Science.gov

Sample records for maturity modelling integrated

  1. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  2. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  3. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  4. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  5. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  6. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  7. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  8. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  10. A Drosophila model to image phagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Shandala, Tetyana; Lim, Chiaoxin; Sorvina, Alexandra; Brooks, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:24709696

  11. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  12. Maturation modeling in Otway Basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Falvey, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Otway basin is a Jurassic to Pliocene sedimentary basin formed on the southern Australian continental margin. Its formation is associated with rifting and breakup of the Australian and Antarctic plates. Lithospheric cooling and contraction have probably produced post-breakup subsidence. Either lithospheric stretching or deep crustal metamorphism may have produced pre-breakup subsidence. These mechanisms have identifiable thermal histories. Organic diagenesis (specifically the reflectance of vitrinite in oil) is empirically determined by the thermal and depositional history of an organic sediment. Thus, the stages of hydrocarbon maturity of Otway basin sediments can be modeled. Depositional history is determined from ''geohistory analysis'' and thermal history depends on the subsidence mechanism applied to the basin. A paleo-heat-flow history derived from the deep crustal metamorphism model of subsidence produces a maturation profile with depth that is consistent with observed vitrinite reflectance data, although organic diagenesis modeling is relatively insensitive to precise details of thermal history. Depositional and maturation history modeling for the present day, 20 Ma ago, 40 Ma ago, and 60 Ma ago is applied to a seismic profile across the southern Australian continental shelf in the Otway basin as a demonstration of the projection backward in time of sedimentation and organic diagenesis.

  13. Testing Crites' Model of Career Maturity: A Hierarchical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of Crites' model of career maturity and the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI). Results from a nationwide sample of adolescents, using hierarchical factor analytic methodology, indicated confirmatory support for the multidimensionality of Crites' model of career maturity, and the construct validity of the CMI as a…

  14. Sex Differences in a Causal Model of Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Studied sex differences among high school students (N=318) in career development process to determine whether sex differences exist in way six independent variables interact in career maturity causal model of career maturity and to compare each variable's effect on career maturity. Results suggest significant sex differences consistent with…

  15. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  16. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter. PMID:27120510

  17. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  18. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Robert Y.

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Avionic Systems Division's implementation of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for improvements in the software development process. The presentation reviews the process involved in implementing the model and the benefits of using CMM to improve the software development process.

  19. Demonstrating the improvement of predictive maturity of a computational model

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois M; Unal, Cetin; Atamturktur, Huriye S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an improvement of predictive capability brought to a non-linear material model using a combination of test data, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and calibration. A model that captures increasingly complicated phenomena, such as plasticity, temperature and strain rate effects, is analyzed. Predictive maturity is defined, here, as the accuracy of the model to predict multiple Hopkinson bar experiments. A statistical discrepancy quantifies the systematic disagreement (bias) between measurements and predictions. Our hypothesis is that improving the predictive capability of a model should translate into better agreement between measurements and predictions. This agreement, in turn, should lead to a smaller discrepancy. We have recently proposed to use discrepancy and coverage, that is, the extent to which the physical experiments used for calibration populate the regime of applicability of the model, as basis to define a Predictive Maturity Index (PMI). It was shown that predictive maturity could be improved when additional physical tests are made available to increase coverage of the regime of applicability. This contribution illustrates how the PMI changes as 'better' physics are implemented in the model. The application is the non-linear Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) strength model applied to Beryllium metal. We demonstrate that our framework tracks the evolution of maturity of the PTW model. Robustness of the PMI with respect to the selection of coefficients needed in its definition is also studied.

  20. Cultivating Knowledge Sharing through the Relationship Management Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Valerie A.; Hatzakis, Tally; Lycett, Mark; Macredie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the relationship management maturity model (RMMM), the output of an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between business units and the IT organisation. It does this through improving and assessing knowledge sharing between business and IT staff in Finco, a large financial…

  1. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE PAGES

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  2. A Constitutive Model for a Maturing Fibrin Network

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Thomas H.S.; Bogaerds, Arjen C.B.; Peters, Gerrit W.M.; van de Vosse, Frans N.

    2014-01-01

    Blood clot formation is crucial to maintain normal physiological conditions but at the same time involved in many diseases. The mechanical properties of the blood clot are important for its functioning but complicated due to the many processes involved. The main structural component of the blood clot is fibrin, a fibrous network that forms within the blood clot, thereby increasing its mechanical rigidity. A constitutive model for the maturing fibrin network is developed that captures the evolving mechanical properties. The model describes the fibrin network as a network of fibers that become thicker in time. Model parameters are related to the structural properties of the network, being the fiber length, bending stiffness, and mass-length ratio. Results are compared with rheometry experiments in which the network maturation is followed in time for various loading frequencies and fibrinogen concentrations. Three parameters are used to capture the mechanical behavior including the mass-length ratio. This parameter agrees with values determined using turbidimetry experiments and is subsequently used to derive the number of protofibrils and fiber radius. The strength of the model is that it describes the mechanical properties of the maturing fibrin network based on it structural quantities. At the same time the model is relatively simple, which makes it suitable for advanced numerical simulations of blood clot formation during flow in blood vessels. PMID:25028892

  3. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Oron Semper, Jose V.; Murillo, Jose I.; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning.

  4. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization.

    PubMed

    Oron Semper, Jose V; Murillo, Jose I; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012

  5. Adolescent Emotional Maturation through Divergent Models of Brain Organization

    PubMed Central

    Oron Semper, Jose V.; Murillo, Jose I.; Bernacer, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA) or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP) is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning. PMID:27602012

  6. OUTSHORE Maturity Model: Assistance for Software Offshore Outsourcing Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkiö, Juho; Betz, Stafanie; Oberweis, Andreas

    Offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) is increasingly being used by the Software Industry. OOSD is a specific variant of Geographically Distributed Software Developmentdistributed software development (GDSD). Compared to the traditional mode of software development (i.e., in-house) GDSD is more edgy and puts at risk the attainment of the expected results. Although the failure of an offshore outsourcing software project may be caused by a variety of factors, one major complication is geographical distance. Consequently we argue that risk avoidance in outshore software development should be undertaken well in advance of the development launch. This could be done by testing the offshore outsourcing relevance of each software project and then the offshore outsourcing company involved. With this in mind we have developed the OUTSHORE Maturity Modeloutshore maturity model - OMM.

  7. Toward Rigorous Comprehension of Biological Complexity: Modeling, Execution, and Visualization of Thymic T-Cell Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Efroni, Sol; Harel, David; Cohen, Irun R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the problems biologists face is a data set too large to comprehend in full. Experimenters generate data at an ever-growing pace, each from their own niche of interest. Current theories are each able, at best, to capture and model only a small part of the data. We aim to develop a general approach to modeling that will help broaden biological understanding. T-cell maturation in the thymus is a telling example of the accumulation of experimental data into a large disconnected data set. The thymus is responsible for the maturation of stem cells into mature T cells, and its complexity divides research into different fields, for example, cell migration, cell differentiation, histology, electron microscopy, biochemistry, molecular biology, and more. Each field forms its own viewpoint and its own set of data. In this study we present the results of a comprehensive integration of large parts of this data set. The integration is performed in a two-tiered visual manner. First, we use the visual language of Statecharts, which makes specification precise, legible, and executable on computers. We then set up a moving graphical interface that dynamically animates the cells, their receptors, the different gradients, and the interactions that constitute thymic maturation. This interface also provides a means for interacting with the simulation. PMID:14597657

  8. Investigations of oocyte in vitro maturation within a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Alexis Heng Boon; Chye, Ng Soon

    2004-02-01

    This study attempted to develop a 'less meiotically competent' murine model for oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), which could more readily be extrapolated to human clinical assisted reproduction. Oocyte meiotic competence was drastically reduced upon shortening the standard duration of in vivo gonadotrophin stimulation from 48 h to 24 h, and by selecting only naked or partially naked germinal vesicle oocytes, instead of fully cumulus enclosed oocyte complexes. With such a less meiotically competent model, only porcine granulosa coculture significantly enhanced the oocyte maturation rate in vitro, whereas no significant enhancement was observed with macaque and murine granulosa coculture. Increased serum concentrations and the supplementation of gonadotrophins, follicular fluid and extracellular matrix gel within the culture medium did not enhance IVM under either cell-free or coculture conditions. Culture medium conditioned by porcine granulosa also enhanced the maturation rate, and this beneficial effect was not diminished upon freeze-thawing. Enhanced IVM in the presence of porcine granulosa coculture did not, however, translate into improved developmental competence, as assessed by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. PMID:15214575

  9. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Freiere deCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) are to develop an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to crew health and mission planners and to help align science, technology, and operational activities intended to optimize crew health, safety, and mission success. Presentation slides address scope and approach, beneficiaries of IMM capabilities, history, risk components, conceptual models, development steps, and the evidence base. Space adaptation syndrome is used to demonstrate the model's capabilities.

  10. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2∼50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2∼55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km∼26 °C/km and 12 °C/km∼30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  11. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2˜50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2˜55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km˜26 °C/km and 12 °C/km˜30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  12. Mitochondrial Polyadenylation Is a One-Step Process Required for mRNA Integrity and tRNA Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Maffezzini, Camilla; Felser, Andrea; Wibom, Rolf; Wedell, Anna; Wredenberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Polyadenylation has well characterised roles in RNA turnover and translation in a variety of biological systems. While polyadenylation on mitochondrial transcripts has been suggested to be a two-step process required to complete translational stop codons, its involvement in mitochondrial RNA turnover is less well understood. We studied knockdown and knockout models of the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase (MTPAP) in Drosophila melanogaster and demonstrate that polyadenylation of mitochondrial mRNAs is exclusively performed by MTPAP. Further, our results show that mitochondrial polyadenylation does not regulate mRNA stability but protects the 3' terminal integrity, and that despite a lack of functioning 3' ends, these trimmed transcripts are translated, suggesting that polyadenylation is not required for mitochondrial translation. Additionally, loss of MTPAP leads to reduced steady-state levels and disturbed maturation of tRNACys, indicating that polyadenylation in mitochondria might be important for the stability and maturation of specific tRNAs. PMID:27176048

  13. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNLs mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  14. Animal Modeling of Early Programming and Disruption of Pubertal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Puberty is a fascinating developmental transition that gates the attainment of reproductive capacity and culminates the somatic and sexual maturation of the organism. Rather than a circumscribed phenomenon, puberty is the endpoint of a long-lasting developmental continuum, which initiates in utero. Besides important genetic determinants, the tempo of puberty is influenced by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that, acting at different levels of the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis along the maturational continuum indicated above, can influence puberty onset. Among the different modifiers of puberty, in this chapter we will focus our attention on two major groups of signals, sex steroids and nutritional cues, and how these interplay mostly with the central elements of the HPG axis, and especially with gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and their key upstream afferents, Kiss1 neurons, to influence the timing of puberty. Special emphasis will be given to summarize information emerging from relevant preclinical (mostly rodent) animal models, and how this information might be relevant in terms of translational medicine, as it may help for a better understanding and eventually management of pubertal disorders of escalating prevalence worldwide.

  15. Towards an Encompassing Maturity Model for the Management of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, João Vidal; Rocha, Álvaro; Vasconcelos, José

    2015-09-01

    Maturity models are tools that favour the management of organizations, including their information systems management task, and hospital organizations are no exception. In the present paper we put forth a preliminary investigation aimed at the development of an encompassing maturity model for the management of hospital information systems. The development of this model is justified to the extent that current maturity models in the field of hospital information systems management are still in an early development stage, and especially because they are poorly detailed, do not provide tools to determine the maturity stage nor structure the characteristics of maturity stages according to different influencing factors.

  16. Creativity, Spirituality, and Transcendence: Paths to Integrity and Wisdom in the Mature Self. Publications in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melvin E., Ed.; Cook-Greuter, Susanne R., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on creativity, spirituality, and transcendence as paths to integrity and wisdom in the mature self. The book begins with the paper "Introduction--Creativity in Adulthood: Personal Maturity and Openness to Extraordinary Sources of Inspiration" (Susanne R. Cook-Greuter, Melvin E. Miller). The next four papers, which…

  17. An Integrated Model Recontextualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Saltmarsh, John

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, authors KerryAnn O'Meara and John Saltmarsh reflect on their 2008 "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement" article "An Integrated Model for Advancing the Scholarship of Engagement: Creating Academic Homes for the Engaged Scholar," reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of…

  18. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Douglas J.; Kerstman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and approach for the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software decision support tool that forecasts medical events during spaceflight and optimizes medical systems during simulations. It includes information on the software capabilities, program stakeholders, use history, and the software logic.

  19. Evaluation of organizational maturity based on people capacity maturity model in medical record wards of Iranian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Tavakoli, Nahid; Shams, Assadollah; Hatampour, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Context: People capacity maturity model (PCMM) is one of the models which focus on improving organizational human capabilities. Aims: The aim of this model's application is to increase people ability to attract, develop, motivate, organize and retain the talents needed to organizational continuous improvement. Settings and Design: In this study, we used the PCMM for investigation of organizational maturity level in medical record departments of governmental hospitals and determination strengths and weaknesses of their staff capabilities. Materials and Methods: This is an applied research and cross sectional study in which data were collected by questionnaires to investigation of PCMM model needs in medical record staff of governmental hospitals at Isfahan, Iran. We used the questionnaire which has been extracted from PCMM model and approved its reliability with Cronbach's Alpha 0.96. Statistical Analysis Used: Data collected by the questionnaire was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions descriptive statistics were used. Results: Our findings showed that the mean score of medical record practitioners, skill and capability in governmental hospitals was 35 (62.5%) from maximum 56 (100%). There is no significant relevance between organizational maturity and medical record practitioners, attributes. Conclusions: Applying PCMM model is caused increasing staff and manager attention in identifying the weaknesses in the current activities and practices, so it will result in improvement and developing processes. PMID:25077147

  20. Kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in maturing sugarcane culm tissue.

    PubMed

    Uys, Lafras; Botha, Frederik C; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S; Rohwer, Johann M

    2007-01-01

    Biochemically, it is not completely understood why or how commercial varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are able to accumulate sucrose in high concentrations. Such concentrations are obtained despite the presence of sucrose synthesis/breakdown cycles (futile cycling) in the culm of the storage parenchyma. Given the complexity of the process, kinetic modelling may help to elucidate the factors governing sucrose accumulation or direct the design of experimental optimisation strategies. This paper describes the extension of an existing model of sucrose accumulation (Rohwer, J.M., Botha, F.C., 2001. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data. Biochem. J. 358, 437-445) to account for isoforms of sucrose synthase and fructokinase, carbon partitioning towards fibre formation, and the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyrophosphate-dependent PFK and aldolase. Moreover, by including data on the maximal activity of the enzymes as measured in different internodes, a growth model was constructed that describes the metabolic behaviour as sugarcane parenchymal tissue matures from internodes 3-10. While there was some discrepancy between modelled and experimentally determined steady-state sucrose concentrations in the cytoplasm, steady-state fluxes showed a better fit. The model supports a hypothesis of vacuolar sucrose accumulation against a concentration gradient. A detailed metabolic control analysis of sucrose synthase showed that each isoform has a unique control profile. Fructose uptake by the cell and sucrose uptake by the vacuole had a negative control on the futile cycling of sucrose and a positive control on sucrose accumulation, while the control profile for neutral invertase was reversed. When the activities of these three enzymes were changed from their reference values, the effects on futile cycling and sucrose accumulation were amplified. The model can be run online at the JWS Online

  1. Integrated development and maturation of the hearing system. A critical review article.

    PubMed

    Fisch, L

    1983-08-01

    The understanding of development and maturation of the auditory system is essential for many reasons, including the practical aspects of auditory behaviour, testing, and teaching a hearing-impaired child to communicate effectively. The study of maturation of the auditory system is gaining increasing importance also because it should help us to interpret correctly certain aspects of auditory behaviour in infants. When studying the auditory system we should not be concerned solely with development of function in isolation; the emphasis is on integrated development. Understanding a process of integrated development enables us to understand the peculiarities of auditory behaviour in infants. Sound became the raw material of human language for good reasons. It is the only medium which made it possible to transmit efficiently complex information encoded in human language. Phylogenetically, hearing in vertebrates is a late development, and because of this, in certain unfavourable circumstances the hearing system is more vulnerable than other phylogenetically older systems. Within the auditory system, high-frequency hearing is also phylogenetically a late development, and therefore more vulnerable to certain unfavourable metabolic influences. In all species there is a 'best frequency' range, usually the one which is most vital for communication. In humans the best frequency range is the one which is most important for transmitting speech sounds. This is already noticeable in newborn and very young infants, that is, we can obtain the best reactions in the frequencies which are important for speech. Higher sensitivity for perception of patterns is already developed in newborn and young infants (and acquires a special significance). Direction detection and localisation of sound source develops gradually. It is fully developed only when the auditory pathway matures and when the function is well integrated with the maturing motor system. The ears of the young are more

  2. Integrated Environmental Control Model

    1999-09-03

    IECM is a powerful multimedia engineering software program for simulating an integrated coal-fired power plant. It provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integratedmore » into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of dofferent costs and performance results. A Graphical Use Interface (GUI) facilitates the configuration of the technologies, entry of data, and retrieval of results.« less

  3. A Maturity Model for Assessing the Use of ICT in School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar, Mauricio; Sabattin, Jorge; Parada, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an ICT-based and capability-driven model for assessing ICT in education capabilities and maturity of schools. The proposed model, called ICTE-MM (ICT in School Education Maturity Model), has three elements supporting educational processes: information criteria, ICT resources, and leverage domains. Changing the traditional…

  4. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning. PMID:27556337

  5. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  6. The Role of Work-Related Skills and Career Role Models in Adolescent Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Using data for 2,722 British adolescents explores whether work-related skills and career role models are associated with career maturity when sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and personal characteristics are controlled. Having work-related skills and having a career role model were positively associated with career maturity.…

  7. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  8. Maturation State-Dependent Alterations in Meniscus Integration: Implications for Scaffold Design and Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Lara C.; Lee, Gregory C.; Garcia, Grant H.; Zachry, Tiffany L.; Shah, Roshan P.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The knee meniscus is a crucial component of the knee that functions to stabilize the joint, distribute load, and maintain congruency. Meniscus tears and degeneration are common, and natural healing is limited. Notably, few children present with meniscus injuries and other related fibrocartilaginous tissues heal regeneratively in immature animals and in the fetus. In this work, we evaluated fetal, juvenile, and adult bovine meniscus properties and repair capacity in vitro. Although no changes in cell behavior (migration and proliferation) were noted with age, drastic alterations in the density and distribution of the major components of meniscus tissue (proteoglycan, collagen, and DNA) occurred with development. Coincident with these marked tissue changes, the in vitro healing capacity of the tissue decreased with age. Fetal and juvenile meniscus formed a robust repair over 8 weeks on both a histological and mechanical basis, despite a lack of vascular supply. In contrast, adult meniscus did not integrate over this period. However, integration was improved significantly with the addition of the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta 3. Finally, to evaluate engineered scaffold integration in the context of aging, we monitored cellular infiltration from native tissue into engineered nanofibrous constructs. Our findings suggest that maturation processes that enable load bearing in the adult limit endogenous healing potential and identify new metrics for the development of tissue-engineered meniscus implants. PMID:20712419

  9. Integration of Posttranscriptional Gene Networks into Metabolic Adaptation and Biofilm Maturation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Paul F.; Lo, Tricia L.; Quenault, Tara; Dagley, Michael J.; Bellousoff, Matthew; Powell, David R.; Beilharz, Traude H.; Traven, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen. Although both commensalism and pathogenesis depend on metabolic adaptation, the regulatory pathways that mediate metabolic processes in C. albicans are incompletely defined. For example, metabolic change is a major feature that distinguishes community growth of C. albicans in biofilms compared to suspension cultures, but how metabolic adaptation is functionally interfaced with the structural and gene regulatory changes that drive biofilm maturation remains to be fully understood. We show here that the RNA binding protein Puf3 regulates a posttranscriptional mRNA network in C. albicans that impacts on mitochondrial biogenesis, and provide the first functional data suggesting evolutionary rewiring of posttranscriptional gene regulation between the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans. A proportion of the Puf3 mRNA network is differentially expressed in biofilms, and by using a mutant in the mRNA deadenylase CCR4 (the enzyme recruited to mRNAs by Puf3 to control transcript stability) we show that posttranscriptional regulation is important for mitochondrial regulation in biofilms. Inactivation of CCR4 or dis-regulation of mitochondrial activity led to altered biofilm structure and over-production of extracellular matrix material. The extracellular matrix is critical for antifungal resistance and immune evasion, and yet of all biofilm maturation pathways extracellular matrix biogenesis is the least understood. We propose a model in which the hypoxic biofilm environment is sensed by regulators such as Ccr4 to orchestrate metabolic adaptation, as well as the regulation of extracellular matrix production by impacting on the expression of matrix-related cell wall genes. Therefore metabolic changes in biofilms might be intimately linked to a key biofilm maturation mechanism that ultimately results in untreatable fungal disease. PMID:26474309

  10. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  11. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H.

    1996-12-31

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  12. ISO 9000 and/or Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gholston, Sampson E.

    2002-01-01

    For businesses and organizations to remain competitive today they must have processes and systems in place that will allow them to first identify customer needs and then develop products/processes that will meet or exceed the customers needs and expectations. Customer needs, once identified, are normally stated as requirements. Designers can then develop products/processes that will meet these requirements. Several functions, such as quality management and systems engineering management are used to assist product development teams in the development process. Both functions exist in all organizations and both have a similar objective, which is to ensure that developed processes will meet customer requirements. Are efforts in these organizations being duplicated? Are both functions needed by organizations? What are the similarities and differences between the functions listed above? ISO 9000 is an international standard of goods and services. It sets broad requirements for the assurance of quality and for management's involvement. It requires organizations to document the processes and to follow these documented processes. ISO 9000 gives customers assurance that the suppliers have control of the process for product development. Systems engineering can broadly be defined as a discipline that seeks to ensure that all requirements for a system are satisfied throughout the life of the system by preserving their interrelationship. The key activities of systems engineering include requirements analysis, functional analysis/allocation, design synthesis and verification, and system analysis and control. The systems engineering process, when followed properly, will lead to higher quality products, lower cost products, and shorter development cycles. The System Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SE-CMM) will allow companies to measure their system engineering capability and continuously improve those capabilities. ISO 9000 and SE-CMM seem to have a similar objective, which

  13. Glacial integrative modelling.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, Andrey

    2003-09-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes.

  14. Glacial integrative modelling.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, Andrey

    2003-09-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes. PMID:14558899

  15. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons. B.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  16. A Quality Framework for Continuous Improvement of e-Learning: The e-Learning Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The E-Learning Maturity Model (eMM) is a quality improvement framework designed to help institutional leaders assess their institution's e-learning maturity. This paper reviews the eMM, drawing on examples of assessments conducted in New Zealand, Australia, the UK and the USA to show how it helps institutional leaders assess and compare their…

  17. Demographics, Causality, Work Salience, and the Career Maturity of African-American Students: A Causal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Anthony V.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    1998-01-01

    A model proposing that causality and work salience moderate the influence of gender, educational level, and socioeconomic status on career maturity was tested with 288 African-American students. Work salience had the strongest direct effect on career maturity. For these students home/family had higher salience than did work. (SK)

  18. Skeletal maturity determination from hand radiograph by model-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsang, Frank; Kohnen, Michael; Schneider, Hansgerd; Weiler, Frank; Kilbinger, Markus W.; Wein, Berthold B.; Guenther, Rolf W.

    2000-06-01

    Derived from a model based segmentation algorithm for hand radiographs proposed in our former work we now present a method to determine skeletal maturity by an automated analysis of regions of interest (ROI). These ROIs including the epiphyseal and carpal bones, which are most important for skeletal maturity determination, can be extracted out of the radiograph by knowledge based algorithms.

