reproductive strategy also occurs in medium- to large-sized mammals and correlates with a strategy of prolonged multiyear growth. RM in actively growing individuals suggests that these dinosaurs were born relatively precocial and experienced high adult mortality. The origin of the modern avian reproductive strategy in ornithuran birds likely coincided with their extreme elevations in growth rate and truncations to growth duration.

  9. The Integrated Landscape Modeling partnership - Current status and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Scherff, Eric J.

    2016-01-28

    The Integrated Landscape Modeling (ILM) partnership is an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to identify, evaluate, and develop models to quantify services derived from ecosystems, with a focus on wetland ecosystems and conservation effects. The ILM partnership uses the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) modeling platform to facilitate regional quantifications of ecosystem services under various scenarios of land-cover change that are representative of differing conservation program and practice implementation scenarios. To date, the ILM InVEST partnership has resulted in capabilities to quantify carbon stores, amphibian habitat, plant-community diversity, and pollination services. Work to include waterfowl and grassland bird habitat quality is in progress. Initial InVEST modeling has been focused on the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States; future efforts might encompass other regions as data availability and knowledge increase as to how functions affecting ecosystem services differ among regions.The ILM partnership is also developing the capability for field-scale process-based modeling of depressional wetland ecosystems using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model. Progress was made towards the development of techniques to use the APEX model for closed-basin depressional wetlands of the PPR, in addition to the open systems that the model was originally designed to simulate. The ILM partnership has matured to the stage where effects of conservation programs and practices on multiple ecosystem services can now be simulated in selected areas. Future work might include the continued development of modeling capabilities, as well as development and evaluation of differing conservation program and practice scenarios of interest to partner agencies including the USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). When

  10. Examining the process of de novo gene birth: an educational primer on "integration of new genes into cellular networks, and their structural maturation".

    PubMed

    Frietze, Seth; Leatherman, Judith

    2014-03-01

    New genes that arise from modification of the noncoding portion of a genome rather than being duplicated from parent genes are called de novo genes. These genes, identified by their brief evolution and lack of parent genes, provide an opportunity to study the timeframe in which emerging genes integrate into cellular networks, and how the characteristics of these genes change as they mature into bona fide genes. An article by G. Abrusán provides an opportunity to introduce students to fundamental concepts in evolutionary and comparative genetics and to provide a technical background by which to discuss systems biology approaches when studying the evolutionary process of gene birth. Basic background needed to understand the Abrusán study and details on comparative genomic concepts tailored for a classroom discussion are provided, including discussion questions and a supplemental exercise on navigating a genome database.

  11. An integrated data model for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the capability of the Epicenter data model to manage reservoir-simulation information, including the spatial model used to describe the properties of the earth and the product-flow network mode used to describe production performance. In addition to data values, the data model describes data creation and quality and provides a reliable means of understanding the source. To use the data model, reservoir-simulation applications need to be rewritten to conform to the data-model nomenclature and conventions. While this is a significant task, the benefit to reservoir simulation practitioners and vendors includes integration of technical applications (such as mapping, well logging, and geophysical interpretation systems), data portability (allowing Vendor A's simulator to use data prepared by Vendor B's preprocessor), and interpretability such as using a third-party optimization package to conduct a series of simulations.

  12. Plant design: Integrating Plant and Equipment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, David; Fiveland, Woody; Zitney, S.E.; Osawe, Maxwell

    2007-08-01

    Like power plant engineers, process plant engineers must design generating units to operate efficiently, cleanly, and profitably despite fluctuating costs for raw materials and fuels. To do so, they increasingly create virtual plants to enable evaluation of design concepts without the expense of building pilot-scale or demonstration facilities. Existing computational models describe an entire plant either as a network of simplified equipment models or as a single, very detailed equipment model. The Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) project (Figure 5) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) seeks to bridge the gap between models by integrating plant modeling and equipment modeling software. The goal of the effort is to provide greater insight into the performance of proposed plant designs. The software integration was done using the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (Computer Aided Process Engineering–Open), or CO interface. Several demonstration cases based on operating power plants confirm the viability of this co-simulation approach.

  13. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  14. Modelling of maturation, expulsion and accumulation of bacterial methane within Ravneš Member (Pliocene age), Croatia onshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial methane is a dominant hydrocarbon component in the Northern Croatia's Adriatic offshore proven hydrocarbon reservoirs. As onshore reserves are declining the potential of shallow gas accumulation, analogue to the Adriatic ones, are being tested. A part of the Lonja Formation (Pliocene Pleistocene and Holocene), the Ravneš Member (Early Pliocene age) is analysed for its maturation and expulsion regarding bacterial methane as potential source and reservoir rocks, especially as it is thermally immature. Two approaches were used for the initial lithology modelling processes - the convergent interpolation and sequential Gaussian simulation. Possibility for trapping and forming of accumulations was also modelled. Results show that selected member has a large source rock potential for bacterial methane with a total volume of 411.53 × 109 m3 for the Convergent interpolation model and 520.56 × 109 m3 for the sequential Gaussian simulation model of expulsed bacterial methane

  15. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-01-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  16. Approximated integrability of the Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relaño, A.; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M. A.; Lerma-Hernández, S.

    2016-12-01

    A very approximate second integral of motion of the Dicke model is identified within a broad energy region above the ground state, and for a wide range of values of the external parameters. This second integral, obtained from a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, classifies the whole regular part of the spectrum in bands, coming from different semi-classical energy surfaces, and labelled by its corresponding eigenvalues. Results obtained from this approximation are compared with exact numerical diagonalization for finite systems in the superradiant phase, obtaining a remarkable accord. The region of validity of our approach in the parameter space, which includes the resonant case, is unveiled. The energy range of validity goes from the ground state up to a certain upper energy where chaos sets in, and extends far beyond the range of applicability of a simple harmonic approximation around the minimal energy configuration. The upper energy validity limit increases for larger values of the coupling constant and the ratio between the level splitting and the frequency of the field. These results show that the Dicke model behaves like a two-degree-of-freedom integrable model for a wide range of energies and values of the external parameters.

  17. An integrated neuromechanical model of insect locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukillaya, Raghavendra

    We develop a biologically-plausible feedforward neuromechanical model for running insects that includes a simplified hexapedal leg geometry with agonist-antagonist muscle pairs actuating each leg joint. It is driven by a neural network modeling the central pattern generator (CPG) and the motoneurons which activate the muscles. This final goal is achieved in three stages. First, a relatively simple mechanical hexapedal model is constructed in which the joint torques are produced via actuated linear torsional springs with constant stiffness. In the second stage, this system is upgraded to a muscle-actuated hexapedal model in which each joint is actuated by a pair of agonist-antagonist Hill-type muscles. Muscles are driven by stylized action potentials that are characteristic of fast motoneurons, and modeled using an activation function and nonlinear length and shortening velocity dependence. In the final stage, the full neuromechanical model is obtained by integrating the above muscle-actuated hexapedal model with a CPG-motoneuron complex, feedforward input to the muscles now being supplied by action potentials from motoneurons. Restricting to dynamics in the horizontal plane and neglecting leg masses, we reduce the model (at each stage) to three degrees of freedom describing translational and yawing motions of the body. Collectively for all the models, parameter values are based on measurements from depressor motoneurons and muscles, and observations of kinematics and dynamics of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. Specifically, actuation inputs for the mechanical and muscle-actuated models are chosen to approximately achieve joint torques that are consistent with measured ground reaction forces. This is done by optimizing the time-dependent torque-free joint angles in the first model, and by optimizing motoneuronal outputs and muscle force levels in the second and third models. We show that the model (at each stage) has stable double-tripod gaits over the animal

  18. The development and calibration of a physical model to assist in optimising the hydraulic performance and design of maturation ponds.

    PubMed

    Aldana, G J; Lloyd, B J; Guganesharajah, K; Bracho, N

    2005-01-01

    A physical and a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model (HYDRO-3D) were developed to simulate the effects of novel maturation pond configurations, and critical environmental factors (wind speed and direction) on the hydraulic efficiency (HE) of full-scale maturation ponds. The aims of the study were to assess the reliability of the physical model and convergence with HYDRO-3D, as tools for assessing and predicting best hydraulic performance of ponds. The physical model of the open ponds was scaled to provide a similar nominal retention time (NRT) of 52 hours. Under natural conditions, with a variable prevailing westerly wind opposite to the inlet, a rhodamine tracer study on the full-scale prototype pond produced a mean hydraulic retention time (MHRT) of 18.5 hours (HE = 35.5%). Simulations of these wind conditions, but with constant wind speed and direction in both the physical model and HYDRO-3D, produced a higher MHRT of 21 hours in both models and an HE of 40.4%. In the absence of wind tracer studies in the open pond physical model revealed incomplete mixing with peak concentrations leaving the model in several hours, but an increase in MHRT to 24.5-28 hours (HE = 50.2-57.1%). Although wind blowing opposite to the inlet flow increases dispersion (mixing), it reduced hydraulic performance by 18-25%. Much higher HE values were achieved by baffles (67-74%) and three channel configurations (69-92%), compared with the original open pond configuration. Good agreement was achieved between the two models where key environmental and flow parameters can be controlled and set, but it is difficult to accurately simulate full-scale works conditions due to the unpredictability of natural hourly and daily fluctuation in these parameters.

  19. Synaptic Maturation at Cortical Projections to the Lateral Amygdala in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Poulain, Bernard; Bienvenu, Thierry; Chelly, Jamel; Humeau, Yann

    2010-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neuro-developmental disorder caused by loss of function of Mecp2 - methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 - an epigenetic factor controlling DNA transcription. In mice, removal of Mecp2 in the forebrain recapitulates most of behavioral deficits found in global Mecp2 deficient mice, including amygdala-related hyper-anxiety and lack of social interaction, pointing a role of Mecp2 in emotional learning. Yet very little is known about the establishment and maintenance of synaptic function in the adult amygdala and the role of Mecp2 in these processes. Here, we performed a longitudinal examination of synaptic properties at excitatory projections to principal cells of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) in Mecp2 mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. We first show that during animal life, Cortico-LA projections switch from a tonic to a phasic mode, whereas Thalamo-LA synapses are phasic at all ages. In parallel, we observed a specific elimination of Cortico-LA synapses and a decrease in their ability of generating presynaptic long term potentiation. In absence of Mecp2, both synaptic maturation and synaptic elimination were exaggerated albeit still specific to cortical projections. Surprisingly, associative LTP was unaffected at Mecp2 deficient synapses suggesting that synaptic maintenance rather than activity-dependent synaptic learning may be causal in RTT physiopathology. Finally, because the timing of synaptic evolution was preserved, we propose that some of the developmental effects of Mecp2 may be exerted within an endogenous program and restricted to synapses which maturate during animal life. PMID:20625482

  20. Synaptic maturation at cortical projections to the lateral amygdala in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Poulain, Bernard; Bienvenu, Thierry; Chelly, Jamel; Humeau, Yann

    2010-07-02

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neuro-developmental disorder caused by loss of function of Mecp2--methyl-CpG-binding protein 2--an epigenetic factor controlling DNA transcription. In mice, removal of Mecp2 in the forebrain recapitulates most of behavioral deficits found in global Mecp2 deficient mice, including amygdala-related hyper-anxiety and lack of social interaction, pointing a role of Mecp2 in emotional learning. Yet very little is known about the establishment and maintenance of synaptic function in the adult amygdala and the role of Mecp2 in these processes. Here, we performed a longitudinal examination of synaptic properties at excitatory projections to principal cells of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) in Mecp2 mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. We first show that during animal life, Cortico-LA projections switch from a tonic to a phasic mode, whereas Thalamo-LA synapses are phasic at all ages. In parallel, we observed a specific elimination of Cortico-LA synapses and a decrease in their ability of generating presynaptic long term potentiation. In absence of Mecp2, both synaptic maturation and synaptic elimination were exaggerated albeit still specific to cortical projections. Surprisingly, associative LTP was unaffected at Mecp2 deficient synapses suggesting that synaptic maintenance rather than activity-dependent synaptic learning may be causal in RTT physiopathology. Finally, because the timing of synaptic evolution was preserved, we propose that some of the developmental effects of Mecp2 may be exerted within an endogenous program and restricted to synapses which maturate during animal life.

  1. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  2. Visualization tools: Models, representations and knowledge integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Brian John

    Learning science requires students to make inferences and draw conclusions about concepts that are abstract, invisible or otherwise difficult to imagine. Scientific visualization is one way to make science and scientific thinking more visible to students. This dissertation investigates how visualization can be utilized for science education by studying how students integrate information from visualizations into their thinking. For this study, I developed a series of computer visualizations depicting thermodynamic phenomena. Thermodynamics is a topic that is both fundamental for several branches of science and difficult for many students to master (Linn & Songer, 1991). The design of the visualizations was learner centered. Pilot studies suggested that a dot-density representation of temperature would present a visual analogy of temperature as a measure of heat energy density. Energy density is a powerful model that can help students explain everyday heating and cooling phenomena. Dot-density computer visualizations were introduced into a public middle school science class studying thermodynamics (N = 178). Half of the students used the visualizations, while the other half served as a control. Interviews, classwork and tests were collected from the students in order to determine how the visualizations affected students' learning. Although there were not significant differences in the posttests for the groups, the classwork during the semester showed that the visualizations did affect how students envisioned heat and temperature. Students could often apply the energy density model in their reasoning during visualization activities, but when the visualizations were unavailable, many students applied less useful models. The interviews illustrated several difficulties that students had in learning from the visualizations. Some students interpreted the visualizations to support their existing conceptions of heat. Other students needed to have a visualization present to

  3. Integrated Hydrosystem Modeling of the California Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Mallia, D.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Western United States is facing one of the worst droughts on record. Climate change projections predict warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates, and no foreseeable increase in precipitation. California, in particular, has supplemented their decreased surface water supplies by mining deep groundwater. However, this supply of groundwater is limited, especially with reduced recharge. These combined factors place California's water-demanding society at dire risk. In an effort to quantify California's risks, we present a fully integrated water cycle model that captures the dynamics of the subsurface, land surface, and atmospheric domains over the entire California basin. Our water cycle model combines HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a 3-D control-volume finite element model that accommodates variably-saturated subsurface and surface water flow with evapotranspiration processes to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a 3-D finite difference nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric simulator. The two-way coupling within our model, referred to as HGS-WRF, tightly integrates the water cycling processes by passing precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from WRF to HGS, while exchanging actual evapotranspiration and soil saturation data from HGS to WRF. Furthermore, HGS-WRF implements a flexible coupling method that allows each model to use a unique mesh while maintaining mass conservation within and between domains. Our simulation replicated field measured evapotranspiration fluxes and showed a strong correlation between the soil saturation (depth to groundwater table) and latent heat fluxes. Altogether, the HGS-WRF California basin model is currently the most complete water resource simulation framework as it combines groundwater, surface water, the unsaturated zone, and the atmosphere into one coupled system.

  4. Integrated identification, modeling and control with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guojun

    This thesis deals with the integration of system design, identification, modeling and control. In particular, six interdisciplinary engineering problems are addressed and investigated. Theoretical results are established and applied to structural vibration reduction and engine control problems. First, the data-based LQG control problem is formulated and solved. It is shown that a state space model is not necessary to solve this problem; rather a finite sequence from the impulse response is the only model data required to synthesize an optimal controller. The new theory avoids unnecessary reliance on a model, required in the conventional design procedure. The infinite horizon model predictive control problem is addressed for multivariable systems. The basic properties of the receding horizon implementation strategy is investigated and the complete framework for solving the problem is established. The new theory allows the accommodation of hard input constraints and time delays. The developed control algorithms guarantee the closed loop stability. A closed loop identification and infinite horizon model predictive control design procedure is established for engine speed regulation. The developed algorithms are tested on the Cummins Engine Simulator and desired results are obtained. A finite signal-to-noise ratio model is considered for noise signals. An information quality index is introduced which measures the essential information precision required for stabilization. The problems of minimum variance control and covariance control are formulated and investigated. Convergent algorithms are developed for solving the problems of interest. The problem of the integrated passive and active control design is addressed in order to improve the overall system performance. A design algorithm is developed, which simultaneously finds: (i) the optimal values of the stiffness and damping ratios for the structure, and (ii) an optimal output variance constrained stabilizing

  5. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  6. Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

  7. Approaches to Process Performance Modeling: A Summary from the SEI Series of Workshops on CMMI High Maturity Measurement and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services • Neal Mackertich and Michael Campo, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems • Raymond Kile ...Modeling with Parametric Cost Models (p 53) Kile Used traditional cost models with modifications based on several of the healthy ingredients to pre...Raymond L. Kile , PMP; John Gaffney, PE; Joan Weszka, Lockheed Martin In this presentation Ray Kile discussed the use of parametric cost models (PCMs

  8. Multidimensional integrable models of gravitation and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchuk, V. D.; Melnikov, V. N.

    Review of the motivation and main results in multidimentional gravitation and cosmology is presented. Special attention is devoted to results within the model with scalar fields and fields of forms in the billiard approach for obtaining cosmological solutions with branes and integrable configurations with fluxand black branes. In case of the quantum billiard with branes it is shown that the basis solutions for wave functions vanish in the limit of the formation of billiard walls (i.e., at the singularity) for the D = 11 model which mimics the D = 11 supergravitational cosmology. Another fruitful approach - to multidimensional gravity with higher derivatives is mentioned, which leads to a unified description of inflation and the present accelerated expansion of the Universe. Some of these models explain possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine structure and the gravitational constants.

  9. Integrated modeling of the Euro50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben E.; Browne, Michael T.; Enmark, Anita; Moraru, Dan; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Riewaldt, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Euro50 is a proposed 50 m optical and infrared telescope. It will have thousands of control loops to keep the optics aligned under influence of wind, gravity and thermal loads. Cross-disciplinary integrated modeling is used to study the overall performance of the Euro50. A sub-model of the mechanical structure originates from finite element modeling. The optical performance is determined using ray tracing, both non-linear and linearized. The primary mirror segment alignment control system is modeled with the 618 segments taken as rigid bodies. Adaptive optics is included using a layered model of the atmosphere and sub-models of the wavefront sensor, reconstructor and controller. The deformable mirror is, so far, described by a simple influence function and a second order dynamical transfer function but more detailed work is in progress. The model has been implemented using Matlab/Simulink on individual computers but it will shortly be implemented on a Beowulf cluster within a trusted network. Communication routines between Matlab on the cluster processors have been written and are being benchmarked. Representative results from the simulations are shown.

  10. Advancing Cybersecurity Capability Measurement Using the CERT(registered trademark)-RMM Maturity Indicator Level Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. CERT® and CMMI ® are registered marks of Carnegie...Attributes 4 1.3.4 Appraisal and Scoring Methods 5 1.3.5 Improvement Roadmaps 5 2 Introducing the Maturity Indicator Level (MIL) Concept 6 2.1...CERT®-RMM v1.2) utilizes the maturity architecture (levels and descriptions) as provided in the Capability Maturity Model Integration ( CMMI

  11. Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficient Tests and Computer Modeling at High Ionic Strength Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Charles A.; Hamm, L. Larry; Smith, Frank G.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2014-12-19

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and poured into canisters for disposition. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the water solubility properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the Hanford River Protection Project mission. To achieve the full target WTP throughput, additional LAW immobilization capacity is needed, and options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. To enable an informed decision regarding the viability of technetium removal, further maturation of available technologies is being performed. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient testing and computer modeling using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from high ionic strength simulated LAW. It is advantageous to operate at higher concentration in order to treat the waste

  12. Knowledge Management as an Indication of Organizational Maturity in Project Management: An Enhancement of the OPM3(c) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dedrick A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the knowledge management's role in organizational maturity in project management. It draws a direct linked between organizational maturity knowledge channels both informal and then formal and organizational project management maturity. The study uses a mixed method approach through online and telephone surveys that draws…

  13. Quantifying and modelling tissue maturation in the living human fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Colin; Rousseau, François

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in medical imaging are beginning to allow us to quantify brain tissue maturation in the growing human brain prior to normal term age, and are beginning to shed new light on early human brain growth. These advances compliment the work already done in cellular level imaging in animal and post mortem studies of brain development. The opportunities for collaborative research that bridges the gap between macroscopic and microscopic windows on the developing brain are significant. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the current research into MR imaging of the living fetal brain with the aim of motivating improved interfaces between the two fields. The review begins with a description of faster MRI techniques that are capable of freezing motion of the fetal head during the acquisition of a slice, and how these have been combined with advanced post-processing algorithms to build 3D images from motion scattered slices. Such rich data has motivated the development of techniques to automatically label developing tissue zones within MRI data allowing their quantification in 3D and 4D within the normally growing fetal brain. These methods have provided the basis for later work that has created the first maps of tissue growth rate and cortical folding in normally developing brains in-utero. These measurements provide valuable findings that compliment those derived from post-mortem anatomy, and additionally allow for the possibility of larger population studies of the influence of maternal environmental and genes on early brain development.

  14. Using the Information Orientation Maturity Model to Increase the Effectiveness of the Core MBA IS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytes, Kregg; Beachboard, John

    2007-01-01

    Although information systems are an integral part of every modern organization, IS faculty often struggle to show MBA students the value of the core IS course in the MBA curriculum. This is also evidenced by the fact that some business schools do not have an IS course in the core MBA curriculum. MBA courses often use case analyses to provide…

  15. Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered include: numerical integration techniques; thermodynamics and internal state variables; experimental lab development; comparison of models at room temperature; comparison of models at elevated temperature; and integrated software development.

  16. TOWARD EFFICIENT RIPARIAN RESTORATION: INTEGRATING ECONOMIC, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper integrates economic, biological, and physical models to determine the efficient combination and spatial allocation of conservation efforts for water quality protection and salmonid habitat enhancement in the Grande Ronde basin, Oregon. The integrated modeling system co...

  17. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  18. Applying Forecast Models from the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehmeyr, M.; Baker, D. N.; Millward, G.; Odstrcil, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) has developed three forecast models (FMs) for the Sun-Earth chain. They have been matured by various degrees toward the operational stage. The Sun-Earth FM suite comprises empirical and physical models: the Planetary Equivalent Amplitude (AP-FM), the Solar Wind (SW- FM), and the Geospace (GS-FM) models. We give a brief overview of these forecast models and touch briefly on the associated validation studies. We demonstrate the utility of the models: AP-FM supporting the operations of the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) mission soon after launch; SW-FM providing assistance with the interpretation of the STEREO beacon data; and GS-FM combining model and observed data to characterize the aurora borealis. We will then discuss space weather tools in a more general sense, point out where the current capabilities and shortcomings are, and conclude with a look forward to what areas need improvement to facilitate better real-time forecasts.

  19. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  20. Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Enmark, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Mathematical modeling and performance simulation are playing an increasing role in large, high-technology projects. There are two reasons; first, projects are now larger than they were before, and the high cost calls for detailed performance prediction before construction. Second, in particular for space-related designs, it is often difficult to test systems under realistic conditions beforehand, and mathematical modeling is then needed to verify in advance that a system will work as planned. Computers have become much more powerful, permitting calculations that were not possible before. At the same time mathematical tools have been further developed and found acceptance in the community. Particular progress has been made in the fields of structural mechanics, optics and control engineering, where new methods have gained importance over the last few decades. Also, methods for combining optical, structural and control system models into global models have found widespread use. Such combined models are usually called integrated models and were the subject of this symposium. The objective was to bring together people working in the fields of groundbased optical telescopes, ground-based radio telescopes, and space telescopes. We succeeded in doing so and had 39 interesting presentations and many fruitful discussions during coffee and lunch breaks and social arrangements. We are grateful that so many top ranked specialists found their way to Kiruna and we believe that these proceedings will prove valuable during much future work.

  1. A Population Model of Integrative Cardiovascular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, William A.; Husband, Leland D.; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G.; Hester, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  2. INTEGRATED SPEED ESTIMATION MODEL FOR MULTILANE EXPREESSWAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungjoon; Oguchi, Takashi

    In this paper, an integrated speed-estimation model is developed based on empirical analyses for the basic sections of intercity multilane expressway un der the uncongested condition. This model enables a speed estimation for each lane at any site under arb itrary highway-alignment, traffic (traffic flow and truck percentage), and rainfall conditions. By combin ing this model and a lane-use model which estimates traffic distribution on the lanes by each vehicle type, it is also possible to es timate an average speed across all the lanes of one direction from a traffic demand by vehicle type under specific highway-alignment and rainfall conditions. This model is exp ected to be a tool for the evaluation of traffic performance for expressways when the performance me asure is travel speed, which is necessary for Performance-Oriented Highway Planning and Design. Regarding the highway-alignment condition, two new estimators, called effective horizo ntal curvature and effective vertical grade, are proposed in this paper which take into account the influence of upstream and downstream alignment conditions. They are applied to the speed-estimation model, and it shows increased accuracy of the estimation.