  19. Osteopotentia regulates osteoblast maturation, bone formation, and skeletal integrity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yebin; Zhao, Jenny J.; Mohr, Andreas; Roemer, Frank

    2010-01-01

    During skeletal development and regeneration, bone-forming osteoblasts respond to high metabolic demand by active expansion of their rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and increased synthesis of type I collagen, the predominant bone matrix protein. However, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate this response are not well understood. We show that insertional mutagenesis of the previously uncharacterized osteopotentia (Opt) gene disrupts osteoblast function and causes catastrophic defects in postnatal skeletal development. Opt encodes a widely expressed rER-localized integral membrane protein containing a conserved SUN (Sad1/Unc-84 homology) domain. Mice lacking Opt develop acute onset skeletal defects that include impaired bone formation and spontaneous fractures. These defects result in part from a cell-autonomous failure of osteoblast maturation and a posttranscriptional decline in type I collagen synthesis, which is concordant with minimal rER expansion. By identifying Opt as a crucial regulator of bone formation in the mouse, our results uncover a novel rER-mediated control point in osteoblast function and implicate human Opt as a candidate gene for brittle bone disorders. PMID:20440000

  20. [Synapse maturation and autism: learning from neuroligin model mice].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Chang, WenHsin; Hang, WenHsin; Asgar, Nur Farehan; Asgar, Nur Farehan Mohamed; Pramanik, Gopal

    2014-02-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Synaptic defects have been implicated in autism; nevertheless, the cause is still largely unknown. A mutation that substitutes cysteine for arginine at residue 451 of Neuroligin-3 (R451C) is the first monogenic mutation identified in idiopathic autism patients. To study the relationship between this mutation and autism, we generated knock-in mice that recapitulated this mutation. The knock-in mice were born and grew up normally without showing any major physical phenotypes, but showed a deficit in social interaction. We studied synaptic function in the layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex and found inhibitory synaptic transmission was enhanced in the knock-in mice. The administration of GABA blocker rescued social interaction, suggesting that this caused autistic behavior in these mice. We also found, by Morris water maze test, that spatial learning and memory were significantly enhanced in the knock-in mice. Electrophysiology in the CA1 region of the hippocampus revealed that LTP, the NMDA/AMPA ratio, and NR2B function were enhanced, indicating that synaptic maturation was impaired in the knock-in mice. This may cause the deficit in social behavior and extraordinary memory ability occasionally seen in autistic patients.

  1. Integrating Social-Contextual and Intrapersonal Mechanisms of “Maturing Out”: Joint Influences of Familial-Role Transitions and Personality Maturation on Problem-Drinking Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Maturing out” of problem drinking is associated with both role transitions (e.g., getting married) and personality development. However, little is known concerning how these two mechanisms jointly influence problem-drinking desistance. This study investigated whether salutary effects of role transitions and personality occur at different points in young-adult development and whether they mediate one another’s effects. Methods Participants were initially recruited as first-year undergraduates, with family history of alcoholism overrepresented by design (N=489; Sher et al., 1991). Using four waves of data at roughly ages 21, 25, 29, and 34, cross-lagged panel models estimated prospective relations among familial-role transitions (marriage or parenthood), personality (disinhibition, conscientiousness, and neuroticism), and problem drinking. Results Mixed support was found for the prediction of roles being more strongly associated with earlier maturing out of problem drinking and personality being more strongly associated with later maturing out. Regarding mediation, no evidence was found for the expectation that role effects would be mediated by personality. However, results did support mediation of personality effects by role transitions. Specifically, lower disinhibition and higher conscientiousness in emerging adulthood predicted role adoption, which, in turn, predicted later problem-drinking reductions. Family history of alcoholism also distally influenced these mediation processes. Conclusions The differential timing of role and personality effects is consistent with the notion of decreasing contextual influences and increasing intrapersonal influences across development. In light of role incompatibility theory, results suggest that, over the course of development, the association of familial roles with problem drinking may increasingly reflect problem-drinking effects on role entry (i.e., role selection) and decreasingly reflect role entry

  2. Requirement for Microglia for the Maintenance of Synaptic Function and Integrity in the Mature Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhao, Lian; Zhang, Jun; Fariss, Robert N.; Ma, Wenxin; Kretschmer, Friedrich; Wang, Minhua; Qian, Hao hua; Badea, Tudor C.; Diamond, Jeffrey S.; Gan, Wen-Biao; Roger, Jerome E.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the principal resident immune cell of the CNS, exert significant influence on neurons during development and in pathological situations. However, if and how microglia contribute to normal neuronal function in the mature uninjured CNS is not well understood. We used the model of the adult mouse retina, a part of the CNS amenable to structural and functional analysis, to investigate the constitutive role of microglia by depleting microglia from the retina in a sustained manner using genetic methods. We discovered that microglia are not acutely required for the maintenance of adult retinal architecture, the survival of retinal neurons, or the laminar organization of their dendritic and axonal compartments. However, sustained microglial depletion results in the degeneration of photoreceptor synapses in the outer plexiform layer, leading to a progressive functional deterioration in retinal light responses. Our results demonstrate that microglia are constitutively required for the maintenance of synaptic structure in the adult retina and for synaptic transmission underlying normal visual function. Our findings on constitutive microglial function are relevant in understanding microglial contributions to pathology and in the consideration of therapeutic interventions that reduce or perturb constitutive microglial function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglia, the principal resident immune cell population in the CNS, has been implicated in diseases in the brain and retina. However, how they contribute to the everyday function of the CNS is unclear. Using the model of the adult mouse retina, we examined the constitutive role of microglia by depleting microglia from the retina. We found that in the absence of microglia, retinal neurons did not undergo overt cell death or become structurally disorganized in their processes. However, connections between neurons called synapses begin to break down, leading to a decreased ability of the retina to transmit light responses

  3. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1. PMID:27417497

  4. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1.

  5. A structure for maturing intelligent tutoring system student models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Willard M.

    1990-01-01

    A special structure is examined for evolving a detached model of the user of an intelligent tutoring system. Tutoring is used in the context of education and training devices. A detached approach to populating the student model data structure is examined in the context of the need for time dependent reasoning about what the student knows about a particular concept in the domain of interest. This approach, to generating a data structure for the student model, allows an inference engine separate from the tutoring strategy determination to be used. This methodology has advantages in environments requiring real-time operation.

  6. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  7. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  9. Understanding through seeing - the role of seismic in an integrated study of a mature Nigerian field

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, M.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of integration of both data and disciplines is presented in the case of an Nigerian field, with particular emphasis on the central role of seismic data: A pre-requisite for any seismic interpretation is a reliable well-to-seismic tie. Due to log data availability and quality, this match was only achieved by generating synthetic seismograms based on acoustic impedance models. The seismic time interpretation was guided by the geological framework following sequence stratigraphical principles. Depth conversion and evaluation of volumetric uncertainties were based on all data. The resulting STOIIP estimates have been compared to the volumes derived independently from production data. It then became possible to explain apparent mismatches seen in some reservoirs by modifying the best-estimate volumes within the uncertainties and by comparison with analogue reservoirs Channel-like amplitude features encountered in shallow reservoirs helped to explain variable production performance and consequently to identify appraisal and development opportunities. Some of the deeper, shoreface sands seem to behave in a more tank-like manner. This is not only confirmed by recent RST-logs, but also by seismic flatspots. The flatspots are conformable to structure and reflect the remaining oil distribution. These results highlight the value of continuous integration of data and disciplines to the petroleum engineering study.

  10. Integrating Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy

    2011-01-01

    For the past ten years, the coronal loops community has held bi-annual workshops to discuss the analysis of coronal loop observations and the latest efforts to model the loop structures. During this time, several heating scenarios have been proposed to explain loop observations. These heating scenarios rely on different heating frequencies, locations, and durations, as well as different loop sub-structure. Often the scenarios are developed to explain an observation, hence all heating scenarios match some observational criteria. The key to discriminating between the competing heating scenarios is to first identify the distinguishing observables. For instance, both effectively steady and nanoflare-heating scenarios can produce quasi-steady intensities. Observing quasi-steady intensities, then, does not help determine which heating scenario is most likely. These heating scenarios may, however, predict different velocities or different emission measure distributions. In this talk, I will discuss a few of the expected observations for some simple heating scenarios. I will ask the modeling community to calculate similar observations for the different heating scenarios to generate a standard list of expected observations. After the community develops this list, comparisons with actual loop observations can then distinguish the most likely heating scenario.

  11. Models for medical practice integration.

    PubMed

    Harris, R M

    1994-08-01

    Decreased physician income, increased administrative burdens, and interference with the compassionate delivery of high-quality medical care are threatening the independent practice of medicine in solo and small group practices. Many established physicians, and the hospitals with which they relate, are searching for organizational models that, by integrating some or all aspects of their practices, will preserve incomes and reduce regulatory and administrative burdens. This article will describe several "practice integration models," pointing out advantages and disadvantages to physicians in established practices. (Many of the same arguments could be made for physicians new to practice, with different emphasis). The continuum of integration models is shown in figure 1, page 19. The group practice without walls and its two submodels, the independent group practice without walls (IGWW) and the affiliated medical practice corporation (AMPC) are more recent and more effective models and will be covered in depth in the article.

  12. Maturity Matrices for Quality of Model- and Observation-Based Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höck, Heinke; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea; Kaspar, Frank; Stockhause, Martina; Toussaint, Frank; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the field of Software Engineering the Capability Maturity Model is used to evaluate and improve software development processes. The application of a Maturity Matrix is a method to assess the degree of software maturity. This method was adapted to the maturity of Earth System data in scientific archives. The application of such an approach to Climate Data Records was first proposed in the context of satellite-based climate products and applied by NOAA and NASA. The European FP7 project CORE-CLIMAX suggested and tested extensions of the approach in order to allow the applicability to additional climate datasets, e.g. based on in-situ observations as well as model-based reanalysis. Within that project the concept was applied to products of satellite- and in-situ based datasets. Examples are national ground-based data from Germany as an example for typical products of a national meteorological service, the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility Network, the ESA Climate Change Initiative, European Reanalysis activities (ERA-CLIM) and international in situ-based climatologies such as GPCC, ECA&D, BSRN, HadSST. Climate models and their related output have some additional characteristics that need specific consideration in such an approach. Here we use examples from the World Data Centre for Climate (WDCC) to discuss the applicability. The WDCC focuses on climate data products, specifically those resulting from climate simulations. Based on these already existing Maturity Matrix models, WDCC developed a generic Quality Assessment System for Earth System data. A self-assessment is performed using a maturity matrix evaluating the data quality for five maturity levels with respect to the criteria data and metadata consistency, completeness, accessibility and accuracy. The classical goals of a quality assessment system in a data processing workflow are: (1) to encourage data creators to improve quality to reach the next quality level, (2) enable data consumers to decide

  13. 3D thermal history and maturity modelling of the Levant Basin and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Ducros, Mathieu; Michel, Pauline; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The gas discoveries recorded in the Levant Basin in the last decade have redirected the industrial and academic communities' interest to this frontier basin and its surroundings. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its Margin. In this study we present a large scale 3D thermal history and maturity model of the Levant Basin and Margin, integrating all available calibration data, source rock information collected from onshore Lebanon, and published data. In the first part we will present the main input and assumptions that were made in terms of thicknesses, lithologies, and boundary conditions. In the second part we will discuss the analysed source rocks, their petroleum generation potential and their kinetics. In the third part we will present modelling results including depth maps for key isotherms in addition to transformation ratio and vitrinite reflectance maps for proven and speculative source rocks at different time steps. This will provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential thermogenic petroleum systems in the study area, and allow us to illustrate and discuss the differences between the basinal, marginal, and onshore part of the study area as well as the potential of the northern vis a vis the southern offshore Levant Basin. This model will also allow us to analyse the sensitivity of the system to the various poorly constrained parameters in frontier basins (e.g. crustal thickness, rifting phases, lithologies) and thus identify the most critical data to be collected for future exploration and de-risking strategies.

  14. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  15. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-01-01

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study. PMID:25730049

  16. Expression and genomic integration of transgenes after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Uçarlı, C; Tufan, F; Gürel, F

    2015-02-06

    Mature embryos in tissue cultures are advantageous because of their abundance and rapid germination, which reduces genomic instability problems. In this study, 2-day-old isolated mature barley embryos were infected with 2 Agrobacterium hypervirulent strains (AGL1 and EHA105), followed by a 3-day period of co-cultivation in the presence of L-cystein amino acid. Chimeric expression of the b-glucuronidase gene (gusA) directed by a viral promoter of strawberry vein banding virus was observed in coleoptile epidermal cells and seminal roots in 5-day-old germinated seedlings. In addition to varying infectivity patterns in different strains, there was a higher ratio of transient b-glucuronidase expression in developing coleoptiles than in embryonic roots, indicating the high competency of shoot apical meristem cells in the mature embryo. A total of 548 explants were transformed and 156 plants developed to maturity on G418 media after 18-25 days. We detected transgenes in 74% of the screened plant leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and 49% of these expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II gene following AGL1 transformation. Ten randomly selected T0 transformants were analyzed using thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction and 24 fragments ranged between 200-600 base pairs were sequenced. Three of the sequences flanked with transferred-DNA showed high similarity to coding regions of the barley genome, including alpha tubulin5, homeobox 1, and mitochondrial 16S genes. We observed 70-200-base pair filler sequences only in the coding regions of barley in this study.

  17. (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; dos Santos Brito, Kellyton; Holanda do Nascimento, Clóvis; Campos da Costa, Luciana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Cardoso Garcia, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    The term definition "Smart City" still allows various interpretations, and this causes some difficulty in establishing parameters to measure how smart the cities can be. This paper presents a Maturity Model that uses a set of minimum domains and indicators that aim to encourage cities of different sizes to identify their potential and improve processes and public policies.

  18. Using a Capability Maturity Model to Build on the Generational Approach to Student Engagement Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, K.; Clarke, J.; Stoodley, I.; Creagh, T.

    2015-01-01

    The generational approach to conceptualising first-year student learning behaviour has made a useful contribution to understanding student engagement. It has an explicit focus on student behaviour and we suggest that a Capability Maturity Model interpretation may provide a complementary extension of that understanding as it builds on the…

  19. Enabling model customization and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minho; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2003-09-01

    Until fairly recently, the idea of dynamic model content and presentation were treated synonymously. For example, if one was to take a data flow network, which captures the dynamics of a target system in terms of the flow of data through nodal operators, then one would often standardize on rectangles and arrows for the model display. The increasing web emphasis on XML, however, suggests that the network model can have its content specified in an XML language, and then the model can be represented in a number of ways depending on the chosen style. We have developed a formal method, based on styles, that permits a model to be specified in XML and presented in 1D (text), 2D, and 3D. This method allows for customization and personalization to exert their benefits beyond e-commerce, to the area of model structures used in computer simulation. This customization leads naturally to solving the bigger problem of model integration - the act of taking models of a scene and integrating them with that scene so that there is only one unified modeling interface. This work focuses mostly on customization, but we address the integration issue in the future work section.

  20. A maturity model for assessing the completeness of climate data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, John J.; Privette, Jeffrey L.

    2012-10-01

    The demand for climate information, with long observational records spanning decades to centuries and the information's broad application for decision making across many socioeconomic sectors, requires that geophysicists adopt more rigorous processes for the sustained production of climate data records (CDRs). Such processes, methods, and standards are more typically found in the systems engineering community and have not generally been adopted in the climate science community. We propose the use of a maturity matrix for climate data records that characterizes the process of moving from a basic research product (e.g., raw data and initial product) to a sustained and routinely generated product (e.g., a quality-controlled homogenized data set). This model of increasing product and process maturity is similar to NASA's technical readiness levels for flight hardware and instrumentation and the software industry's capability maturity model. Over time, engineers who have worked on many projects developed a set of best practices that identified the processes required to optimize cost, schedule, and risk. In the NASA maturity model, they identified steps in technology readiness, denoted as the technology readiness level (TRL). TRL 1 occurs when basic research has taken the first steps toward application. TRL 9 is when a technology has been fully proven to work consistently for the intended purpose and is operational.

  1. Exiting prostitution: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lynda M; Dalla, Rochelle L; Williamson, Celia

    2010-05-01

    Exiting street-level prostitution is a complex, convoluted process. Few studies have described this process within any formal conceptual framework. This article reviews two general models and two prostitution-specific models and their applicability to the exiting process. Barriers encountered as women attempt to leave the streets are identified. Based on the four models, the barriers, the prostitution literature, and the authors' experience with prostituted women, a new integrated six-stage model that is comprehensive in scope and sensitive to women's attempts to exit prostitution is offered as a foundation for continued research on the process of women leaving the streets.

  2. Activation of HIFa Pathway in Mature Osteoblasts Disrupts the Integrity of the Osteocyte/Canalicular Network

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin; Kang, Hui; Jia, Peng; Chen, Hao; Shen, Xing; Guo, Lei; Zhou, Han-bing; Wang, Jin-shen; Zhou, Qi; Qian, Nian-dong; Deng, Lian-fu

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are the central mediators of the homeostatic response that enables cells to survive and differentiate in low-oxygen conditions. Previous studies indicated that disruption of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with the activation of HIFα signaling. Here we show that inactivation of Vhl in mature osteoblasts/osteocytes induces their apoptosis and disrupts the cell/canalicular network. VHL-deficient (ΔVHL) mice exhibited a significantly increased cortical bone area resulting from enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) by inducing the expression of β-catenin in the BMSC. Our data suggest that the VHL/HIFα pathway in mature osteoblasts/osteocytes plays a critical role in the bone cell/canalicular network and that the changes of osteocyte morphology/function and cell/canalicular network may unleash the bone formation, The underlying mechanism of which was the accumulation of β-catenin in the osteoblasts/osteoprogenitors of the bone marrow. PMID:25806791

  3. Organellar genome copy number variation and integrity during moderate maturation of roots and leaves of maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Little information is available about organellar genome copy numbers and integrity in plant roots, although it was reported recently that the plastid and mitochondrial genomes were damaged under light, resulting in non-functional fragments in green seedling leaves in a maize line. In the present study, we investigated organellar genome copy numbers and integrity, after assessing the cellular ploidy, in seedling leaves and roots of two elite maize (Zea mays) cultivars using both long-fragment polymerase chain reaction (long-PCR) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, a type of short-PCR). Since maize leaf and root cells are mainly diploid according to chromosome number counting and the literature, the DNA amount ratio between the organellar genomes and the nuclear genome could be used to estimate average organellar genome copy numbers per cell. In the present study, both long-PCR and qPCR analyses found that green leaves had dramatically more plastid DNA and less mitochondrial DNA than roots had in both cultivars. The similarity in results from long-PCR and qPCR suggests that green leaves and roots during moderate maturation have largely intact plastid and mitochondrial genomes. The high resolution of qPCR led to the detection of an increase in copies in the plastid genome and a decrease in copies in the analyzed mitochondrial sub-genomes during the moderate maturation of seedling leaves and roots. These results suggest that green seedling leaves and roots of these two maize cultivars during moderate maturation had essentially intact organellar genomes, an increased copy number of the plastid genome, and decreased copy numbers of certain mitochondrial sub-genomes.

  4. Maturation of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: expression of nitric oxide synthase and neurofilament SMI-32.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santamaria, Veronica; McHaffie, John G; Stein, Barry E

    2008-11-25

    Nitric oxide (NO) containing (nitrergic) interneurons are well-positioned to convey the cortical influences that are crucial for multisensory integration in superior colliculus (SC) output neurons. However, it is not known whether nitrergic interneurons are in this position early in life, and might, therefore, also play a role in the functional maturation of this circuit. In the present study, we investigated the postnatal developmental relationship between these two populations of neurons using Beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH) histochemistry and SMI-32 immunocytochemistry to label presumptive interneurons and output neurons, respectively. SMI-32 immunostained neurons were proved to mature and retained immature anatomical features until approximately 8 postnatal weeks. In contrast, nitrergic interneurons developed more rapidly. They had achieved their adult-like anatomy by 4 postnatal weeks and were in a position to influence the dendritic elaboration of output neurons. It is this dendritic substrate through which much of the cortico-collicular influence is expressed. Double-labeling experiments showed that the dendritic and axonal processes of nitrergic interneurons already apposed the somata and dendrites of SMI-32 labeled neurons even at the earliest age examined. The results suggest that nitrergic interneurons play a role in refining the cortico-collicular projection patterns that are believed to be essential for SC output neurons to engage in multisensory integration and to support normal orientation responses to cross-modal stimuli.

  5. Comparing two causal models of career maturity for hearing-impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    King, S

    1990-01-01

    Conte (1983) suggested that existing theories of career development are inadequate for disabled populations because they fail to take into consideration the special life events and characteristics of people with a disability. The purpose of this study was to determine if Conte's reservations about contemporary theories could be supported by data. To this end, two causal models of career development were developed: one with five variables unique to the experience of the hearing impaired and the other without. Using data collected from 71 hearing-impaired adolescents, path analyses were conducted and the two models were compared for their ability to explain variance in career maturity. The results suggest that, although the second model may be more descriptive of the career development process for the deaf, it is no more powerful than the first in explaining variance in career maturity. PMID:2346105

  6. An integrated workflow to assess the remaining potential of mature hydrocarbon basins: a case study from Northwest Germany (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous, Lower Saxony Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfang, Björn; Aigner, Thomas; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Irmen, Anton

    2016-06-01

    Mature hydrocarbon provinces require a high level of geological understanding in order to extend the lives of producing fields, to replace reserves through smaller targets and to reduce the risks of exploring for more and more subtle hydrocarbon traps. Despite a large number of existing wells in the area studied in this paper, the depositional environments and the stratigraphic architecture were still poorly known. In order to improve the geological understanding, we propose a workflow to assess the remaining reservoir potential of mature hydrocarbon areas, integrating cores, cuttings, well-logs, biostratigraphy and seismic data. This workflow was developed for and is exemplified with the northwest of the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB), a mature hydrocarbon province in northwest Germany, but can be applied in a similar fashion to other areas. Systematic integration of lithofacies analysis, chrono- and sequence stratigraphy, combined with electrofacies analysis and modern digital methods like neural network-based lithology determination and 3D facies modelling provides a high-resolution understanding of the spatial facies and reservoir architecture in the study area. Despite widely correlatable litho-units in the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous in the LSB, complex heterogeneous sedimentary systems can be found in the basin's marginal parts. Two new play types were determined in the study area, showing a remaining potential for stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. The results of this exploration scale study also provide the basis for re-evaluations on a field development scale. On a basin scale, this study may encourage further data acquisition and re-evaluations to discover previously unknown reservoirs.

  7. Maturation and Functional Integration of New Granule Cells into the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Toni, Nicolas; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2015-12-04

    The adult hippocampus generates functional dentate granule cells (GCs) that release glutamate onto target cells in the hilus and cornus ammonis (CA)3 region, and receive glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs that tightly control their spiking activity. The slow and sequential development of their excitatory and inhibitory inputs makes them particularly relevant for information processing. Although they are still immature, new neurons are recruited by afferent activity and display increased excitability, enhanced activity-dependent plasticity of their input and output connections, and a high rate of synaptogenesis. Once fully mature, new GCs show all the hallmarks of neurons generated during development. In this review, we focus on how developing neurons remodel the adult dentate gyrus and discuss key aspects that illustrate the potential of neurogenesis as a mechanism for circuit plasticity and function.

  8. Incomplete protection of genetic integrity of mature spermatozoa against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Linschooten, Joost O; Laubenthal, Julian; Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana; Sipinen, Ville E; Brunborg, Gunnar; Haenen, Guido R M M; Fthenou, Eleni; Briedé, Jacob J; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2011-07-01

    Although DNA damage in human spermatozoa is associated with adverse health effects, its origin is not fully understood. Therefore, we assessed biomarkers in ejaculates that retrospectively reflect processes that occurred in the epididymis or testis. Smoking increased the amount of DNA strand breaks (P<0.01), and enhanced the presence of vitamin C radicals in seminal plasma. In vitro, vitamin C protected mature spermatozoa against DNA damage, but this protection appeared to be insufficient in vivo. CAT and DDIT4 expression in spermatozoa were higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, but were not related to DNA damage. CAT and DDIT4 expression were inversely related with sperm count (P=0.039 and 0.024 resp.), but no effect was observed for SOD2 expression. These data indicate that spermatozoa of smokers encounter higher levels of oxidative stress. Expression of antioxidant enzymes and seminal vitamin C were insufficient to provide full protection of spermatozoa against DNA damage.

  9. Integrated modeling: a look back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses applications and implementation approaches used for integrated modeling of structural systems with optics over the past 30 years. While much of the development work focused on control system design, significant contributions were made in system modeling and computer-aided design (CAD) environments. Early work appended handmade line-of-sight models to traditional finite element models, such as the optical spacecraft concept from the ACOSS program. The IDEAS2 computational environment built in support of Space Station collected a wider variety of existing tools around a parametric database. Later, IMOS supported interferometer and large telescope mission studies at JPL with MATLAB modeling of structural dynamics, thermal analysis, and geometric optics. IMOS's predecessor was a simple FORTRAN command line interpreter for LQG controller design with additional functions that built state-space finite element models. Specialized language systems such as CAESY were formulated and prototyped to provide more complex object-oriented functions suited to control-structure interaction. A more recent example of optical modeling directly in mechanical CAD is used to illustrate possible future directions. While the value of directly posing the optical metric in system dynamics terms is well understood today, the potential payoff is illustrated briefly via project-based examples. It is quite likely that integrated structure thermal optical performance (STOP) modeling could be accomplished in a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tool set. The work flow could be adopted, for example, by a team developing a small high-performance optical or radio frequency (RF) instrument.