  3. Three Quality Journeys - Capability Maturity Model Integration, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, and ISO 9000 Series

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    quality management practices. ISO 9001 :2008 has been implemented by over a million organizations in 176 countries. 14 Three Quality Journeys...University I S O 9 0 0 0 Initial Release of ISO 9000:1987 9001 :2000 amended to 9001 :2008 – quality management requirements 9004:2000 amended...clarifications of 9001 and 9004 occurred in 2008 and 2009, respectively o ISO 9001 :2000 - eight quality

  4. Bone fracture toughness and strength correlate with collagen cross-link maturity in a dose-controlled lathyrism mouse model

    PubMed Central

    McNerny, Erin M. B.; Gong, Bo; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking is altered in many diseases of bone, and enzymatic collagen cross-links are important to bone quality as evidenced by losses of strength following lysyl oxidase inhibition (lathyrism). We hypothesized that cross-links also contribute directly to bone fracture toughness. A mouse model of lathyrism using subcutaneous injection of up to 500mg/kg β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) was developed and characterized (60 animals across 4 dosage groups). Three weeks of 150 or 350 mg/kg BAPN treatment in young growing mice significantly reduced cortical bone fracture toughness, strength, and pyridinoline cross-link content. Ratios reflecting relative cross-link maturity were positive regressors of fracture toughness (HP/[DHLNL+HLNL] r2=0.208, p<0.05; [HP+LP]/[DHNL+HLNL] r2=0.196, p<0.1), whereas quantities of mature pyridinoline cross-links were significant positive regressors of tissue strength (lysyl pyridinoline r2=0.159, p=0.014; hydroxylysyl pyridinoline r2=0.112, p<0.05). Immature and pyrrole cross-links, which were not significantly reduced by BAPN, did not correlate with mechanical properties. The effect of BAPN treatment on mechanical properties was dose specific, with the greatest impact found at the intermediate (350mg/kg) dose. Calcein labeling was used to define locations of new bone formation, allowing for the identification of regions of normally cross-linked (preexisting) and BAPN treated (newly formed, cross-link-deficient) bone. Raman spectroscopy revealed spatial differences due to relative tissue age and effects of cross-link inhibition. Newly deposited tissues had lower mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and Amide I cross-link (matrix maturity) ratios compared to preexisting tissues. BAPN treatment did not affect mineral measures, but significantly increased the cross-link (matrix maturity) ratio compared to newly formed control tissue. Our study reveals that spatially localized effects of short term BAPN cross-link inhibition can alter

  5. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  6. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  7. Collagen scaffold meniscus implant integration in a canine model: a histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Robert; Bryk, Eli; Vigorita, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    In the situation of an irreparable meniscus tear, an implant comparable to a normal meniscus is an attractive option. Using a canine model, we assessed the early and late histologic response to a tissue engineered meniscal collagen scaffold (CS). All animals received bilateral arthrotomies, and all joints receiving the CS had an 80% resection of the meniscus. Animals were sacrificed at 3 and 6 weeks, and 12, 13, and 17 months. The CS/tissue complex and host meniscal rim were sectioned for histologic examination with specific focus on the extracellular matrix, angiogenesis, cellular resorption of the scaffold, scaffold appearance, and CS/Host integration. Early histologic samples (3-6 weeks) revealed active angiogenesis and fibrin clots evolving into cellular granulation type tissue. At 12 months, a mature fibrochondrocytic matrix was depositing with gradations of dissolution and integration of the CS implant. Maturing CS/host integration was observed at 18 months. Active cellular resorption of the implant decreased over time. Four cases showed a mild non-specific chronic inflammation and one additional case showed inflammatory engulfment of the scaffold with giant cells at 3 weeks. No evidence of infection either clinically or histologically was observed at any time point. Overall, this histologic analysis demonstrated the active integration of a meniscal like cartilage into a tissue engineered biological scaffold in a canine model.

  8. Vertical profiling and modelling of E. coli decay in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel F C; Sperling, Marcos von

    2017-03-23

    Maturation ponds are excellent natural treatment systems for disinfecting domestic wastewater from pathogenic bacteria because of great sunlight exposure through depth and high pH and DO values within its environment, all of which are important factors for disinfection. E. coli removal is higher closer to the surface of the pond and proceeds to decrease due to the limited amount of sunlight penetrating through deeper depths. In order to quantify the decay coefficients (Kb) of E. coli in a shallow maturation pond, quartz vessels were used to create isolated batch experiments and submerged at different depths inside the pond during different periods of the day (morning and afternoon). Kb values ranged from 0.48 to 0.28 h(-1) considering different depths and both periods. A dark control vessel was also used to quantify dark decay rates (Kd) at the same depth and periods as the quartz vessels, and ranged from 0.14 to 0.04 h(-1). Environmental variables did not show to influence overall disinfection. Two models for estimating final E. coli concentrations were proposed considering the kinetic coefficients obtained in the batch experiments and the dispersed flow regime for continuous-flow ponds and resulted in very good fittings with monitoring data and demonstrated the vertical profiling of E. coli concentration.

  9. Quantifying and Modelling Tissue Maturation in the Living Human Fetal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Colin; Rousseau, François

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical imaging are beginning to allow us to quantify brain tissue maturation in the growing human brain prior to normal term age, and are beginning to shed new light on early human brain growth. These advances compliment the work already done in cellular level imaging in animal and post mortem studies of brain development. The opportunities for collaborative research that bridges the gap between macroscopic and microscopic windows on the developing brain are significant. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the current research into MR imaging of the living fetal brain with the aim of motivating improved interfaces between the two fields. The review begins with a description of faster MRI techniques that are capable of freezing motion of the fetal head during the acquisition of a slice, and how these have been combined with advanced post-processing algorithms to build 3D images from motion scattered slices. Such rich data has motivated the development of techniques to automatically label developing tissue zones within MRI data allowing their quantification in 3D and 4D within the normally growing fetal brain. These methods have provided the basis for later work that has created the first maps of tissue growth rate and cortical folding in normally developing brains in-utero. These measurements provide valuable findings that compliment those derived from post-mortem anatomy, and additionally allow for the possibility of larger population studies of the influence of maternal environmental and genes on early brain development. PMID:23831076

  10. Coastal Ecosystem Integrated Compartment Model (ICM): Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meselhe, E. A.; White, E. D.; Reed, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) was developed as part of the 2017 Coastal Master Plan modeling effort. It is a comprehensive and numerical hydrodynamic model coupled to various geophysical process models. Simplifying assumptions related to some of the flow dynamics are applied to increase the computational efficiency of the model. The model can be used to provide insights about coastal ecosystems and evaluate restoration strategies. It builds on existing tools where possible and incorporates newly developed tools where necessary. It can perform decadal simulations (~ 50 years) across the entire Louisiana coast. It includes several improvements over the approach used to support the 2012 Master Plan, such as: additional processes in the hydrology, vegetation, wetland and barrier island morphology subroutines, increased spatial resolution, and integration of previously disparate models into a single modeling framework. The ICM includes habitat suitability indices (HSIs) to predict broad spatial patterns of habitat change, and it provides an additional integration to a dynamic fish and shellfish community model which quantitatively predicts potential changes in important fishery resources. It can be used to estimate the individual and cumulative effects of restoration and protection projects on the landscape, including a general estimate of water levels associated with flooding. The ICM is also used to examine possible impacts of climate change and future environmental scenarios (e.g. precipitation, Eustatic sea level rise, subsidence, tropical storms, etc.) on the landscape and on the effectiveness of restoration projects. The ICM code is publically accessible, and coastal restoration and protection groups interested in planning-level modeling are encouraged to explore its utility as a computationally efficient tool to examine ecosystem response to future physical or ecological changes, including the implementation of restoration and protection strategies.

  11. Industrial ecology in integrated assessment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Arvesen, Anders; Stadler, Konstantin; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-01-01

    Technology-rich integrated assessment models (IAMs) address possible technology mixes and future costs of climate change mitigation by generating scenarios for the future industrial system. Industrial ecology (IE) focuses on the empirical analysis of this system. We conduct an in-depth review of five major IAMs from an IE perspective and reveal differences between the two fields regarding the modelling of linkages in the industrial system, focussing on AIM/CGE, GCAM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and REMIND. IAMs ignore material cycles and recycling, incoherently describe the life-cycle impacts of technology, and miss linkages regarding buildings and infrastructure. Adding IE system linkages to IAMs adds new constraints and allows for studying new mitigation options, both of which may lead to more robust and policy-relevant mitigation scenarios.

  12. Performance of an integrated network model

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, François; Dunn, David; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Brophy, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in accessibility, patients’ care experiences, and quality-of-care indicators following a clinic’s transformation into a fully integrated network clinic. Design Mixed-methods study. Setting Verdun, Que. Participants Data on all patient visits were used, in addition to 2 distinct patient cohorts: 134 patients with chronic illness (ie, diabetes, arteriosclerotic heart disease, or both); and 450 women between the ages of 20 and 70 years. Main outcome measures Accessibility was measured by the number of walk-in visits, scheduled visits, and new patient enrolments. With the first cohort, patients’ care experiences were measured using validated serial questionnaires; and quality-of-care indicators were measured using biologic data. With the second cohort, quality of preventive care was measured using the number of Papanicolaou tests performed as a surrogate marker. Results Despite a negligible increase in the number of physicians, there was an increase in accessibility after the clinic’s transition to an integrated network model. During the first 4 years of operation, the number of scheduled visits more than doubled, nonscheduled visits (walk-in visits) increased by 29%, and enrolment of vulnerable patients (those with chronic illnesses) at the clinic remained high. Patient satisfaction with doctors was rated very highly at all points of time that were evaluated. While the number of Pap tests done did not increase with time, the proportion of patients meeting hemoglobin A1c and low-density lipoprotein guideline target levels increased, as did the number of patients tested for microalbuminuria. Conclusion Transformation to an integrated network model of care led to increased efficiency and enhanced accessibility with no negative effects on the doctor-patient relationship. Improvements in biologic data also suggested better quality of care. PMID:27521410

  13. Advances in NLTE Modeling for Integrated Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H A; Hansen, S B

    2009-07-08

    The last few years have seen significant progress in constructing the atomic models required for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) simulations. Along with this has come an increased understanding of the requirements for accurately modeling the ionization balance, energy content and radiative properties of different elements for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Much of this progress is the result of a series of workshops dedicated to comparing the results from different codes and computational approaches applied to a series of test problems. The results of these workshops emphasized the importance of atomic model completeness, especially in doubly excited states and autoionization transitions, to calculating ionization balance, and the importance of accurate, detailed atomic data to producing reliable spectra. We describe a simple screened-hydrogenic model that calculates NLTE ionization balance with surprising accuracy, at a low enough computational cost for routine use in radiation-hydrodynamics codes. The model incorporates term splitting, {Delta}n = 0 transitions, and approximate UTA widths for spectral calculations, with results comparable to those of much more detailed codes. Simulations done with this model have been increasingly successful at matching experimental data for laser-driven systems and hohlraums. Accurate and efficient atomic models are just one requirement for integrated NLTE simulations. Coupling the atomic kinetics to hydrodynamics and radiation transport constrains both discretizations and algorithms to retain energy conservation, accuracy and stability. In particular, the strong coupling between radiation and populations can require either very short timesteps or significantly modified radiation transport algorithms to account for NLTE material response. Considerations such as these continue to provide challenges for NLTE simulations.

  14. Reversed item bias: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Weijters, Bert; Baumgartner, Hans; Schillewaert, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In the recent methodological literature, various models have been proposed to account for the phenomenon that reversed items (defined as items for which respondents' scores have to be recoded in order to make the direction of keying consistent across all items) tend to lead to problematic responses. In this article we propose an integrative conceptualization of three important sources of reversed item method bias (acquiescence, careless responding, and confirmation bias) and specify a multisample confirmatory factor analysis model with 2 method factors to empirically test the hypothesized mechanisms, using explicit measures of acquiescence and carelessness and experimentally manipulated versions of a questionnaire that varies 3 item arrangements and the keying direction of the first item measuring the focal construct. We explain the mechanisms, review prior attempts to model reversed item bias, present our new model, and apply it to responses to a 4-item self-esteem scale (N = 306) and the 6-item Revised Life Orientation Test (N = 595). Based on the literature review and the empirical results, we formulate recommendations on how to use reversed items in questionnaires.

  15. An integrated modeling method for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah

    To study the interaction of the electrical, mechanical, and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine, a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many studies in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or vice versa. Hence the interactions between electrical and mechanical aspects of wind turbine operation are not accurately taken into account. In this research, it will be shown that a combination of different simulation packages, namely TurbSim, FAST, and Simulink can be used to model the aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical aspects of a wind turbine in detail. In this thesis, after a review of some wind turbine concepts and software tools, a simulation structure is proposed for studying wind turbines that integrates the mechanical and electrical components of a wind energy conversion device. Based on the simulation structure, a comprehensive model for a three-bladed variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is developed. Using the model, the impact of a voltage sag on the wind turbine tower vibration is investigated under various operating conditions such as power system short circuit level, mechanical parameters, and wind turbine operating conditions. It is shown how an electrical disturbance can cause more sustainable tower vibrations under high speed and turbulent wind conditions, which may disrupt the operation of pitch control system. A similar simulation structure is used to model a two-bladed fixed speed wind turbine with an induction generator. An extension of the concept is introduced by adding a diesel generator system. The model is utilized to study the impact of the aeroelastic aspects of wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shears, yaw error, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a stand-alone wind-diesel system. Furthermore, an IEEE standard flickermeter model is implemented in a

  16. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Nowke, Christian; Zielasko, Daniel; Weyers, Benjamin; Peyser, Alexander; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work. PMID:26733860

  17. Another day older and deeper in therapy: Can the Dynamic-Maturational Model offer a way out?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Simon R

    2010-07-01

    Patients referred to adolescent psychiatric units have often been in contact with services for many years. When assessing for admission we consider why the previous approaches might have failed and how milieu therapy might be more effective as the priority treatment. We propose that the information provided by an adolescent's Transition to Adulthood Attachment Interview (TAAI) and the parents' Adult Attachment Interviews (AAI) leads to an especially productive case formulation. The Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM) uniquely provides a detailed understanding of an extended range of Type A and Type C strategies with modifiers that are useful for planning the milieu therapy, individual and family work. In addition, this case presentation illustrates the usefulness of understanding the phenomenon of "intruded negative affect".

  18. The Maturing of Hormesis as a Credible Dose-Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormesis is a dose-response phenomenon that has received little recognition, credibility and acceptance as evidenced by its absence from major toxicological/risk assessment texts, governmental regulatory dose-response modeling for risk assessment, and non-visibility in major professional toxicological society national meetings. This paper traces the historical evolution of the hormetic dose-response hypothesis, why this model is not only credible but also more common than the widely accepted threshold model in direct comparative evaluation, and how the toxicological community made a critical error in rejecting hormesis, a rejection sustained over 70 years. PMID:19330138

  19. Integrated core-log petrofacies analysis in the construction of a reservoir geomodel: A case study of a mature Mississippian carbonate reservoir using limited data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhattacharya, S.; Doveton, J.H.; Carr, T.R.; Guy, W.R.; Gerlach, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small independent operators produce most of the Mississippian carbonate fields in the United States mid-continent, where a lack of integrated characterization studies precludes maximization of hydrocarbon recovery. This study uses integrative techniques to leverage extant data in an Osagian and Meramecian (Mississippian) cherty carbonate reservoir in Kansas. Available data include petrophysical logs of varying vintages, limited number of cores, and production histories from each well. A consistent set of assumptions were used to extract well-level porosity and initial saturations, from logs of different types and vintages, to build a geomodel. Lacking regularly recorded well shut-in pressures, an iterative technique, based on material balance formulations, was used to estimate average reservoir-pressure decline that matched available drillstem test data and validated log-analysis assumptions. Core plugs representing the principal reservoir petrofacies provide critical inputs for characterization and simulation studies. However, assigning plugs among multiple reservoir petrofacies is difficult in complex (carbonate) reservoirs. In a bottom-up approach, raw capillary pressure (Pc) data were plotted on the Super-Pickett plot, and log- and core-derived saturation-height distributions were reconciled to group plugs by facies, to identify core plugs representative of the principal reservoir facies, and to discriminate facies in the logged interval. Pc data from representative core plugs were used for effective pay evaluation to estimate water cut from completions, in infill and producing wells, and guide-selective perforations for economic exploitation of mature fields. The results from this study were used to drill 22 infill wells. Techniques demonstrated here can be applied in other fields and reservoirs. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

  1. Human induced pluripotent stem cells can reach complete terminal maturation: in vivo and in vitro evidence in the erythropoietic differentiation model

    PubMed Central

    Kobari, Ladan; Yates, Frank; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Francina, Alain; Kiger, Laurent; Mazurier, Christelle; Rouzbeh, Shaghayegh; El-Nemer, Wassim; Hebert, Nicolas; Giarratana, Marie-Catherine; François, Sabine; Chapel, Alain; Lapillonne, Hélène; Luton, Dominique; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Douay, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Human induced pluripotent stem cells offer perspectives for cell therapy and research models for diseases. We applied this approach to the normal and pathological erythroid differentiation model by establishing induced pluripotent stem cells from normal and homozygous sickle cell disease donors. Design and Methods We addressed the question as to whether these cells can reach complete erythroid terminal maturation notably with a complete switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin. Sickle cell disease induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated in vitro into red blood cells and characterized for their terminal maturation in terms of hemoglobin content, oxygen transport capacity, deformability, sickling and adherence. Nucleated erythroblast populations generated from normal and pathological induced pluripotent stem cells were then injected into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency mice to follow the in vivo hemoglobin maturation. Results We observed that in vitro erythroid differentiation results in predominance of fetal hemoglobin which rescues the functionality of red blood cells in the pathological model of sickle cell disease. We observed, in vivo, the switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin after infusion of nucleated erythroid precursors derived from either normal or pathological induced pluripotent stem cells into mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that human induced pluripotent stem cells: i) can achieve complete terminal erythroid maturation, in vitro in terms of nucleus expulsion and in vivo in terms of hemoglobin maturation; and ii) open the way to generation of functionally corrected red blood cells from sickle cell disease induced pluripotent stem cells, without any genetic modification or drug treatment. PMID:22733021

  2. Approximately Integrable Linear Statistical Models in Non-Parametric Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    OTIC I EL COPY Lfl 0n Cf) NAPPROXIMATELY INTEGRABLE LINEAR STATISTICAL MODELS IN NON- PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION by B. Ya. Levit University of Maryland...Integrable Linear Statistical Models in Non- Parametric Estimation B. Ya. Levit Sumnmary / The notion of approximately integrable linear statistical models...models related to the study of the "next" order optimality in non- parametric estimation . It appears consistent to keep the exposition at present at the

  3. Key Practices of the Capability Maturity Model, Version 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    most significant to least significant. Pareto analysis is based on the principle, named after the 19th-century economist Vilfredo Pareto , that most...validating process measurement data; and - applying basic quantitative methods and analysis techniques (e.g., estimation models, Pareto diagrams, and control...and deciding what actions to take as a result of the analysis. Examples of analysis techn’ques include: - Pareto diagrams, - control charts, - trend

  4. Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.

  5. Integrated Meteorology and Chemistry Modeling: Evaluation and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade several online integrated atmospheric chemical-transport and meteorology modeling systems with varying levels of interactions among different atmospheric processes have been developed. A variety of approaches to meteorology-chemistry integration with differe...

  6. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  7. Integrated model of the Carlina Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enmark, Anita; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Chakraborty, Rijuparna; Labeyrie, Antoine

    2011-09-01

    The Carlina hypertelescope is a planned sparse aperture 100 m telescope with pupil densification. The telescope has a spherical primary with segments located in a valley between mountains, and additional optical elements in a gondola suspended in eight cables some 100 m above the primary mirror. The resolution is about 1.2×10-3 arcsec. It is imperative that the position and attitude of the gondola be maintained within tight tolerances during observation and star tracking. The present design has servo-controlled winches on the ground for control of the gondola via the cables. An integrated model of the system, including optics, cables, gondola, position and attitude control system, and wind disturbances has been set up. The structural and control models are linear. Calculations in the frequency domain and simulations in the time domain show that the performance of the telescope with the present design seems adequate for short exposures. However, for long-exposure operation, the gondola stability should be improved by about two orders of magnitude. Recommendations are given on possible approaches for performance improvement.

  8. Leaving aside fully continuous modelling paradigms as a next step in the maturation of hydrology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Baets, B.; Baetens, J.

    2012-12-01

    Typically, models of environmental processes in general, and hydrological processes in particular are based upon some well-known partial differential equation (PDE) that allows for describing the dependent variable of interest (e.g. volumetric water content, hydraulic head, etc. ) across a given region through time, and which is derived by writing down the appropriate mass balance for a given control volume whereupon this algebraic equation is transformed into its differential form through a limiting process in which the control volume becomes infinitesimally small. Unfortunately, for most problem settings, the majority of these PDEs, such as the Richards and Navier--Stokes equation, cannot be solved analytically and one is forced to rely upon numerical methods for retrieving an approximate solution of the governing PDE. For that purpose, numerous methods, often problem-specific, have been developed, among which the finite difference method (FDM) and the finite element method (FEM) are the most frequently used, and which share the common feature that they abandon the PDE as such and rely instead on its discretized counterpart (i.e. a difference equation) . Hence, the classical methodology that involves the derivation of a PDE from a (set of) mass balance equation(s) that is thereupon discretized so that it can be solved numerically is unmistakably a roundabout one. Indeed, the efforts that have been spent to the development of a compact equation are largely undone once it is to be used in practice since this requires its discretization when relying on the FDM or FEM. Moreover, it is beyond question that every numerical method brings along approximation errors. In order to avoid this detour, two alternative approaches have been exploited in hydrology, one of which only very recently. Firstly, utter discrete dynamical systems that are commonly known as cellular automata (CAs) have been proposed in eighties for mimicking hydrological processes. Using this construct

  9. A dynamic model of metabolizable energy utilization in growing and mature cattle. II. Metabolizable energy utilization for gain.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Jenkins, T G

    2003-06-01

    Component models were developed to predict the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain in cattle and to predict daily gain using recovered energy as the input. These models were integrated into a single model to predict daily gain from ME available for gain. One component model predicts the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain using constant partial net efficiencies of 0.2 and 0.75 for ME retention as protein and fat, respectively. This model predicts net efficiency of ME utilization for gain as a function of the ratio of the energy recovered in protein to the total energy recovered. The other component model predicts daily gain as a function of recovered energy and is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations that are numerically integrated on a daily basis. This model was developed by reformulating the equations in a published body composition model that uses daily gain to predict composition of gain since recovered energy is a function of gain and composition of gain. The equations in the two component models interact in that net efficiency is used to predict recovered energy from ME for gain, and in turn, recovered energy is used to predict gain in empty BW, which determines net efficiency through composition of gain. The numeric integration procedure provides an iterative solution for net efficiency. Simulated response of net efficiency for Hereford x Angus steers at 400 kg of empty BW decreased from 0.57 to 0.52 on diets with ME densities of 3.1 and 2.6 Mcal/kg of DM, and restricting the lower-quality diet to 75% of ad libitum intake resulted in a simulated net efficiency of 0.47. These responses in net efficiency were shown to be a result of composition of gain, with leaner gains resulting in lower net efficiencies.

  10. A Qualitative Model of the Differentiation Network in Chondrocyte Maturation: A Holistic View of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhofs, Johan; Leijten, Jeroen; Bolander, Johanna; Luyten, Frank P.; Post, Janine N.; Geris, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of chondrocytes towards hypertrophy is a natural process whose control is essential in endochondral bone formation. It is additionally thought to play a role in several pathophysiological processes, with osteoarthritis being a prominent example. We perform a dynamic analysis of a qualitative mathematical model of the regulatory network that directs this phenotypic switch to investigate the influence of the individual factors holistically. To estimate the stability of a SOX9 positive state (associated with resting/proliferation chondrocytes) versus a RUNX2 positive one (associated with hypertrophy) we employ two measures. The robustness of the state in canalisation (size of the attractor basin) is assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis and the sensitivity to perturbations is assessed by a perturbational analysis of the attractor. Through qualitative predictions, these measures allow for an in silico screening of the effect of the modelled factors on chondrocyte maintenance and hypertrophy. We show how discrepancies between experimental data and the model’s results can be resolved by evaluating the dynamic plausibility of alternative network topologies. The findings are further supported by a literature study of proposed therapeutic targets in the case of osteoarthritis. PMID:27579819

  11. Design of a component-based integrated environmental modeling framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) includes interdependent science-based components (e.g., models, databases, viewers, assessment protocols) that comprise an appropriate software modeling system. The science-based components are responsible for consuming and producing inform...

  12. Integrated Medical Model Verification, Validation, and Credibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Foy, Millennia; Shah, Ronak; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Butler, Doug; Myers, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was designed to forecast relative changes for a specified set of crew health and mission success risk metrics by using a probabilistic (stochastic process) model based on historical data, cohort data, and subject matter expert opinion. A probabilistic approach is taken since exact (deterministic) results would not appropriately reflect the uncertainty in the IMM inputs. Once the IMM was conceptualized, a plan was needed to rigorously assess input information, framework and code, and output results of the IMM, and ensure that end user requests and requirements were considered during all stages of model development and implementation. METHODS: In 2008, the IMM team developed a comprehensive verification and validation (VV) plan, which specified internal and external review criteria encompassing 1) verification of data and IMM structure to ensure proper implementation of the IMM, 2) several validation techniques to confirm that the simulation capability of the IMM appropriately represents occurrences and consequences of medical conditions during space missions, and 3) credibility processes to develop user confidence in the information derived from the IMM. When the NASA-STD-7009 (7009) was published, the IMM team updated their verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) project plan to meet 7009 requirements and include 7009 tools in reporting VVC status of the IMM. RESULTS: IMM VVC updates are compiled recurrently and include 7009 Compliance and Credibility matrices, IMM VV Plan status, and a synopsis of any changes or updates to the IMM during the reporting period. Reporting tools have evolved over the lifetime of the IMM project to better communicate VVC status. This has included refining original 7009 methodology with augmentation from the NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document. End user requests and requirements are being satisfied as evidenced by ISS Program acceptance of IMM risk forecasts, transition to an operational model and

  13. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Percy, Thomas; Mason, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Effective Space Asset Management is one key to addressing the ever-growing issue of space congestion. It is imperative that agencies around the world have access to data regarding the numerous active assets and pieces of space junk currently tracked in orbit around the Earth. At the center of this issues is the effective management of data of many types related to orbiting objects. As the population of tracked objects grows, so too should the data management structure used to catalog technical specifications, orbital information, and metadata related to those populations. Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Asset Management Database (SAM-D) was implemented in order to effectively catalog a broad set of data related to known objects in space by ingesting information from a variety of database and processing that data into useful technical information. Using the universal NORAD number as a unique identifier, the SAM-D processes two-line element data into orbital characteristics and cross-references this technical data with metadata related to functional status, country of ownership, and application category. The SAM-D began as an Excel spreadsheet and was later upgraded to an Access database. While SAM-D performs its task very well, it is limited by its current platform and is not available outside of the local user base. Further, while modeling and simulation can be powerful tools to exploit the information contained in SAM-D, the current system does not allow proper integration options for combining the data with both legacy and new M&S tools. This paper provides a summary of SAM-D development efforts to date and outlines a proposed data management infrastructure that extends SAM-D to support the larger data sets to be generated. A service-oriented architecture model using an information sharing platform named SIMON will allow it to easily expand to incorporate new capabilities, including advanced analytics, M&S tools, fusion techniques and user interface for

  14. Integrated exposure modeling: a model using GIS and GLM.

    PubMed

    Holford, Theodore R; Ebisu, Keita; McKay, Lisa A; Gent, Janneane F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bracken, Michael B; Leaderer, Brian P

    2010-01-15

    Traffic exhaust is a source of air contaminants that have adverse health effects. Quantification of traffic as an exposure variable is complicated by aerosol dispersion related to variation in layout of roads, traffic density, meteorology, and topography. A statistical model is presented that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to incorporate variables into a generalized linear model that estimates distribution of traffic-related pollution. Exposure from a source is expressed as an integral of a function proportional to average daily traffic and a nonparametric dispersion function, which takes the form of a step, polynomial, or spline model. The method may be applied using standard regression techniques for fitting generalized linear models. Modifiers of pollutant dispersion such as wind direction, meteorology, and landscape features can also be included. Two examples are given to illustrate the method. The first employs data from a study in which NO(2) (a known pollutant from automobile exhaust) was monitored outside of 138 Connecticut homes, providing a model for estimating NO(2) exposure. In the second example, estimated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) from the model, as well as a separate spatial model, were used to analyze traffic-related health effects in a study of 761 infants.

  15. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  16. Empirical models of height integrated conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, D. D.; Budzinski, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional distributions of the height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities have been computed for latitudes poleward of 60 deg invariant representative of two Kp activity levels. Average precipitating fluxes of electrons with energies of 0.15, 1.27, 9.65, and greater than 22 keV obtained by the energetic particle detector of Isis 2 during 1971-1974 are used as input to a Rees-type computation. The assumption of equilibrium conditions and a recombination rate profile permit calculation of electron density profiles and conductivity profiles. Calculations are performed at 300 grid points, specifically 12 local times and 25 latitudes from 60 to 84 deg invariant latitude. The models include ionization due to galactic EUV and other background sources that produces base conductivities as well as solar photon ionization through an empirical fit to Chatanika radar observations. Substantial modulation of the conductivities is found to result from longitudinal variation of the magnitude of the earth's magnetic field.

  17. STRAW - An Integrated Mobility and Traffic Model for VANETs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    STRAW - An Integrated Mobility and Traffic Model for VANETs David R. Choffnes Fabiàn E. Bustamante drchoffnes...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STRAW - An Integrated Mobility and Traffic Model for VANETs 5a. CONTRACT...STRAW - An Integrated Mobility and Traffic Model for VANETs David R. Choffnes Fabián E. Bustamante Department of Computer Science Northwestern

  18. Maturation-Based Model of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian-Yan; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Shah, Khooshbu; Wong, Johnson; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells to patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables in-vitro modeling of human cardiac disorders for pathogenic and therapeutic investigations. However, using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) to model an adult-onset heart disease remains challenging because of the uncertainty regarding the ability of relatively immature iPSC-CMs to fully recapitulate adult disease phenotypes. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by pathological fibrofatty infiltration and cardiomyocyte (CM) loss predominantly in the right ventricle (RV), leading to heart failure and lethal arrhythmias. Over 50% of affected individuals have desmosome gene mutations, most commonly inPKP2encoding plakophilin-2. Using Yamanaka's pluripotent factors, we generated iPSC lines from ARVD patients withPKP2mutations. We first developed a method to induce metabolic maturation of iPSC-CMs and showed that induction of adult-like metabolic energetics from an embryonic/glycolytic state is essential to model an adult-onset cardiac disease using patient-specific iPSCs. Furthermore, we showed that coactivation of normal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and abnormal PPARγ pathways in ARVD iPSC-CMs resulted in exaggerated CM lipogenesis, CM apoptosis, Na(+)channel downregulation and defective intracellular calcium handling, recapitulating the pathological signatures of ARVD. Using this model, we revealed novel pathogenic insights that metabolic derangement in an adult-like metabolic milieu underlies ARVD pathologies, enabling us to propose novel disease-modifying therapeutic strategies.

  19. Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2014-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058

  20. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  1. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual's capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years) and adults (18-34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants' proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers.

  2. Integrated Belowground Greenhouse Gas Flux Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play a significant role as biotic feedbacks to climate change. However, these complex processes, involving C, N, and O2 substrates and inhibitors, interactions with plant processes, and environmental influences of temperature, moisture, and gas transport, remain challenging to simulate in process models. Because CO2, CH4, and N2O production and consumption processes are inter-linked through common substrates and the contrasting effects of O2 as either an essential substrate or a potential inhibitor, the simulation of fluxes of any one gas must be consistent with mechanistic simulations and observations of fluxes of the other gases. Simulating the fluxes of one gas alone is a simpler task, but simulating all three gases simultaneously would provide multiple constraints and would afford greater confidence that the most important mechanisms are aptly simulated. A case in point is the challenge of resolving the apparent paradox of observed simultaneous CO2 production by aerobic respiration, CH4 uptake (oxidation), CH4 production, and N2O uptake (reduction) in the same soil profile. Consumption of atmospheric N2O should occur only under reducing conditions, and yet we have observed uptake of atmospheric CH4 (oxidation) and N2O (reduction) simultaneously. One of the great challenges of numerical modeling is determining the appropriate level of complexity when representing the most important environmental controllers. Ignoring complexity, such as simulating microbial processes with only simple Q10 functions, often results in poor model performance, because soil moisture and substrate supply can also be important factors. On the other hand, too much complexity, while perhaps mechanistically compelling, may result in too many poorly constrained parameters. Here we explore a parsimonious modeling framework for consistently integrated mechanistic and mathematical representation of the biophysical processes of belowground GHG production and

  3. From Source to Sink: Integration and Alteration of Oxygen Isotope Signals during the Transfer from Precipitation to Leaf Water, Leaf Sugars, Twig Phloem Sugars into the Stem Phloem Sugars of Four Mature European Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, N.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of stem cellulose record physiological and ecohydrological information and are increasingly being used for the reconstruction of past environments. Studies that have investigated the environmental and physiological drivers of δ18O values in tree ring cellulose have typically focused either on the source of the signal, e.g. the leaf and the water therein, or on the sink, e.g. the cellulose in the stem. In contrast, hardly any research has investigated the transfer of the δ18O signal from precipitation, to soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, phloem sugars all the way to cellulose in the tree ring. As such, critical uncertainties remain regarding the seasonal integration and precision by which precipitation and leaf water δ18O signals are recorded in the tree ring cellulose δ18O values. In our talk, we will present a unique three year dataset that shows the seasonal variation of δ18O values in precipitation, soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, twig and stem phloem sugars for four common European tree species, which are growing in a mature temperature Swiss mixed broadleaf/evergreen forest. This dataset allows us to assess, (i) to what degree the substantial seasonal variation in precipitation δ18O values influences the δ18O values of tree ring cellulose and (ii) if physiological and environmental δ18O signals imprinted on the tree's leaf water δ18O values and the assimilates formed therein are altered on their way downstream to the tree stem. The new insight that we provide into the integration and possible alteration of δ18O signals along the leaf-stem pathway will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the environmental and physiological signals that can be obtained from tree ring δ18O chronologies. In addition it will be relevant for the incorporation and parameterization of tree ring isotope models into dynamic global vegetation models.

  4. Integrated modelling requires mass collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    add, “and are the plans sustainable?” To return to the present, although, it is now possible to ask the first question and obtain an answer through linked modelling; we are still at a very early stage and the associated uncertainties are large. The process of linking and running linked systems is not yet the simple, reliable process needed for widespread uptake. At this point, it is useful to look back over the development process which has taken us from paper maps to GIS and Google Maps; it was the result of tens of thousands of PhD and MSc projects over forty years. During the development of the OpenMI, it was quickly appreciated that to transform integrated modelling from something possible in a research lab to something that had the ease of use and reliability of Google Maps would require a similar process but on a far greater scale; one far larger than any single organisation or state could support. A dramatic change to the research and development process would be needed. Using the OpenMI Association’s strategy as an example, the presentation will describe how through openness, sharing and mass collaboration made possible by inexpensive communications and computing power and adoption of a minimum set of standards, the innovation and enterprise of thousands of individuals across the world can be brought to bear upon the problems.

  5. Impact of the Maturation of Human Primary Bone-Forming Cells on Their Behavior in Acute or Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Jérôme; Guillaume, Christine; Bour, Camille; Lemaire, Flora; Mongaret, Céline; Draux, Florence; Velard, Frédéric; Gangloff, Sophie C.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently involved pathogens in bacterial infections such as skin abscess, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and implant-associated infection. As for bone homeostasis, it is partly altered during infections by S. aureus by the induction of various responses from osteoblasts, which are the bone-forming cells responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis and its mineralization. Nevertheless, bone-forming cells are a heterogeneous population with different stages of maturation and the impact of the latter on their responses toward bacteria remains unclear. We describe the impact of S. aureus on two populations of human primary bone-forming cells (HPBCs) which have distinct maturation characteristics in both acute and persistent models of interaction. Cell maturation did not influence the internalization and survival of S. aureus inside bone-forming cells or the cell death related to the infection. By studying the expression of chemokines, cytokines, and osteoclastogenic regulators by HPBCs, we observed different profiles of chemokine expression according to the degree of cell maturation. However, there was no statistical difference in the amounts of proteins released by both populations in the presence of S. aureus compared to the non-infected counterparts. Our findings show that cell maturation does not impact the behavior of HPBCs infected with S. aureus and suggest that the role of bone-forming cells may not be pivotal for the inflammatory response in osteomyelitis. PMID:27446812

  6. Authentic Integration: A Model for Integrating Mathematics and Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Páraic; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    Attempts at integrating mathematics and science have been made previously but no definitive, widely adopted teaching model has been developed to date. Research suggests that hands-on, practical, student-centred tasks should form a central element when designing an effective model for the integration of mathematics and science. Aided by this…

  7. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  8. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  9. Neural and Cognitive Modeling with Networks of Leaky Integrator Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graben, Peter beim; Liebscher, Thomas; Kurths, Jürgen

    After reviewing several physiological findings on oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their possible explanations by dynamical modeling, we present neural networks consisting of leaky integrator units as a universal paradigm for neural and cognitive modeling. In contrast to standard recurrent neural networks, leaky integrator units are described by ordinary differential equations living in continuous time. We present an algorithm to train the temporal behavior of leaky integrator networks by generalized back-propagation and discuss their physiological relevance. Eventually, we show how leaky integrator units can be used to build oscillators that may serve as models of brain oscillations and cognitive processes.

  10. Marketing and Languages: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ian

    1988-01-01

    A framework is proposed for an integrated course in which knowledge of a language is consciously related to the processes of interpersonal communication and the cultural aspects of marketing and negotiation. (Editor)

  11. Modelling and Assessing Air-Surface Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    2011), Qu?c City , Qu?c, Canada, June 21-23, 2011. U.S. Government or Federal Rights License. 14. ABSTRACT Air-Surface Integration (ASI) is an...structure capability and identifies socio-technical issues in the ASI system for capability designers . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...for capability designers . 1. Introduction Air Surface Integration (ASI) has been conducted by forces in a variety of operations dating back to

  12. THE EPA MULTIMEDIA INTEGRATED MODELING SYSTEM SOFTWARE SUITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is developing a Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) framework that will provide a software infrastructure or environment to support constructing, composing, executing, and evaluating complex modeling studies. The framework will include (1) common software ...

  13. Integrated Modeling for Environmental Assessment of Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses environmental models to inform rulemaking and policy decisions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, several sophisticated modeling technologies are seamlessly integrated to facilitate a baseline assessment of the re...

  14. Theory and Practice: An Integrative Model Linking Class and Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Joan Granucci; Cooper, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Social work has evolved over the years taking on the challenges of the times. The profession now espouses a breadth of theoretical approaches and treatment modalities. We have developed a model to help graduate social work students master the skill of integrating theory and social work practice. The Integrative Model has five components: (l) The…

  15. An overview of the model integration process: From pre ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Integration of models requires linking models which can be developed using different tools, methodologies, and assumptions. We performed a literature review with the aim of improving our understanding of model integration process, and also presenting better strategies for building integrated modeling systems. We identified five different phases to characterize integration process: pre-integration assessment, preparation of models for integration, orchestration of models during simulation, data interoperability, and testing. Commonly, there is little reuse of existing frameworks beyond the development teams and not much sharing of science components across frameworks. We believe this must change to enable researchers and assessors to form complex workflows that leverage the current environmental science available. In this paper, we characterize the model integration process and compare integration practices of different groups. We highlight key strategies, features, standards, and practices that can be employed by developers to increase reuse and interoperability of science software components and systems. The paper provides a review of the literature regarding techniques and methods employed by various modeling system developers to facilitate science software interoperability. The intent of the paper is to illustrate the wide variation in methods and the limiting effect the variation has on inter-framework reuse and interoperability. A series of recommendation

  16. Development of model for analysing respective collections of intended hematopoietic stem cells and harvests of unintended mature cells in apheresis for autologous hematopoietic stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Hequet, O; Le, Q H; Rodriguez, J; Dubost, P; Revesz, D; Clerc, A; Rigal, D; Salles, G; Coiffier, B

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required to perform peripheral hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) can be collected by processing several blood volumes (BVs) in leukapheresis sessions. However, this may cause granulocyte harvest in graft and decrease in patient's platelet blood level. Both consequences may induce disturbances in patient. One apheresis team's current purpose is to improve HSC collection by increasing HSC collection and prevent increase in granulocyte and platelet harvests. Before improving HSC collection it seemed important to know more about the way to harvest these types of cells. The purpose of our study was to develop a simple model for analysing respective collections of intended CD34+ cells among HSC (designated here as HSC) and harvests of unintended platelets or granulocytes among mature cells (designated here as mature cells) considering the number of BVs processed and factors likely to influence cell collection or harvest. For this, we processed 1, 2 and 3 BVs in 59 leukapheresis sessions and analysed corresponding collections and harvests with a referent device (COBE Spectra). First we analysed the amounts of HSC collected and mature cells harvested and second the evolution of the respective shares of HSC and mature cells collected or harvested throughout the BV processes. HSC collections and mature cell harvests increased globally (p<0.0001) and their respective shares remained stable throughout the BV processes (p non-significant). We analysed the role of intrinsic (patient's features) and extrinsic (features before starting leukapheresis sessions) factors in collections and harvests, which showed that only pre-leukapheresis blood levels (CD34+cells and platelets) influenced both cell collections and harvests (CD34+cells and platelets) (p<0.001) and shares of HSC collections and mature unintended cells harvests (p<0.001) throughout the BV processes. Altogether, our results suggested that the main factors likely

  17. Authentic Integration: a model for integrating mathematics and science in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treacy, Páraic; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-07-01

    Attempts at integrating mathematics and science have been made previously but no definitive, widely adopted teaching model has been developed to date. Research suggests that hands-on, practical, student-centred tasks should form a central element when designing an effective model for the integration of mathematics and science. Aided by this research, the author created a new model entitled 'Authentic Integration' which caters for the specific needs of integration of mathematics and science. This model requires that each lesson be based around a rich task which relates to the real world and ensures that hands-on group work, inquiry, and discussion are central to the lesson. It was found that Authentic Integration, when applied in four Irish post-primary schools, positively affected pupil understanding. The teachers who completed the intervention displayed a very positive attitude towards the approach, intimating that they would continue to implement the practice in their classrooms.

  18. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; MacLeod, T.; Mason, S.; Percy, T.; Prescott, J.

    The Space Asset Management Database (SAM-D) was implemented in order to effectively track known objects in space by ingesting information from a variety of databases and performing calculations to determine the expected position of the object at a specified time. While SAM-D performs this task very well, it is limited by technology and is not available outside of the local user base. Modeling and simulation can be powerful tools to exploit the information contained in SAM-D. However, the current system does not allow proper integration options for combining the data with both legacy and new M&S tools. A more capable data management infrastructure would extend SAM-D to support the larger data sets to be generated by the COI. A service-oriented architecture model will allow it to easily expand to incorporate new capabilities, including advanced analytics, M&S tools, fusion techniques and user interface for visualizations. Based on a web-centric approach, the entire COI will be able to access the data and related analytics. In addition, tight control of information sharing policy will increase confidence in the system, which would encourage industry partners to provide commercial data. SIMON is a Government off the Shelf information sharing platform in use throughout DoD and DHS information sharing and situation awareness communities. SIMON providing fine grained control to data owners allowing them to determine exactly how and when their data is shared. SIMON supports a micro-service approach to system development, meaning M&S and analytic services can be easily built or adapted. It is uniquely positioned to fill this need as an information-sharing platform with a proven track record of successful situational awareness system deployments. Combined with the integration of new and legacy M&S tools, a SIMON-based architecture will provide a robust SA environment for the NASA SA COI that can be extended and expanded indefinitely. First Results of Coherent Uplink from a

  19. Integrability of the η-deformed Neumann-Rosochatius model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Heinze, Martin; Medina-Rincon, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    An integrable deformation of the well-known Neumann-Rosochatius system is studied by considering generalised bosonic spinning solutions on the η-deformed \\text{Ad}{{\\text{S}}5}× {{\\text{S}}5} background. For this integrable model we construct a 4× 4 Lax representation and a set of integrals of motion that ensures its Liouville integrability. These integrals of motion correspond to the deformed analogues of the Neumann-Rosochatius integrals and generalise the previously found integrals for the η-deformed Neumann and {{≤ft(\\text{Ad}{{\\text{S}}5}× {{\\text{S}}5}\\right)}η} geodesic systems. Finally, we briefly comment on consistent truncations of this model.

  20. A Model for an Integrated Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Shaila; Mehs, Doreen

    Fort Lewis College (Colorado) developed a 17 credit, multidisciplinary learning program for first-time freshmen. The Integrated Learning Program (ILP) meets several of the college's general education requirements, is issue-oriented, and is taught by a team of five faculty members. The goals of the program include getting students to learn how to…

  1. Development of Multisensory Integration Approach Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, S. Prasanna; Nathan, B. Sami

    2016-01-01

    Every teacher expects optimum level of processing in mind of them students. The level of processing is mainly depends upon memory process. Most of the students have retrieval difficulties on past learning. Memory difficulties directly related to sensory integration. In these circumstances the investigator made an attempt to construct Multisensory…

  2. Age Integrated Learning: A Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckenmueller, Jerome P.; Keller, Ann

    The concept of age integrated learning (AIL) can be derived from Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Two emphases in his theory that are less well recognized than others are central to Erikson's theory and are the cornerstone of a rationale for AIL. The first is his emphasis on the interdependence of generations for optimal crisis…

  3. Quantification of net ecosystem exchange sampling within two mature boreal aspen stands using airborne LiDAR and a flux footprint model: Scaling to MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasmer, L. E.; Kljun, N.; Hopkinson, C.; Petrone, R. M.; Milne, T.; Giroux, K.; Black, T. A.; Devito, K. J.; Canadian Carbon Program; Head Project

    2010-12-01

    Exchanges of CO2 and H2O are often measured by eddy covariance within relatively homogeneous ecosystems, where the spatial variability of vegetation structural characteristics and ground surface topography are relatively non-varying. Therefore, scalars transported from source/sink areas are representative of site average characteristics, regardless of wind direction and atmospheric turbulence. Despite relatively high confidence in the efficacy of measured exchanges within homogeneous ecosystems (barring meteorological and technical problems, etc.), site representativeness of the larger area may be questionable. For example, ecosystems represented by eddy covariance are often more heterogeneous than those measured. On the other hand, deployment of eddy covariance within sites containing variable land cover types may be prone to biased site averages if sampling does not represent similar landscape characteristics within the region. By combining remote sensing data, estimates of source/sink areas, and net ecosystem exchanges (NEE), vegetation and topographical characteristics associated with the frequency of sampling may be quantified. Sample frequency may then be used to classify and scale fluxes to the larger region. The following study integrates a flux footprint model parameterisation with three-dimensional characteristics of the ground, understory, and canopy measured using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and NEE within two contrasting mature boreal aspen/mixed ecosystems. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify the frequency distribution of source/sink contributions of CO2 to eddy covariance; 2) classify canopy, understory and topographical characteristics of the footprint climatology to quantify biases in NEE; 3) determine the dominance of sites (e.g. their representativeness) within the larger basin; 4) Evaluate the effectiveness of eddy covariance placement for MODIS product validation.

  4. The dynamics of multimodal integration: The averaging diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brandon M; Gao, Juan; Koenig, Scott; Palfy, Dylan; L McClelland, James

    2017-03-08

    We combine extant theories of evidence accumulation and multi-modal integration to develop an integrated framework for modeling multimodal integration as a process that unfolds in real time. Many studies have formulated sensory processing as a dynamic process where noisy samples of evidence are accumulated until a decision is made. However, these studies are often limited to a single sensory modality. Studies of multimodal stimulus integration have focused on how best to combine different sources of information to elicit a judgment. These studies are often limited to a single time point, typically after the integration process has occurred. We address these limitations by combining the two approaches. Experimentally, we present data that allow us to study the time course of evidence accumulation within each of the visual and auditory domains as well as in a bimodal condition. Theoretically, we develop a new Averaging Diffusion Model in which the decision variable is the mean rather than the sum of evidence samples and use it as a base for comparing three alternative models of multimodal integration, allowing us to assess the optimality of this integration. The outcome reveals rich individual differences in multimodal integration: while some subjects' data are consistent with adaptive optimal integration, reweighting sources of evidence as their relative reliability changes during evidence integration, others exhibit patterns inconsistent with optimality.

  5. A Vertically Integrated Manpower Management Model for Military Veterinary Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR MILITARY VETERINARY SERVICES 12 PERSONAL AUWOR(S)a ThTomas a anzaro 1~T1P OF RPORT13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (YearMonth, Dy...identify by block number) This study was conducted to develop a model for vertically integrating the existing military Veterinary Service manpower...management systems. Current manpower databases were examined and integrated into a proposed manpower management model . The advantages and disadvantages

  6. Modeling the Association between Sexual Maturation, Transmissible Risk, and Peer Relationships During Childhood and Adolescence on Development of Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Michelle S.; Tarter, Ralph; Kirisci, Levent; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This prospective study investigated pubertal timing and transmissible risk in relation to affiliation with deviant peers on the development of substance use disorder (SUD). Methods Participants were boys (N = 500) ascertained through proband fathers with (N = 250) and without (N = 250) DSM-III-R lifetime diagnosis of SUD who were prospectively tracked from age 10–12 to 22. Transmissible liability index (TLI), Tanner stage, peer delinquency, and substance use were measured at ages 10–12 and 16. SUD diagnosis during early adulthood was determined. Results Structural equation modeling revealed two pathways in which transmissible risk and sexual maturation influenced development of SUD. In the first pathway, transmissible risk was correlated with and prospectively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use presaging SUD. In the second pathway, advanced sexual maturation positively predicted affiliation with deviant peers and substance use, which in turn predicted SUD. However, transmissible risk was not associated with pubertal development. Conclusions These findings indicate that advanced sexual maturation and transmissible risk constitute unrelated facets of SUD liability; however, both factors bias development toward SUD via affiliation with deviant peers. Scientific Significance Youth with advanced sexual maturation and/or transmissible risk for SUD are at higher risk for developing SUD. Additional research is needed to determine if addressing these risk factors will contribute to advancements in SUD prevention. PMID:23952893

  7. Harvesting on a stage-structured single population model with mature individuals in a polluted environment and pulse input of environmental toxin.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jianjun; Yang, Xiaosong; Chen, Lansun

    2009-09-01

    In the natural world, there are many species whose individual members have a life history that they take them with two distinct stages: immaturity and maturity. In particular, we have in mind mammalian populations and some amphibious animals. We improve the assumption of a single population as a whole. It is assumed that the immature individuals and mature individuals are divided by a fixed period. This paper concentrates on the study of a stage-structured single population model with mature individuals in a polluted environment and pulse input of environmental toxin at fixed moments. Furthermore, the mature individuals are harvested continuously. We show that the population goes extinct if the harvesting rate is beyond a critical threshold. Conditions for the extended permanence of the population are also examined. From the biological point of view, it is easy to protect species by controlling the harvesting amount, impulsive period of the exogenous input of toxin and toxin impulsive input amount, etc. Our results provide reasonable tactics for biological resource management.

  8. Integration models: multicultural and liberal approaches confronted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    European societies have been shaped by their Christian past, upsurge of international migration, democratic rule and liberal tradition rooted in religious tolerance. Boosting globalization processes impose new challenges on European societies, striving to protect their diversity. This struggle is especially clearly visible in case of minorities trying to resist melting into mainstream culture. European countries' legal systems and cultural policies respond to these efforts in many ways. Respecting identity politics-driven group rights seems to be the most common approach, resulting in creation of a multicultural society. However, the outcome of respecting group rights may be remarkably contradictory to both individual rights growing out from liberal tradition, and to reinforced concept of integration of immigrants into host societies. The hereby paper discusses identity politics upturn in the context of both individual rights and integration of European societies.

  9. An Integrative Model for Teaching Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    This paper presents a model which illustrates the cyclical and interactive nature of the basic elements of the research design process. Rather than presenting each research design component in isolation, the model emphasizes their interrelationships. A brief discussion is presented on each of the following components of the model: (1) the "words"…

  10. Multimedia-modeling integration development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2002-09-02

    There are many framework systems available; however, the purpose of the framework presented here is to capitalize on the successes of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) and Multi-media Multi-pathway Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology as applied to the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) while focusing on the development of software tools to simplify the module developer?s effort of integrating a module into the framework.