  10. Variable developmental period: intraspecific competition models with conditional age-specific maturity and mortality schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Frogner, K.J.

    1980-10-01

    A simulation model is presented incorporating a variable time to maturity resulting from density-dependent scarcity of resources for the immature stages. This mechanism is shown to be capable of regulating a population and the model population persists under these conditions. The model is qualitatively robust to changes in the parameters: resource input rate, offspring input rate, and immature death rate. Implications drawn from the model behavior with respect to pest control, r-selection under K conditions and field experiments are discussed.

  11. Coconut water of different maturity stages ameliorates inflammatory processes in model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coconut water is a natural beverage that is a part of daily diet of many people. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of coconut water of different maturation stages (young and mature) with rat paw edema model of inflammation using plethysmometer. Methodology: For this study, albino rats were selected and divided into four equal groups (10 rats in each group). Group 1 was set as control and administered distilled water 1 ml orally; Groups 2 and 3 were treated with young and mature coconut water, respectively, at 4 ml/100 g dose orally. Group 4 was treated with the standard drug (ibuprofen) at 400 mg/70 kg. 0.1 ml of 1% w/v acetic acid was administered in the subplantar tissue of rat paw 30 min after oral treatments of groups. Plethysmometer was used to measure rat paw edema. Results: Results revealed that both coconut water possess significant anti-inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). In comparison to control, percent inhibition by young coconut water was 20.22%, 35.13%, 42.52%, and 36% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (42.52%) was observed in the second phase of the inflammatory process. On the other hand, percent inhibition by mature coconut water was 18.80%, 25.94%, 24.13%, and 18.66% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of acetic acid administration, respectively. However, maximum percent inhibition (25.94%) was observed in the first phase of the inflammatory process. Conclusions: This study strongly suggests the use of young coconut water for potent anti-inflammatory effect and mature coconut water for moderate anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27366350

  12. Oocyte recovery and maturation in the American black bear (Ursus americanus): a model for endangered ursids.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L A; Donoghue, A M; Igo, W; Simmons, L G; Wildt, D E; Rieffenberger, J

    1994-05-15

    A study was conducted to determine if meiotic maturation could be induced in ovarian oocytes of the American black bear (Ursus americanus), a model for gamete "rescue" techniques for endangered ursids. Ovaries obtained from 48 black bears yielded 2,403 oocytes (51.1 +/- 4.9/female), of which 777 (32.3%) were morphologically classified as excellent quality. More total oocytes were recovered from donors that were anestrous compared to luteal/pregnant (P < 0.05) at the time of ovarian excision. Delaying the recovery of oocytes from antral follicles within excised ovaries from 12-24 hr to 25-36 hr had no effect (P > 0.05) on the overall number of high quality oocytes recovered or subsequent maturational ability. The highest incidence of metaphase II was reached between 48 and 60 hr of in vitro incubation. Donor status (anestrous vs. luteal/pregnant) had no influence on the oocyte maturation rate by 24 or 48 hr, but by 60 hr, more (P < 0.05) oocytes recovered from anestrous females (43.9%) had achieved metaphase II compared to luteal/pregnant counterparts (23.1%). In preliminary trials involving endangered ursids, 54 ovarian oocytes were recovered from three aged sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), of which 72.2% were excellent quality and 15.4% matured in vitro to metaphase II. Similarly, 119 antral oocytes were recovered from two aged sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), of which 41.2% were excellent and 17.5% matured in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8207381

  13. Pentraxins coordinate excitatory synapse maturation and circuit integration of parvalbumin interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Pelkey, Kenneth A.; Barksdale, Elizabeth; Craig, Michael T.; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Sukumaran, Madhav; Vargish, Geoffrey A.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Wyeth, Megan S.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A.; Murata, Yasunobu; Colonnese, Matthew T.; Worley, Paul F.; McBain, Chris J.

    2015-01-01

    Circuit computation requires precision in the timing, extent, and synchrony of principal cell (PC) firing that is largely enforced by parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking interneurons (PVFSIs). To reliably coordinate network activity PVFSIs exhibit specialized synaptic and membrane properties that promote efficient afferent recruitment such as expression of high-conductance, rapidly gating, GluA4-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We found that PVFSIs upregulate GluA4 during the second postnatal week coincident with increases in the AMPAR clustering proteins NPTX2 and NPTXR. Moreover, GluA4 is dramatically reduced in NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice with consequent reductions in PVFSI AMPAR function. Early postnatal NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice exhibit delayed circuit maturation with a prolonged critical period permissive for giant depolarizing potentials. Juvenile NPTX2−/−/NPTXR−/− mice display reduced feedforward inhibition yielding a circuit deficient in rhythmogenesis and prone to epileptiform discharges. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for NPTXs in controlling network dynamics highlighting potential therapeutic targets for disorders with inhibition/excitation imbalances such as schizophrenia. PMID:25754824

  14. The integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  15. Evaluation of deltamethrin kinetics and dosimetry in the maturing rat using a PBPK model

    SciTech Connect

    Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Kim, Hyo J.; Haines, Wendy T.; Bruckner, James V.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-04-15

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study (Kim et al., in press) revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90 days old. The objective of the current study was to modify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DLM disposition in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat (Mirfazaelian et al., 2006), so blood and target organ dosimetry could be accurately predicted during maturation. Age-specific organ weights and age-dependent changes in the oxidative and hydrolytic clearance of DLM were modeled with a generalized Michaelis-Menten model for growth and the summary equations incorporated into the PBPK model. The model's simulations compared favorably with empirical DLM time-courses in plasma, blood, brain and fat for the four age-groups evaluated (10, 21, 40 and 90 days old). PND 10 pups' area under the 24-h brain concentration time curve (AUC{sub 0-24h}) was 3.8-fold higher than that of the PND 90 adults. Our maturing rat PBPK model allows for updating with age- and chemical-dependent parameters, so pyrethroid dosimetry can be forecast in young and aged individuals. Hence, this model provides a methodology for risk assessors to consider age-specific adjustments to oral Reference Doses on the basis of PK differences.

  16. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2016-07-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  17. Integrated analysis of high resolution aeromagnetic and satellite imagery data for hydrocarbon exploration in frontier and mature basins

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Nash, C.; Ellis, C.; Witham, B.

    1996-08-01

    Recent improvement in the collection and processing of high resolution aeromagnetic data provides, for the first time, information on the spatial distribution of geological structures in the sedimentary section. The magnetic data, which is presented with a series of color images, can be easily merged and correlated with satellite imagery data, air and space home radar and conventional aerial photography. The integration of these two different reconnaissance tools provides excellent means for structural mapping and early evaluation of hydrocarbon plays in both frontier and mature areas. A series of examples supported by both surface and subsurface controls are used to illustrate the exploration application of these two different data sets. In the frontier fold and thrust belts regions of the North Slope Alaska, the Andes of South America, and the Canadian Foothills, high resolution magnetic images and side-looking air and space borne radar data are effectively used to improve the interpretation of geological structures above the detachment levels. This data was also used to identify the presence of basement involved reactivated structures and related migration pathways. In less deformed and more mature areas, such as the Central Basin Platform of West Texas and the Peace River Arch of the Western Canada Basin, the integration of high resolution magnetic images and Landsat TM data leads to the recognition of new faults and fracture systems and related hydrocarbon plays. The availability of high resolution magnetic surveys and new space borne radar systems such as ERS-1, JERS-1 and RADARSAT should play a significant role in exploration of the heavily vegetated fold belt regions of the tropics as well as the vast plains and plateaus of the South American continent.

  18. A maturity model to deliver a national shared medications system, options, practice, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Michael; Pearce, Christopher; Taggart, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012 Australia launched the Personally Controlled electronic Health Record (PCEHR). This structured record allows health related information to be shared between providers as well as between providers and consumers. The next big challenge in delivering value for consumers is to use the medicines information distributed throughout the record in a way that allows better medications management at all levels. This poster points to the design and usability challenges being dealt with in that process during a national roll out and proposes a maturity model to accelerate the delivery of shared medication records. It is suggested that this model will have relevance in other jurisdictions. PMID:23920844

  19. A maturity model to deliver a national shared medications system, options, practice, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Michael; Pearce, Christopher; Taggart, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012 Australia launched the Personally Controlled electronic Health Record (PCEHR). This structured record allows health related information to be shared between providers as well as between providers and consumers. The next big challenge in delivering value for consumers is to use the medicines information distributed throughout the record in a way that allows better medications management at all levels. This poster points to the design and usability challenges being dealt with in that process during a national roll out and proposes a maturity model to accelerate the delivery of shared medication records. It is suggested that this model will have relevance in other jurisdictions.

  20. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities. PMID:23312314

  1. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities.

  2. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  3. Organizational effectiveness: toward an integrated model for schools of nursing.

    PubMed

    Baker, C M; Reising, D L; Johnson, D R; Stewart, R L; Baker, S D

    1997-01-01

    Assessing the quality of academic institutions involves much more than the opinions of peers or experts. Examination of the organizational effectiveness of schools of nursing has been neglected. Current emphasis on assessing educational outcomes has diverted attention from the construct, organizational effectiveness, and more comprehensive theory-driven approaches to evaluation. This review of the organizational effectiveness literature focuses on the major assessment models: goal attainment, human relations, open systems, internal processes, culture, and life cycle. Attention is given to the influence of organizational maturation on an integrated model of organizational effectiveness. Selected macrolevel studies of schools of nursing are examined, and an agenda for nursing research is proposed.

  4. Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM)

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM) is a decision-support software product for resource-and-capacity planning. Users can evaluate changing constraints on schedule performance, projected cost, and resource use. IRPM is a unique software tool that can analyze complex business situations from a basic supply chain to an integrated production facility to a distributed manufacturing complex. IRPM can be efficiently configured through a user-friendly graphical interface to rapidly provide charts, graphs, tables, and/or written results to summarize postulated business scenarios. There is not a similar integrated resource planning software package presently available. Many different businesses (from government to large corporations as well as medium-to-small manufacturing concerns) could save thousands of dollars and hundreds of labor hours in resource and schedule planning costs. Those businesses also could avoid millions of dollars of revenue lost from fear of overcommitting or from penalties and lost future business for failing to meet promised delivery by using IRPM to perform what-if business-case evaluations. Tough production planning questions that previously were left unanswered can now be answered with a high degree of certainty. Businesses can anticipate production problems and have solutions in hand to deal with those problems. IRPM allows companies to make better plans, decisions, and investments.

  5. Predictive Maturity of Multi-Scale Simulation Models for Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Atamturktur, Sez; Unal, Cetin; Hemez, Francois; Williams, Brian; Tome, Carlos

    2015-03-16

    The project proposed to provide a Predictive Maturity Framework with its companion metrics that (1) introduce a formalized, quantitative means to communicate information between interested parties, (2) provide scientifically dependable means to claim completion of Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) activities, and (3) guide the decision makers in the allocation of Nuclear Energy’s resources for code development and physical experiments. The project team proposed to develop this framework based on two complimentary criteria: (1) the extent of experimental evidence available for the calibration of simulation models and (2) the sophistication of the physics incorporated in simulation models. The proposed framework is capable of quantifying the interaction between the required number of physical experiments and degree of physics sophistication. The project team has developed this framework and implemented it with a multi-scale model for simulating creep of a core reactor cladding. The multi-scale model is composed of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) code at the meso-scale, which represents the visco-plastic behavior and changing properties of a highly anisotropic material and a Finite Element (FE) code at the macro-scale to represent the elastic behavior and apply the loading. The framework developed takes advantage of the transparency provided by partitioned analysis, where independent constituent codes are coupled in an iterative manner. This transparency allows model developers to better understand and remedy the source of biases and uncertainties, whether they stem from the constituents or the coupling interface by exploiting separate-effect experiments conducted within the constituent domain and integral-effect experiments conducted within the full-system domain. The project team has implemented this procedure with the multi- scale VPSC-FE model and demonstrated its ability to improve the predictive capability of the model. Within this

  6. Adaptive Urban Dispersion Integrated Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wissink, A; Chand, K; Kosovic, B; Chan, S; Berger, M; Chow, F K

    2005-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for understanding the three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from contaminant releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). Utilization of the most accurate urban models, based on fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that solve the Navier-Stokes equations with incorporated turbulence models, presents many challenges. We address two in this work; first, a fast but accurate way to incorporate the complex urban terrain, buildings, and other structures to enforce proper boundary conditions in the flow solution; second, ways to achieve a level of computational efficiency that allows the models to be run in an automated fashion such that they may be used for emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We have developed a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability based on FEM3MP (Gresho and Chan 1998, Chan and Stevens 2000), a CFD model from Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The integrated capability incorporates fast embedded boundary mesh generation for geometrically complex problems and full three-dimensional Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Parallel AMR and embedded boundary gridding support are provided through the SAMRAI library (Wissink et al. 2001, Hornung and Kohn 2002). Embedded boundary mesh generation has been demonstrated to be an automatic, fast, and efficient approach for problem setup. It has been used for a variety of geometrically complex applications, including urban applications (Pullen et al. 2005). The key technology we introduce in this work is the application of AMR, which allows the application of high-resolution modeling to certain important features, such as individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features). It also allows the urban scale model to be readily interfaced with coarser resolution meso or regional scale models. This talk

  7. Ethanol exposure during neurogenesis induces persistent effects on neural maturation: evidence from an ex vivo model of fetal cerebral cortical neuroepithelial progenitor maturation.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Cynthia; Miranda, Rajesh C

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a significant neuroteratogen. We previously used fetal cortical-derived neurosphere cultures as an ex vivo model of the second trimester ventricular neuroepithelium, and showed that ethanol directly induced fetal stem and progenitor cell proliferation and maturation without inducing death. However, ethanol is defined as a teratogen because of its capacity to persistently disrupt neural maturation beyond a specific exposure period. We therefore utilized a simplified neuronal maturation paradigm to examine the immediate and persistent changes in neuronal migration following ethanol exposure during the phase of neuroepithelial proliferation. Our data indicate that mRNA transcripts for migration-associated genes RhoA, Paxillin (Pxn), and CDC42 were immediately induced following ethanol exposure, whereas dynein light chain, LC8-type 1 (DYNLL1), and growth-associated protein (Gap)-43 were suppressed. With the exception of Gap43, ethanol did not induce persistent changes in the other mRNAs, suggesting that ethanol had an activational, rather than organizational, impact on migration-associated mRNAs. However, despite this lack of persistent effects on these mRNAs, ethanol exposure during the proliferation period significantly increased subsequent neuronal migration. Moreover, differentiating neurons, pretreated with ethanol during the proliferation phase, exhibited reduced neurite branching and an increased length of primary neurites, indicating a persistent destabilization of neuronal maturation. Collectively, our data indicate that ethanol-exposed proliferating neuroepithelial precursors exhibit subsequent differentiation-associated increases in migratory behavior, independent of mRNA transcript levels. These data help explain the increased incidence of cerebral cortical neuronal heterotopias associated with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

  8. Identifying Weaknesses for Chilean E-Government Implementation in Public Agencies with Maturity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, Mauricio; Astudillo, Hernán; Valdes, Gonzalo; Iribarren, Marcelo; Concha, Gastón

    Evaluating readiness of individual public agencies to execute specific e-Government programs and directives is a key ingredient for wider e-Government deployment and success. This article describes how the eGov-MM model was used to over 30 many Chilean public agencies and to identify specific areas in which each of them should focus improvement efforts. eGov-MM is a capability maturity model, patterned on similar models from the IT and organizational domains; it recognizes 4 leverage domains, 17 key domain areas (KDA) and 54 critical variables, identifies capability levels for each critical variable and KDA and proposes a synthetic maturity level for institutions. The 9-agencies pilot study and the 30-agencies massive study indicate that, in Chile today, the best developed areas are IT-related and mirror exactly those that are pre-requisites for the goals of the 5-years Digital Strategy, and the least evaluated are related to internal processes and human capital management.

  9. Delayed fetal pulmonary maturation in a rabbit model of the diabetic pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, C L; Manne, D N; D'Ercole, A J; Lawson, E E

    1980-01-01

    A rabbit model for the diabetic pregnancy was used to investigate the etiology of delayed pulmonary maturation observed in infants of diabetic mothers. Pregnant rabbit does were made glucose intolerant and insulinopenic by injection of alloxan, a pancreatic beta-cell cytotoxin. At 28 d (term approximately 31 d) fetuses of these animals were hyperglycemic, but were not hyperinsulinemic and did not demonstrate tissue overgrowth. Fetal pulmonary maturity was assessed by measurement of pressure-volume relationships on the fetal lungs. Fetuses of glucose-intolerant does demonstrated less retention of air on deflation. Phospholipid components of pulmonary surfactant were assayed on fluid obtained from lavage of the fetal lungs. Levels of disaturated phosphatidylcholine (per-cent total-lavage phospholipids) were diminished in fetuses of glucose-intolerant does compared to control fetuses (20.5 +/- 4.2 vs. 38.0 +/ 4.3%; P less than 0.01). Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios were similar in both groups and phosphatidylglycerol was not detected in either group. There was a direct correlation between the percentage of alveolar disaturated phosphatidylcholine and retention of air on lung deflation. These findings suggest that in this model pulmonary instability was a result of diminished alveolar disaturated phosphatidylcholine, and this diminution did not result from fetal hyperinsulinemia. PMID:6995481

  10. Integrated Urban Dispersion Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2003-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for developing a detailed understanding of three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). The accurate and timely prediction of the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous materials in densely populated urban areas is a critical homeland and national security need for emergency preparedness, risk assessment, and vulnerability studies. The main challenges in high-fidelity numerical modeling of urban dispersion are the accurate prediction of peak concentrations, spatial extent and temporal evolution of harmful levels of hazardous materials, and the incorporation of detailed structural geometries. Current computational tools do not include all the necessary elements to accurately represent hazardous release events in complex urban settings embedded in high-resolution terrain. Nor do they possess the computational efficiency required for many emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We are developing a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability, able to efficiently predict dispersion in diverse urban environments for a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temporal and spatial scales, and release event scenarios. This new computational fluid dynamics capability includes adaptive mesh refinement and it can simultaneously resolve individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features), treat complex building and structural geometries (e.g., stadiums, arenas, subways, airplane interiors), and cope with the full range of atmospheric conditions (e.g. stability). We are developing approaches for seamless coupling with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models to provide realistic forcing of the urban-scale model, which is critical to its performance in real-world conditions.

  11. New model for the genesis and maturation of viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2013-06-01

    Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the viroplasm consisted of a granular region, where viral RNAs and nonstructural proteins P6 and P9-1 accumulated, and a filamentous region, where viral RNAs, progeny cores, viral particles, as well as nonstructural proteins P5 and P6 accumulated. Our results suggested that the filamentous viroplasm matrix was the site for the assembly of progeny virions. Because viral RNAs were produced by assembled core particles within the filamentous viroplasm matrix, we propose that these viral RNAs might be transported to the granular viroplasm matrix. P5 formed filamentous inclusions and P9-1 formed granular inclusions in the absence of viral infection, suggesting that the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrices were formed primarily by P5 and P9-1, respectively. P6 was apparently recruited in the whole viroplasm matrix by direct interaction with P9-1 and P5. Thus, the present results suggested that P5, P6, and P9-1 are collectively required for the genesis and maturation of the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrix induced by SRBSDV infection. Based on these results, we propose a new model to explain the genesis and maturation of the viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells. PMID:23576499

  12. New model for the genesis and maturation of viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2013-06-01

    Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the viroplasm consisted of a granular region, where viral RNAs and nonstructural proteins P6 and P9-1 accumulated, and a filamentous region, where viral RNAs, progeny cores, viral particles, as well as nonstructural proteins P5 and P6 accumulated. Our results suggested that the filamentous viroplasm matrix was the site for the assembly of progeny virions. Because viral RNAs were produced by assembled core particles within the filamentous viroplasm matrix, we propose that these viral RNAs might be transported to the granular viroplasm matrix. P5 formed filamentous inclusions and P9-1 formed granular inclusions in the absence of viral infection, suggesting that the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrices were formed primarily by P5 and P9-1, respectively. P6 was apparently recruited in the whole viroplasm matrix by direct interaction with P9-1 and P5. Thus, the present results suggested that P5, P6, and P9-1 are collectively required for the genesis and maturation of the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrix induced by SRBSDV infection. Based on these results, we propose a new model to explain the genesis and maturation of the viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

  13. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, J.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Depressed intestinal calcium absorption (Ca abs.) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) are associated with less positive calcium balance in young 200 g rats exposed to skeletal unloading by hind-limb suspension than controls (C) . To determine the effect of the space flight model on calcium balance in mature rats, we exposed 6 mo. old males weighing 492 +/- 12g to the model for 4 weeks (S) and compared Ca in the diet, urine, feces and 1,25-D in S and C. Rats were fed diets containing sufficient Ca to satisfy metabolic needs, but not to cause deficiency (0.1%). At the end of 4 weeks, there was a 5 percent weight loss in S, but not in C; and no differences in dietary, urine (UCa) or fecal Ca (FCa) in S and C. Net Ca abs. (0.1 vs 2.7 %), 1,25-D (50 +/- 16 vs 47 +/- 14 pg/ml) and Ca balances (-1.8 +/- 4 vs -1.0 +/- 2.9 mg/d) were similar in C and S. UCa loss was added to the model by inducing calciuria with 8% salt diets (HiNa). A 4-fold increase in UCa in C and S was transiently higher in S than C after 1 week. After 4 weeks, loss in BW was greater in S than C, Ca abs was higher in C than S (32 +/- 10 vs 3.5 +/- 16%, p less than .05), 1,25-D greater in S than C (98 +/- 15 vs 79 +/- 14 pg/ml p less than .05) and Ca balance less in S than C (-5.2 +/- 4 vs -1.7 +/- 2 mg/d, p less than .05). Ca balance in the mature rat is unaffected by the space flight model unless calciuria intervenes and reveals the failure of the intestine to enhance Ca abs. and compensate for UCa loss.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA content of mature spermatozoa and oocytes in the genetic model Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonci Nikolai; Sutovsky, Peter; Ballard, John William Oman

    2013-07-01

    Although crucial to the success of fertilization and embryogenesis, little is known about the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of mature spermatozoa and oocytes across taxa and across different fertilization systems. Oocytes are assumed to hold a large population of mtDNAs that populate emerging cells during early embryogenesis, whereas spermatozoa harbor only a limited pool of mtDNAs that is believed to sustain functionality but fails to contribute paternal mtDNA to the zygote. Recent work suggests that mature sperm of the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster lack mtDNA, questioning the significance of zygotic mechanisms for the selective elimination of paternal mtDNA and their necessity for fertilization success. This finding further contradicts previous observations of the inheritance of paternal mtDNA in drosophilids. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we estimate the mtDNA content of several laboratory strains of D. melanogaster and D. simulans to shed light on this discrepancy and to describe the mitochondrial/mtDNA load of gametes within this system. These measurements led to an average estimate of 22.91±4.61 mtDNA molecules/copies per spermatozoon across both species and to 1.07E+07±2.71E+06 molecules/copies per oocyte for D. simulans. As a consequence, the ratio of paternal and maternal mtDNA in the zygote was estimated at 1:4.65E+05.