  11. The HSG procedure for modelling integrated urban wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Muschalla, D; Schütze, M; Schroeder, K; Bach, M; Blumensaat, F; Gruber, G; Klepiszewski, K; Pabst, M; Pressl, A; Schindler, N; Solvi, A-M; Wiese, J

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the importance of integrated modelling of urban wastewater systems is ever increasing, there is still no concise procedure regarding how to carry out such modelling studies. After briefly discussing some earlier approaches, the guideline for integrated modelling developed by the Central European Simulation Research Group (HSG - Hochschulgruppe) is presented. This contribution suggests a six-step standardised procedure to integrated modelling. This commences with an analysis of the system and definition of objectives and criteria, covers selection of modelling approaches, analysis of data availability, calibration and validation and also includes the steps of scenario analysis and reporting. Recent research findings as well as experience gained from several application projects from Central Europe have been integrated in this guideline.

  12. A modified CDC biofilm reactor to produce mature biofilms on the surface of peek membranes for an in vivo animal model application.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin L; Woodbury, Kassie L; Haymond, Bryan S; Parker, Albert E; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2011-06-01

    Biofilm-related infections have become a major clinical concern. Typically, animal models that involve inoculation with planktonic bacteria have been used to create positive infection signals and examine antimicrobial strategies for eradicating or preventing biofilm-related infection. However, it is estimated that 99.9% of bacteria in nature dwell in established biofilms. As such, open wounds have significant potential to become contaminated with bacteria that reside in a well-established biofilm. In this study, a modified CDC biofilm reactor was developed to repeatably grow mature biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes for inoculation in a future animal model of orthopaedic implant biofilm-related infection. Results indicated that uniform, mature biofilms repeatably grew on the surface of the PEEK membranes.

  13. An integrated development environment for PMESII model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Lofdahl, Corey; Sao Pedro, Michael; Krikeles, Basil; Morley, Liam

    2007-04-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness in Air Operations Centers supporting the Joint Forces Commander and Joint Force Air Component Commander, BAE Systems is developing a Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging. CMIST is built on the versatile Eclipse framework, a widely used open development platform comprised of extensible frameworks that enable development of tools for building, deploying, and managing software. CMIST provides two distinct layers: 1) a Commander's IDE for supporting staff to author models spanning the Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information (PMESII) taxonomy; integrate multiple native (third-party) models; validate model interfaces and outputs; and debug the integrated models via intuitive controls and time series visualization, and 2) a PMESII IDE for modeling and simulation developers to rapidly incorporate new native simulation tools and models to make them available for use in the Commander's IDE. The PMESII IDE provides shared ontologies and repositories for world state, modeling concepts, and native tool characterization. CMIST includes extensible libraries for 1) reusable data transforms for semantic alignment of native data with the shared ontology, and 2) interaction patterns to synchronize multiple native simulations with disparate modeling paradigms, such as continuous-time system dynamics, agent-based discrete event simulation, and aggregate solution methods such as Monte Carlo sampling over dynamic Bayesian networks. This paper describes the CMIST system architecture, our technical approach to addressing these semantic alignment and synchronization problems, and initial results from integrating Political-Military-Economic models of post-war Iraq spanning multiple modeling paradigms.

  14. The Berlin-White Integrated Science and Mathematics Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses six aspects of the Berlin-White Integrated Science and Mathematics Model developed to address the need for a definition of the integration of science and mathematics education. These aspects are ways of learning; ways of knowing; process and thinking skills; content knowledge; attitudes and perceptions; and teaching strategies. (MKR)

  15. Applying Model Checking to Generate Model-Based Integration Tests from Choreography Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Sebastian; Kozyura, Vitaly; Roth, Andreas; Leuschel, Michael; Bendisposto, Jens; Plagge, Daniel; Schieferdecker, Ina

    Choreography models describe the communication protocols between services. Testing of service choreographies is an important task for the quality assurance of service-based systems as used e.g. in the context of service-oriented architectures (SOA). The formal modeling of service choreographies enables a model-based integration testing (MBIT) approach. We present MBIT methods for our service choreography modeling approach called Message Choreography Models (MCM). For the model-based testing of service choreographies, MCMs are translated into Event-B models and used as input for our test generator which uses the model checker ProB.

  16. NREL Wind Integrated System Design and Engineering Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew; Scott, George; Graf, Peter

    2013-09-30

    NREL_WISDEM is an integrated model for wind turbines and plants developed In python based on the open source software OpenMDAO. NREL_WISDEM is a set of wrappers for various wind turbine and models that integrate pre-existing models together into OpenMDAO. It is organized into groups each with their own repositories including Plant_CostSE. Plant_EnergySE, Turbine_CostSE and TurbineSE. The wrappers are designed for licensed and non-licensed models though in both cases, one has to have access to and install the individual models themselves before using them in the overall software platform.

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94.

  18. Development of the Integrated Communication Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    Human communication is a critical issue in personal life. It also should be the indispensable core element of general education curriculum in universities and colleges. Based on literature analysis and the author's clinical observation, the importance of human communication, functions of model, and often seen human communication models were…

  19. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Tradeoff Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    while the SURVIAC model development team observed. The users evaluated the functionality and usability of the model in understanding the goal of HSI...Initiated: From scenario initiation 9. Time Completed: Results screen 10. Section 3: Usability /Tasks Walkthrough Please read the instructions...From scenario initiation 19. Time Completed: Results screen 20. Section 3: Usability /Tasks Walkthrough Please read the instructions below

  20. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  1. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  2. Integrated environmental modeling: A vision and roadmap for the future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the ex...

  3. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  4. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Physical Modelling Systems Design. A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Physical Modeling Systems Design project was undertaken in a time of rapid change in the industrial, business, technological, training, and educational areas in Australia. A specification of a manufacturing physical modeling system was drawn up. Physical modeling provides a flexibility and configurability…

  5. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  6. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Adams, Mark B.; New, Joshua Ryan

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  7. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  8. Integrative Modeling of Electrical Properties of Pacemaker Cardiac Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Babich, L.

    2016-06-01

    This work represents modeling of electrical properties of pacemaker (sinus) cardiac cells. Special attention is paid to electrical potential arising from transmembrane current of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions. This potential is calculated using the NaCaX model. In this respect, molar concentration of ions in the intercellular space which is calculated on the basis of the GENTEX model is essential. Combined use of two different models allows referring this approach to integrative modeling.

  9. Integrated Modeling of Polymer Composites Under High Energy Laser Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    included as an appendix. 15. SUBJECT TERMS organic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, lasers, thermal transport, ICMSE, molecular dynamics...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2016-0071 INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION Brent Volk, Gregory Ehlert...22 July 2013 – 30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED MODELING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES UNDER HIGH ENERGY LASER IRRADIATION 5a. CONTRACT

  10. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  11. Integrated Control Modeling for Propulsion Systems Using NPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Felder, James L.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Yu, Albert Y.; Lehmann, William V. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), an advanced engineering simulation environment used to design and analyze aircraft engines, has been enhanced by integrating control development tools into it. One of these tools is a generic controller interface that allows NPSS to communicate with control development software environments such as MATLAB and EASY5. The other tool is a linear model generator (LMG) that gives NPSS the ability to generate linear, time-invariant state-space models. Integrating these tools into NPSS enables it to be used for control system development. This paper will discuss the development and integration of these tools into NPSS. In addition, it will show a comparison of transient model results of a generic, dual-spool, military-type engine model that has been implemented in NPSS and Simulink. It will also show the linear model generator s ability to approximate the dynamics of a nonlinear NPSS engine model.

  12. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L. S. S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts. PMID:23858275

  13. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Bowman, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  14. Constructing an Integrated Model for Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for a model of professional education based on an interdisciplinary approach developed at the University of Calgary. Highlights include professional growth; experts' behavior; mentorship; professional knowledge base; elaboration theory; and fuzzy logic. (Contains 21 references.) (LRW)

  15. WILDFIRE EMISSION MODELING: INTEGRATING BLUESKY AND SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric chemical transport models are used to simulate historic meteorological episodes for developing air quality management strategies. Wildland fire emissions need to be characterized accurately to achieve these air quality management goals. The temporal and spatial esti...

  16. Integrated CFD modeling of gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, E. J.; Smith, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    3D, curvilinear, multi-domain CFD analysis is becoming a valuable tool in gas turbine combustor design. Used as a supplement to experimental testing. CFD analysis can provide improved understanding of combustor aerodynamics and used to qualitatively assess new combustor designs. This paper discusses recent advancements in CFD combustor methodology, including the timely integration of the design (i.e. CAD) and analysis (i.e. CFD) processes. Allied Signal's F124 combustor was analyzed at maximum power conditions. The assumption of turbulence levels at the nozzle/swirler inlet was shown to be very important in the prediction of combustor exit temperatures. Predicted exit temperatures were compared to experimental rake data, and good overall agreement was seen. Exit radial temperature profiles were well predicted, while the predicted pattern factor was 25 percent higher than the harmonic-averaged experimental pattern factor.

  17. { P }{ T } symmetry in quasi-integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P. E. G.

    2016-06-01

    Observations of almost stable scattering in nonintegrable models have been reinforced and a framework is proposed to describe quasi-integrability in terms of { P }{ T } symmetry. This new mechanism can be used to regard { P }{ T } symmetry in classical field theories as a guiding principle to also select relevant systems when it comes to integrability properties. It turns out that the if a deformed Lax pair is invariant under this symmetry, corresponding to the unbroken { P }{ T }-symmetric regime, quasi-integrable excitations are produced with asymptotically conserved charges. A generic nonlinear field equation is used in order to verify the validity of the assumptions but results for a specific non-integrable class of models are also presented. A set of quasi-integrable excitations is investigated and shown to have spectral functions with appropriate properties, which might lead to the determination of the almost conserved charges.

  18. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  19. Achieving Integrated FEA Model and Loads Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Dominick; Huf, Brian; Hagstrom, Dustin

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in enterprise level simulation tools now enable CAE engineers and managers to keep up with today’s accelerating rate in the number and complexity of simulation models. All simulation related activities including Finite Element Models (FEM) variants and their respective results datasets can now be captured and managed. This provides valuable model pedigree from the source geometry referenced in the PDM system, spacecraft design and FEM configurations, external loads, simulation results and internal loads down to key results with the final critical design review and test correlation reports. The process presented in this paper demonstrates how simulation data capture and relationships can be achieved. Moreover, process management from conceptual design to spacecraft final proto-flight tests can now be achieved systematically and efficiently while performing and ensuring model quality, all the way from assembly level down to component level. MSC Software’s SimXpert and SimManager, two commercial off-the-shelf software codes, are used to highlight the benefits of this approach. In addition, an automation process that performs model validation per aerospace engineering best practice standards is also presented.

  20. High-throughput amplification of mature microRNAs in uncharacterized animal models using polyadenylated RNA and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Kyle K; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-10-01

    This study makes a significant advancement on a microRNA amplification technique previously used for expression analysis and sequencing in animal models without annotated mature microRNA sequences. As research progresses into the post-genomic era of microRNA prediction and analysis, the need for a rapid and cost-effective method for microRNA amplification is critical to facilitate wide-scale analysis of microRNA expression. To facilitate this requirement, we have reoptimized the design of amplification primers and introduced a polyadenylation step to allow amplification of all mature microRNAs from a single RNA sample. Importantly, this method retains the ability to sequence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products, validating microRNA-specific amplification.

  1. Workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozny, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling was held on 12 May 1987. It was held to discuss the geometric modeling requirements of the finite element modeling process and to better understand the technical aspects of the integration of these two areas. The 11 papers are presented except for one for which only the abstract is given.

  2. Integration of a three-dimensional process-based hydrological model into the Object Modeling System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modelling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the Object Modeling System (OMS) version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. GEOtop is a physically base...

  3. Integrated model of a composite propellant rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The combustion of composite solid propellants was investigated and an available numerical model was improved for taking into account the change of pressure, when the process occurs in a confined environment, as inside a rocket. The pressure increase upon ignition is correctly described by the improved model for both sandwich and dispersed particles propellants. In the latter case, self-induced fluctuations in the pressure and in all other computed variables occur, as consequence of the periodic rise and depletion of oxidizer particles from the binder matrix. The comparison with the results of the constant pressure model shows a different fluctuating profile of gas velocity, with a possible second order effect induced by the pressure fluctuations.

  4. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    PubMed

    Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A

    2015-03-01

    While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  5. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  6. Integrated Spatio-Temporal Ecological Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    11 Hierarchy Theory The predictability of ecological systems is inherently limited and is dependent on the scales (May 1986; Levin 1989; Vasconcelos ...and associates (1987) advocate a hierarchical paradigm to better understand the patterns in landscape ecology. Vasconcelos , Zeigler, and associates...modeling system is hierarchical and includes individuals, patch, and the whole landscape (Perestrello de Vasconcelos , Zeigler, et al. 1993). These are but

  7. Integration of Heterogenous Digital Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, R.; Ginzler, C.

    2011-08-01

    The application of extended digital surface models often reveals, that despite an acceptable global accuracy for a given dataset, the local accuracy of the model can vary in a wide range. For high resolution applications which cover the spatial extent of a whole country, this can be a major drawback. Within the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI), two digital surface models are available, one derived from LiDAR point data and the other from aerial images. Automatic photogrammetric image matching with ADS80 aerial infrared images with 25cm and 50cm resolution is used to generate a surface model (ADS-DSM) with 1m resolution covering whole switzerland (approx. 41000 km2). The spatially corresponding LiDAR dataset has a global point density of 0.5 points per m2 and is mainly used in applications as interpolated grid with 2m resolution (LiDAR-DSM). Although both surface models seem to offer a comparable accuracy from a global view, local analysis shows significant differences. Both datasets have been acquired over several years. Concerning LiDAR-DSM, different flight patterns and inconsistent quality control result in a significantly varying point density. The image acquisition of the ADS-DSM is also stretched over several years and the model generation is hampered by clouds, varying illumination and shadow effects. Nevertheless many classification and feature extraction applications requiring high resolution data depend on the local accuracy of the used surface model, therefore precise knowledge of the local data quality is essential. The commercial photogrammetric software NGATE (part of SOCET SET) generates the image based surface model (ADS-DSM) and delivers also a map with figures of merit (FOM) of the matching process for each calculated height pixel. The FOM-map contains matching codes like high slope, excessive shift or low correlation. For the generation of the LiDAR-DSM only first- and last-pulse data was available. Therefore only the point distribution can

  8. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabia's model of integration

    SciTech Connect

    Etaibi, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the foundations and emergence in 1981 of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which consists of six traditional Arab Gulf states (the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait). It finds the GCC to be a unique case among twentieth-century integrative schemes. The study also identifies and analyzes relevant local, regional, and international forces. Among the local forces are traditional religio-political systems, economic dependence on a depletable resource, and the presence of a large number of foreign residents. On the regional level, this study takes into consideration such issues as the Arab League, Arab Nationalism, and the Islamic revolutionary movement in Iran. On the international level, the influence of the superpowers and the major industrialized nations on the emergence and future of the GCC Community are analyzed. Throughout the past decade there has been a growing scholarly interest in the Gulf region. In preparation for this study, the author relied heavily on the literature generated by this new research, as well as on documents and official publications, mostly in Arabic. A survey was conducted among a limited number of GCC graduate students during the summer of 1983. In addition, interviews with selected members of the GCC Secretariat-General and various member-state officials were conducted during a research trip in the region in the spring of 1984.

  9. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center, which integrates a set of models for determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems. This research provides for the integration of the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, both new and existing simulation models, and existing operations and support (O&S) costing equations in arriving at a complete analysis methodology. Details concerning the R&M model and the O&S costing model may be found in previous reports accomplished under this grant (NASA Research Grant NAG1-1327). In the process of developing this comprehensive analysis approach, significant enhancements were made to the R&M model, updates to the O&S costing model were accomplished, and a new simulation model developed. This is the 1st part of a 3 part technical report.

  10. Integrated Modeling Tools for Thermal Analysis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Needels, Laura; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    1999-01-01

    Integrated modeling of spacecraft systems is a rapidly evolving area in which multidisciplinary models are developed to design and analyze spacecraft configurations. These models are especially important in the early design stages where rapid trades between subsystems can substantially impact design decisions. Integrated modeling is one of the cornerstones of two of NASA's planned missions in the Origins Program -- the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Common modeling tools for control design and opto-mechanical analysis have recently emerged and are becoming increasingly widely used. A discipline that has been somewhat less integrated, but is nevertheless of critical concern for high precision optical instruments, is thermal analysis and design. A major factor contributing to this mild estrangement is that the modeling philosophies and objectives for structural and thermal systems typically do not coincide. Consequently the tools that are used in these discplines suffer a degree of incompatibility, each having developed along their own evolutionary path. Although standard thermal tools have worked relatively well in the past. integration with other disciplines requires revisiting modeling assumptions and solution methods. Over the past several years we have been developing a MATLAB based integrated modeling tool called IMOS (Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems) which integrates many aspects of structural, optical, control and dynamical analysis disciplines. Recent efforts have included developing a thermal modeling and analysis capability, which is the subject of this article. Currently, the IMOS thermal suite contains steady state and transient heat equation solvers, and the ability to set up the linear conduction network from an IMOS finite element model. The IMOS code generates linear conduction elements associated with plates and beams/rods of the thermal network directly from the finite element structural

  11. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 1: Mach 6 component integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project was initiated for the purpose of advancing the technology of airbreathing propulsion for hypersonic flight. A large component (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) and structures development program was encompassed by the project. The tests of a full-scale (18 in. diameter cowl and 87 in. long) HRE concept, designated the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM), at Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Computer program results for Mach 6 component integration tests are presented.

  12. Scaling and Integration of Process-Response Stratigraphic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    Sedimentary Systems NSF MARGINS: Community Sedimentary Model Science Plan for Sedimentology and Stratigraphy . PUBLICATIONS Hutton, E.W.H. and...2002. Coupled Land-Sea Numerical Sediment-Transport Models And The Formation Of Shelf Stratigraphy . IAS/SEPM Environmental Sedimentology Workshop on...MG plan entitled the Integrated Modeling System for Simulating the Evolution of Continental Margin Stratigraphy , i.e. • Refine the SedFlux model to

  13. Vertically Integrated Seismological Analysis I : Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S.; Arora, N. S.; Jordan, M. I.; Sudderth, E.

    2009-12-01

    As part of its CTBT verification efforts, the International Data Centre (IDC) analyzes seismic and other signals collected from hundreds of stations around the world. Current processing at the IDC proceeds in a series of pipelined stages. From station processing to network processing, each decision is made on the basis of local information. This has the advantage of efficiency, and simplifies the structure of software implementations. However, this approach may reduce accuracy in the detection and phase classification of arrivals, association of detections to hypothesized events, and localization of small-magnitude events.In our work, we approach such detection and association problems as ones of probabilistic inference. In simple terms, let X be a random variable ranging over all possible collections of events, with each event defined by time, location, magnitude, and type (natural or man-made). Let Y range over all possible waveform signal recordings at all detection stations. Then Pθ(X) describes a parameterized generative prior over events, and P[|#30#|]φ(Y | X) describes how the signal is propagated and measured (including travel time, selective absorption and scattering, noise, artifacts, sensor bias, sensor failures, etc.). Given observed recordings Y = y, we are interested in the posterior P(X | Y = y), and perhaps in the value of X that maximizes it—i.e., the most likely explanation for all the sensor readings. As detailed below, an additional focus of our work is to robustly learn appropriate model parameters θ and φ from historical data. The primary advantage we expect is that decisions about arrivals, phase classifications, and associations are made with the benefit of all available evidence, not just the local signal or predefined recipes. Important phenomena—such as the successful detection of sub-threshold signals, correction of phase classifications using arrival information at other stations, and removal of false events based on the absence

  14. An integrative CFD model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; McMillen, Tyler; Fauci, Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Swimming due to sinusoidal body undulations is observed across the full spectrum of swimming organisms, from microscopic flagella to fish. These undulations are achieved due to internal force-generating mechanisms, which, in the case of lamprey are due to a wave of neural activation from head to tail which gives rise to a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are also mediated by passive structural forces. Here we present recent results on a computational model of a swimming lamprey that couples activation of discrete muscle segments, passive elastic forces, and a surrounding viscous, incompressible fluid. The fluid dynamics is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations at appropriate Reynolds numbers, where the resulting flow field and vortex shedding may be measured.

  15. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: a maturation model promoting long-term survival of myotubes, structural development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and neonatal myosin heavy chain expression.

    PubMed

    Das, Mainak; Rumsey, John W; Bhargava, Neelima; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J

    2009-10-01

    The use of defined in vitro systems to study the developmental and physiological characteristics of a variety of cell types is increasing, due in large part to their ease of integration with tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and high-throughput screening applications. In this study, myotubes derived from fetal rat hind limbs were induced to develop several aspects of mature muscle including: sarcomere assembly, development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and myosin heavy chain (MHC) class switching. Utilizing immunocytochemical analysis, anisotropic and isotropic band formation (striations) within the myotubes was established, indicative of sarcomere formation. In addition, clusters of ryanodine receptors were colocalized with dihydropyridine complex proteins which signaled development of the excitation-contraction coupling apparatus and transverse tubule biogenesis. The myotubes also exhibited MHC class switching from embryonic to neonatal MHC. Lastly, the myotubes survived significantly longer in culture (70-90 days) than myotubes from our previously developed system (20-25 days). These results were achieved by modifying the culture timeline as well as the development of a new medium formulation. This defined model system for skeletal muscle maturation supports the goal of developing physiologically relevant muscle constructs for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as for high-throughput screening applications.

  16. Cochlear transduction: an integrative model and review

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A model for cochlear transduction is presented that is based on considerations of the cell biology of its receptor cells, particularly the mechanisms of transmitter release at recepto-neural synapses. Two new interrelated hypotheses on the functional organization of the organ of Corti result from these considerations, one dealing with the possibility of electrotonic interaction between inner and outer hair cells and the other with a possible contributing source to acoustic emissions of cochlear origin that results from vesicular membrane turnover. PMID:6282796

  17. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Costanzo, Erin S

    2003-08-01

    The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences health behaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve health behaviors by teaching individuals more adaptive methods of interpreting life challenges and more effective coping responses. These interactions are discussed in the context of aging.

  18. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Schreiber, Falk

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM2 – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato. PMID:25674560

  19. Cyberkelp: an integrative approach to the modelling of flexible organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Mark W; Hale, Ben B

    2003-01-01

    Biomechanical models come in a variety of forms: conceptual models; physical models; and mathematical models (both of the sort written down on paper and the sort carried out on computers). There are model structures (such as insect flight muscle and the tendons of rats' tails), model organisms (such as the flying insect, Manduca sexta), even model systems of organisms (such as the communities that live on wave-swept rocky shores). These different types of models are typically employed separately, but their value often can be enhanced if their insights are integrated. In this brief report we explore a particular example of such integration among models, as applied to flexible marine algae. A conceptual model serves as a template for the construction of a mathematical model of a model species of giant kelp, and the validity of this numerical model is tested using physical models. The validated mathematical model is then used in conjunction with a computer-controlled tensile testing apparatus to simulate the loading regime placed on algal materials. The resulting information can be used to create a more precise mathematical model. PMID:14561344

  20. ARTEMIS: Ares Real Time Environments for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Walker, David

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ARTEMIS in the development and testing of the ARES launch vehicles. Ares Real Time Environment for Modeling, Simulation and Integration (ARTEMIS) is the real time simulation supporting Ares I hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. ARTEMIS accurately models all Ares/Orion/Ground subsystems which interact with Ares avionics components from pre-launch through orbit insertion The ARTEMIS System integration Lab, and the STIF architecture is reviewed. The functional components of ARTEMIS are outlined. An overview of the models and a block diagram is presented.

  1. Integrating emotion-focused therapy with the Satir model.

    PubMed

    Brubacher, Lorrie

    2006-04-01

    The experiential humanistic family systems approach of Virginia Satir lacks a theoretical structure and is thus vulnerable to losing its experiential nature and being reduced to a mere collection of creative techniques. A way to effectively keep Satir's transformative presence alive is to integrate her approach with a model that is solidly grounded in explicit theory, relationship principles, and therapeutic skills and processes. The model proposed as appropriate to this effect is Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT). Satir's approach, when integrated with EFT, becomes a model for creating change in individual and family systems that is indeed greater than the sum of its parts.

  2. Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) framework for planning exercises.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J.; Plantenga, Todd D.

    2010-06-01

    The Integrated Modeling, Mapping, and Simulation (IMMS) program is designing and prototyping a simulation and collaboration environment for linking together existing and future modeling and simulation tools to enable analysts, emergency planners, and incident managers to more effectively, economically, and rapidly prepare, analyze, train, and respond to real or potential incidents. When complete, the IMMS program will demonstrate an integrated modeling and simulation capability that supports emergency managers and responders with (1) conducting 'what-if' analyses and exercises to address preparedness, analysis, training, operations, and lessons learned, and (2) effectively, economically, and rapidly verifying response tactics, plans and procedures.