  15. Calcium Balance in Mature Rats Exposed to a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1996-01-01

    Negative calcium balances are seen in humans during spaceflight and bed rest, an analog of space flight. Due to the infrequency and costliness of space flight and the difficulties, cost, and restraints in using invasive procedures in bed rest studies, several ground based animal models of space flight have been employed. The most useful and well developed of these models is hind limb unloading in the rat. In this model the hind limbs are non-weight bearing (unloaded) but still mobile; there is a cephalad fluid shift similar to that seen in astronauts in flight; the animals are able to feed, groom and locomote using their front limbs; the procedure is reversible; and, importantly, the model has been validated by comparison to space flight. Several laboratories have studied calcium balance using rats in hind limb unweighting. Roer and Dillaman used young male rats to study calcium balance in this model for 25 days. They found no differences in dietary calcium intake, percent calcium absorption, urinary and fecal excretion, hence indicating no differences in calcium balance between control and unloaded rats. In another study, employing 120 day old females, rats' hind limbs were unloaded for 28 days. While negative calcium balances were observed during a 25 day recovery period no balance measurements were possible during unweighting since the researchers did not employ appropriate metabolic cages. In a recent study from this laboratory, using 200 g rats in the space flight model for two weeks, we found depressed intestinal calcium absorption and increased fecal calcium excretion (indicating less positive calcium balances) and lower circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The above studies indicate that there remains a dearth of information on calcium balance during the hind limb unloading rat space flight model, especially in mature rats, whose use is a better model for planned manned space flight than juvenile or growing animals. With the aid of a newly designed

  16. An Integrated Bayesian Model for DIF Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Tufi M.; Goncalves, Flavio B.; Gamerman, Dani

    2009-01-01

    In this article, an integrated Bayesian model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is proposed. The model is integrated in the sense of modeling the responses along with the DIF analysis. This approach allows DIF detection and explanation in a simultaneous setup. Previous empirical studies and/or subjective beliefs about the item…

  17. Effects of granulosa coculture on in-vitro oocyte meiotic maturation within a putatively less competent murine model.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Ng, Soon Chye

    2004-09-15

    A less competent murine in vitro maturation (IVM) model was achieved by shortening the standard duration of in vivo PMSG stimulation from 48 to 24 h and selecting only naked/partially naked GV oocytes from a mixture of large and small follicles. Porcine granulosa coculture enhanced meiotic maturation within such a less competent model (37.3% versus 23.1%, P<0.05), while no significant enhancement was observed with macaque and murine granulosa coculture. Culture of porcine granulosa on extracellular matrix (ECM) gel resulted in a more differentiated morphology, but did not significantly further enhance the beneficial effects it already had on meiotic maturation. Increased concentrations of serum as well as the supplementation of gonadotrophins and follicular fluid within the culture milieu did not enhance IVM under both cell-free and coculture conditions. Porcine granulosa-conditioned medium also enhanced meiotic maturation (36.5% versus 26.7%, P<0.05), which was not diminished upon freeze-thawing (35.8% versus 22.6%, P<0.05). Enhancement of meiotic maturation by porcine granulosa coculture did not however translate to significant improvements in developmental competence, as assessed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by total cell counts. ECM gel had a detrimental effect on fertilization and developmental competence, even though it had no detrimental effect on meiotic maturation itself. PMID:15289048

  18. Mature seed-derived callus of the model indica rice variety Kasalath is highly competent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2010-12-01

    We previously established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using primary calli derived from mature seeds of the model japonica rice variety Nipponbare. We expected that the shortened tissue culture period would reduce callus browning--a common problem with the indica transformation system during prolonged tissue culture in the undifferentiated state. In this study, we successfully applied our efficient transformation system to Kasalath--a model variety of indica rice. The Luc reporter system is sensitive enough to allow quantitative analysis of the competency of rice callus for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We unexpectedly discovered that primary callus of Kasalath exhibits a remarkably high competency for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation compared to Nipponbare. Southern blot analysis and Luc luminescence showed that independent transformation events in primary callus of Kasalath occurred successfully at ca. tenfold higher frequency than in Nipponbare, and single copy T-DNA integration was observed in ~40% of these events. We also compared the competency of secondary callus of Nipponbare and Kasalath and again found superior competency in Kasalath, although the identification and subsequent observation of independent transformation events in secondary callus is difficult due to the vigorous growth of both transformed and non-transformed cells. An efficient transformation system in Kasalath could facilitate the identification of QTL genes, since many QTL genes are analyzed in a Nipponbare × Kasalath genetic background. The higher transformation competency of Kasalath could be a useful trait in the establishment of highly efficient systems involving new transformation technologies such as gene targeting.

  19. Which model better fits the role of aire in the establishment of self-tolerance: the transcription model or the maturation model?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Junko; Matsumoto, Minoru; Mouri, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Aire-dependent transcriptional control of many tissue-restricted self-antigen (TRA) genes in thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (medullary thymic epithelial cells, mTECs) has raised the intriguing question of how the single Aire gene can influence the transcription of such a large number of TRA genes within mTECs. From a mechanistic viewpoint, there are two possible models to explain the function of Aire in this action. In the first model, TRAs are considered to be the direct target genes of Aire's transcriptional activity. In this scenario, the lack of Aire protein within cells would result in the defective TRA gene expression, while the maturation program of mTECs would be unaffected in principle. The second model hypothesizes that Aire is necessary for the maturation program of mTECs. In this case, we assume that the mTEC compartment does not mature normally in the absence of Aire. If acquisition of the properties of TRA gene expression depends on the maturation status of mTECs, a defect of such an Aire-dependent maturation program in Aire-deficient mTECs can also result in impaired TRA gene expression. In this brief review, we will focus on these two contrasting models for the roles of Aire in controlling the expression of TRAs within mTECs.

  20. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35–40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550–700 ppm atmospheric CO2), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  1. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response. PMID:23087696

  2. Integration of Mature Adipocytes to Build-Up a Functional Three-Layered Full-Skin Equivalent

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Birgit; Link, Antonia; Linke, Kirstin; Gehrke, Sandra A.; Winnefeld, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Large, deep full-thickness skin wounds from high-graded burns or trauma are not able to reepithelialize sufficiently, resulting in scar formation, mobility limitations, and cosmetic deformities. In this study, in vitro-constructed tissue replacements are needed. Furthermore, such full-skin equivalents would be helpful as in vivo-like test systems for toxicity, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical testing. Up to date, no skin equivalent is available containing the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, we composed a full-skin equivalent and evaluated three different media for the coculture of mature adipocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Therefore, adipocyte medium was supplemented with ascorbyl-2-phosphate and calcium chloride, which are important for successful epidermal stratification (Air medium). This medium was further supplemented with two commercially available factor combinations often used for the in vitro culture of keratinocytes (Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium). We showed that in all media, keratinocytes differentiated successfully to build a stratified epidermal layer and expressed cytokeratin 10 and 14. Perilipin A-positive adipocytes could be found in all tissue models for up to 14 days, whereas adipocytes in the Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium seemed to be smaller. Adipocytes in all tissue models were able to release adipocyte-specific factors, whereas the supplementation of keratinocyte-specific factors had a slightly negative effect on adipocyte functionality. The permeability of the epidermis of all models was comparable since they were able to withstand a deep penetration of cytotoxic Triton X in the same manner. Taken together, we were able to compose functional three-layered full-skin equivalents by using the Air medium. PMID:27334067

  3. Integration of Mature Adipocytes to Build-Up a Functional Three-Layered Full-Skin Equivalent.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Link, Antonia; Linke, Kirstin; Gehrke, Sandra A; Winnefeld, Marc; Kluger, Petra J

    2016-08-01

    Large, deep full-thickness skin wounds from high-graded burns or trauma are not able to reepithelialize sufficiently, resulting in scar formation, mobility limitations, and cosmetic deformities. In this study, in vitro-constructed tissue replacements are needed. Furthermore, such full-skin equivalents would be helpful as in vivo-like test systems for toxicity, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical testing. Up to date, no skin equivalent is available containing the underlying subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, we composed a full-skin equivalent and evaluated three different media for the coculture of mature adipocytes, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Therefore, adipocyte medium was supplemented with ascorbyl-2-phosphate and calcium chloride, which are important for successful epidermal stratification (Air medium). This medium was further supplemented with two commercially available factor combinations often used for the in vitro culture of keratinocytes (Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium). We showed that in all media, keratinocytes differentiated successfully to build a stratified epidermal layer and expressed cytokeratin 10 and 14. Perilipin A-positive adipocytes could be found in all tissue models for up to 14 days, whereas adipocytes in the Air-HKGS and Air-KGM medium seemed to be smaller. Adipocytes in all tissue models were able to release adipocyte-specific factors, whereas the supplementation of keratinocyte-specific factors had a slightly negative effect on adipocyte functionality. The permeability of the epidermis of all models was comparable since they were able to withstand a deep penetration of cytotoxic Triton X in the same manner. Taken together, we were able to compose functional three-layered full-skin equivalents by using the Air medium. PMID:27334067

  4. Diamondoid hydrocarbons as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity and oil cracking: Geochemical models from hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Zhang, S.; Hill, R.; Jarvie, D.M.; Wang, Hongfang; Song, F.; Fago, F.

    2007-01-01

    A series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was performed on immature sedimentary rocks and peats of different lithology and organic source input to explore the generation of diamondoids during the thermal maturation of sediments. Oil generation curves indicate that peak oil yields occur between 340 and 360 ??C, followed by intense oil cracking in different samples. The biomarker maturity parameters appear to be insensitive to thermal maturation as most of the isomerization ratios of molecular biomarkers in the pyrolysates have reached their equilibrium values. Diamondoids are absent from immature peat extracts, but exist in immature sedimentary rocks in various amounts. This implies that they are not products of biosynthesis and that they may be generated during diagenesis, not just catagenesis and cracking. Most importantly, the concentrations of diamondoids are observed to increase with thermal stress, suggesting that they can be used as a molecular proxy for thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils. Their abundance is most sensitive to thermal exposure above temperatures of 360-370 ??C (R0 = 1.3-1.5%) for the studied samples, which corresponds to the onset of intense cracking of other less stable components. Below these temperatures, diamondoids increase gradually due to competing processes of generation and dilution. Calibrations were developed between their concentrations and measured vitrinite reflectance through hydrous pyrolysis maturation of different types of rocks and peats. The geochemical models obtained from these methods may provide an alterative approach for determining thermal maturity of source rocks and crude oils, particularly in mature to highly mature Paleozoic carbonates. In addition, the extent of oil cracking was quantified using the concentrations of diamondoids in hydrous pyrolysates of rocks and peats, verifying that these hydrocarbons are valuable indicators of oil cracking in nature. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Carbon carry capacity and carbon sequestration potential in China based on an integrated analysis of mature forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, YingChun; Yu, GuiRui; Wang, QiuFeng; Zhang, YangJian; Xu, ZeHong

    2014-12-01

    Forests play an important role in acting as a carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Although global forests have huge carbon carrying capacity (CCC) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP), there were few quantification reports on Chinese forests. We collected and compiled a forest biomass dataset of China, a total of 5841 sites, based on forest inventory and literature search results. From the dataset we extracted 338 sites with forests aged over 80 years, a threshold for defining mature forest, to establish the mature forest biomass dataset. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the carbon density of Chinese mature forests and its controlling factors, we used carbon density of mature forests as the reference level, and conservatively estimated the CCC of the forests in China by interpolation methods of Regression Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted and Partial Thin Plate Smoothing Spline. Combining with the sixth National Forest Resources Inventory, we also estimated the forest CSP. The results revealed positive relationships between carbon density of mature forests and temperature, precipitation and stand age, and the horizontal and elevational patterns of carbon density of mature forests can be well predicted by temperature and precipitation. The total CCC and CSP of the existing forests are 19.87 and 13.86 Pg C, respectively. Subtropical forests would have more CCC and CSP than other biomes. Consequently, relying on forests to uptake carbon by decreasing disturbance on forests would be an alternative approach for mitigating greenhouse gas concentration effects besides afforestation and reforestation.

  6. Human Truncated Tau Induces Mature Neurofibrillary Pathology in a Mouse Model of Human Tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Zimova, Ivana; Brezovakova, Veronika; Hromadka, Tomas; Weisova, Petronela; Cubinkova, Veronika; Valachova, Bernadeta; Filipcik, Peter; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several animal models have been developed in order to test pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to predict effects of pharmacological interventions. Here we examine the molecular and behavioral features of R3m/4 transgenic mice expressing human non-mutated truncated tau protein (3R tau, aa151-391) that were previously used for efficacy testing of passive tau vaccine. The mouse model reliably recapitulated crucial histopathological features of human AD, such as pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuropil threads. The pathology was predominantly located in the brain stem. Transgenic mice developed mature sarkosyl insoluble tau complexes consisting of mouse endogenous and human truncated and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau protein. The histopathological and biochemical features were accompanied by significant sensorimotor impairment and reduced lifespan. The sensorimotor impairment was monitored by a highly sensitive, fully-automated tool that allowed us to assess early deficit in gait and locomotion. We suggest that the novel transgenic mouse model can serve as a valuable tool for analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of tau vaccines for AD therapy. PMID:27567836

  7. INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

    2007-12-01

    With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

  8. Mobile Technology Integrated Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Arshia

    2014-01-01

    Integrated curricula and experiential learning are the main ingredients to the recipe to improve student learning in higher education. In the academic computer science world it is mostly assumed that this experiential learning takes place at a business as an internship experience. The intent of this paper is to schism the traditional understanding…

  9. MOS integrated circuit fault modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three digital simulation techniques for MOS integrated circuit faults were examined. These techniques embody a hierarchy of complexity bracketing the range of simulation levels. The digital approaches are: transistor-level, connector-switch-attenuator level, and gate level. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Failure characteristics are also described.

  10. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  11. Seismo-thermo-mechanical modeling of mature and immature transform faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Simon; Gerya, Taras; van Dinther, Ylona

    2016-04-01

    Transform faults (TF) are subdivided into continental and oceanic ones due to their markedly different tectonic position, structure, surface expression, dynamics and seismicity. Both continental and oceanic TFs are zones of rheological weakness, which is a pre-requisite for their existence and long-term stability. Compared to subduction zones, TFs are typically characterized by smaller earthquake magnitudes as both their potential seismogenic width and length are reduced. However, a few very large magnitude (Mw>8) strike-slip events were documented, which are presumably related to the generation of new transform boundaries and/or sudden reactivation of pre-existing fossil structures. In particular, the 11 April 2012 Sumatra Mw 8.6 earthquake is challenging the general concept that such high magnitude events only occur at megathrusts. Hence, the processes of TF nucleation, propagation and their direct relation to the seismic cycle and long-term deformation at both oceanic and continental transforms needs to be investigated jointly to overcome the restricted direct observations in time and space. To gain fundamental understanding of involved physical processes the numerical seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) modeling approach, validated in a subduction zone setting (Van Dinther et al. 2013), will be adapted for TFs. A simple 2D plane view model geometry using visco-elasto-plastic material behavior will be adopted. We will study and compare seismicity patterns and evolution in two end member TF setups, each with strain-dependent and rate-dependent brittle-plastic weakening processes: (1) A single weak and mature transform fault separating two strong plates (e.g., in between oceanic ridges) and (2) A nucleating or evolving (continental) TF system with disconnected predefined faults within a plate subjected to simple shear deformation (e.g., San Andreas Fault system). The modeling of TFs provides a first tool to establish the STM model approach for transform faults in a

  12. Integrative modeling of the cardiac ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Rice, John Jeremy; Greenstein, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology is a discipline with a rich 50-year history of experimental research coupled with integrative modeling which has enabled us to achieve a quantitative understanding of the relationships between molecular function and the integrated behavior of the cardiac myocyte in health and disease. In this paper, we review the development of integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte. We begin with a historical overview of key cardiac cell models that helped shape the field. We then narrow our focus to models of the cardiac ventricular myocyte and describe these models in the context of their subcellular functional systems including dynamic models of voltage-gated ion channels, mitochondrial energy production, ATP-dependent and electrogenic membrane transporters, intracellular Ca dynamics, mechanical contraction, and regulatory signal transduction pathways. We describe key advances and limitations of the models as well as point to new directions for future modeling research. PMID:20865780

  13. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. PMID:22771343

  14. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  15. Small-Maturity Asymptotics for the At-The-Money Implied Volatility Slope in Lévy Models

    PubMed Central

    Gerhold, Stefan; Gülüm, I. Cetin; Pinter, Arpad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We consider the at-the-money (ATM) strike derivative of implied volatility as the maturity tends to zero. Our main results quantify the behaviour of the slope for infinite activity exponential Lévy models including a Brownian component. As auxiliary results, we obtain asymptotic expansions of short maturity ATM digital call options, using Mellin transform asymptotics. Finally, we discuss when the ATM slope is consistent with the steepness of the smile wings, as given by Lee’s moment formula. PMID:27660537

  16. Evolving neural models of path integration.

    PubMed

    Vickerstaff, R J; Di Paolo, E A

    2005-09-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to evolve neural models of path integration, with particular emphasis on reproducing the homing behaviour of Cataglyphis fortis ants. This is done within the context of a complete model system, including an explicit representation of the animal's movements within its environment. We show that it is possible to produce a neural network without imposing a priori any particular system for the internal representation of the animal's home vector. The best evolved network obtained is analysed in detail and is found to resemble the bicomponent model of Mittelstaedt. Because of the presence of leaky integration, the model can reproduce the systematic navigation errors found in desert ants. The model also naturally mimics the searching behaviour that ants perform once they have reached their estimate of the nest location. The results support possible roles for leaky integration and cosine-shaped compass response functions in path integration.

  17. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  18. Model Identification of Integrated ARMA Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadnytska, Tetiana; Braun, Simone; Werner, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the Smallest Canonical Correlation Method (SCAN) and the Extended Sample Autocorrelation Function (ESACF), automated methods for the Autoregressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA) model selection commonly available in current versions of SAS for Windows, as identification tools for integrated processes. SCAN and ESACF can…

  19. Functional integral approach to the Lipkin model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, K.

    1988-07-01

    A quantum-mechanical formulation involving both collective and independent-particle motions in many-fermion systems is proposed by using the path-integral technique. A semiclassical method of evaluating the functional integral over both fields is described. As an illustration, the Lipkin model is utilized.

  20. Social Ecological Model Analysis for ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagami, Jason

    2013-01-01

    ICT integration of teacher preparation programmes was undertaken by the Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project in all 39 Australian teacher education institutions and highlighted the need for guidelines to inform systemic ICT integration approaches. A Social Ecological Model (SEM) was used to positively inform integration…

  1. Preovulatory Aging In Vivo and In Vitro Affects Maturation Rates, Abundance of Selected Proteins, Histone Methylation Pattern and Spindle Integrity in Murine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Demond, Hannah; Trapphoff, Tom; Dankert, Deborah; Heiligentag, Martyna; Grümmer, Ruth; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ovulation and delayed fertilization can lead to reduced developmental competence of the oocyte. In contrast to the consequences of postovulatory aging of the oocyte, hardly anything is known about the molecular processes occurring during oocyte maturation if ovulation is delayed (preovulatory aging). We investigated several aspects of oocyte maturation in two models of preovulatory aging: an in vitro follicle culture and an in vivo mouse model in which ovulation was postponed using the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix. Both models showed significantly reduced oocyte maturation rates after aging. Furthermore, in vitro preovulatory aging deregulated the protein abundance of the maternal effect genes Smarca4 and Nlrp5, decreased the levels of histone H3K9 trimethylation and caused major deterioration of chromosome alignment and spindle conformation. Protein abundance of YBX2, an important regulator of mRNA stability, storage and recruitment in the oocyte, was not affected by in vitro aging. In contrast, in vivo preovulatory aging led to reduction in Ybx2 transcript and YBX2 protein abundance. Taken together, preovulatory aging seems to affect various processes in the oocyte, which could explain the low maturation rates and the previously described failures in fertilization and embryonic development. PMID:27611906

  2. Preovulatory Aging In Vivo and In Vitro Affects Maturation Rates, Abundance of Selected Proteins, Histone Methylation Pattern and Spindle Integrity in Murine Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Demond, Hannah; Trapphoff, Tom; Dankert, Deborah; Heiligentag, Martyna; Grümmer, Ruth; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ovulation and delayed fertilization can lead to reduced developmental competence of the oocyte. In contrast to the consequences of postovulatory aging of the oocyte, hardly anything is known about the molecular processes occurring during oocyte maturation if ovulation is delayed (preovulatory aging). We investigated several aspects of oocyte maturation in two models of preovulatory aging: an in vitro follicle culture and an in vivo mouse model in which ovulation was postponed using the GnRH antagonist cetrorelix. Both models showed significantly reduced oocyte maturation rates after aging. Furthermore, in vitro preovulatory aging deregulated the protein abundance of the maternal effect genes Smarca4 and Nlrp5, decreased the levels of histone H3K9 trimethylation and caused major deterioration of chromosome alignment and spindle conformation. Protein abundance of YBX2, an important regulator of mRNA stability, storage and recruitment in the oocyte, was not affected by in vitro aging. In contrast, in vivo preovulatory aging led to reduction in Ybx2 transcript and YBX2 protein abundance. Taken together, preovulatory aging seems to affect various processes in the oocyte, which could explain the low maturation rates and the previously described failures in fertilization and embryonic development. PMID:27611906

  3. Integrated Environmental Modeling: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the need for microbial assessments and presents a road map associated with quantitative microbial risk assessments, through an integrated environmental modeling approach. A brief introduction and the strengths of the current knowledge are illustrated. W...

  4. A dynamic model of metabolizable energy utilization in growing and mature cattle. III. Model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Jenkins, T G

    2003-06-01

    Component models of heat production identified in a proposed system of partitioning ME intake and a dynamic systems model that predicts gain in empty BW in cattle resulting from a known intake of ME were evaluated. Evaluations were done in four main areas: 1) net efficiency of ME utilization for gain, 2) relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, 3) predicting gain in empty BW from recovered energy, and 4) predicting gain in empty BW from ME intake. An analysis of published data showed that the net partial efficiencies of ME utilization for protein and fat gain were approximately 0.2 and 0.75, respectively, and that the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain could be estimated using these net partial efficiencies and the fraction of recovered energy that is contained in protein. Analyses of published sheep and cattle experimental data showed a significant linear relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, with no evidence for a nonlinear relationship. Growth and body composition of Hereford x Angus steers simulated from weaning to slaughter showed that over the finishing period, 20.8% of ME intake was recovered in gain. These results were similar to observed data and comparable to feedlot data of 26.5% for a shorter finishing period with a higher-quality diet. The component model to predict gain in empty BW from recovered energy was evaluated with growth and body composition data of five steer genotypes on two levels of nutrition. Linear regression of observed on predicted values for empty BW resulted in an intercept and slope that were not different (P < 0.05) from 0 and 1, respectively. Evaluations of the dynamic systems model to predict gain in empty BW using ME intake as the input showed close agreement between predicted and observed final empty BW for steers that were finished on high-energy diets, and the model accurately predicted growth patterns for Angus, Charolais, and Simmental reproducing females from 10 mo to 7 yr of age. PMID

  5. A dynamic model of metabolizable energy utilization in growing and mature cattle. III. Model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Jenkins, T G

    2003-06-01

    Component models of heat production identified in a proposed system of partitioning ME intake and a dynamic systems model that predicts gain in empty BW in cattle resulting from a known intake of ME were evaluated. Evaluations were done in four main areas: 1) net efficiency of ME utilization for gain, 2) relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, 3) predicting gain in empty BW from recovered energy, and 4) predicting gain in empty BW from ME intake. An analysis of published data showed that the net partial efficiencies of ME utilization for protein and fat gain were approximately 0.2 and 0.75, respectively, and that the net efficiency of ME utilization for gain could be estimated using these net partial efficiencies and the fraction of recovered energy that is contained in protein. Analyses of published sheep and cattle experimental data showed a significant linear relationship between recovered energy and ME intake, with no evidence for a nonlinear relationship. Growth and body composition of Hereford x Angus steers simulated from weaning to slaughter showed that over the finishing period, 20.8% of ME intake was recovered in gain. These results were similar to observed data and comparable to feedlot data of 26.5% for a shorter finishing period with a higher-quality diet. The component model to predict gain in empty BW from recovered energy was evaluated with growth and body composition data of five steer genotypes on two levels of nutrition. Linear regression of observed on predicted values for empty BW resulted in an intercept and slope that were not different (P < 0.05) from 0 and 1, respectively. Evaluations of the dynamic systems model to predict gain in empty BW using ME intake as the input showed close agreement between predicted and observed final empty BW for steers that were finished on high-energy diets, and the model accurately predicted growth patterns for Angus, Charolais, and Simmental reproducing females from 10 mo to 7 yr of age.

  6. Aging and integrating spatial mental models.

    PubMed

    Copeland, David E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2007-09-01

    Previous research examining the process of integrating spatial information has suggested that older adults retain an ability to use mental models despite declines in working memory capacity. In the current study of both older and young adults, the authors assessed whether mental model performance declines when working memory limitations affect the ability to retain the information needed to initially construct a model. Participants were presented with 3 spatial descriptions that could have been integrated to form a single mental model (e.g., K. Ehrlich & P. N. Johnson-Laird, 1982). Descriptions were continuous (i.e., AB-BC-CD) or discontinuous (i.e., AB-CD-BC) in various stimulus formats: sentences, word diagrams, and pictures. Across the experiments, older adults showed difficulty integrating information, especially in the discontinuous condition, unless pictures were used. The results suggest that older adults' use of mental models can be compromised when spatial information is presented verbally rather than visually. PMID:17874955

  7. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

    PubMed

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits. PMID:26327125

  8. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

    PubMed

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits.