  3. Integrating Tax Preparation with FAFSA Completion: Three Case Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan; Mabry, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research compares three different models implemented in four cities. The models integrated free tax-preparation services to assist low-income families with their completion of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). There has been an increased focus on simplifying the FAFSA process. However, simplification is not the only…

  4. Teaching Service Modelling to a Mixed Class: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Jeremiah D.; Purvis, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    Service modelling has become an increasingly important area in today's telecommunications and information systems practice. We have adapted a Network Design course in order to teach service modelling to a mixed class of both the telecommunication engineering and information systems backgrounds. An integrated approach engaging mathematics teaching…

  5. Integrating the Study of Trigonometry, Vectors, and Force Through Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Helen M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the construction of understanding of the motion of an object down an inclined plane which takes place through the process of model building in an integrated algebra, trigonometry, and physics class. Discusses four major themes related to student learning through modeling that emerged from the results. Discusses implications for…

  6. A Connectionist Extension to Kintsch's Construction--Integration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjose, Vicente; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Padilla, Olga M.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes an extension to Kintsch's Construction-Integration (CI) model of text comprehension, which changes its mathematical implementation and emphasizes the connectionist features of the model. Specifically, the extension proposed here (a) simulates the learning process in a connectionist manner by making explicit changes in the…

  7. Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance Abuse Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher E.; Bang, Keeyeon

    2003-01-01

    Substance abuse counseling students must become familiar with an overview of the issues involved in counseling. A clear format is needed to present the overview. Unfortunately, there are a limited number of models addressing the unique aspects of substance abuse counseling. However, the Integrated Developmental Model (IDM) developed by…

  8. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management.

  9. Modeling Integrated Cellular Machinery Using Hybrid Petri-Boolean Networks

    PubMed Central

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  10. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  11. Integrated Modeling Program, Applied Chemical Theory (IMPACT)

    PubMed Central

    BANKS, JAY L.; BEARD, HEGE S.; CAO, YIXIANG; CHO, ART E.; DAMM, WOLFGANG; FARID, RAMY; FELTS, ANTHONY K.; HALGREN, THOMAS A.; MAINZ, DANIEL T.; MAPLE, JON R.; MURPHY, ROBERT; PHILIPP, DEAN M.; REPASKY, MATTHEW P.; ZHANG, LINDA Y.; BERNE, BRUCE J.; FRIESNER, RICHARD A.; GALLICCHIO, EMILIO; LEVY, RONALD M.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the IMPACT molecular mechanics program with an emphasis on recent developments and a description of its current functionality. With respect to core molecular mechanics technologies we include a status report for the fixed charge and polarizable force fields that can be used with the program and illustrate how the force fields, when used together with new atom typing and parameter assignment modules, have greatly expanded the coverage of organic compounds and medicinally relevant ligands. As we discuss in this review, explicit solvent simulations have been used to guide our design of implicit solvent models based on the generalized Born framework and a novel nonpolar estimator that have recently been incorporated into the program. With IMPACT it is possible to use several different advanced conformational sampling algorithms based on combining features of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The program includes two specialized molecular mechanics modules: Glide, a high-throughput docking program, and QSite, a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics module. These modules employ the IMPACT infrastructure as a starting point for the construction of the protein model and assignment of molecular mechanics parameters, but have then been developed to meet specialized objectives with respect to sampling and the energy function. PMID:16211539

  12. Integrated Modeling Program, Applied Chemical Theory (IMPACT).

    PubMed

    Banks, Jay L; Beard, Hege S; Cao, Yixiang; Cho, Art E; Damm, Wolfgang; Farid, Ramy; Felts, Anthony K; Halgren, Thomas A; Mainz, Daniel T; Maple, Jon R; Murphy, Robert; Philipp, Dean M; Repasky, Matthew P; Zhang, Linda Y; Berne, Bruce J; Friesner, Richard A; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M

    2005-12-01

    We provide an overview of the IMPACT molecular mechanics program with an emphasis on recent developments and a description of its current functionality. With respect to core molecular mechanics technologies we include a status report for the fixed charge and polarizable force fields that can be used with the program and illustrate how the force fields, when used together with new atom typing and parameter assignment modules, have greatly expanded the coverage of organic compounds and medicinally relevant ligands. As we discuss in this review, explicit solvent simulations have been used to guide our design of implicit solvent models based on the generalized Born framework and a novel nonpolar estimator that have recently been incorporated into the program. With IMPACT it is possible to use several different advanced conformational sampling algorithms based on combining features of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The program includes two specialized molecular mechanics modules: Glide, a high-throughput docking program, and QSite, a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics module. These modules employ the IMPACT infrastructure as a starting point for the construction of the protein model and assignment of molecular mechanics parameters, but have then been developed to meet specialized objectives with respect to sampling and the energy function.

  13. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  14. Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy

  15. Mature Teachers Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…

  16. Nonzero solutions of nonlinear integral equations modeling infectious disease

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Sufficient conditions to insure the existence of periodic solutions to the nonlinear integral equation, x(t) = ..integral../sup t//sub t-tau/f(s,x(s))ds, are given in terms of simple product and product integral inequalities. The equation can be interpreted as a model for the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., gonorrhea or any of the rhinovirus viruses) if x(t) is the proportion of infectives at time t and f(t,x(t)) is the proportion of new infectives per unit time.

  17. MoGIRE: A Model for Integrated Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, A.; Leenhardt, D.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change and growing water needs have resulted in many parts of the world in water scarcity problems that must by managed by public authorities. Hence, policy-makers are more and more often asked to define and to implement water allocation rules between competitive users. This requires to develop new tools aiming at designing those rules for various scenarios of context (climatic, agronomic, economic). If models have been developed for each type of water use however, very few integrated frameworks link these different uses, while such an integrated approach is a relevant stake for designing regional water and land policies. The lack of such integrated models can be explained by the difficulty of integrating models developed by very different disciplines and by the problem of scale change (collecting data on large area, arbitrate between the computational tractability of models and their level of aggregation). However, modelers are more and more asked to deal with large basin scales while analyzing some policy impacts at very high detailed levels. These contradicting objectives require to develop new modeling tools. The CALVIN economically-driven optimization model developed for managing water in California is a good example of this type of framework, Draper et al. (2003). Recent reviews of the literature on integrated water management at the basin level include Letcher et al. (2007) or Cai (2008). We present here an original framework for integrated water management at the river basin scale called MoGIRE ("Modèle pour la Gestion Intégrée de la Ressource en Eau"). It is intended to optimize water use at the river basin level and to evaluate scenarios (agronomic, climatic or economic) for a better planning of agricultural and non-agricultural water use. MoGIRE includes a nodal representation of the water network. Agricultural, urban and environmental water uses are also represented using mathematical programming and econometric approaches. The model then

  18. Development of the Ball integrated telescope model (ITM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    As the complexity of telescope systems have increased, system engineering trades related to cost and performance issues have become correspondingly complex. The traditional methodology for end-to-end system modeling depends upon focused analysis and data handoff between disciplines - aptly termed the "bucket brigade" approach. For the last 7 years, Ball Aerospace has supported development of an integrated modeling environment for telescope performance modeling and analysis. The Integrated Telescope Model (ITM), a realization of this effort, has been used on several current large telescope programs such as the VLT, NGST, TPF and MAXIM. It permits the user to do both time simulations and analytical work in the spatial/temporal frequency domains. The individual discipline models in structural dynamics, optics, controls, signal processing, detector physics and disturbance modeling are seamlessly integrated into one cohesive model to efficiently support system level trades and analysis. The core of the model is formed by the optical toolbox implemented in MATLAB and realized in object-oriented Simulink environment. Both geometric and physical optical models can be constructed and interfaced to disturbances and detection models. The geometric approach includes ray tracing for exact modeling or sensitivity matrices for rapid execution. Spectral, transmission and polarization information is carried with each ray. The physical optics modules do wavefront propagation for analyzing diffraction effects under either with coherent or incoherent conditions. Coupling of the static offset models, quasi-static thermal deformations and structural dynamics with an optical model allows one to view the full range of disturbance effects on the resulting PSF. This paper addresses the overall model architecture, considerations and issues related to model execution speed, complexity and model resolution/validity. Example of a recent use of the model is reviewed.

  19. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems.

  20. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    PubMed

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error.

  1. Early postnatal GABAA receptor modulation reverses deficits in neuronal maturation in a conditional neurodevelopmental mouse model of DISC1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yu; Rannals, Matthew D.; Merfeld, Emily B.; Ballinger, Michael D.; Koga, Minori; Ohtani, Yoshikazu; Gurley, David A.; Sedlak, Thomas W.; Cross, Alan; Moss, Stephen J.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Maher, Brady J.; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Exploring drug targets based on disease-associated molecular mechanisms during development is crucial for the generation of novel prevention and treatment strategies for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions. We report that prefrontal cortex-specific postnatal knockdown of DISC1 via in utero electroporation combined with an inducible knockdown expression system drives deficits in synaptic GABAA function and dendritic development in pyramidal neurons, as well as abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, albeit without profound memory deficits. We show for the first time that DISC1 is specifically involved in regulating cell surface expression of α2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in immature developing neurons, but not after full maturation. Notably, pharmacological intervention with α2/3 subtype-selective GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators during the early postnatal period ameliorates dendritic deficits and behavioral abnormalities induced by knockdown of DISC1. These findings highlight a critical role of DISC1-mediated disruption of postnatal GABA signaling in aberrant prefrontal cortex maturation and function. PMID:26728564

  2. An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

    2011-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-ω model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July.

  3. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  4. Pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta stimulates utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle fibers and restores sarcolemmal integrity in mature mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Miura, Pedro; Chakkalakal, Joe V; Boudreault, Louise; Bélanger, Guy; Hébert, Richard L; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Jasmin, Bernard J

    2009-12-01

    A therapeutic strategy to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) involves identifying compounds that can elevate utrophin A expression in muscle fibers of affected patients. The dystrophin homologue utrophin A can functionally substitute for dystrophin when its levels are enhanced in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle is regulated by mechanisms that promote the slow myofiber program. Since activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta promotes the slow oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle, we initiated studies to determine whether pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta provides functional benefits to the mdx mouse. GW501516, a PPARbeta/delta agonist, was found to stimulate utrophin A mRNA levels in C2C12 muscle cells through an element in the utrophin A promoter. Expression of PPARbeta/delta was greater in skeletal muscles of mdx versus wild-type mice. We treated 5-7-week-old mdx mice with GW501516 for 4 weeks. This treatment increased the percentage of muscle fibers expressing slower myosin heavy chain isoforms and stimulated utrophin A mRNA levels leading to its increased expression at the sarcolemma. Expression of alpha1-syntrophin and beta-dystroglycan was restored to the sarcolemma. Improvement of mdx sarcolemmal integrity was evidenced by decreased intracellular IgM staining and decreased in vivo Evans blue dye (EBD) uptake. GW501516 treatment also conferred protection against eccentric contraction (ECC)-induced damage of mdx skeletal muscles, as shown by a decreased contraction-induced force drop and reduction of dye uptake during ECC. These results demonstrate that pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta might provide functional benefits to DMD patients through enhancement of utrophin A expression.

  5. Integrative network modeling approaches to personalized cancer medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A; Readhead, Ben P; Eden, Caroline; Parekh, Samir; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    The ability to collect millions of molecular measurements from patients is a now a reality for clinical medicine. This reality has created the challenge of how to integrate these vast amounts of data into models that accurately predict complex pathophysiology and can translate this complexity into clinically actionable outputs. Integrative informatics and data-driven approaches provide a framework for analyzing large-scale datasets and combining them into multiscale models that can be used to determine the key drivers of disease and identify optimal therapies for treating tumors. In this perspective we discuss how an integrative modeling approach is being used to inform individual treatment decisions, highlighting a recent case report that illustrates the challenges and opportunities for personalized oncology. PMID:27019658

  6. New Integrated Modeling Capabilities: MIDAS' Recent Behavioral Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.; Jarvis, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated human performance modeling software tool that is based on mechanisms that underlie and cause human behavior. A PC-Windows version of MIDAS has been created that integrates the anthropometric character "Jack (TM)" with MIDAS' validated perceptual and attention mechanisms. MIDAS now models multiple simulated humans engaging in goal-related behaviors. New capabilities include the ability to predict situations in which errors and/or performance decrements are likely due to a variety of factors including concurrent workload and performance influencing factors (PIFs). This paper describes a new model that predicts the effects of microgravity on a mission specialist's performance, and its first application to simulating the task of conducting a Life Sciences experiment in space according to a sequential or parallel schedule of performance.

  7. Integrated community-based dementia care: the Geriant model

    PubMed Central

    Glimmerveen, Ludo; Nies, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an in-depth description of the service delivery model of Geriant, a Dutch organization providing community-based care services for people suffering from dementia. Core to its model is the provision of clinical case management, embedded in multidisciplinary dementia care teams. As Geriant's client group includes people from the first presumption of dementia until they can no longer live at home, its care model provides valuable lessons about how different mechanisms of integration are flexibly put to use if the complexity of clients” care needs increases. It showcases how the integration of services for a specific sub-population is combined with alignment of these services with generalist network partners. After a detailed description of the programme and its results, this article builds on the work of Walter Leutz for a conceptual discussion of Geriant's approach to care integration. PMID:26528095

  8. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rattanaphan, Salinee; Srichandr, Panya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM) therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH) system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics and conditions for the design and prototyping of an MH. On average, it was found that users were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was similar to that performed by human hands. According to the interview results, users indicated that they were likely to utilize the MH as an alternative to traditional massage. Therefore, integrated TTM with an MH may help healthcare providers deliver standardized, programmable massage therapy to patients as opposed to variable, inconsistent human massage.

  9. Attention modeled as information in learning multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johannes; Magg, Sven; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Top-down cognitive processes affect the way bottom-up cross-sensory stimuli are integrated. In this paper, we therefore extend a successful previous neural network model of learning multisensory integration in the superior colliculus (SC) by top-down, attentional input and train it on different classes of cross-modal stimuli. The network not only learns to integrate cross-modal stimuli, but the model also reproduces neurons specializing in different combinations of modalities as well as behavioral and neurophysiological phenomena associated with spatial and feature-based attention. Importantly, we do not provide the model with any information about which input neurons are sensory and which are attentional. If the basic mechanisms of our model-self-organized learning of input statistics and divisive normalization-play a major role in the ontogenesis of the SC, then this work shows that these mechanisms suffice to explain a wide range of aspects both of bottom-up multisensory integration and the top-down influence on multisensory integration.

  10. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto; Burr, Tom; Coles, Garill A; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Garrett, Alfred; Gorensek, Maximilian; Hamm, Luther; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Tzanos, Constantine P; Ward, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  11. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  12. Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzy Bernholc

    2011-02-03

    will some day reach a miniaturization limit, forcing designers of Si-based electronics to pursue increased performance by other means. Any other alternative approach would have the unenviable task of matching the ability of Si technology to pack more than a billion interconnected and addressable devices on a chip the size of a thumbnail. Nevertheless, the prospects of developing alternative approaches to fabricate electronic devices have spurred an ever-increasing pace of fundamental research. One of the promising possibilities is molecular electronics (ME), self-assembled molecular-based electronic systems composed of single-molecule devices in ultra dense, ultra fast molecular-sized components. This project focused on developing accurate, reliable theoretical modeling capabilities for describing molecular electronics devices. The participants in the project are given in Table 1. The primary outcomes of this fundamental computational science grant are publications in the open scientific literature. As listed below, 62 papers have been published from this project. In addition, the research has also been the subject of more than 100 invited talks at conferences, including several plenary or keynote lectures. Many of the goals of the original proposal were completed. Specifically, the multi-disciplinary group developed a unique set of capabilities and tools for investigating electron transport in fabricated and self-assembled nanostructures at multiple length and time scales.

  13. Fully integrated care for frail elderly: two American models

    PubMed Central

    Kodner, Dennis L.; Kyriacou, Corinne Kay

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Integrated care for the frail elderly and other populations with complex, chronic, disabling conditions has taken centre stage among policymakers, planners and providers in the United States and other countries. There is a growing belief that integrated care strategies offer the potential to improve service co-ordination, quality outcomes, and efficiency. Therefore, it is critical to have a conceptual understanding of the meaning of integrated care and its various organisational models, as well as practical examples of how such models work. This article examines so-called “fully integrated” models of care in detail, concentrating on two major, well-established American programs, the social health maintenance organisation and the program of all-inclusive care for the elderly. Theory A major challenge to understanding the performance and outcomes of fully integrated care and other organisational models is the lack of a meaningful, analytical paradigm. This article builds upon the work of Walter Leutz, to develop a framework by which new and existing programs can be analysed. This framework is then applied to the two American models that are the focus of this article. Methods Existing data about integrated care in general, and the two model programs in particular, were collected and analysed from reports published by governmental and non-governmental organisations, and journal articles retrieved from Medline, HealthStar and other sources. Results and conclusions This analysis strongly suggests that fully integrated models of care, such as the social health maintenance organisation and program of all-inclusive care for the elderly, are not only feasible, but offer significant potential to improve the delivery of health and social care for frail elderly patients. In addition, the authors identify the factors that are the most critical to the success of fully integrated care, and offer lessons for their development and implementation. Finally, issues

  14. The Thirring-Wess model revisited: a functional integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br

    2005-06-01

    We consider the Wess-Zumino-Witten theory to obtain the functional integral bosonization of the Thirring-Wess model with an arbitrary regularization parameter. Proceeding a systematic of decomposing the Bose field algebra into gauge-invariant- and gauge-non-invariant field subalgebras, we obtain the local decoupled quantum action. The generalized operator solutions for the equations of motion are reconstructed from the functional integral formalism. The isomorphism between the QED {sub 2} (QCD {sub 2}) with broken gauge symmetry by a regularization prescription and the Abelian (non-Abelian) Thirring-Wess model with a fixed bare mass for the meson field is established.

  15. Integrated geological model in a transect of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Passalacqua, H.; Gou, I. ); Truskowski, I.; Di Croce, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons are among the most controversial problems of petroleum exploration in platform and, more especially, complex areas such as thrusted zones. The understanding of these phenomena is essential for the explorationist and is facilitated with the use of mathematical models which enable the integration and assimilation of parameters varying with time and space. In order to carry out this mathematical model an integrated synthesis is necessary. It should include stratigraphic, structural, reservoir and geochemical data. The elaboration of a geological model along a transect in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin was conducted to prepare data for the mathematical modeling application. The main results of the synthesis are: The elaboration of a reliable stratigraphic model including updated ages. A coherent structural interpretation in thrusted zones, validated by the balancing of North-South cross sections. The most relevant findings are: The identification of out-of-sequence thrusts and the involvement of the Upper Crust in the deformation processes. The elaboration of reservoir and hydrodynamic models which point out the importance of the major reservoirs. A characterization of the three different source-rocks of marine and continental origin in the Guayuta Group and Carapita Formation and the comprehension of their maturity, expulsion and migration processes with regards to the structural history. In this way the generation of 1,350 to 3,300 [times] 10[sup 9] barrels of oil has been estimated, of which 6 to 15 percent have been recognized within the transect. The final mathematical modeling, with the input of these synthetical data will be carried out with the use of the available software in the platform area. New software is presently being developed for thrusted areas.

  16. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  17. L1 integration in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Babushok, Daria V.; Ostertag, Eric M.; Courtney, Christine E.; Choi, Janice M.; Kazazian, Haig H.

    2006-01-01

    To study integration of the human LINE-1 retrotransposon (L1) in vivo, we developed a transgenic mouse model of L1 retrotransposition that displays de novo somatic L1 insertions at a high frequency, occasionally several insertions per mouse. We mapped 3′ integration sites of 51 insertions by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL–PCR). Analysis of integration locations revealed a broad genomic distribution with a modest preference for intergenic regions. We characterized the complete structures of 33 de novo retrotransposition events. Our results highlight the large number of highly truncated L1s, as over 52% (27/51) of total integrants were <1/3 the length of a full-length element. New integrants carry all structural characteristics typical of genomic L1s, including a number with inversions, deletions, and 5′-end microhomologies to the target DNA sequence. Notably, at least 13% (7/51) of all insertions contain a short stretch of extra nucleotides at their 5′ end, which we postulate result from template-jumping by the L1-encoded reverse transcriptase. We propose a unified model of L1 integration that explains all of the characteristic features of L1 retrotransposition, such as 5′ truncations, inversions, extra nucleotide additions, and 5′ boundary and inversion point microhomologies. PMID:16365384

  18. A model-driven approach for biomedical data integration.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David; Farkash, Ariel; Timm, John T E

    2010-01-01

    A core challenge in biomedical data integration is to enable semantic interoperability between its various stakeholders as well as other interested parties. Promoting the adoption of worldwide accepted information standards along with common controlled terminologies is the right path to achieve this. Our paper describes a solution to this fundamental problem by proposing an approach to semantic data integration based on information models serving as a common language to represent health data coupled with technology that is able to represent the data semantics. We used the HL7 v3 Reference Information Model (RIM) [1] to derive a specific data model for the integrated data, the Web Ontology Language (OWL) [2] to build an ontology that harmonizes the metadata from the disparate data sources, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) [3] to model the data representation, and the Object Constraint Language (OCL) [4] to specify UML model constraints. To illustrate the approach, we use the Essential Hypertension Summary CDA document and related models from Hypergenes, a European Commission funded project [5] exploring the Essential Hypertension disease model.

  19. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-03-24

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving aggregate measures of biodiversity such as richness and diversity. While ecological models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, there are few attempts to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We develop the first predictive model that integrates a vegetation-focused state-and-transition model with species distribution models for birds. We demonstrate how this integrated model can be used to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. For example, using a typical agricultural land management scenario from south-eastern Australia, we demonstrate how the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper, an iconic threatened species, may be suboptimal for meeting vegetation condition objectives. This highlights that any 'preferred' management decision depends on the value assigned to the different objectives. An exploration of sensitivity to value weightings highlighted that 'no management' or 'weed control' were most likely to be the best management options to meet multiple objectives in the scenario we explored. We thus illustrate an approach to using the model outputs to explore trade-offs between bird and vegetation objectives. Our approach to exploring management outcomes and trade-offs using integrated modelling and structured decision support approaches has wide application for conservation management problems in which trade-offs exist between competing objectives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Principles as a Guide for Constraint Based and Dynamic Modeling: Towards an Integrative Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Sehr, Christiana; Kremling, Andreas; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    During the last 10 years, systems biology has matured from a fuzzy concept combining omics, mathematical modeling and computers into a scientific field on its own right. In spite of its incredible potential, the multilevel complexity of its objects of study makes it very difficult to establish a reliable connection between data and models. The great number of degrees of freedom often results in situations, where many different models can explain/fit all available datasets. This has resulted in a shift of paradigm from the initially dominant, maybe naive, idea of inferring the system out of a number of datasets to the application of different techniques that reduce the degrees of freedom before any data set is analyzed. There is a wide variety of techniques available, each of them can contribute a piece of the puzzle and include different kinds of experimental information. But the challenge that remains is their meaningful integration. Here we show some theoretical results that enable some of the main modeling approaches to be applied sequentially in a complementary manner, and how this workflow can benefit from evolutionary reasoning to keep the complexity of the problem in check. As a proof of concept, we show how the synergies between these modeling techniques can provide insight into some well studied problems: Ammonia assimilation in bacteria and an unbranched linear pathway with end-product inhibition. PMID:26501332

  1. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  2. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-01-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.

  3. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-04-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.

  4. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  5. An integrated coastal model for aeolian and hydrodynamic sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; den Bieman, J.; van Koningsveld, M.; Luijendijk, A. P.; Parteli, E. J. R.; Plant, N. G.; Roelvink, J. A.; Storms, J. E. A.; de Vries, S.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; Ye, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Dunes are formed by aeolian and hydrodynamic processes. Over the last decades numerical models were developed that capture our knowledge of the hydrodynamic transport of sediment near the coast. At the same time others have worked on creating numerical models for aeolian-based transport. Here we show a coastal model that integrates three existing numerical models into one online-coupled system. The XBeach model simulates storm-induced erosion (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Delft3D model (Lesser et al., 2004) is used for long term morphology and the Dune model (Durán et al., 2010) is used to simulate the aeolian transport. These three models were adapted to be able to exchange bed updates in real time. The updated models were integrated using the ESMF framework (Hill et al., 2004), a system for composing coupled modeling systems. The goal of this integrated model is to capture the relevant coastal processes at different time and spatial scales. Aeolian transport can be relevant during storms when the strong winds are generating new dunes, but also under relative mild conditions when the dunes are strengthened by transporting sand from the intertidal area to the dunes. Hydrodynamic transport is also relevant during storms, when high water in combination with waves can cause dunes to avalanche and erode. While under normal conditions the hydrodynamic transport can result in an onshore transport of sediment up to the intertidal area. The exchange of sediment in the intertidal area is a dynamic interaction between the hydrodynamic transport and the aeolian transport. This dynamic interaction is particularly important for simulating dune evolution at timescales longer than individual storm events. The main contribution of the integrated model is that it simulates the dynamic exchange of sediment between aeolian and hydrodynamic models in the intertidal area. By integrating the numerical models, we hope to develop a model that has a broader scope and applicability than

  6. Integrated Model Reduction and Control of Aircraft with Flexible Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to the modeling and control of aircraft with exible wings. The coupled aircraft rigid body dynamics with a high-order elastic wing model can be represented in a nite dimensional state-space form. Given a set of desired output covariance, a model reduction process is performed by using the weighted Modal Cost Analysis (MCA). A dynamic output feedback controller, which is designed based on the reduced-order model, is developed by utilizing output covariance constraint (OCC) algorithm, and the resulting OCC design weighting matrix is used for the next iteration of the weighted cost analysis. This controller is then validated for full-order evaluation model to ensure that the aircraft's handling qualities are met and the uttering motion of the wings suppressed. An iterative algorithm is developed in CONDUIT environment to realize the integration of model reduction and controller design. The proposed integrated approach is applied to NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) for demonstration.

  7. Enhanced multi-channel model for auditory spectrotemporal integration.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yonghee; Feth, Lawrence L; Hoglund, Evelyn M

    2015-11-01

    In psychoacoustics, a multi-channel model has traditionally been used to describe detection improvement for multicomponent signals. This model commonly postulates that energy or information within either the frequency or time domain is transformed into a probabilistic decision variable across the auditory channels, and that their weighted linear summation determines optimum detection performance when compared to a critical value such as a decision criterion. In this study, representative integration-based channel models, specifically focused on signal-processing properties of the auditory periphery are reviewed (e.g., Durlach's channel model). In addition, major limitations of the previous channel models are described when applied to spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal integration performance by human listeners. Here, integration refers to detection threshold improvements as the number of brief tone bursts in a signal is increased. Previous versions of the multi-channel model underestimate listener performance in these experiments. Further, they are unable to apply a single processing unit to signals which vary simultaneously in time and frequency. Improvements to the previous channel models are proposed by considering more realistic conditions such as correlated signal responses in the auditory channels, nonlinear properties in system performance, and a peripheral processing unit operating in both time and frequency domains.

  8. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntingzger, Deborah; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, A. M.; Bowman, Kevin; Cias, Philippe; Cook, Robert B.; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, A.; Jain, Atul K.; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multi-model ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill-based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model – one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (–1.16 vs. –1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  9. Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, Florian Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.

  10. Integrating Identity Management With Federated Healthcare Data Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Peyton, Liam

    In order to manage performance and provide integrated services, health care data needs to be linked and aggregated across data sources from different organizations. The Internet and secure B2B networks offer the possibility of providing near real-time integration. However, there are three major stumbling blocks. One is to standardize and agree upon a common data model across organizations. The second is to match identities between different locations in order to link and aggregate records. The third is to protect identity and ensure compliance with privacy laws. In this paper, we analyze three main approaches to the problem and use a healthcare scenario to illustrate how each one addresses different aspects of the problem while failing to address others. We then present a systematic framework in which the different approaches can be flexibly combined for a more comprehensive approach to integrate identity management with federated healthcare data models.

  11. An integrated dynamic model of a flexible wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongers, Peter M. M.; Bierbooms, Wim A. A.; Dijkstra, Sjoerd; Vanholten, Theo

    1990-06-01

    A model to study the dynamic behavior of flexible wind turbines was developed. The different subsystems of the wind turbine are individually modeled with about the same degree of accuracy. The aerodynamic part describes wind shear, gravity effects, unsteady effects, and dynamic inflow. The rotor blades are provided with degrees of freedom in lag and flap directions. The tower construction is modeled including the first bending mode. The first torsional mode of the transmission is included in the model. The model of synchronous generator with dc link consists of a nonlinear fourth order model, including saturation effects. The different models of the subsystems are coupled into one integrated dynamic model which is implemented as simulation code in the DUWECS (Delf University Wind Energy Converter Simulation Package) program. The DUWECS program is developed in such a manner that it is an easy to handle tool for the study of the dynamic features of wind turbine systems.

  12. An integrated inundation model for highly developed urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, A S; Hsu, M H; Chen, T S; Chang, T J

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this study with various components for simulating the complex flow phenomena in urban drainage basins. The model integrates the HEC-1 model, a 1-D dynamic channel-flow model, a 2-D non-inertia overland-flow model and the SWMM model to reflect the hydraulic processes in areas with different characteristics. The inundation of underground infrastructure during flood is also considered in the model. The typhoon Nari event in 2001, which resulted in severe flood in downtown Taipei, is simulated by the model. The result is compared with the survey records of flooded areas, which reveals the storage effect of underground infrastrucures is significant to the simulation results of highly developed urban areas.

  13. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  14. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  15. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects.

    PubMed

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication.

  16. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Mejean, Aurelie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economic systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. This article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wide range of integrated assessment models to classify differences among models based on their carbon price responses. Model diagnostics can uncover patterns and provide insights into why, under a given scenario, certain types of models behave in observed ways. Such insights are informative since model behavior can have a significant impact on projections of climate change mitigation costs and other policy-relevant information. The authors propose diagnostic indicators to characterize model responses to carbon price signals and test these in a diagnostic study with 11 global models. Indicators describe the magnitude of emission abatement and the associated costs relative to a harmonized baseline, the relative changes in carbon intensity and energy intensity and the extent of transformation in the energy system. This study shows a correlation among indicators suggesting that models can be classified into groups based on common patterns of behavior in response to carbon pricing. Such a classification can help to more easily explain variations among policy-relevant model results.

  17. Empathy: An Integral Model in the Counseling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding on a framework introduced by Carl Rogers, an integral model of empathy in counseling uses empathic understanding through 3 ways of knowing: Subjective empathy enables a counselor to momentarily experience what it is like to be a client, interpersonal empathy relates to understanding a client's phenomenological experiencing, and objective…

  18. Integrating Emotion-Focused Therapy with the Satir Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubacher, Lorrie

    2006-01-01

    The experiential humanistic family systems approach of Virginia Satir lacks a theoretical structure and is thus vulnerable to losing its experiential nature and being reduced to a mere collection of creative techniques. A way to effectively keep Satir's transformative presence alive is to integrate her approach with a model that is solidly…

  19. Breathing Life into Training: A Model of Integrated Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton, Robin, Ed.; And Others

    A model of integrated training within the context of Australia's vehicle industry certificate (VIC) was developed, tested, and evaluated through six different pilot programs in different enterprises across Australia's automotive industry. The pilot programs' primary objective was to provide access to and ensure successful participation in…

  20. The Integrated Decision Modeling System (IDMS) User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    AL-TP-1 991-0009 AD-A23 6 033 THE INTEGRATED DECISION MODELING SYSTEM (IDMS) USER’S MANUAL IJonathan C. Fast John N. Taylor Metrica , Incorporated...Looper 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Metrica , Incorporated 8301 Broadway, Suite 215 San

  1. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  2. Models of Relevant Cue Integration in Name Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Luigi; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Semantic features have different levels of importance in indexing a target concept. The article proposes that semantic relevance, an algorithmically derived measure based on concept descriptions, may efficiently capture the relative importance of different semantic features. Three models of how semantic features are integrated in terms of…

  3. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  4. Model reduction in integrated controls-structures design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    1993-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to present a model reduction technique developed for the integrated controls-structures design of flexible structures. Integrated controls-structures design problems are typically posed as nonlinear mathematical programming problems, where the design variables consist of both structural and control parameters. In the solution process, both structural and control design variables are constantly changing; therefore, the dynamic characteristics of the structure are also changing. This presents a problem in obtaining a reduced-order model for active control design and analysis which will be valid for all design points within the design space. In other words, the frequency and number of the significant modes of the structure (modes that should be included) may vary considerably throughout the design process. This is also true as the locations and/or masses of the sensors and actuators change. Moreover, since the number of design evaluations in the integrated design process could easily run into thousands, any feasible order-reduction method should not require model reduction analysis at every design iteration. In this paper a novel and efficient technique for model reduction in the integrated controls-structures design process, which addresses these issues, is presented.

  5. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  6. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  7. INTEGRATION OF AN ECONOMIC WITH AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize our work on integration of an economy under imperfect competition with a simple Lotka-Volterra type ecological model. Firms and households operate within a single period planning horizon, thus there is no savings or investment. Wages are set by a dominant employer. P...

  8. Spherical Model Integrating Academic Competence with Social Adjustment and Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…

  9. College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchemin, James

    2014-01-01

    College student-athletes face unique stressors that can contribute to compromised well-being. Additionally, there are a variety of barriers that prevent student-athletes from accessing mental health supports. This study used self-report questionnaires and qualitative interviews to examine the impact of an integrative outreach model that…

  10. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  11. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  12. A Model of Integrative Planning for Cultural Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    1997-01-01

    Consists of a chart that represents a model of integrative planning for cultural curriculum for a 9th- through 12th-grade classroom. The curriculum addresses history, literature, geography, biology, science, art, and music of the Great Civilizations and the Middle Ages and Renaissance Europe, and the vital functions of animals and plants. Includes…

  13. A Model for Implementing Integrative Practice in Health Care Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been increased awareness and use of complementary/alternative therapies (CAM) in many countries without the health care infrastructure to support it. The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine referred to the combining of mainstream medical therapies and CAM as integrative medicine. The creation of integrative health care teams will definitely result in redefining roles, but more importantly in a change in how services are delivered. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the necessary health care agency resources to support an integrative practice model. A logic model is used to depict the findings of a review of current evidence. Logic models are designed to show relationships between the goals of a program or initiative, the resources to achieve desired outputs and the activities that lead to outcomes. The four major resource categories necessary for implementing integrative care are within the domains of a) professional and research development, b) health human resource planning, c) regulation and legislation and d) practice and management in clinical areas. It was concluded that the system outcomes from activities within these resource categories should lead to freedom of choice in health care; a culturally sensitive health care system and a broader spectrum of services for achieving public health goals. PMID:21614155

  14. A Dynamic Theory of World Press Motivation: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillinger, Elisabeth

    Addressing the dynamic and integrative nature of the world's press systems, this paper presents a comprehensive press theory and accompanying model. Three "primary motives"--survival, ideology, and market--are posited as determinants of press systems, using the nation state as the unit of analysis. The premises of the paper are: (1)…

  15. ITI: The Model. Integrated Thematic Instruction. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Susan; Olsen, Karen

    This book presents Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI), a model for implementing a "brain-compatible" learning environment for students and teachers using a year-long theme to organize curriculum content and skills. The book's introduction identifies six "mismemes" (or mistaken ideas) that have hindered educational reform,…

  16. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  17. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-12-01

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified.

  18. An integrated model of human-wildlife interdependence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Kun H.; Walsh, Richard G.; Johnson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate wildlife-related ecologic and economic variables into an econometric model. The model reveals empirical evidence of the presumed interdependence of human-wildlife and the holistic nature of humanity's relationship to the ecosystem. Human use of biologic resources varies not only with income, education, and population, but also with sustainability of humankind's action relative to the quality and quantity of the supporting ecological base.

  19. Thermal maturity of Jurassic shales from the Newark Basin, U.S.A.: influence of hydrothermal fluids and implications to basin modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, C.C.; Kotra, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Organic geochemical investigations were conducted on a series of cores that systematically sampled the uppermost Jurassic strata from the northern Newark Basin. Each sedimentary unit consists of fluvial red sandstones and siltstones with cyclic deposits of interbedded black lacustrine shales and gray deltaic siltstones. In a suite of organic-rich shales from the Boonton, Towaco and Feltville Formations, organic maturation parameters were used to determine aspects of the thermal history of the Newark Basin. Comparisons of model calculations and measured maturities support39 Ar/40 Ar-geochronometer studies that indicate a hydrothermal event occurred ???175 Ma ago. An increase in the regional geothermal gradient to ???7.5??C/100 m for ???5 Ma best conforms to the organic geochemical observations. Biomarker compounds in Boonton and Towaco strata should have been relatively unaltered by this regional event, but anomalous molecular distributions in the organic-rich rocks may have resulted from localized heating by hydrothermal fluids. The effects of this interaction would be very subtle and may be indistinguishable from variations caused by differences in organic facies. Within this uncertainty, sterane and hopane isomerization and steroid aromatization reactions advanced in the Boonton and Towaco Formation strata primarily because of burial and normal geothermal heating that followed the hydrothermal event. Biomarker kinetic models indicate that ???2400 m of Boonton and post-Boonton strata were eroded after basinal uplift commenced ???50 Ma ago. ?? 1990.

  20. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation - description of a novel in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K; Pscherer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts׳ maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients׳ sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients׳ serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients׳ blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β.

  1. Integrable modification of the critical Chalker-Coddington network model

    SciTech Connect

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Fendley, Paul; Cardy, John

    2011-10-01

    We consider the Chalker-Coddington network model for the integer quantum Hall effect, and examine the possibility of solving it exactly. In the supersymmetric path integral framework, we introduce a truncation procedure, leading to a series of well-defined two-dimensional loop models with two loop flavors. In the phase diagram of the first-order truncated model, we identify four integrable branches related to the dilute Birman-Wenzl-Murakami braid-monoid algebra and parameterized by the loop fugacity n. In the continuum limit, two of these branches (1,2) are described by a pair of decoupled copies of a Coulomb-gas theory, whereas the other two branches (3,4) couple the two loop flavors, and relate to an SU(2){sub r}xSU(2){sub r}/SU(2){sub 2r} Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) coset model for the particular values n=-2cos[{pi}/(r+2)], where r is a positive integer. The truncated Chalker-Coddington model is the n=0 point of branch 4. By numerical diagonalization, we find that its universality class is neither an analytic continuation of the WZW coset nor the universality class of the original Chalker-Coddington model. It constitutes rather an integrable, critical approximation to the latter.

  2. Integrable modification of the critical Chalker-Coddington network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Fendley, Paul; Cardy, John

    2011-10-01

    We consider the Chalker-Coddington network model for the integer quantum Hall effect, and examine the possibility of solving it exactly. In the supersymmetric path integral framework, we introduce a truncation procedure, leading to a series of well-defined two-dimensional loop models with two loop flavors. In the phase diagram of the first-order truncated model, we identify four integrable branches related to the dilute Birman-Wenzl-Murakami braid-monoid algebra and parameterized by the loop fugacity n. In the continuum limit, two of these branches (1,2) are described by a pair of decoupled copies of a Coulomb-gas theory, whereas the other two branches (3,4) couple the two loop flavors, and relate to an SU(2)r×SU(2)r/SU(2)2r Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) coset model for the particular values n=-2cos[π/(r+2)], where r is a positive integer. The truncated Chalker-Coddington model is the n=0 point of branch 4. By numerical diagonalization, we find that its universality class is neither an analytic continuation of the WZW coset nor the universality class of the original Chalker-Coddington model. It constitutes rather an integrable, critical approximation to the latter.

  3. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially changemore » MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  4. Integrating microbial diversity in soil carbon dynamic models parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Benjamin; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Leterme, Philippe; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the numerous concerns about soil carbon dynamic, a large quantity of carbon dynamic models has been developed during the last century. These models are mainly in the form of deterministic compartment models with carbon fluxes between compartments represented by ordinary differential equations. Nowadays, lots of them consider the microbial biomass as a compartment of the soil organic matter (carbon quantity). But the amount of microbial carbon is rarely used in the differential equations of the models as a limiting factor. Additionally, microbial diversity and community composition are mostly missing, although last advances in soil microbial analytical methods during the two past decades have shown that these characteristics play also a significant role in soil carbon dynamic. As soil microorganisms are essential drivers of soil carbon dynamic, the question about explicitly integrating their role have become a key issue in soil carbon dynamic models development. Some interesting attempts can be found and are dominated by the incorporation of several compartments of different groups of microbial biomass in terms of functional traits and/or biogeochemical compositions to integrate microbial diversity. However, these models are basically heuristic models in the sense that they are used to test hypotheses through simulations. They have rarely been confronted to real data and thus cannot be used to predict realistic situations. The objective of this work was to empirically integrate microbial diversity in a simple model of carbon dynamic through statistical modelling of the model parameters. This work is based on available experimental results coming from a French National Research Agency program called DIMIMOS. Briefly, 13C-labelled wheat residue has been incorporated into soils with different pedological characteristics and land use history. Then, the soils have been incubated during 104 days and labelled and non-labelled CO2 fluxes have been measured at ten

  5. Runoff prediction using an integrated hybrid modelling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Shamim, Muhammad Ali; Han, Dawei; Mathew, Jimson

    2009-06-01

    SummaryRainfall runoff is a very complicated process due to its nonlinear and multidimensional dynamics, and hence difficult to model. There are several options for a modeller to consider, for example: the type of input data to be used, the length of model calibration (training) data and whether or not the input data be treated as signals with different frequency bands so that they can be modelled separately. This paper describes a new hybrid modelling scheme to answer the above mentioned questions. The proposed methodology is based on a hybrid model integrating wavelet transformation, a modelling engine (Artificial Neural Network) and the Gamma Test. First, the Gamma Test is used to decide the required input data dimensions and its length. Second, the wavelet transformation decomposes the input signals into different frequency bands. Finally, a modelling engine (ANN in this study) is used to model the decomposed signals separately. The proposed scheme was tested using the Brue catchment, Southwest England, as a case study and has produced very positive results. The hybrid model outperforms all other models tested. This study has a wider implication in the hydrological modelling field since its general framework could be applied to other model combinations (e.g., model engine could be Support Vector Machines, neuro-fuzzy systems, or even a conceptual model. The signal decomposition could be carried out by Fourier transformation).

  6. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  7. Design of a framework for modeling, integration and simulation of physiological models.

    PubMed

    Erson, E; Cavusoglu, M

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of physiological processes deal with the challenges of multiscale models in which coupling is very high within and among scales. Information technology approaches together with related analytical and computational tools will help to deal with these challenges. Physiological Model Simulation, Integration and Modeling Framework, Phy-SIM, provides the modeling environment which will help to cultivate various approaches to deal with the inherent problem of multiscale modeling of physiological systems. In this paper, we present the modular design of Phy-SIM. The proposed layered design of Phy-SIM, separates structure from function in physiological processes advocating modular thinking in developing and integrating physiological models. Moreover, the ontology based architecture will improve the modeling process by the mechanisms to attach anatomical and physiological ontological information to the models. The ultimate aim of the proposed approaches is to enhance the physiological model development and integration processes by providing the tools and mechanisms in Phy-SIM.

  8. Systematic integration of experimental data and models in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The behaviour of biological systems can be deduced from their mathematical models. However, multiple sources of data in diverse forms are required in the construction of a model in order to define its components and their biochemical reactions, and corresponding parameters. Automating the assembly and use of systems biology models is dependent upon data integration processes involving the interoperation of data and analytical resources. Results Taverna workflows have been developed for the automated assembly of quantitative parameterised metabolic networks in the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). A SBML model is built in a systematic fashion by the workflows which starts with the construction of a qualitative network using data from a MIRIAM-compliant genome-scale model of yeast metabolism. This is followed by parameterisation of the SBML model with experimental data from two repositories, the SABIO-RK enzyme kinetics database and a database of quantitative experimental results. The models are then calibrated and simulated in workflows that call out to COPASIWS, the web service interface to the COPASI software application for analysing biochemical networks. These systems biology workflows were evaluated for their ability to construct a parameterised model of yeast glycolysis. Conclusions Distributed information about metabolic reactions that have been described to MIRIAM standards enables the automated assembly of quantitative systems biology models of metabolic networks based on user-defined criteria. Such data integration processes can be implemented as Taverna workflows to provide a rapid overview of the components and their relationships within a biochemical system. PMID:21114840

  9. Integrated simulation and data envelopment analysis models in emergency department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminuddin, Wan Malissa Wan Mohd; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine the best resource allocation and to increase the efficiency service of an emergency department in a public hospital in Kuala Lumpur. We integrate Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and three models of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Input-oriented CCR model, Input-oriented BCC model and Super-Efficiency model to fulfill such objective. Based on the comparison of results taken from the DEA models, the combination of DES, Input-oriented BCC model and Super-Efficiency BCC model is seen to be the best resource allocation technique to be used for enhancing the hospital efficiency. The combination has reduced patients waiting time while improving the average utilization rate of hospital resources compared to the current situation.

  10. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and

  11. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    SciTech Connect

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  12. Longitudinal omics modeling and integration in clinical metabonomics research: challenges in childhood metabolic health research

    PubMed Central

    Sperisen, Peter; Cominetti, Ornella; Martin, François-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modeling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modeling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system's components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modeling in the context of childhood metabolic health research. PMID:26301225

  13. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  14. Integrated and spectral energetics of the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated and spectral error energetics of the GLAS General circulation model are compared with observations for periods in January 1975, 1976, and 1977. For two cases the model shows significant skill in predicting integrated energetics quantities out to two weeks, and for all three cases, the integrated monthly mean energetics show qualitative improvements over previous versions of the model in eddy kinetic energy and barotropic conversions. Fundamental difficulties remain with leakage of energy to the stratospheric level, particularly above strong initial jet streams associated in part with regions of steep terrain. The spectral error growth study represents the first comparison of general circulation model spectral energetics predictions with the corresponding observational spectra on a day by day basis. The major conclusion is that eddy kinetics energy can be correct while significant errors occur in the kinetic energy of wavenumber 3. Both the model and observations show evidence of single wavenumber dominance in eddy kinetic energy and the correlation of spectral kinetics and potential energy.

  15. Soil C and N models that integrate microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Louis, Benjamin P; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie; Leterme, Philippe; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya

    Industrial agriculture is yearly responsible for the loss of 55-100 Pg of historical soil carbon and 9.9 Tg of reactive nitrogen worldwide. Therefore, management practices should be adapted to preserve ecological processes and reduce inputs and environmental impacts. In particular, the management of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key factor influencing C and N cycles. Soil microorganisms play a central role in SOM dynamics. For instance, microbial diversity may explain up to 77 % of carbon mineralisation activities. However, soil microbial diversity is actually rarely taken into account in models of C and N dynamics. Here, we review the influence of microbial diversity on C and N dynamics, and the integration of microbial diversity in soil C and N models. We found that a gain of microbial richness and evenness enhances soil C and N dynamics on the average, though the improvement of C and N dynamics depends on the composition of microbial community. We reviewed 50 models integrating soil microbial diversity. More than 90 % of models integrate microbial diversity with discrete compartments representing conceptual functional groups (64 %) or identified taxonomic groups interacting in a food web (28 %). Half of the models have not been tested against an empirical dataset while the other half mainly consider fixed parameters. This is due to the difficulty to link taxonomic and functional diversity.

  16. Hypothetical model in testing integrated development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children.

  17. Frequency Integrated Radiation Models for Absorbing and Scattering Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripoll, J. F.; Wray, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to contribute to the simplification of existing radiation models used in complex emitting, absorbing, scattering media. The application in view is the computation of flows occurring in such complex media, such as certain stellar interiors or combusting gases. In these problems, especially when scattering is present, the complexity of the radiative transfer leads to a high numerical cost, which is often avoided by simply neglecting it. The complexity lies partly in the strong dependence of the spectral coefficients on frequency. Models are then needed to capture the effects of the radiation when one cannot afford to directly solve for it. In this work, the frequency dependence will be modeled and integrated out in order retain only the average effects. A frequency-integrated radiative transfer equation (RTE) will be derived.

  18. Integrative Systems Models of Cardiac Excitation Contraction Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L.; Winslow, Raimond L.

    2010-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. The complexity and integrative nature of heart cell electrophysiology and Ca2+-cycling has led to an evolution of computational models that have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of heart function. An important emerging theme in systems biology is that the detailed nature of local signaling events, such as those that occur in the cardiac dyad, have important consequences at higher biological scales. Multi-scale modeling techniques have revealed many mechanistic links between micro-scale events, such as Ca2+ binding to a channel protein, and macro-scale phenomena, such as excitation-contraction coupling gain. Here we review experimentally based multi-scale computational models of excitation-contraction coupling and the insights that have been gained through their application. PMID:21212390

  19. Predictive Modeling and Integrative Physiology: The Physiome Projects

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental paradigm in physiological research is integration. Biological researchers are now ready to define for a species a mathematical construct, the Physiome, the all-encompassing quantitative model of an organism. The goal of the human Physiome project is improved health care, through deep understanding of the organism, all the way down to the genes, reconciling contradictions and clarifying cause and effect. The strategies for accomplishing this long term aim include the systematic gathering of old and new knowledge into shared databases, and integrating the information into self consistent, reproducible, mathematical models. Multiscale models, for practicality, cover only a few levels at a time. Beginning at the middle level, the cell, where the knowledge base is largest and most secure, and the elements well defined as functional biophysical/biochemical modules, the plan is to work up to the organism level and down to the gene level, in the end providing clear linkages between phenotype and the genome. PMID:22919435

  20. Process evaluation of an integrated model of discharge planning.

    PubMed

    LeClerc, M; Wells, D L

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a new, empirically-derived model of discharge planning for acutely-ill elderly was evaluated to determine (a) whether it could be implemented in a hospital setting, and (b) what facilitated or challenged the implementation. The process evaluation involved four case studies conducted on three in-patient units of two acute-care hospitals. Data were analyzed using explanation-building and case comparison methods. Three main study results emerged: (a) The integrated model had the potential to be implemented in a hospital setting when certain conditions were in place, (b) use of the integrated approach to discharge planning contributed to patient satisfaction, and (c) the materials developed as part of the discharge planning protocol required only minor formatting modifications in order to be rendered user-friendly. In this article, recommendations are made that will facilitate the model's implementation and utilization in other clinical settings and ongoing and future process evaluations.

  1. An Integrated Modeling Framework for Probable Maximum Precipitation and Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangrade, S.; Rastogi, D.; Kao, S. C.; Ashfaq, M.; Naz, B. S.; Kabela, E.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Singh, N.; Preston, B. L.; Mei, R.

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation and flood events projected in the future climate, there is a strong need to enhance our modeling capabilities to assess the potential risks on critical energy-water infrastructures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. In this study, an integrated modeling framework is developed through high performance computing to investigate the climate change effects on probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and probable maximum flood (PMF). Multiple historical storms from 1981-2012 over the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin near the Atlanta metropolitan area are simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) forcings. After further WRF model tuning, these storms are used to simulate PMP through moisture maximization at initial and lateral boundaries. A high resolution hydrological model, Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model, implemented at 90m resolution and calibrated by the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow observations, is then used to simulate the corresponding PMF. In addition to the control simulation that is driven by CFSR, multiple storms from the Community Climate System Model version 4 under the Representative Concentrations Pathway 8.5 emission scenario are used to simulate PMP and PMF in the projected future climate conditions. The multiple PMF scenarios developed through this integrated modeling framework may be utilized to evaluate the vulnerability of existing energy-water infrastructures with various aspects associated PMP and PMF.

  2. Integrated science model for assessment of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.K.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Kheshgi, H.S.

    1994-04-01

    Integrated assessment models are intended to represent processes that govern physical, ecological, economic and social systems. This report describes a scientific model relating emissions to global temperature and sea level. This model is intended to be one component of an integrated assessment model which is, of course, much more comprehensive. The model is able to reproduce past changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, global temperature, and sea level. The model is used to estimate the emissions rates required to lead to stabilization of CO{sub 2} at various levels. The model is also used to estimate global temperature rise, the rate of temperature change, and sea level rise driven by IPCC emissions scenarios. The emission of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} is modeled to have the largest long term effect on climate. Results do show the importance of expected changes of trace greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} in the near future. Because of the importance of these other trace gases, further work is recommended to more accurately estimate their effects.