  9. Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, John O.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the field of Career Maturity is reviewed and summarized, with particular attention to Super's Career Pattern Study, Gribbons and Lohnes' Career Development Study, and Crites' Vocational Development Project. Crites' organization and revision into a hierarchical structure of the five dimensions of vocational maturity proposed in Supers'…

  10. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  11. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  12. An introduction to Space Weather Integrated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, D.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The need for a software toolkit that integrates space weather models and data is one of many challenges we are facing with when applying the models to space weather forecasting. To meet this challenge, we have developed Space Weather Integrated Modeling (SWIM) that is capable of analysis and visualizations of the results from a diverse set of space weather models. SWIM has a modular design and is written in Python, by using NumPy, matplotlib, and the Visualization ToolKit (VTK). SWIM provides data management module to read a variety of spacecraft data products and a specific data format of Solar-Interplanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) for the study of solar-terrestrial phenomena. Data analysis, visualization and graphic user interface modules are also presented in a user-friendly way to run the integrated models and visualize the 2-D and 3-D data sets interactively. With these tools we can locally or remotely analysis the model result rapidly, such as extraction of data on specific location in time-sequence data sets, plotting interplanetary magnetic field lines, multi-slicing of solar wind speed, volume rendering of solar wind density, animation of time-sequence data sets, comparing between model result and observational data. To speed-up the analysis, an in-situ visualization interface is used to support visualizing the data 'on-the-fly'. We also modified some critical time-consuming analysis and visualization methods with the aid of GPU and multi-core CPU. We have used this tool to visualize the data of SIP-CESE MHD model in real time, and integrated the Database Model of shock arrival, Shock Propagation Model, Dst forecasting model and SIP-CESE MHD model developed by SIGMA Weather Group at State Key Laboratory of Space Weather/CAS.

  13. Development of a Pediatric Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Sirolimus: Applying Principles of Growth and Maturation in Neonates and Infants.

    PubMed

    Emoto, C; Fukuda, T; Johnson, T N; Adams, D M; Vinks, A A

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the maturation of sirolimus clearance in a cohort of very young pediatric patients with vascular anomalies. The relationship between allometrically scaled in vivo clearance and age was described by the Emax model in patients aged 1 month to 2 years. Consistent with the observed increase, in vitro intrinsic clearance of sirolimus using pediatric liver microsomes showed a similar age-dependent increase. In children older than 2 years, allometrically scaled sirolimus clearance did not show further maturation. Simulated clearance estimates with a sirolimus physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that included CYP3A4/5/7 and CYP2C8 maturation profiles were in close agreement with observed in vivo clearance values. In addition, physiologically based pharmacokinetic model-simulated sirolimus pharmacokinetic profiles predicted the actual observations well. These results demonstrate the utility of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach for the prediction of the developmental trajectory of sirolimus metabolic activity and its effects on total body clearance in neonates and infants. PMID:26225230

  14. Modeling for System Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K. D.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation describes some the data requirements needed for grid integration modeling and provides real-world examples of such data and its format. Renewable energy integration studies evaluate the operational impacts of variable generation. Transmission planning studies investigate where new transmission is needed to transfer energy from generation sources to load centers. Both use time-synchronized wind and solar energy production and load as inputs. Both examine high renewable energy penetration scenarios in the future.

  15. Hebbian mechanisms help explain development of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Cuppini, C; Magosso, E; Rowland, B; Stein, B; Ursino, M

    2012-12-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al., Front Integr Neurosci 4:1-15, 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: (1) AES afferents are present but weak, (2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and (3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modeled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, (1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and (2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  16. A Multistep Maturity Model for the Implementation of Electronic and Computable Diagnostic Clinical Prediction Rules (eCPRs)

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Derek; McDonnell, Ronan; Zarabzadeh, Atieh; Fahey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) has been advocated as one way of implementing actionable evidence-based rules in clinical practice. The current highly manual nature of deriving CPRs makes them difficult to use and maintain. Addressing the known limitations of CPRs requires implementing more flexible and dynamic models of CPR development. We describe the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to provide a platform for the derivation and dissemination of CPRs derived through analysis and continual learning from electronic patient data. Model Components: We propose a multistep maturity model for constructing electronic and computable CPRs (eCPRs). The model has six levels – from the lowest level of CPR maturity (literaturebased CPRs) to a fully electronic and computable service-oriented model of CPRs that are sensitive to specific demographic patient populations. We describe examples of implementations of the core model components – focusing on CPR representation, interoperability, electronic dissemination, CPR learning, and user interface requirements. Conclusion: The traditional focus on derivation and narrow validation of CPRs has severely limited their wider acceptance. The evolution and maturity model described here outlines a progression toward eCPRs consistent with the vision of a learning health system (LHS) – using central repositories of CPR knowledge, accessible open standards, and generalizable models to avoid repetition of previous work. This is useful for developing more ambitious strategies to address limitations of the traditional CPR development life cycle. The model described here is a starting point for promoting discussion about what a more dynamic CPR development process should look like. PMID:26290890

  17. International summit on integrated environmental modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaber, Noha; Geller, Gary; Glynn, Pierre; Laniak, Gerry; Voinov, Alexey; Whelan, Gene; Roger, Moore; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Reston, VA, on 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universities and companies together with international organizations convened over a number of years, including: the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) workshop on Collaborative Approaches to Integrated Modeling: Better Integration for Better Decisionmaking (December, 2008); the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco (December 2009); and the International Congress on Environmental Modeling and Software (July 2010). From these meetings there is now recognition that many separate communities are involved in developing IEM. The aim of the Summit was to bring together two key groupings, the US and Europe, with the intention of creating a community open to all.

  18. Development of a novel ex vivo porcine skin explant model for the assessment of mature bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingping; Phillips, Priscilla L; Sampson, Edith M; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Jin, Shouguang; Antonelli, Patrick; Schultz, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been proposed to be a major factor contributing to the failure of chronic wounds to heal because of their increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents and the prolonged inflammation they cause. Phenotypic characteristics of bacterial biofilms vary depending on the substratum to which they attach, the nutritional environment, and the microorganisms within the biofilm community. To develop an ex vivo biofilm model that more closely mimics biofilms in chronic skin wounds, we developed an optimal procedure to grow mature biofilms on a central partial-thickness wound in 12-mm porcine skin explants. Chlorine gas produced optimal sterilization of explants while preserving histological properties of the epidermis and dermis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus developed mature biofilms after 3 days that had dramatically increased tolerance to gentamicin and oxacillin (∼100× and 8,000× minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively) and to sodium hypochlorite (0.6% active chlorine). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy verified extensive exopolymeric biofilm structures on the explants. Despite a significant delay, a ΔlasI quorum-sensing mutant of P. aeruginosa developed biofilm as antibiotic-tolerant as wild-type after 3 days. This ex vivo model simulates growth of biofilms on skin wounds and provides an accurate model to assess effects of antimicrobial agents on mature biofilms.

  19. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  20. Final pre-40S maturation depends on the functional integrity of the 60S subunit ribosomal protein L3.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Juan J; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Lebaron, Simon; Rosado, Iván V; Tollervey, David; Kressler, Dieter; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2014-03-01

    Ribosomal protein L3 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in the assembly of early pre-60S particles. We report that the rpl3[W255C] allele, which affects the affinity and function of translation elongation factors, impairs cytoplasmic maturation of 20S pre-rRNA. This was not seen for other mutations in or depletion of L3 or other 60S ribosomal proteins. Surprisingly, pre-40S particles containing 20S pre-rRNA form translation-competent 80S ribosomes, and translation inhibition partially suppresses 20S pre-rRNA accumulation. The GTP-dependent translation initiation factor Fun12 (yeast eIF5B) shows similar in vivo binding to ribosomal particles from wild-type and rpl3[W255C] cells. However, the GTPase activity of eIF5B failed to stimulate processing of 20S pre-rRNA when assayed with ribosomal particles purified from rpl3[W255C] cells. We conclude that L3 plays an important role in the function of eIF5B in stimulating 3' end processing of 18S rRNA in the context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation. These findings indicate that the correct conformation of the GTPase activation region is assessed in a quality control step during maturation of cytoplasmic pre-ribosomal particles.

  1. Integrated facilities modeling using QUEST and IGRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Haan, E.R.

    1995-08-01

    A QUEST model and associated detailed IGRIP models were developed and used to simulate several workcells in a proposed Plutonium Storage Facility (PSF). The models are being used by team members assigned to the program to improve communication and to assist in evaluating concepts and in performing trade-off studies which will result in recommendations and a final design. The model was designed so that it could be changed easily. The added flexibility techniques used to make changes easily are described in this paper in addition to techniques for integrating the QUEST and IGRIP products. Many of these techniques are generic in nature and can be applied to any modeling endeavor.

  2. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  3. Data and Model Integration Promoting Interdisciplinarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.

    2014-12-01

    It is very difficult to reflect accumulated subsystem knowledge into holistic knowledge. Knowledge about a whole system can rarely be introduced into a targeted subsystem. In many cases, knowledge in one discipline is inapplicable to other disciplines. We are far from resolving cross-disciplinary issues. It is critically important to establish interdisciplinarity so that scientific knowledge can transcend disciplines. We need to share information and develop knowledge interlinkages by building models and exchanging tools. We need to tackle a large increase in the volume and diversity of data from observing the Earth. The volume of data stored has exponentially increased. Previously, almost all of the large-volume data came from satellites, but model outputs occupy the largest volume in general. To address the large diversity of data, we should develop an ontology system for technical and geographical terms in coupling with a metadata design according to international standards. In collaboration between Earth environment scientists and IT group, we should accelerate data archiving by including data loading, quality checking and metadata registration, and enrich data-searching capability. DIAS also enables us to perform integrated research and realize interdisciplinarity. For example, climate change should be addressed in collaboration between the climate models, integrated assessment models including energy, economy, agriculture, health, and the models of adaptation, vulnerability, and human settlement and infrastructure. These models identify water as central to these systems. If a water expert can develop an interrelated system including each component, the integrated crisis can be addressed by collaboration with various disciplines. To realize this purpose, we are developing a water-related data- and model-integration system called a water cycle integrator (WCI).

  4. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  5. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  6. IPEM: An Integrated Planning, Effectiveness Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donsky, Aaron P.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a Florida community college's integrated planning approach comprised of three key elements: strategic planning, operational planning, and effectiveness measures. This model, which uses the institutional mission statement as the initiating point, is an efficient and meaningful way to relate an institution's purpose, goals, and outcome…

  7. International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Washington, DC 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universitie...

  8. DC modeling of PN integrated cross varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Benito; Perez, Jose A.; Kemchandani, Sunil L.; Goni-Iturri, Amaya; del Pino, Javier; Garcia, Javier

    2005-06-01

    In this paper models for the capacitance of cross integrated varactors based in the PN junction are presented. Three different approximations are assumed, in order to reproduce the measured results of the capacitance. The relative error with the measured capacitance is under 10% in all cases.

  9. Fingernail Injuries and NASA's Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Butler, Doug

    2008-01-01

    The goal of space medicine is to optimize both crew health and performance. Currently, expert opinion is primarily relied upon for decision-making regarding medical equipment and supplies flown in space. Evidence-based decisions are preferred due to mass and volume limitations and the expense of space flight. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is an attempt to move us in that direction!

  10. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  11. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy: toward an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T B

    1982-09-01

    The author reviews historical trends, hypotheses, and problems in the application of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and uses research findings to develop an integrative model. He portrays a chronology of models over three decades; an "additive" relationship represents the decade of 1970 to 1980. He presents factors that must be considered in determining the effects of pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy and recommends refinement of these variables in future research.

  12. HEBBIAN MECHANISMS HELP EXPLAIN DEVELOPMENT OF MULTISENSORY INTEGRATION IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS: A NEURAL NETWORK MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Cuppini, C.; Magosso, E.; Rowland, B.; Stein, B.; Ursino, M.

    2013-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) integrates relevant sensory information (visual, auditory, somatosensory) from several cortical and subcortical structures, to program orientation responses to external events. However, this capacity is not present at birth, and it is acquired only through interactions with cross-modal events during maturation. Mathematical models provide a quantitative framework, valuable in helping to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying the maturation of the multisensory integration in the SC. We extended a neural network model of the adult SC (Cuppini et al. 2010) to describe the development of this phenomenon starting from an immature state, based on known or suspected anatomy and physiology, in which: 1) AES afferents are present but weak, 2) Responses are driven from non-AES afferents, and 3) The visual inputs have a marginal spatial tuning. Sensory experience was modelled by repeatedly presenting modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli. Synapses in the network were modified by simple Hebbian learning rules. As a consequence of this exposure, 1) Receptive fields shrink and come into spatial register, and 2) SC neurons gained the adult characteristic integrative properties: enhancement, depression, and inverse effectiveness. Importantly, the unique architecture of the model guided the development so that integration became dependent on the relationship between the cortical input and the SC. Manipulations of the statistics of the experience during the development changed the integrative profiles of the neurons, and results matched well with the results of physiological studies. PMID:23011260

  13. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  14. Misaligned Image Integration With Local Linear Model.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Ryo; Shirai, Keiichiro; Okuda, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    We present a new image integration technique for a flash and long-exposure image pair to capture a dark scene without incurring blurring or noisy artifacts. Most existing methods require well-aligned images for the integration, which is often a burdensome restriction in practical use. We address this issue by locally transferring the colors of the flash images using a small fraction of the corresponding pixels in the long-exposure images. We formulate the image integration as a convex optimization problem with the local linear model. The proposed method makes it possible to integrate the color of the long-exposure image with the detail of the flash image without causing any harmful effects to its contrast, where we do not need perfect alignment between the images by virtue of our new integration principle. We show that our method successfully outperforms the state of the art in the image integration and reference-based color transfer for challenging misaligned data sets.

  15. Animal models and integrated nested Laplace approximations.

    PubMed

    Holand, Anna Marie; Steinsland, Ingelin; Martino, Sara; Jensen, Henrik

    2013-08-07

    Animal models are generalized linear mixed models used in evolutionary biology and animal breeding to identify the genetic part of traits. Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) is a methodology for making fast, nonsampling-based Bayesian inference for hierarchical Gaussian Markov models. In this article, we demonstrate that the INLA methodology can be used for many versions of Bayesian animal models. We analyze animal models for both synthetic case studies and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population case studies with Gaussian, binomial, and Poisson likelihoods using INLA. Inference results are compared with results using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. For model choice we use difference in deviance information criteria (DIC). We suggest and show how to evaluate differences in DIC by comparing them with sampling results from simulation studies. We also introduce an R package, AnimalINLA, for easy and fast inference for Bayesian Animal models using INLA.

  16. The Afar region as an analogue of mature oceanic ridges: a model for slow spreading centres?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphaël; Burnard, Peter; France, Lyderic; Whaler, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The Afar depression (Ethiopia) is organised along magmatic rift segments which morphologically resemble oceanic ridges. The segmentation in individual magmatic rift segments results from interactions between dyke injection and volcanism, as observed in mature oceanic ridges. Therefore the Afar region represents an ideal natural and subaerial analogue laboratory to study the evolution of rift/ridge morphology as a response to volcanic and tectonic influences.We focussed on the Dabbahu rift segment which experienced in 2005 a well-documented rifting event. This tectono-volcanic crisis provided invaluable information via the direct observation of a sequence of dyke intrusions. However, over timescales of 1 to 100 kyrs - a key period over which the main morphology of a rift/ridge segment is acquired - chronological constraints are very scarce. In order to address the lack of data on these timescales, a multidisciplinary study of the Dabbahu rift has combined surface exposure dating (3He and 36Cl) of lavas and fault scarp with major & trace element compositions and field/remote sensing mapping. Over three field campaigns, we investigated the Northern and central parts of the rift, from its western shoulders to the axial valley, allowing the long-term interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes to be deciphered (Medynski et al., 2013; Medynski et al. 2014a,b submitted). Based on this subaerial example of an active magmatic rift segment, we propose a model for the acquisition of slow spreading oceanic ridge morphology, where topography building is tightly tied to magma budget and location. Over a period of ~100 ka, magmatic accretion is maintained by successive intrusions of dikes that spread from the various magma chambers distributed along the rift, and which also provoke a local topographic response. The main topographic development is not continuous, but rather is linked to the degree of differentiation of these reservoirs. Our data show that magma chambers

  17. The host Integrator complex acts in transcription-independent maturation of herpesvirus microRNA 3′ ends

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingyi; Zhang, Wei; Shu, Mei-Di; Xu, Acer; Lenis, Diana A.; DiMaio, Daniel; Steitz, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus that produces microRNAs (miRNAs) by cotranscription of precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) hairpins immediately downstream from viral small nuclear RNAs (snRNA). The host cell Integrator complex, which recognizes the snRNA 3′ end processing signal (3′ box), generates the 5′ ends of HVS pre-miRNA hairpins. Here, we identify a novel 3′ box-like sequence (miRNA 3′ box) downstream from HVS pre-miRNAs that is essential for miRNA biogenesis. In vivo knockdown and rescue experiments confirmed that the 3′ end processing of HVS pre-miRNAs also depends on Integrator activity. Interaction between Integrator and HVS primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) substrates that contain only the miRNA 3′ box was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) that we developed to localize specific transient RNA–protein interactions inside cells. Surprisingly, in contrast to snRNA 3′ end processing, HVS pre-miRNA 3′ end processing by Integrator can be uncoupled from transcription, enabling new approaches to study Integrator enzymology. PMID:26220997

  18. The host Integrator complex acts in transcription-independent maturation of herpesvirus microRNA 3' ends.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingyi; Zhang, Wei; Shu, Mei-Di; Xu, Acer; Lenis, Diana A; DiMaio, Daniel; Steitz, Joan A

    2015-07-15

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) is an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus that produces microRNAs (miRNAs) by cotranscription of precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) hairpins immediately downstream from viral small nuclear RNAs (snRNA). The host cell Integrator complex, which recognizes the snRNA 3' end processing signal (3' box), generates the 5' ends of HVS pre-miRNA hairpins. Here, we identify a novel 3' box-like sequence (miRNA 3' box) downstream from HVS pre-miRNAs that is essential for miRNA biogenesis. In vivo knockdown and rescue experiments confirmed that the 3' end processing of HVS pre-miRNAs also depends on Integrator activity. Interaction between Integrator and HVS primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) substrates that contain only the miRNA 3' box was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) that we developed to localize specific transient RNA-protein interactions inside cells. Surprisingly, in contrast to snRNA 3' end processing, HVS pre-miRNA 3' end processing by Integrator can be uncoupled from transcription, enabling new approaches to study Integrator enzymology.

  19. Geohistory and thermal maturation in the Cherokee Basin (Mid-Continent, U.S.A.): results from modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forster, A.; Merriam, D.F.; Hoth, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Cherokee basin in southeastern Kansas contains a stratigraphic section consisting mostly of Permian-Pennsylvanian alternating clastics and thin carbonates overlying carbonates of Mississippian and Cambrian-Ordovician age on a Precambrian crytalline basement. Based on a conceptual model of events of deposition, nondeposition, and erosion, a burial history model for (1) noncompaction, and a series of models for (2) compaction are computed for a borehole location in the south-central part of the basin. The models are copled with the calculation of nonsteady-state geothermal conditions. Maximum temperatures during basin evolution of about 70??C at the base of the organic-rich Pennsylvanian are predicted by our models, assuming pure heat conduction and a heat flow from the basement of 60 m W/m2. The maturation of organic matter as indicated by three different vitrinite reflectance (Ro) models is on the order og 0.3-0.5% Ro for Pennsylvanian rocks and 0.6% Ro for the Devonian-Mississippian Cattanooga Shale. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on subsurface smaples from three wells. The measured values correlate in the upper part of the sequence with modeled data, but diverge slightly in the Lower Pennsylvanian and Cattanooga Shale. The differences in maturation may be a result of differing local geological conditions within the basin. The relatively high Ro-depth gradients observed in one borehole may be explained by conditions in the Teeter oil field, which is a typical plains-type anticline that has been affected by fluid flow through vertical faults. Higher Ro values correlate positively with the grade of sulfidfe mineralization in the sediment, which may be a hint of fluid impact. The high Ro values relative to the shallow depth of the Mississippian and the Chattanooga Shale in the Brown well are on the order of Ro values modeled for the same stratigraphic units at present-day greater depths and may reflect uplift of the Ozark dome, located further east, affecting

  20. Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) under contract Numbers FG22-83PC60271 and AC22-87PC79864. In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model.

  1. Sexual maturity in growing dinosaurs does not fit reptilian growth models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew H; Werning, Sarah

    2008-01-15

    Recent histological studies suggest relatively rapid growth in dinosaurs. However, the timing of reproductive maturity (RM) in dinosaurs is poorly known because unambiguous indicators of RM are rare. One exception is medullary bone (MB), which is an ephemeral bony tissue that forms before ovulation in the marrow cavities of birds as a calcium source for eggshelling. Recently, MB also was described in a single specimen of the saurischian dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Here, we report two other occurrences of MB: in another saurischian dinosaur, Allosaurus, and in the ornithischian dinosaur Tenontosaurus. We show by counting lines of arrested growth and performing growth curve reconstructions that Tenontosaurus, Allosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus were reproductively mature by 8, 10, and 18 years, respectively. RM in these dinosaurs coincided with a transition from growth acceleration to deceleration. It also far precedes predictions based on the growth rates of living reptiles scaled to similar size. Despite relatively rapid growth, dinosaurs were similar to reptiles in that RM developed before reaching asymptotic size. However, this reproductive strategy also occurs in medium- to large-sized mammals and correlates with a strategy of prolonged multiyear growth. RM in actively growing individuals suggests that these dinosaurs were born relatively precocial and experienced high adult mortality. The origin of the modern avian reproductive strategy in ornithuran birds likely coincided with their extreme elevations in growth rate and truncations to growth duration.

  2. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  3. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice.

  4. An integrated network model of psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Blom, Jan Dirk; Aleman, André; Hoek, Hans W; Goekoop, Rutger

    2015-12-01

    The full body of research on the nature of psychosis and its determinants indicates that a considerable number of factors are relevant to the development of hallucinations, delusions, and other positive symptoms, ranging from neurodevelopmental parameters and altered connectivity of brain regions to impaired cognitive functioning and social factors. We aimed to integrate these factors in a single mathematical model based on network theory. At the microscopic level this model explains positive symptoms of psychosis in terms of experiential equivalents of robust, high-frequency attractor states of neural networks. At the mesoscopic level it explains them in relation to global brain states, and at the macroscopic level in relation to social-network structures and dynamics. Due to the scale-free nature of biological networks, all three levels are governed by the same general laws, thereby allowing for an integrated model of biological, psychological, and social phenomena involved in the mediation of positive symptoms of psychosis. This integrated network model of psychotic symptoms (INMOPS) is described together with various possibilities for application in clinical practice. PMID:26432501

  5. Development of the integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coalfired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power Plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. in conuwt to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The most recent version of the IECM, implemented on a Macintosh II computer and containing a number of software and model enhancements, was delivered to DOE/PETC at the end of the last contract in May 1991. The current contract will continue the model development effort to provide DOE/PETC with improved model capabilities, including new software developments tO facilitate model use and new technical capabilities for analysis of environmental control technologies and integrated environmental control systr,ms involving precombustion, combustion, and Post-combustion control methods. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase H deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model.

  6. Integrating Biosystem Models Using Waveform Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Modelling in systems biology often involves the integration of component models into larger composite models. How to do this systematically and efficiently is a significant challenge: coupling of components can be unidirectional or bidirectional, and of variable strengths. We adapt the waveform relaxation (WR) method for parallel computation of ODEs as a general methodology for computing systems of linked submodels. Four test cases are presented: (i) a cascade of unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled harmonic oscillators, (ii) deterministic and stochastic simulations of calcium oscillations, (iii) single cell calcium oscillations showing complex behaviour such as periodic and chaotic bursting, and (iv) a multicellular calcium model for a cell plate of hepatocytes. We conclude that WR provides a flexible means to deal with multitime-scale computation and model heterogeneity. Global solutions over time can be captured independently of the solution techniques for the individual components, which may be distributed in different computing environments. PMID:19125183

  7. Heavy gas dispersion: integral models and shallow layer models.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Robin K S

    2003-10-01

    Integral models for heavy gas dispersion approximate a dispersing cloud in terms of a small number of variables; each of these is ultimately a function of an independent variable which is usually time (instantaneous releases) or downwind distance (continuous releases). This type of model is used almost exclusively in risk assessment [HSE's risk assessment tool, RISKAT, in: Major Hazards: Onshore and Offshore, October 1992, pp. 607-638; Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 21 (1989) 317], but many distinct integral models exist. The code comparison exercise of Mercer et al. [CEA/AEA exchange agreement on external event. Comparison of heavy gas dispersion models for instantaneous releases: final report, Technical Report IR/L/HA/91/6, Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield, June 1991; J. Hazard. Mater. 36 (1994) 193] presented the results from a number of integral models in a common format; Mercer found that the range of predictions for some scenarios exceeded three orders of magnitude. Here, the TWODEE shallow layer model [J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 211; J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 227; J. Hazard. Mater. 66 (3) (1999) 239] is added to Mercer's code comparison exercise. The physical assumptions used in shallow layer models differ profoundly from those used in integral models and the implications of these differences for risk assessment are discussed. TWODEE was used to simulate four representative cases considered by Mercer. In terms of cloud averaged concentration (CAC) vs. centroid position, the present model gave predictions that were consistent with the integral models used by Mercer. As the model neglects horizontal diffusion for passive clouds, overprediction at large downwind distances was expected, but not generally observed.

  8. Rubredoxin-related Maturation Factor Guarantees Metal Cofactor Integrity during Aerobic Biosynthesis of Membrane-bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Johannes; Siebert, Elisabeth; Priebe, Jacqueline; Zebger, Ingo; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Teutloff, Christian; Friedrich, Bärbel; Lenz, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase (MBH) supports growth of Ralstonia eutropha H16 with H2 as the sole energy source. The enzyme undergoes a complex biosynthesis process that proceeds during cell growth even at ambient O2 levels and involves 14 specific maturation proteins. One of these is a rubredoxin-like protein, which is essential for biosynthesis of active MBH at high oxygen concentrations but dispensable under microaerobic growth conditions. To obtain insights into the function of HoxR, we investigated the MBH protein purified from the cytoplasmic membrane of hoxR mutant cells. Compared with wild-type MBH, the mutant enzyme displayed severely decreased hydrogenase activity. Electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed features resembling those of O2-sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases and/or oxidatively damaged protein. The catalytic center resided partially in an inactive Niu-A-like state, and the electron transfer chain consisting of three different Fe-S clusters showed marked alterations compared with wild-type enzyme. Purification of HoxR protein from its original host, R. eutropha, revealed only low protein amounts. Therefore, recombinant HoxR protein was isolated from Escherichia coli. Unlike common rubredoxins, the HoxR protein was colorless, rather unstable, and essentially metal-free. Conversion of the atypical iron-binding motif into a canonical one through genetic engineering led to a stable reddish rubredoxin. Remarkably, the modified HoxR protein did not support MBH-dependent growth at high O2. Analysis of MBH-associated protein complexes points toward a specific interaction of HoxR with the Fe-S cluster-bearing small subunit. This supports the previously made notion that HoxR avoids oxidative damage of the metal centers of the MBH, in particular the unprecedented Cys6[4Fe-3S] cluster. PMID:24448806

  9. Search of novel model for integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mutalik, Gururaj

    2014-03-01

    This article provides global and Indian scenario with strengths and limitations of present health care system. Affordability, accessibility and availability of health care coupled with disproportionate growth and double burden of diseases have become major concerns in India. This article emphasizes need for mindset change from illness-disease-drug centric curative to person-health-wellness centric preventive and promotive approaches. It highlights innovation deficit faced pharmaceutical industry and drugs being withdrawn from market for safety reasons. Medical pluralism is a growing trend and people are exploring various options including modern, traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. In such a situation, knowledge from Ayurveda, yoga, Chinese medicine and acupuncture may play an important role. We can evolve a suitable model by integrating modern and traditional systems of medicine for affordable health care. In the larger interest of global community, Indian and Chinese systems should share knowledge and experiences for mutual intellectual enrichments and work together to evolve a novel model of integrative medicine.

  10. Modelling of maturation, expulsion and accumulation of bacterial methane within Ravneš Member (Pliocene age), Croatia onshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial methane is a dominant hydrocarbon component in the Northern Croatia's Adriatic offshore proven hydrocarbon reservoirs. As onshore reserves are declining the potential of shallow gas accumulation, analogue to the Adriatic ones, are being tested. A part of the Lonja Formation (Pliocene Pleistocene and Holocene), the Ravneš Member (Early Pliocene age) is analysed for its maturation and expulsion regarding bacterial methane as potential source and reservoir rocks, especially as it is thermally immature. Two approaches were used for the initial lithology modelling processes - the convergent interpolation and sequential Gaussian simulation. Possibility for trapping and forming of accumulations was also modelled. Results show that selected member has a large source rock potential for bacterial methane with a total volume of 411.53 × 109 m3 for the Convergent interpolation model and 520.56 × 109 m3 for the sequential Gaussian simulation model of expulsed bacterial methane

  11. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel, Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, arc also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/Integral Luchthaven Competitive Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  12. Ontological Modeling for Integrated Spacecraft Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wicks, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Current spacecraft work as a cooperative group of a number of subsystems. Each of these requiresmodeling software for development, testing, and prediction. It is the goal of my team to create anoverarching software architecture called the Integrated Spacecraft Analysis (ISCA) to aid in deploying the discrete subsystems' models. Such a plan has been attempted in the past, and has failed due to the excessive scope of the project. Our goal in this version of ISCA is to use new resources to reduce the scope of the project, including using ontological models to help link the internal interfaces of subsystems' models with the ISCA architecture.I have created an ontology of functions specific to the modeling system of the navigation system of a spacecraft. The resulting ontology not only links, at an architectural level, language specificinstantiations of the modeling system's code, but also is web-viewable and can act as a documentation standard. This ontology is proof of the concept that ontological modeling can aid in the integration necessary for ISCA to work, and can act as the prototype for future ISCA ontologies.

  13. Examining the process of de novo gene birth: an educational primer on "integration of new genes into cellular networks, and their structural maturation".

    PubMed

    Frietze, Seth; Leatherman, Judith

    2014-03-01

    New genes that arise from modification of the noncoding portion of a genome rather than being duplicated from parent genes are called de novo genes. These genes, identified by their brief evolution and lack of parent genes, provide an opportunity to study the timeframe in which emerging genes integrate into cellular networks, and how the characteristics of these genes change as they mature into bona fide genes. An article by G. Abrusán provides an opportunity to introduce students to fundamental concepts in evolutionary and comparative genetics and to provide a technical background by which to discuss systems biology approaches when studying the evolutionary process of gene birth. Basic background needed to understand the Abrusán study and details on comparative genomic concepts tailored for a classroom discussion are provided, including discussion questions and a supplemental exercise on navigating a genome database.

  14. Integrable model with parafermion zero energy modes.

    PubMed

    Tsvelik, A M

    2014-08-01

    Parafermion zero energy modes are a vital element of fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. Although it is believed that such modes form on the border between topological and normal phases, this has been demonstrated only for Z(2) (Majorana) and Z(3) parafermions. I consider an integrable model of one-dimensional fermions where such a demonstration is possible for Z(N) parafermions with any N. The procedure is easily generalizable for more complicated symmetry groups. PMID:25148341

  15. Integrable Model with Parafermion Zero Energy Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvelik, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Parafermion zero energy modes are a vital element of fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. Although it is believed that such modes form on the border between topological and normal phases, this has been demonstrated only for Z2 (Majorana) and Z3 parafermions. I consider an integrable model of one-dimensional fermions where such a demonstration is possible for ZN parafermions with any N. The procedure is easily generalizable for more complicated symmetry groups.

  16. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-02-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  17. Generalized Gibbs ensemble in integrable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) was introduced ten years ago to describe observables in isolated integrable quantum systems after equilibration. Since then, the GGE has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool to predict the outcome of the relaxation dynamics of few-body observables in a variety of integrable models, a process we call generalized thermalization. This review discusses several fundamental aspects of the GGE and generalized thermalization in integrable systems. In particular, we focus on questions such as: which observables equilibrate to the GGE predictions and who should play the role of the bath; what conserved quantities can be used to construct the GGE; what are the differences between generalized thermalization in noninteracting systems and in interacting systems mappable to noninteracting ones; why is it that the GGE works when traditional ensembles of statistical mechanics fail. Despite a lot of interest in these questions in recent years, no definite answers have been given. We review results for the XX model and for the transverse field Ising model. For the latter model, we also report original results and show that the GGE describes spin-spin correlations over the entire system. This makes apparent that there is no need to trace out a part of the system in real space for equilibration to occur and for the GGE to apply. In the past, a spectral decomposition of the weights of various statistical ensembles revealed that generalized eigenstate thermalization occurs in the XX model (hard-core bosons). Namely, eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with similar distributions of conserved quantities have similar expectation values of few-spin observables. Here we show that generalized eigenstate thermalization also occurs in the transverse field Ising model.

  18. Generalized Gibbs ensemble in integrable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) was introduced ten years ago to describe observables in isolated integrable quantum systems after equilibration. Since then, the GGE has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool to predict the outcome of the relaxation dynamics of few-body observables in a variety of integrable models, a process we call generalized thermalization. This review discusses several fundamental aspects of the GGE and generalized thermalization in integrable systems. In particular, we focus on questions such as: which observables equilibrate to the GGE predictions and who should play the role of the bath; what conserved quantities can be used to construct the GGE; what are the differences between generalized thermalization in noninteracting systems and in interacting systems mappable to noninteracting ones; why is it that the GGE works when traditional ensembles of statistical mechanics fail. Despite a lot of interest in these questions in recent years, no definite answers have been given. We review results for the XX model and for the transverse field Ising model. For the latter model, we also report original results and show that the GGE describes spin–spin correlations over the entire system. This makes apparent that there is no need to trace out a part of the system in real space for equilibration to occur and for the GGE to apply. In the past, a spectral decomposition of the weights of various statistical ensembles revealed that generalized eigenstate thermalization occurs in the XX model (hard-core bosons). Namely, eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with similar distributions of conserved quantities have similar expectation values of few-spin observables. Here we show that generalized eigenstate thermalization also occurs in the transverse field Ising model.

  19. An integrated neuromechanical model of insect locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukillaya, Raghavendra

    We develop a biologically-plausible feedforward neuromechanical model for running insects that includes a simplified hexapedal leg geometry with agonist-antagonist muscle pairs actuating each leg joint. It is driven by a neural network modeling the central pattern generator (CPG) and the motoneurons which activate the muscles. This final goal is achieved in three stages. First, a relatively simple mechanical hexapedal model is constructed in which the joint torques are produced via actuated linear torsional springs with constant stiffness. In the second stage, this system is upgraded to a muscle-actuated hexapedal model in which each joint is actuated by a pair of agonist-antagonist Hill-type muscles. Muscles are driven by stylized action potentials that are characteristic of fast motoneurons, and modeled using an activation function and nonlinear length and shortening velocity dependence. In the final stage, the full neuromechanical model is obtained by integrating the above muscle-actuated hexapedal model with a CPG-motoneuron complex, feedforward input to the muscles now being supplied by action potentials from motoneurons. Restricting to dynamics in the horizontal plane and neglecting leg masses, we reduce the model (at each stage) to three degrees of freedom describing translational and yawing motions of the body. Collectively for all the models, parameter values are based on measurements from depressor motoneurons and muscles, and observations of kinematics and dynamics of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. Specifically, actuation inputs for the mechanical and muscle-actuated models are chosen to approximately achieve joint torques that are consistent with measured ground reaction forces. This is done by optimizing the time-dependent torque-free joint angles in the first model, and by optimizing motoneuronal outputs and muscle force levels in the second and third models. We show that the model (at each stage) has stable double-tripod gaits over the animal

  20. The integrated Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraucunas, I.; Clarke, L.; Dirks, J.; Hejazi, M. I.; Hibbard, K. A.; Huang, M.; Janetos, A. C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.; Kleese van Dam, K.; Leung, L.; Moss, R. H.; Rice, J.; Scott, M. J.; Thomson, A. M.; West, T. O.; Whitney, P.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) is a unique modeling framework being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate the interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. The framework unites high-resolution models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible software architecture. The framework is portable and can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, including (but not limited to) planning, implementation, and evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. iRESM also incorporates extensive stakeholder interactions and analysis to inform model development, coupling strategies, and characterization of uncertainties. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales, with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus and the penetration of renewable energy technologies in the upper U.S. Midwest. The iRESM framework also is being extended and applied to the U.S. Gulf Coast, with a particular emphasis on how changes in extreme events will affect both coastal in inland energy infrastructure in the region. This talk will focus on iRESM's development and capabilities, initial results from numerical experiments, and the challenges and opportunities associated with integrated regional modeling.

  1. Integrated modeling of submillimeter radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, Dan; Andersen, Torben

    2002-07-01

    Integrated models are inherently complex and often obscure to any but those who write them. Their usefulness can be greatly enhanced through well-structured, object-oriented design. A robust and computationally efficient Simulink/C++ library of optics, control, finite-element, and visualization routines for modeling radio telescope performance under various operating conditions is being developed and is described. The library is being developed in conjunction with an end-to-end model of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) antennas. The model includes the mechanical structure, optics, servos, and potential laser gyros, and can be used to investigate such issues as tracking performance, compliance with error budgets, wind sensitivity, and effectiveness of an internal metrology system. It will also be a good tool for comparison of different antenna designs.

  2. Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, J.A.; Grossmann, I.E.

    1999-06-01

    In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

  3. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  4. Integrated statistical modelling of spatial landslide probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergili, M.; Chu, H.-J.

    2015-09-01

    Statistical methods are commonly employed to estimate spatial probabilities of landslide release at the catchment or regional scale. Travel distances and impact areas are often computed by means of conceptual mass point models. The present work introduces a fully automated procedure extending and combining both concepts to compute an integrated spatial landslide probability: (i) the landslide inventory is subset into release and deposition zones. (ii) We employ a simple statistical approach to estimate the pixel-based landslide release probability. (iii) We use the cumulative probability density function of the angle of reach of the observed landslide pixels to assign an impact probability to each pixel. (iv) We introduce the zonal probability i.e. the spatial probability that at least one landslide pixel occurs within a zone of defined size. We quantify this relationship by a set of empirical curves. (v) The integrated spatial landslide probability is defined as the maximum of the release probability and the product of the impact probability and the zonal release probability relevant for each pixel. We demonstrate the approach with a 637 km2 study area in southern Taiwan, using an inventory of 1399 landslides triggered by the typhoon Morakot in 2009. We observe that (i) the average integrated spatial landslide probability over the entire study area corresponds reasonably well to the fraction of the observed landside area; (ii) the model performs moderately well in predicting the observed spatial landslide distribution; (iii) the size of the release zone (or any other zone of spatial aggregation) influences the integrated spatial landslide probability to a much higher degree than the pixel-based release probability; (iv) removing the largest landslides from the analysis leads to an enhanced model performance.

  5. Integrated Hydrosystem Modeling of the California Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Mallia, D.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Western United States is facing one of the worst droughts on record. Climate change projections predict warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates, and no foreseeable increase in precipitation. California, in particular, has supplemented their decreased surface water supplies by mining deep groundwater. However, this supply of groundwater is limited, especially with reduced recharge. These combined factors place California's water-demanding society at dire risk. In an effort to quantify California's risks, we present a fully integrated water cycle model that captures the dynamics of the subsurface, land surface, and atmospheric domains over the entire California basin. Our water cycle model combines HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a 3-D control-volume finite element model that accommodates variably-saturated subsurface and surface water flow with evapotranspiration processes to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a 3-D finite difference nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric simulator. The two-way coupling within our model, referred to as HGS-WRF, tightly integrates the water cycling processes by passing precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from WRF to HGS, while exchanging actual evapotranspiration and soil saturation data from HGS to WRF. Furthermore, HGS-WRF implements a flexible coupling method that allows each model to use a unique mesh while maintaining mass conservation within and between domains. Our simulation replicated field measured evapotranspiration fluxes and showed a strong correlation between the soil saturation (depth to groundwater table) and latent heat fluxes. Altogether, the HGS-WRF California basin model is currently the most complete water resource simulation framework as it combines groundwater, surface water, the unsaturated zone, and the atmosphere into one coupled system.

  6. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  7. Performance of an INTEGRAL spectrometer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jean, P.; Naya, J. E.; vonBallmoos, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    Model calculations for the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI) onboard the future INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGAL) are presented, where the sensitivity for narrow lines is based on estimates of the background level and the detection efficiency. The instrumental background rates are explained as the sum of various components that depend on the cosmic ray intensity and the spectrometer characteristics, such as the mass distribution around the Ge detectors, the passive material, the characteristics of the detector system and the background reduction techniques. Extended background calculations were performed with Monte Carlo simulations and using semi-empirical and calculated neutron and proton cross sections. In order to improve the INTEGRAL spectrometer sensitivity, several designs and background reduction techniques were compared for an instrument with a fixed detector volume.

  8. A watershed model to integrate EO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Carina, Almeida; Brito, David; Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    MOHID LAND is a open source watershed model developed by MARETEC and is part of the MOHID Framework. It integrates four mediums (or compartments): porous media, surface, rivers and atmosphere. The movement of water between these mediums are based on mass and momentum balance equations. The atmosphere medium is not explicity simulated. Instead, it's used as boundary condition to the model through meteorological properties: precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity and air temperature. The surface medium includes the overland runoff and vegetation growth processes and is simulated using a 2D grid. The porous media includes both the unsaturated (soil) and saturated zones (aquifer) and is simulated using a 3D grid. The river flow is simulated through a 1D drainage network. All these mediums are linked through evapotranspiration and flow exchanges (infiltration, river-soil growndwater flow, surface-river overland flow). Besides the water movement, it is also possible to simulate water quality processes and solute/sediment transport. Model setup include the definition of the geometry and the properties of each one of its compartments. After the setup of the model, the only continuous input data that MOHID LAND requires are the atmosphere properties (boundary conditions) that can be provided as timeseries or spacial data. MOHID LAND has been adapted the last 4 years under FP7 and ESA projects to integrate Earth Observation (EO) data, both variable in time and in space. EO data can be used to calibrate/validate or as input/assimilation data to the model. The currently EO data used include LULC (Land Use Land Cover) maps, LAI (Leaf Area Index) maps, EVTP (Evapotranspiration) maps and SWC (Soil Water Content) maps. Model results are improved by the EO data, but the advantage of this integration is that the model can still run without the EO data. This means that model do not stop due to unavailability of EO data and can run on a forecast mode

  9. Knowledge Management as an Indication of Organizational Maturity in Project Management: An Enhancement of the OPM3(c) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dedrick A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the knowledge management's role in organizational maturity in project management. It draws a direct linked between organizational maturity knowledge channels both informal and then formal and organizational project management maturity. The study uses a mixed method approach through online and telephone surveys that draws…

  10. Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficient Tests and Computer Modeling at High Ionic Strength Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Charles A.; Hamm, L. Larry; Smith, Frank G.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2014-12-19

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and poured into canisters for disposition. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the water solubility properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the Hanford River Protection Project mission. To achieve the full target WTP throughput, additional LAW immobilization capacity is needed, and options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. To enable an informed decision regarding the viability of technetium removal, further maturation of available technologies is being performed. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient testing and computer modeling using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from high ionic strength simulated LAW. It is advantageous to operate at higher concentration in order to treat the waste

  11. External Volume Expansion Modulates Vascular Growth and Functional Maturation in a Swine Model.

    PubMed

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Chih; Chen, Bin; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Guo, Lifei

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing application of the pre-grafting expansion during autologous fat transplantation in breast reconstruction, little is known about its mechanism of action. To address that, ventral skins of miniature pigs were treated over a 10-day or 21-day period, with continuous suction at -50 mm Hg via a 7-cm diameter rubber-lined suction-cup device. Soft tissue thickness increased immediately after this external volume expansion (EVE) treatment, such increase completely disappeared by the next day. In the dermis and subcutaneous fat, the EVE treated groups showed significant increases in blood vessel density evident by CD31 staining as well as in vascular networks layered with smooth muscle cells when compared with the control group. This finding was corroborated by the increased percentage of endothelial cells present in the treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the percentages of proliferating basal keratinocytes or adipocytes, nor in epidermal thickness. Moreover, the EVE had no effect on proliferation or differentiation potential of adipose stem cells. Taken together, the major effects of EVE appeared to be vascular remodeling and maturation of functional blood vessels. This understanding may help clinicians optimize the vascularity of the recipient bed to further improve fat graft survival. PMID:27174509

  12. Multistage integration model for human egomotion perception.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, G L; Miao, A X; Warren, R

    1995-01-01

    Human computational vision models that attempt to account for the dynamic perception of egomotion and relative depth typically assume a common three-stage process: first, compute the optical flow field based on the dynamically changing image; second, estimate the egomotion states based on the flow; and third, estimate the relative depth/shape based on the egomotion states and possibly on a model of the viewed surface. We propose a model more in line with recent work in human vision, employing multistage integration. Here the dynamic image is first processed to generate spatial and temporal image gradients that drive a mutually interconnected state estimator and depth/shape estimator. The state estimator uses the image gradient information in combination with a depth/shape estimate of the viewed surface and an assumed model of the viewer's dynamics to generate current state estimates; in tandem, the depth/shape estimator uses the image gradient information in combination with the viewer's state estimate and assumed shape model to generate current depth/shape estimates. In this paper, we describe the model and compare model predictions with empirical data.

  13. Using the Information Orientation Maturity Model to Increase the Effectiveness of the Core MBA IS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytes, Kregg; Beachboard, John

    2007-01-01

    Although information systems are an integral part of every modern organization, IS faculty often struggle to show MBA students the value of the core IS course in the MBA curriculum. This is also evidenced by the fact that some business schools do not have an IS course in the core MBA curriculum. MBA courses often use case analyses to provide…

  14. Bone fracture toughness and strength correlate with collagen cross-link maturity in a dose-controlled lathyrism mouse model

    PubMed Central

    McNerny, Erin M. B.; Gong, Bo; Morris, Michael D.; Kohn, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking is altered in many diseases of bone, and enzymatic collagen cross-links are important to bone quality as evidenced by losses of strength following lysyl oxidase inhibition (lathyrism). We hypothesized that cross-links also contribute directly to bone fracture toughness. A mouse model of lathyrism using subcutaneous injection of up to 500mg/kg β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) was developed and characterized (60 animals across 4 dosage groups). Three weeks of 150 or 350 mg/kg BAPN treatment in young growing mice significantly reduced cortical bone fracture toughness, strength, and pyridinoline cross-link content. Ratios reflecting relative cross-link maturity were positive regressors of fracture toughness (HP/[DHLNL+HLNL] r2=0.208, p<0.05; [HP+LP]/[DHNL+HLNL] r2=0.196, p<0.1), whereas quantities of mature pyridinoline cross-links were significant positive regressors of tissue strength (lysyl pyridinoline r2=0.159, p=0.014; hydroxylysyl pyridinoline r2=0.112, p<0.05). Immature and pyrrole cross-links, which were not significantly reduced by BAPN, did not correlate with mechanical properties. The effect of BAPN treatment on mechanical properties was dose specific, with the greatest impact found at the intermediate (350mg/kg) dose. Calcein labeling was used to define locations of new bone formation, allowing for the identification of regions of normally cross-linked (preexisting) and BAPN treated (newly formed, cross-link-deficient) bone. Raman spectroscopy revealed spatial differences due to relative tissue age and effects of cross-link inhibition. Newly deposited tissues had lower mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate and Amide I cross-link (matrix maturity) ratios compared to preexisting tissues. BAPN treatment did not affect mineral measures, but significantly increased the cross-link (matrix maturity) ratio compared to newly formed control tissue. Our study reveals that spatially localized effects of short term BAPN cross-link inhibition can alter

  15. Applying Forecast Models from the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehmeyr, M.; Baker, D. N.; Millward, G.; Odstrcil, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) has developed three forecast models (FMs) for the Sun-Earth chain. They have been matured by various degrees toward the operational stage. The Sun-Earth FM suite comprises empirical and physical models: the Planetary Equivalent Amplitude (AP-FM), the Solar Wind (SW- FM), and the Geospace (GS-FM) models. We give a brief overview of these forecast models and touch briefly on the associated validation studies. We demonstrate the utility of the models: AP-FM supporting the operations of the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) mission soon after launch; SW-FM providing assistance with the interpretation of the STEREO beacon data; and GS-FM combining model and observed data to characterize the aurora borealis. We will then discuss space weather tools in a more general sense, point out where the current capabilities and shortcomings are, and conclude with a look forward to what areas need improvement to facilitate better real-time forecasts.