  3. Integrating Multiscale Modeling with Drug Effects for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangfang L.; Oduola, Wasiu O.; Qian, Lijun; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review multiscale modeling for cancer treatment with the incorporation of drug effects from an applied system’s pharmacology perspective. Both the classical pharmacology and systems biology are inherently quantitative; however, systems biology focuses more on networks and multi factorial controls over biological processes rather than on drugs and targets in isolation, whereas systems pharmacology has a strong focus on studying drugs with regard to the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relations accompanying drug interactions with multiscale physiology as well as the prediction of dosage-exposure responses and economic potentials of drugs. Thus, it requires multiscale methods to address the need for integrating models from the molecular levels to the cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is a common belief that tumorigenesis and tumor growth can be best understood and tackled by employing and integrating a multifaceted approach that includes in vivo and in vitro experiments, in silico models, multiscale tumor modeling, continuous/discrete modeling, agent-based modeling, and multiscale modeling with PK/PD drug effect inputs. We provide an example application of multiscale modeling employing stochastic hybrid system for a colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with the application of Lapatinib drug. It is observed that the simulation results are similar to those observed from the setup of the wet-lab experiments at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. PMID:26792977

  4. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  5. Shikonin inhibits maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and suppresses allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Chien-Neng; Lai, Yu-Ting; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Hui-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Shikonin exhibits a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we assessed its effects on maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) and on allergic reactions in a murine model of asthma. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cultured murine BM-DCs were used to investigate the effects of shikonin on expression of cell surface markers and their stimulation of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. The therapeutic potential of shikonin was evaluated in a model of allergic airway disease. KEY RESULTS Shikonin dose-dependently inhibited expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD80, CD86, CCR7 and OX40L on BM-DCs, induced by a mixture of ovalbumin (OVA; 100 µg·mL−1) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP; 20 ng·mL−1). Shikonin-treated BM-DCs were poor stimulators of CD4+ T lymphocyte and induced lower levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release by responding T-cells. After intratracheal instillation of shikonin in OVA-immunized mice, OVA challenge induced lower IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α and eotaxin release in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, lower IL-4 and IL-5 production in lung cells and mediastinal lymph node cells and attenuated OVA-induced lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Shikonin effectively suppressed OVA + TSLP-induced BM-DC maturation in vitro and inhibited allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma, showing good potential as a treatment for allergic asthma. Also, our model provides a novel platform for screening drugs for allergic diseases. PMID:20735407

  6. Sabin Special Education. A Model To Model: Collaborate To Integrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Springs Public Schools, CO.

    This collection of materials presents guidelines and forms used in the Sabin Junior High School (Colorado Springs, Colorado) special education collaborative program. A flow chart illustrates the continuum of services offered by the model. Contents of the manual include definitions of terms used; special education team visions concerning…

  7. A New Model for the Integration of Science and Mathematics: The Balance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, S. Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an integrated scientific and mathematical model that is suited to the background of Turkish teachers. The dimensions of the model are given and compared to the models which have been previously developed and the findings of earlier studies on the topic. The model is called the balance, reflecting the…

  8. Integration of the DAYCENT Biogeochemical Model within a Multi-Model Framework

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth

    2012-07-01

    Agricultural residues are the largest near term source of cellulosic 13 biomass for bioenergy production, but removing agricultural residues sustainably 14 requires considering the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. 15 Determining sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues has received 16 significant attention and integrated modeling strategies have been built to evaluate 17 sustainable removal rates considering soil erosion and organic matter constraints. 18 However the current integrated model does not quantitatively assess soil carbon 19 and long term crop yields impacts of residue removal. Furthermore the current 20 integrated model does not evaluate the greenhouse gas impacts of residue 21 removal, specifically N2O and CO2 gas fluxes from the soil surface. The DAYCENT 22 model simulates several important processes for determining agroecosystem 23 performance. These processes include daily Nitrogen-gas flux, daily carbon dioxide 24 flux from soil respiration, soil organic carbon and nitrogen, net primary productivity, 25 and daily water and nitrate leaching. Each of these processes is an indicator of 26 sustainability when evaluating emerging cellulosic biomass production systems for 27 bioenergy. A potentially vulnerable cellulosic biomass resource is agricultural 28 residues. This paper presents the integration of the DAYCENT model with the 29 existing integration framework modeling tool to investigate additional environment 30 impacts of agricultural residue removal. The integrated model is extended to 31 facilitate two-way coupling between DAYCENT and the existing framework. The 32 extended integrated model is applied to investigate additional environmental 33 impacts from a recent sustainable agricultural residue removal dataset. The 34 integrated model with DAYCENT finds some differences in sustainable removal 35 rates compared to previous results for a case study county in Iowa. The extended 36 integrated model with

  9. Towards an integrated model of the NIC layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, O.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S.; Marinak, M.; Meezan, N.; Milovich, J.; Olson, R.; Patel, M.; Robey, H.; Sepke, S.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-40% of the calculated yields.

  10. An integrated modeling approach to age invariant face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, Fahad Bashir; Pears, Russel

    2015-03-01

    This Research study proposes a novel method for face recognition based on Anthropometric features that make use of an integrated approach comprising of a global and personalized models. The system is aimed to at situations where lighting, illumination, and pose variations cause problems in face recognition. A Personalized model covers the individual aging patterns while a Global model captures general aging patterns in the database. We introduced a de-aging factor that de-ages each individual in the database test and training sets. We used the k nearest neighbor approach for building a personalized model and global model. Regression analysis was applied to build the models. During the test phase, we resort to voting on different features. We used FG-Net database for checking the results of our technique and achieved 65 percent Rank 1 identification rate.

  11. An Integrated Modelling Approach to Estimate Urban Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh

    Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to poor air quality in urban areas. An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model, a microscopic emissions model, and two dispersion models. This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions during weekdays for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with a reasonably good fit. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of total predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Both predicted and observed concentrations are significantly smaller than the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada. Sensitivity analysis is performed on a set of input parameters and horizontal wind speed is found to be the most influential factor in pollutant dispersion.

  12. Bortezomib resistance can be reversed by induced expression of plasma cell maturation markers in a mouse in vitro model of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stessman, Holly A F; Mansoor, Aatif; Zhan, Fenghuang; Linden, Michael A; Van Ness, Brian; Baughn, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematopoietic malignancy, remains an incurable plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. While the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Bz) has increased patient survival, resistance represents a major treatment obstacle as most patients ultimately relapse becoming refractory to additional Bz therapy. Current tests fail to detect emerging resistance; by the time patients acquire resistance, their prognosis is often poor. To establish immunophenotypic signatures that predict Bz sensitivity, we utilized Bz-sensitive and -resistant cell lines derived from tumors of the Bcl-X(L)/Myc mouse model of PC malignancy. We identified significantly reduced expression of two markers (CD93, CD69) in "acquired" (Bz-selected) resistant cells. Using this phenotypic signature, we isolated a subpopulation of cells from a drug-naïve, Bz-sensitive culture that displayed "innate" resistance to Bz. Although these genes were identified as biomarkers, they may indicate a mechanism for Bz-resistance through the loss of PC maturation which may be induced and/or selected by Bz. Significantly, induction of PC maturation in both "acquired" and "innate" resistant cells restored Bz sensitivity suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for reversing Bz resistance in refractory MM.

  13. Self-Improvement of Keratinocyte Differentiation Defects During Skin Maturation in ABCA12-Deficient Harlequin Ichthyosis Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors’ phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12−/−) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12−/− neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12−/− neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12−/− skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12−/− skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12−/− keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12−/− keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12−/− epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

  14. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukine-1 beta, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration.

  15. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Ramasamy, Thangavel; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25754447

  16. A Stochastic Model of the Germinal Center Integrating Local Antigen Competition, Individualistic T-B Interactions, and B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Shih, Chang-Ming; Qi, Hai; Lan, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-15

    The germinal center (GC) reaction underlies productive humoral immunity by orchestrating competition-based affinity maturation to produce plasma cells and memory B cells. T cells are limiting in this process. How B cells integrate signals from T cells and BCRs to make fate decisions while subjected to a cyclic selection process is not clear. In this article, we present a spatiotemporally resolved stochastic model that describes cell behaviors as rate-limited stochastic reactions. We hypothesize a signal integrator protein integrates follicular helper T (Tfh)- and Ag-derived signals to drive different B cell fates in a probabilistic manner and a dedicated module of Tfh interaction promoting factors control the efficiency of contact-dependent Tfh help delivery to B cells. Without assuming deterministic affinity-based decisions or temporal event sequence, this model recapitulates GC characteristics, highlights the importance of efficient T cell help delivery during individual contacts with B cells and intercellular positive feedback for affinity maturation, reveals the possibility that antagonism between BCR signaling and T cell help accelerates affinity maturation, and suggests that the dichotomy between affinity and magnitude of GC reaction can be avoided by tuning the efficiency of contact-dependent help delivery during reiterative T-B interactions.

  17. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  18. Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

    2014-06-01

    The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation.

  19. Multivariate data assimilation in an integrated hydrological modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhang, Donghua; Ridler, Marc; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    The immensely increasing availability of in-situ and remotely sensed hydrological data has offered new opportunities for monitoring and forecasting water resources by combining observation data with hydrological modelling. Efficient multivariate data assimilation in integrated groundwater - surface water hydrological modelling systems are required to fully utilize and optimally combine the different types of observation data. A particular challenge is the assimilation of observation data of different hydrological variables from different monitoring instruments, representing a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and different levels of uncertainty. A multivariate data assimilation framework has been implemented in the MIKE SHE integrated hydrological modelling system by linking the MIKE SHE code with a generic data assimilation library. The data assimilation library supports different state-of-the-art ensemble-based Kalman filter methods, and includes procedures for localisation, joint state, parameter and model error estimation, and bias-aware filtering. Furthermore, it supports use of different stochastic error models to describe model and measurement errors. Results are presented that demonstrate the use of the data assimilation framework for assimilation of different data types in a catchment-scale MIKE SHE model.

  20. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  1. PARAGON: A Systematic, Integrated Approach to Aerosol Observation and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Braverman, Amy J.; Davies, Roger; Martonchik, John V.; Menzies, Robert T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Seinfeld, John H.; Anderson, Theodore L.; Charlson, Robert J.; Bosenberg, Jens; Collins, William D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Holben, Brent N.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Miller, Mark A.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Ogren, John A.; Penner, Joyce E.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Torres, Omar; Travis, Larry D.; Yu, Bin

    2004-01-01

    Aerosols are generated and transformed by myriad processes operating across many spatial and temporal scales. Evaluation of climate models and their sensitivity to changes, such as in greenhouse gas abundances, requires quantifying natural and anthropogenic aerosol forcings and accounting for other critical factors, such as cloud feedbacks. High accuracy is required to provide sufficient sensitivity to perturbations, separate anthropogenic from natural influences, and develop confidence in inputs used to support policy decisions. Although many relevant data sources exist, the aerosol research community does not currently have the means to combine these diverse inputs into an integrated data set for maximum scientific benefit. Bridging observational gaps, adapting to evolving measurements, and establishing rigorous protocols for evaluating models are necessary, while simultaneously maintaining consistent, well understood accuracies. The Progressive Aerosol Retrieval and Assimilation Global Observing Network (PARAGON) concept represents a systematic, integrated approach to global aerosol Characterization, bringing together modern measurement and modeling techniques, geospatial statistics methodologies, and high-performance information technologies to provide the machinery necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding of how aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative processes impact the Earth system. We outline a framework for integrating and interpreting observations and models and establishing an accurate, consistent and cohesive long-term data record.

  2. Integrated modeling for the GPi flexure sensitive structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Darren; Roberts, Scott; Pazder, John S.; Fletcher, J. Murray

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPi) is comprised of three main opto-mechanical systems: the Adaptive Optics (AO) system, the Calibration (CAL) system, and the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). Each of these subsystems are built and aligned independently, and then integrated into the final instrument. A truss framework called the Flexure Sensitive Structure (FSS) has been designed to locate each optical subsystem within the instrument, utilizing kinematic bipods to eliminate distortion due to flexure and thermal changes. Due to the distributed nature of the optical system, an end-to-end opto-mechanical modeling approach is taken using the NRC Integrated Model (NRCIM). This set of numerical tools was originally developed to support the Canadian VLOT and TMT telescope studies. The instrument structural response is calculated using a commercial finite element package; and the 6 degree-of-freedom rigid body motions of the optical elements are then passed to an optical model. Ray-tracing is performed to determine the line-of-sight errors at numerous critical focal planes and pupil planes. Disturbances to the system include gravity induced flexure and thermal distortions. Optical compensation using a combination of closedloop feedback and open-loop models are then applied using steering mirrors to improve the line-of-sight figures of merit. Finally, these figures of merit are compared against the system optical error budget to assess the overall performance of the opto-mechanical system.

  3. Advancing Coupled Human-Earth System Models: The Integrated Ecosystem Demography Model (iED) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Chini, L. P.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Chambers, J. Q.; Dubayah, R.; Dolan, K.; Edmonds, J. A.; Fisk, J. P.; Flanagan, S.; Frolking, S.; Janetos, A. C.; LePage, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Patel, P.; Rourke, O.; Sahajpal, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Wise, M.; Ying, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies with integrated assessment models, models linking human and natural systems at a global scale, highlight the importance of terrestrial systems in climate stabilization efforts. Here we introduce a new modeling framework iED, designed to link advanced remote sensing data (active and passive.), height-structured terrestrial ecosystem dynamics (ED), gridded land-use change projections (GLM), and integrated assessment modeling (GCAM) into a single coupled modeling framework with unprecedented spatial resolution and process-level detail. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth, mortality, and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. iED is being used to address key science questions including: (1) What are the opportunities for land-use strategies such as afforestation or woody bioenergy crop production to contribute to stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations? (2) How could potentially altered disturbance rates from tropical cyclones and Amazonian fires affect vegetation, carbon stocks and fluxes, and the development of climate change mitigation strategies? (3) What are the linked remote sensing/ecosystem modeling requirements for improving integrated assessments of climate mitigation strategies? With its strong connections to data and conceptual linkages to other models in development, iED is also designed to inform the next generation of remote sensing and integrated Earth system modeling efforts.

  4. Integrability and conformal data of the dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ruelle, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The central charge of the dimer model on the square lattice is still being debated in the literature. In this paper, we provide evidence supporting the consistency of a c=-2 description. Using Lieb’s transfer matrix and its description in terms of the Temperley-Lieb algebra {{TL}}n at β =0, we provide a new solution of the dimer model in terms of the model of critical dense polymers on a tilted lattice and offer an understanding of the lattice integrability of the dimer model. The dimer transfer matrix is analyzed in the scaling limit, and the result for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} is expressed in terms of fermions. Higher Virasoro modes are likewise constructed as limits of elements of {{TL}}n and are found to yield a c=-2 realization of the Virasoro algebra, familiar from fermionic bc ghost systems. In this realization, the dimer Fock spaces are shown to decompose, as Virasoro modules, into direct sums of Feigin-Fuchs modules, themselves exhibiting reducible yet indecomposable structures. In the scaling limit, the eigenvalues of the lattice integrals of motion are found to agree exactly with those of the c=-2 conformal integrals of motion. Consistent with the expression for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} obtained from the transfer matrix, we also construct higher Virasoro modes with c = 1 and find that the dimer Fock space is completely reducible under their action. However, the transfer matrix is found not to be a generating function for the c = 1 integrals of motion. Although this indicates that Lieb’s transfer matrix description is incompatible with the c = 1 interpretation, it does not rule out the existence of an alternative, c = 1 compatible, transfer matrix description of the dimer model.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  7. [Adolescent brain maturation].

    PubMed

    Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Thoua, V

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has yielded major findings regarding brain maturation during adolescence. Unlike the body, which reaches adult size and morphology during this period, the adolescent brain is still maturing. The prefrontal cortex appears to be an important locus of maturational change subserving executive functions that may regulate emotional and motivational issues. The recent expansion of the adolescent period has increased the lag between the onset of emotional and motivational changes activated by puberty and the completion of cognitive development-the maturation of self-regulatory capacities and skills that are continuing to develop long after puberty has occurred. This "disconnect" predicts risk for a broad set of behavioral and emotional problems. Adolescence is a critical period for high-level cognitive functions such as socialization that rely on maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Intervention during the period of adolescent brain development provides opportunities and requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  8. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI (trademark)), Version 1.1, Staged Representation (CMMI-SW, V1.1, Staged)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Jeffrey L. Brayer, Gil KPMG Consulting Schoening, Bill Pomietto, Robert J. Comarco Systems, Inc Lockheed Martin Brown, Linda Angstadt, Kim Computer...Participants 620 Q-Labs Inc Gross, Jon Hefley, Bill Guerin, Joan Menezes, Winifred Hayes, Will Raytheon Hertneck, Christian Berauer, Ben Johnson, Martha ...Armstrong, Jim Fisher, Matt TeraQuest, Inc Gallagher, Brian Curtis, Bill Garcia , SuZ THALES Gibson, Diane Bonnet, Thierry Goldenson, Dennis Cattan

  9. Interpreting Capability Maturity Model (Trademark) Integration (CMMI (Trademark)) for Business Development Organizations in the Government and Industrial Business Sectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Sales typically covers a shorter period of time and is tactical. Dr. Philip Kotler , in his text Marketing Management, defines marketing as “a...they hear that the most important part of marketing is not selling! Selling is only the tip of the marketing iceberg” [ Kotler 02]. The focus of this...the enterprise’s success, Kotler writes, “The key to achieving its organizational objectives consists of the [enterprise] being more effective than

  10. Model for the integrated network? Rehabilitation makes a good candidate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, F J; Baum, C S

    1995-01-01

    Rehabilitation is a good model for an integrated delivery network (IDN). Because it is an integral part of the treatment plans of a diverse group of medical specialties, rehab often plays a pivotal role in patients' recovery. Since its focus is on functional outcomes, rehab is compatible with a capitated payment system. In addition, rehab entered the managed care arena before other "product lines," so rehab providers have experience with diverse reimbursement conditions. And although rehab encompasses all levels of care, it is not too large to function as a model for a full-scale IDN. There are four key stages in the development of a rehab IDN: A strong leader with a clear vision organizes a working committee composed of the key leaders of each entity involved in rehab: hospitals, nursing homes, home health, and others. The committee begins to design the proposed network. Though the committee may study other IDNs, its focus is on its own organization's needs and objectives. A master plan addressing systems gaps and opportunities throughout the IDN is drawn up. Integral to the plan is a schedule according to which each of the network's components will be integrated. The master plan is implemented. The working committee determines the IDN's final structure and names the members of the management team.

  11. Toward Improved Simulation of Operations in Integrated Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morway, E. D.; Niswonger, R. G.; Triana, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) resources has received increased attention as the gap between freshwater supply and demand widens in arid and semi-arid regions. The modeling tools used by water managers and government agencies, among others, for distributing the available freshwater supply among a complex set of competing demands in a 'prior appropriation' context, rely on loosely-coupled (or 'feed-forward') model applications that fail to achieve true convergence among values common to both codes. Commonly, models used for quantifying supply, that is, watershed and groundwater models, are run separately from river operations models that specialize in distributing a finite supply among a wide range of demands. As a result, it may be difficult to achieve a proper water balance among the respective codes, especially during drought conditions. Taking a step closer to a truly integrated environmental modeling framework for conjunctive management of GW-SW resources, the river operations model MODSIM has been integrated with the hydrologic model MODFLOW. MODSIM is a river basin management decision support system that simulates administration of water rights and (or) operational rules within river basins. MODFLOW is a physically-based distributed-parameter finite-difference model historically used for simulating groundwater systems, though the streamflow routing (SFR2) and lake (LAK) packages are capable of simulating surface water systems in hydraulic connection with the underlying alluvial aquifer. On their own, these two packages cannot simulate diversions and (or) releases from reservoirs, instead requiring users to specify these quantities prior to model execution. Through the MODSIM-MODFLOW integration, however, hydrologic processes are simulated simultaneously with dynamic river operations. In this way, solutions are synchronized before moving to the next time step. The newly developed code provides water planners and managers with a

  12. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  13. Critical integer quantum Hall topology in the integrable Maryland model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, Sriram; Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn

    2014-03-01

    One-dimensional tight binding models such as Aubry-Andre-Harper (AAH) model (with onsite cosine potential) and the integrable Maryland model (with onsite tangent potential) have been the subjects of extensive theoretical research in localization studies. AAH can be directly mapped onto the two-dimensional Hofstadter model that manifests the integer quantum Hall topology on a lattice. However, no such connection has been made for the Maryland model (MM). In this talk, we present a generalized model that contains AAH and MM as the limiting cases with the MM lying precisely at a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) point. A remarkable feature of this critical point is that the 1D MM retains well-defined energy gaps whereas the equivalent 2D model becomes gapless, signifying the 2D nature of the TQPT. The criticality allows us to associate topological invariants with the Maryland model in a restricted mathematical sense at the special filling factors that are adiabatically connected to the spectral gaps in the 1D Aubry-Andre-Harper model. Our theory presented in this work establishes deep and unexpected mathematical connections between 2D topological models and a family of 1D incommensurate localization models. This work is supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, Microsoft Q and JQI-ARO-MU.

  14. Process modeling of comprehensive integrated forest biorefinery--an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Lin, Weilu; Ramaswamy, Shri; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2009-05-01

    The key to expanding the energy supply, increasing energy security, and reducing the dependency on foreign oil is to develop advanced technologies to efficiently transform our renewable bioresources into domestically produced bioenergy and bioproducts. Conventional biorefineries, i.e., forest products industry's pulp and paper mills with long history of sustainable utilization of lignocellulose (wood), offer a suitable platform for being expanded into future integrated forest biorefineries. Due to the pre-existing infrastructure in current forest products operations, this could present a very cost-effective approach to future biorefineries. In order to better understand the overall process, technical, economic, and environmental impacts, a detailed process modeling of the whole integrated forest biorefinery is presented here. This approach uses a combination of Aspen Plus, WinGEMS, and Microsoft Excel to simulate the entire biorefinery in detail with sophisticated communication interface between the three simulations. Preliminary results for a simple case study of an integrated biorefinery show the feasibility of this approach. Further investigations, including additional details, more process options, and complete integration, are currently underway.

  15. Resolving model parameter values from carbon and nitrogen stock measurements in a wide range of tropical mature forests using nonlinear inversion and regression trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Anderson, P.; Zhou, G.; Kauffman, B.; Hughes, F.; Schimel, D.; Watson, Vicente; Tosi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objectively assessing the performance of a model and deriving model parameter values from observations are critical and challenging in landscape to regional modeling. In this paper, we applied a nonlinear inversion technique to calibrate the ecosystem model CENTURY against carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stock measurements collected from 39 mature tropical forest sites in seven life zones in Costa Rica. Net primary productivity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), C and N stocks in aboveground live biomass, litter, coarse woody debris (CWD), and in soils were used to calibrate the model. To investigate the resolution of available observations on the number of adjustable parameters, inversion was performed using nine setups of adjustable parameters. Statistics including observation sensitivity, parameter correlation coefficient, parameter sensitivity, and parameter confidence limits were used to evaluate the information content of observations, resolution of model parameters, and overall model performance. Results indicated that soil organic carbon content, soil nitrogen content, and total aboveground biomass carbon had the highest information contents, while measurements of carbon in litter and nitrogen in CWD contributed little to the parameter estimation processes. The available information could resolve the values of 2-4 parameters. Adjusting just one parameter resulted in under-fitting and unacceptable model performance, while adjusting five parameters simultaneously led to over-fitting. Results further indicated that the MODIS NPP values were compressed as compared with the spatial variability of net primary production (NPP) values inferred from inverse modeling. Using inverse modeling to infer NPP and other sensitive model parameters from C and N stock observations provides an opportunity to utilize data collected by national to regional forest inventory systems to reduce the uncertainties in the carbon cycle and generate valuable

  16. Efficient multilevel brain tumor segmentation with integrated bayesian model classification.

    PubMed

    Corso, J J; Sharon, E; Dube, S; El-Saden, S; Sinha, U; Yuille, A

    2008-05-01

    We present a new method for automatic segmentation of heterogeneous image data that takes a step toward bridging the gap between bottom-up affinity-based segmentation methods and top-down generative model based approaches. The main contribution of the paper is a Bayesian formulation for incorporating soft model assignments into the calculation of affinities, which are conventionally model free. We integrate the resulting model-aware affinities into the multilevel segmentation by weighted aggregation algorithm, and apply the technique to the task of detecting and segmenting brain tumor and edema in multichannel magnetic resonance (MR) volumes. The computationally efficient method runs orders of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art techniques giving comparable or improved results. Our quantitative results indicate the benefit of incorporating model-aware affinities into the segmentation process for the difficult case of glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor.

  17. An integrated mathematical model of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

    PubMed

    Trenhago, Paulo Roberto; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Müller, Lucas Omar; Blanco, Pablo Javier; Feijóo, Raúl Antonino

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a lumped model for the human cardiorespiratory system. Specifically, we incorporate a sophisticated gas dissociation and transport system to a fully integrated cardiovascular and pulmonary model. The model provides physiologically consistent predictions in terms of hemodynamic variables such as pressure, flow rate, gas partial pressures, and pH. We perform numerical simulations to evaluate the behavior of the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in different vascular and pulmonary compartments. For this, we design the rest condition with low oxygen requirements and carbon dioxide production and exercise conditions with high oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production. Furthermore, model sensitivity to more relevant model parameters is studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

  19. Towards an integrated molecular model of plant-virus interactions.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Rodrigo, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    The application in recent years of network theory methods to the study of host-virus interactions is providing a new perspective to the way viruses manipulate the host to promote their own replication. An integrated molecular model of such pathosystems require three detailed maps describing, firstly, the interactions between viral elements, secondly, the interactions between host elements, and thirdly, the cross-interactions between viral and host elements. Here, we compile available information for Potyvirus infecting Arabidopsis thaliana. With an integrated model, it is possible to analyze the mode of virus action and how the perturbation of the virus targets propagates along the network. These studies suggest that viral pathogenicity results not only from the alteration of individual elements but it is a systemic property.