  16. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  17. The Integrated Airport Competition Model, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuis, J.; Essers, I.; Bakker, D.; Cohn, N.; Kroes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses recent model development by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) and Hague Consulting Group (HCG) concerning long-distance travel. Long-distance travel demand is growing very quickly and raising a great deal of economic and policy issues. There is increasing competition among the main Western European airports, and smaller, regional airports are fighting for market share. New modes of transport, such as high speed rail, are also coming into the picture and affect the mode split for medium distance transport within Europe. Developments such as these are demanding the attention of policy makers and a tool is required for their analysis. For DGCA, Hague Consulting Group has developed a model system to provide answers to the policy questions posed by these expected trends, and to identify areas where policy makers can influence the traveller choices. The development of this model system, the Integrated Airport Competition Model/integraal Luchthaven Competitie Model (ILCM), began in 1992. Since that time the sub-models, input data and user interface have been expanded, updated and improved. HCG and DGCA have transformed the ILCM from a prototype into an operational forecasting tool.

  18. GSDT: An integrative model of visual search.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Wolf; Miller, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    We present a new quantitative process model (GSDT) of visual search that seeks to integrate various processing mechanisms suggested by previous studies within a single, coherent conceptual frame. It incorporates and combines 4 distinct model components: guidance (G), a serial (S) item inspection process, diffusion (D) modeling of individual item inspections, and a strategic termination (T) rule. For this model, we derive explicit closed-form results for response probability and mean search time (reaction time [RT]) as a function of display size and target presence/absence. The fit of the model is compared in detail to data from 4 visual search experiments in which the effects of target/distractor discriminability and of target prevalence on performance (present/absent display size functions for mean RT and error rate) are studied. We describe how GSDT accounts for various detailed features of our results such as the probabilities of hits and correct rejections and their mean RTs; we also apply the model to explain further aspects of the data, such as RT variance and mean miss RT. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Enmark, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Mathematical modeling and performance simulation are playing an increasing role in large, high-technology projects. There are two reasons; first, projects are now larger than they were before, and the high cost calls for detailed performance prediction before construction. Second, in particular for space-related designs, it is often difficult to test systems under realistic conditions beforehand, and mathematical modeling is then needed to verify in advance that a system will work as planned. Computers have become much more powerful, permitting calculations that were not possible before. At the same time mathematical tools have been further developed and found acceptance in the community. Particular progress has been made in the fields of structural mechanics, optics and control engineering, where new methods have gained importance over the last few decades. Also, methods for combining optical, structural and control system models into global models have found widespread use. Such combined models are usually called integrated models and were the subject of this symposium. The objective was to bring together people working in the fields of groundbased optical telescopes, ground-based radio telescopes, and space telescopes. We succeeded in doing so and had 39 interesting presentations and many fruitful discussions during coffee and lunch breaks and social arrangements. We are grateful that so many top ranked specialists found their way to Kiruna and we believe that these proceedings will prove valuable during much future work.

  20. A Population Model of Integrative Cardiovascular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, William A.; Husband, Leland D.; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G.; Hester, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model. PMID:24058546

  1. A population model of integrative cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Pruett, William A; Husband, Leland D; Husband, Graham; Dakhlalla, Muhammad; Bellamy, Kyle; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    We present a small integrative model of human cardiovascular physiology. The model is population-based; rather than using best fit parameter values, we used a variant of the Metropolis algorithm to produce distributions for the parameters most associated with model sensitivity. The population is built by sampling from these distributions to create the model coefficients. The resulting models were then subjected to a hemorrhage. The population was separated into those that lost less than 15 mmHg arterial pressure (compensators), and those that lost more (decompensators). The populations were parametrically analyzed to determine baseline conditions correlating with compensation and decompensation. Analysis included single variable correlation, graphical time series analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Most variables were seen to correlate with propensity for circulatory collapse, but not sufficiently to effect reasonable classification by any single variable. Time series analysis indicated a single significant measure, the stressed blood volume, as predicting collapse in situ, but measurement of this quantity is clinically impossible. SVM uncovered a collection of variables and parameters that, when taken together, provided useful rubrics for classification. Due to the probabilistic origins of the method, multiple classifications were attempted, resulting in an average of 3.5 variables necessary to construct classification. The most common variables used were systemic compliance, baseline baroreceptor signal strength and total peripheral resistance, providing predictive ability exceeding 90%. The methods presented are suitable for use in any deterministic mathematical model.

  2. Integrated research in constitutive modelling at elevated temperatures, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.; Allen, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered include: numerical integration techniques; thermodynamics and internal state variables; experimental lab development; comparison of models at room temperature; comparison of models at elevated temperature; and integrated software development.

  3. TOWARD EFFICIENT RIPARIAN RESTORATION: INTEGRATING ECONOMIC, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper integrates economic, biological, and physical models to determine the efficient combination and spatial allocation of conservation efforts for water quality protection and salmonid habitat enhancement in the Grande Ronde basin, Oregon. The integrated modeling system co...

  4. Coastal Ecosystem Integrated Compartment Model (ICM): Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meselhe, E. A.; White, E. D.; Reed, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Compartment Model (ICM) was developed as part of the 2017 Coastal Master Plan modeling effort. It is a comprehensive and numerical hydrodynamic model coupled to various geophysical process models. Simplifying assumptions related to some of the flow dynamics are applied to increase the computational efficiency of the model. The model can be used to provide insights about coastal ecosystems and evaluate restoration strategies. It builds on existing tools where possible and incorporates newly developed tools where necessary. It can perform decadal simulations (~ 50 years) across the entire Louisiana coast. It includes several improvements over the approach used to support the 2012 Master Plan, such as: additional processes in the hydrology, vegetation, wetland and barrier island morphology subroutines, increased spatial resolution, and integration of previously disparate models into a single modeling framework. The ICM includes habitat suitability indices (HSIs) to predict broad spatial patterns of habitat change, and it provides an additional integration to a dynamic fish and shellfish community model which quantitatively predicts potential changes in important fishery resources. It can be used to estimate the individual and cumulative effects of restoration and protection projects on the landscape, including a general estimate of water levels associated with flooding. The ICM is also used to examine possible impacts of climate change and future environmental scenarios (e.g. precipitation, Eustatic sea level rise, subsidence, tropical storms, etc.) on the landscape and on the effectiveness of restoration projects. The ICM code is publically accessible, and coastal restoration and protection groups interested in planning-level modeling are encouraged to explore its utility as a computationally efficient tool to examine ecosystem response to future physical or ecological changes, including the implementation of restoration and protection strategies.

  5. Learning models for multi-source integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tejada, S.; Knoblock, C.A.; Minton, S.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the growing number of information sources available through the internet there are many cases in which information needed to solve a problem or answer a question is spread across several information sources. For example, when given two sources, one about comic books and the other about super heroes, you might want to ask the question {open_quotes}Is Spiderman a Marvel Super Hero?{close_quotes} This query accesses both sources; therefore, it is necessary to have information about the relationships of the data within each source and between sources to properly access and integrate the data retrieved. The SIMS information broker captures this type of information in the form of a model. All the information sources map into the model providing the user a single interface to multiple sources.

  6. An integrated model of ring pack performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keribar, R.; Dursunkaya, Z.; Flemming, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed for the detailed characterization and simulation of piston ring pack behavior in internal combustion engines and the prediction of ring pack performance. The model includes comprehensive and coupled treatments of (1) ring-liner hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication and friction; (2) ring axial, radial, and (toroidal) twist dynamics; (3) inter-ring gas dynamics and blowby. The physics of each of these highly inter-related phenomena are represented by submodels, which are intimately coupled to form a design-oriented predictive tool aimed at the calculation of ring film thicknesses, ring motions, land pressures, engine friction, and blowby. The paper also describes the results of a series of analytical studies investigating effects of engine speed and load and ring pack design parameters, on ring motions, film thicknesses, and inter-ring pressures, as well as ring friction and blowby.

  7. Performance of an integrated network model

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, François; Dunn, David; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Brophy, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in accessibility, patients’ care experiences, and quality-of-care indicators following a clinic’s transformation into a fully integrated network clinic. Design Mixed-methods study. Setting Verdun, Que. Participants Data on all patient visits were used, in addition to 2 distinct patient cohorts: 134 patients with chronic illness (ie, diabetes, arteriosclerotic heart disease, or both); and 450 women between the ages of 20 and 70 years. Main outcome measures Accessibility was measured by the number of walk-in visits, scheduled visits, and new patient enrolments. With the first cohort, patients’ care experiences were measured using validated serial questionnaires; and quality-of-care indicators were measured using biologic data. With the second cohort, quality of preventive care was measured using the number of Papanicolaou tests performed as a surrogate marker. Results Despite a negligible increase in the number of physicians, there was an increase in accessibility after the clinic’s transition to an integrated network model. During the first 4 years of operation, the number of scheduled visits more than doubled, nonscheduled visits (walk-in visits) increased by 29%, and enrolment of vulnerable patients (those with chronic illnesses) at the clinic remained high. Patient satisfaction with doctors was rated very highly at all points of time that were evaluated. While the number of Pap tests done did not increase with time, the proportion of patients meeting hemoglobin A1c and low-density lipoprotein guideline target levels increased, as did the number of patients tested for microalbuminuria. Conclusion Transformation to an integrated network model of care led to increased efficiency and enhanced accessibility with no negative effects on the doctor-patient relationship. Improvements in biologic data also suggested better quality of care. PMID:27521410

  8. Describing Ecosystem Complexity through Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.

    2011-12-01

    Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a South Korean catchment. A variety of models are being used to simulate plot and field scale experiments within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. We used the spatially distributed SWAT model to synthesize the experimental field data throughout the catchment. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. Further, this example shows how research can be structured for scientific results describing complex ecosystems and landscapes where cross-disciplinary linkages benefit the end result. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources to all shareholders.

  9. Search of novel model for integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mutalik, Gururaj

    2014-03-01

    This article provides global and Indian scenario with strengths and limitations of present health care system. Affordability, accessibility and availability of health care coupled with disproportionate growth and double burden of diseases have become major concerns in India. This article emphasizes need for mindset change from illness-disease-drug centric curative to person-health-wellness centric preventive and promotive approaches. It highlights innovation deficit faced pharmaceutical industry and drugs being withdrawn from market for safety reasons. Medical pluralism is a growing trend and people are exploring various options including modern, traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. In such a situation, knowledge from Ayurveda, yoga, Chinese medicine and acupuncture may play an important role. We can evolve a suitable model by integrating modern and traditional systems of medicine for affordable health care. In the larger interest of global community, Indian and Chinese systems should share knowledge and experiences for mutual intellectual enrichments and work together to evolve a novel model of integrative medicine. PMID:24615209

  10. Advances in NLTE Modeling for Integrated Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H A; Hansen, S B

    2009-07-08

    The last few years have seen significant progress in constructing the atomic models required for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) simulations. Along with this has come an increased understanding of the requirements for accurately modeling the ionization balance, energy content and radiative properties of different elements for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Much of this progress is the result of a series of workshops dedicated to comparing the results from different codes and computational approaches applied to a series of test problems. The results of these workshops emphasized the importance of atomic model completeness, especially in doubly excited states and autoionization transitions, to calculating ionization balance, and the importance of accurate, detailed atomic data to producing reliable spectra. We describe a simple screened-hydrogenic model that calculates NLTE ionization balance with surprising accuracy, at a low enough computational cost for routine use in radiation-hydrodynamics codes. The model incorporates term splitting, {Delta}n = 0 transitions, and approximate UTA widths for spectral calculations, with results comparable to those of much more detailed codes. Simulations done with this model have been increasingly successful at matching experimental data for laser-driven systems and hohlraums. Accurate and efficient atomic models are just one requirement for integrated NLTE simulations. Coupling the atomic kinetics to hydrodynamics and radiation transport constrains both discretizations and algorithms to retain energy conservation, accuracy and stability. In particular, the strong coupling between radiation and populations can require either very short timesteps or significantly modified radiation transport algorithms to account for NLTE material response. Considerations such as these continue to provide challenges for NLTE simulations.

  11. Strategy and the Learning Organization: A Maturity Model for the Formation of Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for strategic change that links learning in an organization to the strategic process. Design/methodology/approach: The model was developed from a review of literature covering a range of areas including: management, strategic planning, psychology of learning and organizational learning. The process of…

  12. Another day older and deeper in therapy: Can the Dynamic-Maturational Model offer a way out?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Simon R

    2010-07-01

    Patients referred to adolescent psychiatric units have often been in contact with services for many years. When assessing for admission we consider why the previous approaches might have failed and how milieu therapy might be more effective as the priority treatment. We propose that the information provided by an adolescent's Transition to Adulthood Attachment Interview (TAAI) and the parents' Adult Attachment Interviews (AAI) leads to an especially productive case formulation. The Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM) uniquely provides a detailed understanding of an extended range of Type A and Type C strategies with modifiers that are useful for planning the milieu therapy, individual and family work. In addition, this case presentation illustrates the usefulness of understanding the phenomenon of "intruded negative affect". PMID:20603428

  13. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations.

    PubMed

    Nowke, Christian; Zielasko, Daniel; Weyers, Benjamin; Peyser, Alexander; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten W

    2015-01-01

    Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work.

  14. Integrating Visualizations into Modeling NEST Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Nowke, Christian; Zielasko, Daniel; Weyers, Benjamin; Peyser, Alexander; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling large-scale spiking neural networks showing realistic biological behavior in their dynamics is a complex and tedious task. Since these networks consist of millions of interconnected neurons, their simulation produces an immense amount of data. In recent years it has become possible to simulate even larger networks. However, solutions to assist researchers in understanding the simulation's complex emergent behavior by means of visualization are still lacking. While developing tools to partially fill this gap, we encountered the challenge to integrate these tools easily into the neuroscientists' daily workflow. To understand what makes this so challenging, we looked into the workflows of our collaborators and analyzed how they use the visualizations to solve their daily problems. We identified two major issues: first, the analysis process can rapidly change focus which requires to switch the visualization tool that assists in the current problem domain. Second, because of the heterogeneous data that results from simulations, researchers want to relate data to investigate these effectively. Since a monolithic application model, processing and visualizing all data modalities and reflecting all combinations of possible workflows in a holistic way, is most likely impossible to develop and to maintain, a software architecture that offers specialized visualization tools that run simultaneously and can be linked together to reflect the current workflow, is a more feasible approach. To this end, we have developed a software architecture that allows neuroscientists to integrate visualization tools more closely into the modeling tasks. In addition, it forms the basis for semantic linking of different visualizations to reflect the current workflow. In this paper, we present this architecture and substantiate the usefulness of our approach by common use cases we encountered in our collaborative work. PMID:26733860

  15. The Maturing of Hormesis as a Credible Dose-Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormesis is a dose-response phenomenon that has received little recognition, credibility and acceptance as evidenced by its absence from major toxicological/risk assessment texts, governmental regulatory dose-response modeling for risk assessment, and non-visibility in major professional toxicological society national meetings. This paper traces the historical evolution of the hormetic dose-response hypothesis, why this model is not only credible but also more common than the widely accepted threshold model in direct comparative evaluation, and how the toxicological community made a critical error in rejecting hormesis, a rejection sustained over 70 years. PMID:19330138

  16. Market maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

    1995-02-01

    The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

  17. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  18. Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Howes, Oliver D; Murray, Robin M

    2014-05-10

    Schizophrenia remains a major burden on patients and society. The dopamine hypothesis attempts to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of the disorder, and the neurodevelopmental hypothesis the origins. In the past 10 years an alternative, the cognitive model, has gained popularity. However, the first two theories have not been satisfactorily integrated, and the most influential iteration of the cognitive model makes no mention of dopamine, neurodevelopment, or indeed the brain. In this Review we show that developmental alterations secondary to variant genes, early hazards to the brain, and childhood adversity sensitise the dopamine system, and result in excessive presynaptic dopamine synthesis and release. Social adversity biases the cognitive schema that the individual uses to interpret experiences towards paranoid interpretations. Subsequent stress results in dysregulated dopamine release, causing the misattribution of salience to stimuli, which are then misinterpreted by the biased cognitive processes. The resulting paranoia and hallucinations in turn cause further stress, and eventually repeated dopamine dysregulation hardwires the psychotic beliefs. Finally, we consider the implications of this model for understanding and treatment of schizophrenia.

  19. Integrated core-log petrofacies analysis in the construction of a reservoir geomodel: A case study of a mature Mississippian carbonate reservoir using limited data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhattacharya, S.; Doveton, J.H.; Carr, T.R.; Guy, W.R.; Gerlach, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Small independent operators produce most of the Mississippian carbonate fields in the United States mid-continent, where a lack of integrated characterization studies precludes maximization of hydrocarbon recovery. This study uses integrative techniques to leverage extant data in an Osagian and Meramecian (Mississippian) cherty carbonate reservoir in Kansas. Available data include petrophysical logs of varying vintages, limited number of cores, and production histories from each well. A consistent set of assumptions were used to extract well-level porosity and initial saturations, from logs of different types and vintages, to build a geomodel. Lacking regularly recorded well shut-in pressures, an iterative technique, based on material balance formulations, was used to estimate average reservoir-pressure decline that matched available drillstem test data and validated log-analysis assumptions. Core plugs representing the principal reservoir petrofacies provide critical inputs for characterization and simulation studies. However, assigning plugs among multiple reservoir petrofacies is difficult in complex (carbonate) reservoirs. In a bottom-up approach, raw capillary pressure (Pc) data were plotted on the Super-Pickett plot, and log- and core-derived saturation-height distributions were reconciled to group plugs by facies, to identify core plugs representative of the principal reservoir facies, and to discriminate facies in the logged interval. Pc data from representative core plugs were used for effective pay evaluation to estimate water cut from completions, in infill and producing wells, and guide-selective perforations for economic exploitation of mature fields. The results from this study were used to drill 22 infill wells. Techniques demonstrated here can be applied in other fields and reservoirs. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

  1. Cerebrolysin decreases amyloid-beta production by regulating amyloid protein precursor maturation in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Torrance, Magdalena; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Paulino, Amy; Rose, John B; Crews, Leslie; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2006-05-15

    Cerebrolysin is a peptide mixture with neurotrophic effects that might reduce the neurodegenerative pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown in an amyloid protein precursor (APP) transgenic (tg) mouse model of AD-like neuropathology that Cerebrolysin ameliorates behavioral deficits, is neuroprotective, and decreases amyloid burden; however, the mechanisms involved are not completely clear. Cerebrolysin might reduce amyloid deposition by regulating amyloid-beta (Abeta) degradation or by modulating APP expression, maturation, or processing. To investigate these possibilities, APP tg mice were treated for 6 months with Cerebrolysin and analyzed in the water maze, followed by RNA, immunoblot, and confocal microscopy analysis of full-length (FL) APP and its fragments, beta-secretase (BACE1), and Abeta-degrading enzymes [neprilysin (Nep) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE)]. Consistent with previous studies, Cerebrolysin ameliorated the performance deficits in the spatial learning portion of the water maze and reduced the synaptic pathology and amyloid burden in the brains of APP tg mice. These effects were associated with reduced levels of FL APP and APP C-terminal fragments, but levels of BACE1, Notch1, Nep, and IDE were unchanged. In contrast, levels of active cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta [GSK-3beta; but not stress-activated protein kinase-1 (SAPK1)], kinases that phosphorylate APP, were reduced. Furthermore, Cerebrolysin reduced the levels of phosphorylated APP and the accumulation of APP in the neuritic processes. Taken together, these results suggest that Cerebrolysin might reduce AD-like pathology in the APP tg mice by regulating APP maturation and transport to sites where Abeta protein is generated. This study clarifies the mechanisms through which Cerebrolysin might reduce Abeta production and deposition in AD and further supports the importance of this compound in the potential treatment of early AD.

  2. Human induced pluripotent stem cells can reach complete terminal maturation: in vivo and in vitro evidence in the erythropoietic differentiation model

    PubMed Central

    Kobari, Ladan; Yates, Frank; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Francina, Alain; Kiger, Laurent; Mazurier, Christelle; Rouzbeh, Shaghayegh; El-Nemer, Wassim; Hebert, Nicolas; Giarratana, Marie-Catherine; François, Sabine; Chapel, Alain; Lapillonne, Hélène; Luton, Dominique; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Douay, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Human induced pluripotent stem cells offer perspectives for cell therapy and research models for diseases. We applied this approach to the normal and pathological erythroid differentiation model by establishing induced pluripotent stem cells from normal and homozygous sickle cell disease donors. Design and Methods We addressed the question as to whether these cells can reach complete erythroid terminal maturation notably with a complete switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin. Sickle cell disease induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated in vitro into red blood cells and characterized for their terminal maturation in terms of hemoglobin content, oxygen transport capacity, deformability, sickling and adherence. Nucleated erythroblast populations generated from normal and pathological induced pluripotent stem cells were then injected into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency mice to follow the in vivo hemoglobin maturation. Results We observed that in vitro erythroid differentiation results in predominance of fetal hemoglobin which rescues the functionality of red blood cells in the pathological model of sickle cell disease. We observed, in vivo, the switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin after infusion of nucleated erythroid precursors derived from either normal or pathological induced pluripotent stem cells into mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that human induced pluripotent stem cells: i) can achieve complete terminal erythroid maturation, in vitro in terms of nucleus expulsion and in vivo in terms of hemoglobin maturation; and ii) open the way to generation of functionally corrected red blood cells from sickle cell disease induced pluripotent stem cells, without any genetic modification or drug treatment. PMID:22733021

  3. A Qualitative Model of the Differentiation Network in Chondrocyte Maturation: A Holistic View of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kerkhofs, Johan; Leijten, Jeroen; Bolander, Johanna; Luyten, Frank P; Post, Janine N; Geris, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of chondrocytes towards hypertrophy is a natural process whose control is essential in endochondral bone formation. It is additionally thought to play a role in several pathophysiological processes, with osteoarthritis being a prominent example. We perform a dynamic analysis of a qualitative mathematical model of the regulatory network that directs this phenotypic switch to investigate the influence of the individual factors holistically. To estimate the stability of a SOX9 positive state (associated with resting/proliferation chondrocytes) versus a RUNX2 positive one (associated with hypertrophy) we employ two measures. The robustness of the state in canalisation (size of the attractor basin) is assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis and the sensitivity to perturbations is assessed by a perturbational analysis of the attractor. Through qualitative predictions, these measures allow for an in silico screening of the effect of the modelled factors on chondrocyte maintenance and hypertrophy. We show how discrepancies between experimental data and the model's results can be resolved by evaluating the dynamic plausibility of alternative network topologies. The findings are further supported by a literature study of proposed therapeutic targets in the case of osteoarthritis. PMID:27579819

  4. An integrative computational model of multiciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingzhou; Dillon, Robert H; Fauci, Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    The coordinated beating of motile cilia is responsible for ovum transport in the oviduct, transport of mucus in the respiratory tract, and is the basis of motility in many single-celled organisms. The beating of a single motile cilium is achieved by the ATP-driven activation cycles of thousands of dynein molecular motors that cause neighboring microtubule doublets within the ciliary axoneme to slide relative to each other. The precise nature of the spatial and temporal coordination of these individual motors is still not completely understood. The emergent geometry and dynamics of ciliary beating is a consequence of the coupling of these internal force-generating motors, the passive elastic properties of the axonemal structure, and the external viscous, incompressible fluid. Here, we extend our integrative model of a single cilium that couples internal force generation with the surrounding fluid to the investigation of multiciliary interaction. This computational model allows us to predict the geometry of beating, along with the detailed description of the time-dependent flow field both near and away from the cilia. We show that synchrony and metachrony can, indeed, arise from hydrodynamic coupling. We also investigate the effects of viscosity and neighboring cilia on ciliary beat frequency. Moreover, since we have precise flow information, we also measure the dependence of the total flow pumped per cilium per beat upon parameters such as viscosity and ciliary spacing.

  5. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  6. Integrated Meteorology and Chemistry Modeling: Evaluation and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade several online integrated atmospheric chemical-transport and meteorology modeling systems with varying levels of interactions among different atmospheric processes have been developed. A variety of approaches to meteorology-chemistry integration with differe...

  7. Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.