  20. Integrated modelling for the evaluation of infiltration effects.

    PubMed

    Schulz, N; Baur, R; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study is the estimation of the potential benefits of sewer pipe rehabilitation for the performance of the drainage system and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as well as for the receiving water quality. The relation of sewer system status and the infiltration rate is assessed based on statistical analysis of 470 km of CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) inspected sewers of the city of Dresden. The potential reduction of infiltration rates and the consequent performance improvements of the urban wastewater system are simulated as a function of rehabilitation activities in the network. The integrated model is applied to an artificial system with input from a real sewer network. In this paper, the general design of the integrated model and its data requirements are presented. For an exemplary study, the consequences of the simulations are discussed with respect to the prioritisation of rehabilitation activities in the network.

  1. Spin foam models for quantum gravity from lattice path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzom, Valentin

    2009-09-15

    Spin foam models for quantum gravity are derived from lattice path integrals. The setting involves variables from both lattice BF theory and Regge calculus. The action consists in a Regge action, which depends on areas, dihedral angles and includes the Immirzi parameter. In addition, a measure is inserted to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices, so that the amplitude is dominated by configurations that satisfy the parallel transport relations. We explicitly compute the path integral as a sum over spin foams for a generic measure. The Freidel-Krasnov and Engle-Pereira-Rovelli models correspond to a special choice of gluing. In this case, the equations of motion describe genuine geometries, where the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus are satisfied. Furthermore, the Immirzi parameter drops out of the on-shell action, and stationarity with respect to area variations requires spacetime geometry to be flat.

  2. Global land use data for integrated assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramankutty, Navin

    2005-12-12

    Changes in land use and land cover have been one of the major drivers of global change over the last three centuries. Detailed spatially-explicit data sets characterizing these historical land cover changes are now emerging. By synthesizing remotely-sensed land cover classification data sets with historical land use census data, our research group has developed comprehensive databases of historical land use and land cover change. Moreover, we are building estimates of the land suitability for agriculture to predict the constraints on future land use. In this project, we have interacted with the Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) at Purdue University, to adapt our land use data for use with the GTAP database, a baseline database widely used by the integrated assessment modeling community. Moreover, we have developed an interactive website for providing these newly emerging land use data products for the integrated assessment (IA) community and to the climate modeling community.

  3. Modeling for Integrated Science Management and Resilient Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its science portfolio in an integrated manner to support cross-disciplinary risk mitigation strategies and to enable resilient human and engineered systems in the spaceflight environment. In this talk, we will share ideas being explored from fields such as network science, complexity theory, and system-of-systems modeling. Initial work on tools to support these explorations will be discussed briefly, along with ideas for future efforts.

  4. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in time varying vacuum model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Gui, Y. X.; Xu, L. X.; Lu, J. B.

    2010-04-15

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is an important implication for dark energy. In this paper, we have calculated the power spectrum of the ISW effect in the time varying vacuum cosmological model, where the model parameter {beta}=4.407 is obtained by the observational constraint of the growth rate. It is found that the source of the ISW effect is not only affected by the different evolutions of the Hubble function H(a) and the dimensionless matter density {Omega}{sub m}(a), but also by the different growth function D{sub +}(a), all of which are changed due to the presence of a matter production term in the time varying vacuum model. However, the difference of the ISW effect in the {Lambda}(t)CDM model and the {Lambda}CDM model is lessened to a certain extent because of the integration from the time of last scattering to the present. It is implied that the observations of the galaxies with high redshift are required to distinguish the two models.

  5. Modeling the Dependency Structure of Integrated Intensity Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an important issue of dependence structure. To model this structure, the intensities within the Cox processes are driven by dependent shot noise processes, where jumps occur simultaneously and their sizes are correlated. The joint survival probability of the integrated intensities is explicitly obtained from the copula with exponential marginal distributions. Subsequently, this result can provide a very useful guide for credit risk management. PMID:26270638

  6. Defining Requirements for an Integrated Water Resource Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Peterson, Todd S.; Frodge, Jonathan

    2002-07-29

    This paper describes the process used to define the requirements for an integrated water resource modeling system that will be employed by a range of users with varying backgrounds and needs. A five-step process was initiated to ensure consideration of the needs and interests of users representing many different parts of the organization. The steps of the process, the results of each step and a summary of the results are presented.

  7. Understanding Gulf War Illness: An Integrative Modeling Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Lauderdale, FL 33314 Centers for Disease Control, NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 South Florida VA Foundation for Research & Education...identify specific disease targets to find treatments that will address the cause of the disease . The consortium will integrate our clinical understanding...of the disease process with basic research efforts using a novel mathematical model. The computational biology approach will enable the consortium

  8. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements, and crew rotation via spread sheets provides adequate bench marks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  9. An Integrated Universal Collapsar Gamma-ray Burst Model

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D

    2004-01-21

    Starting with two assumptions: (1) gamma-ray bursts originate from stellar death phenomena or so called ''collapsars'' and (2) that these bursts are quasi-universal, whereby the majority of the observed variation is due to our perspective of the jet, an integrated gamma-ray burst model is proposed. It is found that several of the key correlations in the data can be naturally explained with this simple picture and another possible correlation is predicted.

  10. Modeling of ubiquitous technology integration process in health services.

    PubMed

    Cruz, William A; Garcia, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare Development Framework (HDF) is a methodology of HL7 standard for development interoperability specifications in the healthcare. HDF was used in the process, artifacts and development of the information exchange messages. This paper presents a model of integration and interoperability process with information and communication technology (ICT) in emergency services, using the standard HL7 and RFID devices, as part of a platform for ubiquitous healthcare.

  11. Voxel inversion of airborne electromagnetic data for improved model integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Vest Christiansen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data has migrated from single site interpretations to inversions including entire surveys using spatial constraints to obtain geologically reasonable results. Though, the model space is usually linked to the actual observation points. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. On the contrary, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid, not correlated to the geophysical model space, and the geophysical information has to be relocated for integration in (hydro)geological models. We have developed a new geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which then allows for informing directly geological/hydrogeological models. The new voxel model space defines the soil properties (like resistivity) on a set of nodes, and the distribution of the soil properties is computed everywhere by means of an interpolation function (e.g. inverse distance or kriging). Given this definition of the voxel model space, the 1D forward responses of the AEM data are computed as follows: 1) a 1D model subdivision, in terms of model thicknesses, is defined for each 1D data set, creating "virtual" layers. 2) the "virtual" 1D models at the sounding positions are finalized by interpolating the soil properties (the resistivity) in the center of the "virtual" layers. 3) the forward response is computed in 1D for each "virtual" model. We tested the new inversion scheme on an AEM survey carried out with the SkyTEM system close to Odder, in Denmark. The survey comprises 106054 dual mode AEM soundings, and covers an area of approximately 13 km X 16 km. The voxel inversion was carried out on a structured grid of 260 X 325 X 29 xyz nodes (50 m xy spacing), for a total of 2450500 inversion parameters. A classical spatially constrained inversion (SCI) was carried out on the same data set, using 106054

  12. The Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration: Adding Pedagogy as a New Model Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    An expansion of the Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration to include teacher's pedagogical style is proposed by the authors as a means of advancing the predictive power for level of classroom technology integration to beyond 90%. Suggested advantages to this expansion include more precise identification of areas to be targeted for…

  13. Parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space and integrated models

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete state‐space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state‐space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state‐space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. PMID:27362826

  14. The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  15. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; Patel, P.; Zhou, Y.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2015-07-01

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  16. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  17. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; ...

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  18. "Fast" and "thick" e-beam resists exposed with multi-beam tool at 5 keV for implants and mature nodes: experimental and simulated model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Aurélien; Thiam, Ndeye A.; Cordini, Marie-Laure; Servin, Isabelle; Constancias, Christophe; Lattard, Ludovic; Pain, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    In addition to sub-20 nm technology nodes, multi-beam lithography at low-energy has also the capability to address mature CMOS technologies [130-45nm nodes] with high throughput and significant manufacturing costs reduction. It requires both "fast" resists for throughput gain and cost of ownership and "thick" resists matched with the current post-lithography processes such as etching and implant steps. We successfully demonstrated patterning of 45-130 nm nodes structures on different thick resists (up to 160 nm) with a 5 keV Mapper pre-alpha tool. In parallel, we developed a theoretical model to simulate 3D patterning showing good agreement with our experimental results.

  19. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  20. Integrating Cognitive and Psychometric Models to Measure Document Literacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    AD-A215 504 INTEGRATING COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOMETRIC MODELS TO MEASURE DOCUMENT LITERACY Kathleen Sheehan and Robert J. Mislevy DTICEtET -C NOV 2 4 19...Psychometric Models to Measure Document Literacy (Unclassified’) P ERSONAL ~RS Kathleen Sheehan and Robert J. Mislevv 𔃽a -vPS OF REPOR 3o 󈧏ME CD...Logistic Test ’,’ode’ literacy assessment; National Assessment of fducational Pl.jress * ,BS-DAC- Continue on reverse ,f necessary and ’dentify Oy

  1. Some Do's and Dont's in Integrated Modelling for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated models were originally developed to encompass an inter-disciplinary approach to the study of climate change and climate change policy. However, simple integrated models that have been applied to cost-benefit analysis (e.g., DICE/RICE, FUND, PAGE, etc.) suffer from a number of problems. Firstly, the ‘optimal’ climate policy is highly dependent on a number of key assumptions, such as discount rate and equity considerations. Secondly, impacts are generally represented simplistically, typically based on global estimates of market and non-market damages; the damage function shape used is theoretical and often based on an arbitrary choice of function; it is often calibrated using studies of climate change impacts in the USA, scaled to represent impacts in other regions. Thirdly, the representation of climate change itself may be inconsistent with IPCC projections. Fourthly, the ‘optimal’ policy derived is highly dependent on the methodology and parameters chosen in valuation of the damages. Thus it is recommended that future decision support in climate policy is supported by a risk assessment approach rather than an attempt to derive an ‘optimal’ level of climate change mitigation. Such a risk assessment approach is better suited to use of biophysically-based, IAMs such as CIAS, IMAGE, AIM, ICLIPS, GCAM, and CLIMPACTS that variously examine sectors and/or regions of the world, spanning multiple disciplines. The representation of impacts in these models is detailed but varies significantly between them. In the case of IMAGE, they are detailed and include interactions such as carbon cycle induced terrestrial vegetation die-back due to climate change (leading to an accelerated rate of climate change), links between climate change, land use change and changes to agricultural systems, and demographics. In others, such as ICLIPS and AIM, lookup tables relating impacts to climate variables are used. Even these models still generally omit the interactions

  2. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  3. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  4. Challenges and opportunities for integrating lake ecosystem modelling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis; Jeppesen, Erik; Arhonditsis, George; Belolipetsky, Pavel V.; Chitamwebwa, Deonatus B.R.; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Domis, Lisette N. De Senerpont; Downing, Andrea S.; Elliott, J. Alex; Ruberto, Carlos Ruberto; Gaedke, Ursula; Genova, Svetlana N.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Hakanson, Lars; Hamilton, David P.; Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hoen, Jochem 't; Hulsmann, Stephan; Los, F. Hans; Makler-Pick, Vardit; Petzoldt, Thomas; Prokopkin, Igor G.; Rinke, Karsten; Schep, Sebastiaan A.; Tominaga, Koji; Van Dam, Anne A.; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Wells, Scott A.; Janse, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others ('reinventing the wheel'). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available ('having tunnel vision'). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: super-individual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and trait-based models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its 'leading principle', there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single 'right' approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative

  5. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  6. IMPACT: Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, J.; Brennan, S.; Godinez, H. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Klimenko, A.; Larsen, B.; Lawrence, E.; Linares, R.; McLaughlin, C. A.; Mehta, P. M.; Palmer, D.; Ridley, A. J.; Shoemaker, M.; Sutton, E.; Thompson, D.; Walker, A.; Wohlberg, B.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Earth orbiting satellites suffer from atmospheric drag due to thermospheric density which changes on the order of several magnitudes especially during space weather events. Solar flares, precipitating particles and ionospheric currents cause the upper atmosphere to heat up, redistribute, and cool again. These processes are intrinsically included in empirical models, e.g. MSIS and Jacchia-Bowman type models. However, sensitivity analysis has shown that atmospheric drag has the highest influence on satellite conjunction analysis and empirical model still do not adequately represent a desired accuracy. Space debris and collision avoidance have become an increasingly operational reality. It is paramount to accurately predict satellite orbits and include drag effect driven by space weather. The IMPACT project (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), funded with over $5 Million by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development office, has the goal to develop an integrated system of atmospheric drag modeling, orbit propagation, and conjunction analysis with detailed uncertainty quantification to address the space debris and collision avoidance problem. Now with over two years into the project, we have developed an integrated solution combining physics-based density modeling of the upper atmosphere between 120-700 km altitude, satellite drag forecasting for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and conjunction analysis with non-Gaussian uncertainty quantification. We are employing several novel approaches including a unique observational sensor developed at Los Alamos; machine learning with a support-vector machine approach of the coupling between solar drivers of the upper atmosphere and satellite drag; rigorous data assimilative modeling using a physics-based approach instead of empirical modeling of the thermosphere; and a computed-tomography method for extracting temporal maps of thermospheric densities

  7. An Integrated Biomechanical Model for Microgravity-Induced Visual Impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2012-01-01

    When gravitational unloading occurs upon entry to space, astronauts experience a major shift in the distribution of their bodily fluids, with a net headward movement. Measurements have shown that intraocular pressure spikes, and there is a strong suspicion that intracranial pressure also rises. Some astronauts in both short- and long-duration spaceflight develop visual acuity changes, which may or may not reverse upon return to earth gravity. To date, of the 36 U.S. astronauts who have participated in long-duration space missions on the International Space Station, 15 crew members have developed minor to severe visual decrements and anatomical changes. These ophthalmic changes include hyperopic shift, optic nerve distension, optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In order to understand the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena, NASA is developing an integrated model that appropriately captures whole-body fluids transport through lumped-parameter models for the cerebrospinal and cardiovascular systems. This data feeds into a finite element model for the ocular globe and retrobulbar subarachnoid space through time-dependent boundary conditions. Although tissue models and finite element representations of the corneo-scleral shell, retina, choroid and optic nerve head have been integrated to study pathological conditions such as glaucoma, the retrobulbar subarachnoid space behind the eye has received much less attention. This presentation will describe the development and scientific foundation of our holistic model.

  8. Integrated hydro-bacterial modelling for predicting bathing water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoxian; Falconer, Roger A.; Lin, Binliang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years health risks associated with the non-compliance of bathing water quality have received increasing worldwide attention. However, it is particularly challenging to establish the source of any non-compliance, due to the complex nature of the source of faecal indicator organisms, and the fate and delivery processes and scarcity of field measured data in many catchments and estuaries. In the current study an integrated hydro-bacterial model, linking a catchment, 1-D model and 2-D model were integrated to simulate the adsorption-desorption processes of faecal bacteria to and from sediment particles in river, estuarine and coastal waters, respectively. The model was then validated using hydrodynamic, sediment and faecal bacteria concentration data, measured in 2012, in the Ribble river and estuary, and along the Fylde coast, UK. Particular emphasis has been placed on the mechanism of faecal bacteria transport and decay through the deposition and resuspension of suspended sediments. The results showed that by coupling the E.coli concentration with the sediment transport processes, the accuracy of the predicted E.coli levels was improved. A series of scenario runs were then carried out to investigate the impacts of different management scenarios on the E.coli concentration levels in the coastal bathing water sites around Liverpool Bay, UK. The model results show that the level of compliance with the new EU bathing water standards can be improved significantly by extending outfalls and/or reducing urban sources by typically 50%.

  9. Building an Open Source Framework for Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagers, B.; Meijers, E.; Villars, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop effective strategies and associated policies for environmental management, we need to understand the dynamics of the natural system as a whole and the human role therein. This understanding is gained by comparing our mental model of the world with observations from the field. However, to properly understand the system we should look at dynamics of water, sediments, water quality, and ecology throughout the whole system from catchment to coast both at the surface and in the subsurface. Numerical models are indispensable in helping us understand the interactions of the overall system, but we need to be able to update and adjust them to improve our understanding and test our hypotheses. To support researchers around the world with this challenging task we started a few years ago with the development of a new open source modeling environment DeltaShell that integrates distributed hydrological models with 1D, 2D, and 3D hydraulic models including generic components for the tracking of sediment, water quality, and ecological quantities throughout the hydrological cycle composed of the aforementioned components. The open source approach combined with a modular approach based on open standards, which allow for easy adjustment and expansion as demands and knowledge grow, provides an ideal starting point for addressing challenging integrated environmental questions.

  10. Integrated modelling of ecosystem services and energy systems research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Matthew; Lovett, Andrew; Bateman, Ian; Day, Brett; Agnolucci, Paolo; Ziv, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The UK Government is formally committed to reducing carbon emissions and protecting and improving natural capital and the environment. However, actually delivering on these objectives requires an integrated approach to addressing two parallel challenges: de-carbonising future energy system pathways; and safeguarding natural capital to ensure the continued flow of ecosystem services. Although both emphasise benefiting from natural resources, efforts to connect natural capital and energy systems research have been limited, meaning opportunities to improve management of natural resources and meet society's energy needs could be missed. The ecosystem services paradigm provides a consistent conceptual framework that applies in multiple disciplines across the natural and economic sciences, and facilitates collaboration between them. At the forefront of the field, integrated ecosystem service - economy models have guided public- and private-sector decision making at all levels. Models vary in sophistication from simple spreadsheet tools to complex software packages integrating biophysical, GIS and economic models and draw upon many fields, including ecology, hydrology, geography, systems theory, economics and the social sciences. They also differ in their ability to value changes in natural capital and ecosystem services at various spatial and temporal scales. Despite these differences, current models share a common feature: their treatment of energy systems is superficial at best. In contrast, energy systems research has no widely adopted, unifying conceptual framework that organises thinking about key system components and interactions. Instead, the literature is organised around modelling approaches, including life cycle analyses, econometric investigations, linear programming and computable general equilibrium models. However, some consistencies do emerge. First, often contain a linear set of steps, from exploration to resource supply, fuel processing, conversion

  11. IAG working group - Integration of GNSS atmosphere models with NWP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, J.; Vedel, H.; Hadas, T.

    2012-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used for derive information about the state of the atmosphere. The GNSS tropospheric products has been used in meteorology for several years, but they are still not widely used. Currently conducted studies aimed at integration of NWP models and coordination between the meteorological and geodetic communities. For this reason, in the frame of International Association of Geodesy in Sub-Commission SC 4.3 - Remote sensing and modeling of the atmosphere was established the working group WG4.3.3 Integration of GNSS atmosphere models with NWP models The main objective of this Working Group is to study of integration of GNSS atmosphere models with Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models for positioning and meteorological applications. It includes the assimilation of GNSS data processing products in NWP models, the use of NWP models in real-time positioning methods: RTK and PPP, the validation and comparison of different of GNSS atmosphere models using NWP outputs, investigation on new mapping functions based on the high resolution integrated models of the troposphere, and the real time water vapor models from GNSS data and NWP models outputs. The paper presents the current state of activities of IAG WG4.3.3 members and future plans of joint researches.

  12. An integrated modelling approach to estimate urban traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh; Roorda, Matthew J.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2013-07-01

    An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model developed in PARAMICS, a microscopic emissions model (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model), and two dispersion models, AERMOD and the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC). This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto, Canada to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) during five weekdays at a traffic intersection. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with 100% of the AERMOD modelled CO concentrations and 97.5% of the QUIC modelled NOx concentrations within a factor of two of the corresponding observed concentrations. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Predicted and sensor measured concentrations are significantly lower than the hourly threshold Maximum Acceptable Levels for CO (31 ppm, ˜90 times lower) and NO2 (0.4 mg/m3, ˜12 times lower), within the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada.

  13. Experiences Integrating Transmission and Distribution Simulations for DERs with the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Baker, Kyri; Hansen, Timothy M.

    2016-08-11

    This paper discusses the development of, approaches for, experiences with, and some results from a large-scale, high-performance-computer-based (HPC-based) co-simulation of electric power transmission and distribution systems using the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS). IGMS was developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a novel Independent System Operator (ISO)-to-appliance scale electric power system modeling platform that combines off-the-shelf tools to simultaneously model 100s to 1000s of distribution systems in co-simulation with detailed ISO markets, transmission power flows, and AGC-level reserve deployment. Lessons learned from the co-simulation architecture development are shared, along with a case study that explores the reactive power impacts of PV inverter voltage support on the bulk power system.

  14. Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laniak, Gerard F.; Olchin, Gabriel; Goodall, Jonathan; Voinov, Alexey; Hill, Mary; Glynn, Pierre; Whelan, Gene; Geller, Gary; Quinn, Nigel; Blind, Michiel; Peckham, Scott; Reaney, Sim; Gaber, Noha; Kennedy, Philip R.; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to explain, explore, and predict the behavior of environmental systems in response to human and natural sources of stress. During the past several years a number of workshops were held that brought IEM practitioners together to share experiences and discuss future needs and directions. In this paper we organize and present the results of these discussions. IEM is presented as a landscape containing four interdependent elements: applications, science, technology, and community. The elements are described from the perspective of their role in the landscape, current practices, and challenges that must be addressed. Workshop participants envision a global scale IEM community that leverages modern technologies to streamline the movement of science-based knowledge from its sources in research, through its organization into databases and models, to its integration and application for problem solving purposes. Achieving this vision will require that the global community of IEM stakeholders transcend social, and organizational boundaries and pursue greater levels of collaboration. Among the highest priorities for community action are the development of standards for publishing IEM data and models in forms suitable for automated discovery, access, and integration; education of the next generation of environmental stakeholders, with a focus on transdisciplinary research, development, and

  15. Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hench, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  16. Integrating modelling and smart sensors for environmental and human health.

    PubMed

    Reis, Stefan; Seto, Edmund; Northcross, Amanda; Quinn, Nigel W T; Convertino, Matteo; Jones, Rod L; Maier, Holger R; Schlink, Uwe; Steinle, Susanne; Vieno, Massimo; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-12-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life, generating data at an unprecedented rate and scale. However, models that assess impacts of human activities on environmental and human health, have typically been developed in contexts where data scarcity is the norm. Models are essential tools to understand processes, identify relationships, associations and causality, formalize stakeholder mental models, and to quantify the effects of prevention and interventions. They can help to explain data, as well as inform the deployment and location of sensors by identifying hotspots and areas of interest where data collection may achieve the best results. We identify a paradigm shift in how the integration of models and sensors can contribute to harnessing 'Big Data' and, more importantly, make the vital step from 'Big Data' to 'Big Information'. In this paper, we illustrate current developments and identify key research needs using human and environmental health challenges as an example.

  17. An integrated ethical decision-making model for nurses.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed 20 currently-available structured ethical decision-making models and developed an integrated model consisting of six steps with useful questions and tools that help better performance each step: (1) the identification of an ethical problem; (2) the collection of additional information to identify the problem and develop solutions; (3) the development of alternatives for analysis and comparison; (4) the selection of the best alternatives and justification; (5) the development of diverse, practical ways to implement ethical decisions and actions; and (6) the evaluation of effects and development of strategies to prevent a similar occurrence. From a pilot-test of the model, nursing students reported positive experiences, including being satisfied with having access to a comprehensive review process of the ethical aspects of decision making and becoming more confident in their decisions. There is a need for the model to be further tested and refined in both the educational and practical environments.

  18. Integrating modelling and smart sensors for environmental and human health

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Stefan; Seto, Edmund; Northcross, Amanda; Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Convertino, Matteo; Jones, Rod L.; Maier, Holger R.; Schlink, Uwe; Steinle, Susanne; Vieno, Massimo; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life, generating data at an unprecedented rate and scale. However, models that assess impacts of human activities on environmental and human health, have typically been developed in contexts where data scarcity is the norm. Models are essential tools to understand processes, identify relationships, associations and causality, formalize stakeholder mental models, and to quantify the effects of prevention and interventions. They can help to explain data, as well as inform the deployment and location of sensors by identifying hotspots and areas of interest where data collection may achieve the best results. We identify a paradigm shift in how the integration of models and sensors can contribute to harnessing ‘Big Data’ and, more importantly, make the vital step from ‘Big Data’ to ‘Big Information’. In this paper, we illustrate current developments and identify key research needs using human and environmental health challenges as an example. PMID:26644778

  19. Modeling and simulation of integrated luminescence detection platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Khaled; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Hassibi, Arjang; El Gamal, Abbas

    2003-07-01

    We developed a simulation model of an integrated CMOS-based imaging platform for use with bioluminescent DNA microarrays. We formulate the complete kinetic model of ATP based assays and luciferase label-based assays. The model first calculates the number of photons generated per unit time, i.e., photon flux, based upon the kinetics of the light generation process of luminescence probes. The photon flux coupled with the system geometry is then used to calculate the number of photons incident on the photodetector plane. Subsequently the characteristics of the imaging array including the photodetector spectral response, its dark current density, and the sensor conversion gain are incorporated. The model also takes into account different noise sources including shot noise, reset noise, readout noise and fixed pattern noise. Finally, signal processing algorithms are applied to the image to enhance detection reliability and hence increase the overall system throughput. We will present simulations and preliminary experimental results.

  20. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Gorensek, M. B.; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Ward, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclearnonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facilitymodeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facilitymodeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facilitymodelingcapabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferationanalysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facilitymodeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facilitymodelingcapabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.