  8. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  9. A Qualitative Model of the Differentiation Network in Chondrocyte Maturation: A Holistic View of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhofs, Johan; Leijten, Jeroen; Bolander, Johanna; Luyten, Frank P.; Post, Janine N.; Geris, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of chondrocytes towards hypertrophy is a natural process whose control is essential in endochondral bone formation. It is additionally thought to play a role in several pathophysiological processes, with osteoarthritis being a prominent example. We perform a dynamic analysis of a qualitative mathematical model of the regulatory network that directs this phenotypic switch to investigate the influence of the individual factors holistically. To estimate the stability of a SOX9 positive state (associated with resting/proliferation chondrocytes) versus a RUNX2 positive one (associated with hypertrophy) we employ two measures. The robustness of the state in canalisation (size of the attractor basin) is assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis and the sensitivity to perturbations is assessed by a perturbational analysis of the attractor. Through qualitative predictions, these measures allow for an in silico screening of the effect of the modelled factors on chondrocyte maintenance and hypertrophy. We show how discrepancies between experimental data and the model’s results can be resolved by evaluating the dynamic plausibility of alternative network topologies. The findings are further supported by a literature study of proposed therapeutic targets in the case of osteoarthritis. PMID:27579819

  10. Integrated Free Energy Model (IFEM) for microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Boza Troncoso, Américo; Acosta, Edgar

    2016-03-15

    The Integrated Free Energy Model (IFEM) is a platform used to predict the solubilization of nonpolar oils in nonionic alkyl-polyethylene oxide (C(X)EO(Y)) micelles starting from a free energy balance of costs and gains when surfactants from empty micelles and oil from a continuous oil phase assemble to form an oil-swollen micelle. IFEM considers lipophilic interactions between surfactant tails and oil solubilized in the core of micelles, and the interaction between surfactant tails and the oil solubilized in the surfactant tail domain, as well as oil-oil and surfactant-surfactant tail interactions. Expressions to calculate these lipophilic interactions from van der Waals (VDW) interaction potential were introduced in a previous publication. In this article, two new surfactant-water interactions are considered, surfactant headgroup dehydration during solubilization, and surfactant tail group dehydration. These six interaction terms, in addition to two entropy of mixing contributions (in the lipophilic and in the hydrophilic domains) make up the eight terms of the IFEM platform. Of these terms, only the headgroup dehydration requires a calibrated parameter. After calibrating this parameter, the model is capable of predicting experimental solubilization data, and the experimental trends reflected by a semi-empirical model, the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Difference+Net-Average-Curvature (HLD-NAC). Although there are numerous approaches to predict the surfactant-oil-water (SOW) phase behavior, the IFEM platform is the only one, to the knowledge of the authors that produces an explicit connection between molecular interactions and experimental data for real SOW systems. The IFEM platform can be programmed in a personal computer using relatively inexpensive software and its explicit nature opens the possibility to introduce additional interaction terms for more complex SOW systems. PMID:26759991

  11. Integrated Medical Model Verification, Validation, and Credibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Marlei; Kerstman, Eric; Foy, Millennia; Shah, Ronak; Saile, Lynn; Boley, Lynn; Butler, Doug; Myers, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) was designed to forecast relative changes for a specified set of crew health and mission success risk metrics by using a probabilistic (stochastic process) model based on historical data, cohort data, and subject matter expert opinion. A probabilistic approach is taken since exact (deterministic) results would not appropriately reflect the uncertainty in the IMM inputs. Once the IMM was conceptualized, a plan was needed to rigorously assess input information, framework and code, and output results of the IMM, and ensure that end user requests and requirements were considered during all stages of model development and implementation. METHODS: In 2008, the IMM team developed a comprehensive verification and validation (VV) plan, which specified internal and external review criteria encompassing 1) verification of data and IMM structure to ensure proper implementation of the IMM, 2) several validation techniques to confirm that the simulation capability of the IMM appropriately represents occurrences and consequences of medical conditions during space missions, and 3) credibility processes to develop user confidence in the information derived from the IMM. When the NASA-STD-7009 (7009) was published, the IMM team updated their verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) project plan to meet 7009 requirements and include 7009 tools in reporting VVC status of the IMM. RESULTS: IMM VVC updates are compiled recurrently and include 7009 Compliance and Credibility matrices, IMM VV Plan status, and a synopsis of any changes or updates to the IMM during the reporting period. Reporting tools have evolved over the lifetime of the IMM project to better communicate VVC status. This has included refining original 7009 methodology with augmentation from the NASA-STD-7009 Guidance Document. End user requests and requirements are being satisfied as evidenced by ISS Program acceptance of IMM risk forecasts, transition to an operational model and

  12. Design of a component-based integrated environmental modeling framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) includes interdependent science-based components (e.g., models, databases, viewers, assessment protocols) that comprise an appropriate software modeling system. The science-based components are responsible for consuming and producing inform...

  13. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Percy, Thomas; Mason, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Effective Space Asset Management is one key to addressing the ever-growing issue of space congestion. It is imperative that agencies around the world have access to data regarding the numerous active assets and pieces of space junk currently tracked in orbit around the Earth. At the center of this issues is the effective management of data of many types related to orbiting objects. As the population of tracked objects grows, so too should the data management structure used to catalog technical specifications, orbital information, and metadata related to those populations. Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Asset Management Database (SAM-D) was implemented in order to effectively catalog a broad set of data related to known objects in space by ingesting information from a variety of database and processing that data into useful technical information. Using the universal NORAD number as a unique identifier, the SAM-D processes two-line element data into orbital characteristics and cross-references this technical data with metadata related to functional status, country of ownership, and application category. The SAM-D began as an Excel spreadsheet and was later upgraded to an Access database. While SAM-D performs its task very well, it is limited by its current platform and is not available outside of the local user base. Further, while modeling and simulation can be powerful tools to exploit the information contained in SAM-D, the current system does not allow proper integration options for combining the data with both legacy and new M&S tools. This paper provides a summary of SAM-D development efforts to date and outlines a proposed data management infrastructure that extends SAM-D to support the larger data sets to be generated. A service-oriented architecture model using an information sharing platform named SIMON will allow it to easily expand to incorporate new capabilities, including advanced analytics, M&S tools, fusion techniques and user interface for

  14. Effect of Mature Blood-Stage Plasmodium Parasite Sequestration on Pathogen Biomass in Mathematical and In Vivo Models of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Kim, Peter S.; Engwerda, Christian R.; Haque, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Parasite biomass and microvasculature obstruction are strongly associated with disease severity and death in Plasmodium falciparum-infected humans. This is related to sequestration of mature, blood-stage parasites (schizonts) in peripheral tissue. The prevailing view is that schizont sequestration leads to an increase in pathogen biomass, yet direct experimental data to support this are lacking. Here, we first studied parasite population dynamics in inbred wild-type (WT) mice infected with the rodent species of malaria, Plasmodium berghei ANKA. As is commonly reported, these mice became moribund due to large numbers of parasites in multiple tissues. We then studied infection dynamics in a genetically targeted line of mice, which displayed minimal tissue accumulation of parasites. We constructed a mathematical model of parasite biomass dynamics, incorporating schizont-specific host clearance, both with and without schizont sequestration. Combined use of mathematical and in vivo modeling indicated, first, that the slowing of parasite growth in the genetically targeted mice can be attributed to specific clearance of schizonts from the circulation and, second, that persistent parasite growth in WT mice can be explained solely as a result of schizont sequestration. Our work provides evidence that schizont sequestration could be a major biological process driving rapid, early increases in parasite biomass during blood-stage Plasmodium infection. PMID:24144725

  15. Effect of mature blood-stage Plasmodium parasite sequestration on pathogen biomass in mathematical and in vivo models of malaria.

    PubMed

    Khoury, David S; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E; James, Kylie R; Kim, Peter S; Engwerda, Christian R; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-01-01

    Parasite biomass and microvasculature obstruction are strongly associated with disease severity and death in Plasmodium falciparum-infected humans. This is related to sequestration of mature, blood-stage parasites (schizonts) in peripheral tissue. The prevailing view is that schizont sequestration leads to an increase in pathogen biomass, yet direct experimental data to support this are lacking. Here, we first studied parasite population dynamics in inbred wild-type (WT) mice infected with the rodent species of malaria, Plasmodium berghei ANKA. As is commonly reported, these mice became moribund due to large numbers of parasites in multiple tissues. We then studied infection dynamics in a genetically targeted line of mice, which displayed minimal tissue accumulation of parasites. We constructed a mathematical model of parasite biomass dynamics, incorporating schizont-specific host clearance, both with and without schizont sequestration. Combined use of mathematical and in vivo modeling indicated, first, that the slowing of parasite growth in the genetically targeted mice can be attributed to specific clearance of schizonts from the circulation and, second, that persistent parasite growth in WT mice can be explained solely as a result of schizont sequestration. Our work provides evidence that schizont sequestration could be a major biological process driving rapid, early increases in parasite biomass during blood-stage Plasmodium infection. PMID:24144725

  16. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  17. Interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a glass surface - A combined experimental and cohesive zone modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Safari, Ashkan; Tukovic, Zeljko; Cardiff, Philip; Walter, Maik; Casey, Eoin; Ivankovic, Alojz

    2016-02-01

    A good understanding of the mechanical stability of biofilms is essential for biofouling management, particularly when mechanical forces are used. Previous biofilm studies lack a damage-based theoretical model to describe the biofilm separation from a surface. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interfacial separation of a mature biofilm from a rigid glass substrate using a combined experimental and numerical modelling approach. In the current work, the biofilm-glass interfacial separation process was investigated under tensile and shear stresses at the macroscale level, known as modes I and II failure mechanisms respectively. The numerical simulations were performed using a Finite Volume (FV)-based simulation package (OpenFOAM®) to predict the separation initiation using the cohesive zone model (CZM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based retraction curve was used to obtain the separation properties between the biofilm and glass colloid at microscale level, where the CZM parameters were estimated using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. In this study CZM is introduced as a reliable method for the investigation of interfacial separation between a biofilm and rigid substrate, in which a high local stress at the interface edge acts as an ultimate stress at the crack tip.This study demonstrated that the total interfacial failure energy measured at the macroscale, was significantly higher than the pure interfacial separation energy obtained by AFM at the microscale, indicating a highly ductile deformation behaviour within the bulk biofilm matrix. The results of this study can significantly contribute to the understanding of biofilm detachments.

  18. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  19. Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2014-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058

  20. An Integrated Model of Training Evaluation and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Kaye; Salas, Eduardo; Garofano, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    A decade of training evaluation and training effectiveness research was reviewed to construct an integrated model of training evaluation and effectiveness. This model integrates four prior evaluation models and results of 10 years of training effectiveness research. It is the first to be constructed using a set of strict criteria and to…

  1. From Source to Sink: Integration and Alteration of Oxygen Isotope Signals during the Transfer from Precipitation to Leaf Water, Leaf Sugars, Twig Phloem Sugars into the Stem Phloem Sugars of Four Mature European Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, N.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N. C.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of stem cellulose record physiological and ecohydrological information and are increasingly being used for the reconstruction of past environments. Studies that have investigated the environmental and physiological drivers of δ18O values in tree ring cellulose have typically focused either on the source of the signal, e.g. the leaf and the water therein, or on the sink, e.g. the cellulose in the stem. In contrast, hardly any research has investigated the transfer of the δ18O signal from precipitation, to soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, phloem sugars all the way to cellulose in the tree ring. As such, critical uncertainties remain regarding the seasonal integration and precision by which precipitation and leaf water δ18O signals are recorded in the tree ring cellulose δ18O values. In our talk, we will present a unique three year dataset that shows the seasonal variation of δ18O values in precipitation, soil water, xylem water, leaf water, leaf sugars, twig and stem phloem sugars for four common European tree species, which are growing in a mature temperature Swiss mixed broadleaf/evergreen forest. This dataset allows us to assess, (i) to what degree the substantial seasonal variation in precipitation δ18O values influences the δ18O values of tree ring cellulose and (ii) if physiological and environmental δ18O signals imprinted on the tree's leaf water δ18O values and the assimilates formed therein are altered on their way downstream to the tree stem. The new insight that we provide into the integration and possible alteration of δ18O signals along the leaf-stem pathway will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the environmental and physiological signals that can be obtained from tree ring δ18O chronologies. In addition it will be relevant for the incorporation and parameterization of tree ring isotope models into dynamic global vegetation models.

  2. Impact of the Maturation of Human Primary Bone-Forming Cells on Their Behavior in Acute or Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Josse, Jérôme; Guillaume, Christine; Bour, Camille; Lemaire, Flora; Mongaret, Céline; Draux, Florence; Velard, Frédéric; Gangloff, Sophie C.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently involved pathogens in bacterial infections such as skin abscess, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and implant-associated infection. As for bone homeostasis, it is partly altered during infections by S. aureus by the induction of various responses from osteoblasts, which are the bone-forming cells responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis and its mineralization. Nevertheless, bone-forming cells are a heterogeneous population with different stages of maturation and the impact of the latter on their responses toward bacteria remains unclear. We describe the impact of S. aureus on two populations of human primary bone-forming cells (HPBCs) which have distinct maturation characteristics in both acute and persistent models of interaction. Cell maturation did not influence the internalization and survival of S. aureus inside bone-forming cells or the cell death related to the infection. By studying the expression of chemokines, cytokines, and osteoclastogenic regulators by HPBCs, we observed different profiles of chemokine expression according to the degree of cell maturation. However, there was no statistical difference in the amounts of proteins released by both populations in the presence of S. aureus compared to the non-infected counterparts. Our findings show that cell maturation does not impact the behavior of HPBCs infected with S. aureus and suggest that the role of bone-forming cells may not be pivotal for the inflammatory response in osteomyelitis. PMID:27446812

  3. Integrated modelling requires mass collaboration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    add, “and are the plans sustainable?” To return to the present, although, it is now possible to ask the first question and obtain an answer through linked modelling; we are still at a very early stage and the associated uncertainties are large. The process of linking and running linked systems is not yet the simple, reliable process needed for widespread uptake. At this point, it is useful to look back over the development process which has taken us from paper maps to GIS and Google Maps; it was the result of tens of thousands of PhD and MSc projects over forty years. During the development of the OpenMI, it was quickly appreciated that to transform integrated modelling from something possible in a research lab to something that had the ease of use and reliability of Google Maps would require a similar process but on a far greater scale; one far larger than any single organisation or state could support. A dramatic change to the research and development process would be needed. Using the OpenMI Association’s strategy as an example, the presentation will describe how through openness, sharing and mass collaboration made possible by inexpensive communications and computing power and adoption of a minimum set of standards, the innovation and enterprise of thousands of individuals across the world can be brought to bear upon the problems.

  4. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard D.; Aamir, Munaf Syed; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Beyeler, Walter E.; Fellner, Karen Marie; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Jeffers, Robert Fredric; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Mitchell, Michael David; Silver, Emily; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Villa, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Engelke, Peter; Burrow, Mat; Keith, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  5. Integration of Geographic Information System frameworks into domain discretisation and meshing processes for geophysical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, A. S.; Avdis, A.; Hill, J.; Gorman, G. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    Computational simulations of physical phenomena rely on an accurate discretisation of the model domain. Numerical models have increased in sophistication to a level where it is possible to support terrain-following boundaries that conform accurately to real physical interfaces, and resolve a multiscale of spatial resolutions. Whilst simulation codes are maturing in this area, pre-processing tools have not developed significantly enough to competently initialise these problems in a rigorous, efficient and recomputable manner. In the relatively disjoint field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) however, techniques and tools for mapping and analysis of geographical data have matured significantly. If data provenance and recomputability are to be achieved, the manipulation and agglomeration of data in the pre-processing of numerical simulation initialisation data for geophysical models should be integrated into GIS. A new approach to the discretisation of geophysical domains is presented, and introduced with a verified implementation. This brings together the technologies of geospatial analysis, meshing and numerical simulation models. This platform enables us to combine and build up features, quickly drafting and updating mesh descriptions with the rigour that established GIS tools provide. This, combined with the systematic workflow, supports a strong provenance for model initialisation and encourages the convergence of standards.

  6. Authentic Integration: A Model for Integrating Mathematics and Science in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Páraic; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    Attempts at integrating mathematics and science have been made previously but no definitive, widely adopted teaching model has been developed to date. Research suggests that hands-on, practical, student-centred tasks should form a central element when designing an effective model for the integration of mathematics and science. Aided by this…

  7. Examples of improved reservoir modeling through geostatistical data integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bashore, W.M.; Araktingi, U.G.

    1994-12-31

    Results from four case studies are presented to demonstrate improvements in reservoir modeling and subsequent flow predictions through various uses of geostatistical integration methods. Specifically, these cases highlight improvements gained from (1) better understanding of reservoir geometries through 3D visualization, (2) forward modeling to assess the value of new data prior to acquisition and integration, (3) assessment of reduced uncertainty in porosity prediction through integration of seismic acoustic impedance, and (4) integration of crosswell tomographic and reflection data. The intent of each of these examples is to quantify the add-value of geological and geophysical data integration in engineering terms such as fluid-flow results and reservoir property predictions.

  8. Empirical model of the metal losses in integrated inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino, F. Javier; Garcia, Javier; Gonzalez, Benito; Sendra, Jose R.; Hernandez, Antonio; Garcia-Alonso, Andres; Nunez, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Integrated inductors are key components in Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFICs) because they are needed in several building blocks, such as voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs), low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), mixers, or filters. The cost reduction, achieved in the circuit assemblage, makes them preferable to Surface Mounted Devices in spite of the different sources of lost that limits the use of integrated inductors; there are losses associated with the semiconductor substrate, and losses in the metals. We report, in this work, our research in modeling integrated inductors, particularly the losses in the metals. The model is derived from measurements taken from integrated spiral inductors designed and fabricated in a standard silicon process. The measurements reveal that the widely accepted lumped equivalent model does not properly predict the integrated inductor behavior at frequencies above 3 GHz for our technology. We propose a simple modification in the lumped equivalent circuit model: the introduction of an empirical resistor in the port 1-to-port 2 branch of the equivalent circuit. As a result, it will be demonstrated that the integrated inductor behavior is adequately predicted in a wider frequency range than does the conventional model. We also report a new methodology for characterizing the integrated inductors including the new resistor. In addition, the new model is used to build-up an integrated inductor library containing optimized integrated inductors.

  9. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  10. Marketing and Languages: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ian

    1988-01-01

    A framework is proposed for an integrated course in which knowledge of a language is consciously related to the processes of interpersonal communication and the cultural aspects of marketing and negotiation. (Editor)

  11. THE EPA MULTIMEDIA INTEGRATED MODELING SYSTEM SOFTWARE SUITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is developing a Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) framework that will provide a software infrastructure or environment to support constructing, composing, executing, and evaluating complex modeling studies. The framework will include (1) common software ...

  12. Integrated Modeling for Environmental Assessment of Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses environmental models to inform rulemaking and policy decisions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, several sophisticated modeling technologies are seamlessly integrated to facilitate a baseline assessment of the re...

  13. A CONCEPT MAP FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND FUTURES MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated assessment models are differentiated from other models by their explicit concern for results that are useful to decision makers. While the details will differ greatly for each particular integrated assessments project, there are certain concepts that will be present f...

  14. Theory and Practice: An Integrative Model Linking Class and Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Joan Granucci; Cooper, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Social work has evolved over the years taking on the challenges of the times. The profession now espouses a breadth of theoretical approaches and treatment modalities. We have developed a model to help graduate social work students master the skill of integrating theory and social work practice. The Integrative Model has five components: (l) The…

  15. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; MacLeod, T.; Mason, S.; Percy, T.; Prescott, J.

    The Space Asset Management Database (SAM-D) was implemented in order to effectively track known objects in space by ingesting information from a variety of databases and performing calculations to determine the expected position of the object at a specified time. While SAM-D performs this task very well, it is limited by technology and is not available outside of the local user base. Modeling and simulation can be powerful tools to exploit the information contained in SAM-D. However, the current system does not allow proper integration options for combining the data with both legacy and new M&S tools. A more capable data management infrastructure would extend SAM-D to support the larger data sets to be generated by the COI. A service-oriented architecture model will allow it to easily expand to incorporate new capabilities, including advanced analytics, M&S tools, fusion techniques and user interface for visualizations. Based on a web-centric approach, the entire COI will be able to access the data and related analytics. In addition, tight control of information sharing policy will increase confidence in the system, which would encourage industry partners to provide commercial data. SIMON is a Government off the Shelf information sharing platform in use throughout DoD and DHS information sharing and situation awareness communities. SIMON providing fine grained control to data owners allowing them to determine exactly how and when their data is shared. SIMON supports a micro-service approach to system development, meaning M&S and analytic services can be easily built or adapted. It is uniquely positioned to fill this need as an information-sharing platform with a proven track record of successful situational awareness system deployments. Combined with the integration of new and legacy M&S tools, a SIMON-based architecture will provide a robust SA environment for the NASA SA COI that can be extended and expanded indefinitely. First Results of Coherent Uplink from a

  16. Inference on biological mechanisms using an integrated phenotype prediction model.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Yumi; Ushijima, Masaru; Miyata, Satoshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Ohtaki, Megu

    2008-03-01

    We propose a methodology for constructing an integrated phenotype prediction model that accounts for multiple pathways regulating a targeted phenotype. The method uses multiple prediction models, each expressing a particular pattern of gene-to-gene interrelationship, such as epistasis. We also propose a methodology using Gene Ontology annotations to infer a biological mechanism from the integrated phenotype prediction model. To construct the integrated models, we employed multiple logistic regression models using a two-step learning approach to examine a number of patterns of gene-to-gene interrelationships. We first selected individual prediction models with acceptable goodness of fit, and then combined the models. The resulting integrated model predicts phenotype as a logical sum of predicted results from the individual models. We used published microarray data on neuroblastoma from Ohira et al (2005) for illustration, constructing an integrated model to predict prognosis and infer the biological mechanisms controlling prognosis. Although the resulting integrated model comprised a small number of genes compared to a previously reported analysis of these data, the model demonstrated excellent performance, with an error rate of 0.12 in a validation analysis. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma may be influenced by biological processes such as cell growth, G-protein signaling, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, alcohol metabolism, glycolysis, neurophysiological processes, and catecholamine catabolism. PMID:18578362

  17. Integrated Climate and Carbon-cycle Model

    2006-03-06

    The INCCA model is a numerical climate and carbon cycle modeling tool for use in studying climate change and carbon cycle science. The model includes atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components.

  18. Maturation Along White Matter Tracts in Human Brain Using a Diffusion Tensor Surface Model Tract-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang; Zhang, Hui; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Liu, Min; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography studies have demonstrated exponential patterns of developmental changes for diffusion parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) averaged over all voxels in major white matter (WM) tracts of the human brain. However, this assumes that the entire tract is changing in unison, which may not be the case. In this study, a surface model based tract-specific analysis was applied to a cross-sectional cohort of 178 healthy subjects (83 males/95 females) aged from 6 to 30 years to spatially characterize the age-related changes of FA and MD along the trajectory of seven major WM tracts – corpus callosum (CC) and six bilateral tracts. There were unique patterns of regions that showed different exponential and linear rates of increasing FA or decreasing MD and age at which FA or MD levels off along each tract. Faster change rate of FA was observed in genu of CC and frontal-parietal part of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Inferior corticospinal tract (CST), posterior regions of association tracts such as inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus also displayed earlier changing patterns for FA. MD decreases with age also exhibited this posterior-to-anterior WM maturation pattern for most tracts in females. Both males and females displayed similar FA/MD patterns of change with age along most large tracts; however, males had overall reached the FA maxima or MD minima later compared with females in most tracts with the greater differences occurring in the CST and frontal-parietal part of SLF for MD. Therefore, brain WM development has spatially varying trajectories along tracts that depend on sex and the tract. PMID:26909027

  19. Integrated Space Asset Management Database and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; MacLeod, T.; Mason, S.; Percy, T.; Prescott, J.

    The Space Asset Management Database (SAM-D) was implemented in order to effectively track known objects in space by ingesting information from a variety of databases and performing calculations to determine the expected position of the object at a specified time. While SAM-D performs this task very well, it is limited by technology and is not available outside of the local user base. Modeling and simulation can be powerful tools to exploit the information contained in SAM-D. However, the current system does not allow proper integration options for combining the data with both legacy and new M&S tools. A more capable data management infrastructure would extend SAM-D to support the larger data sets to be generated by the COI. A service-oriented architecture model will allow it to easily expand to incorporate new capabilities, including advanced analytics, M&S tools, fusion techniques and user interface for visualizations. Based on a web-centric approach, the entire COI will be able to access the data and related analytics. In addition, tight control of information sharing policy will increase confidence in the system, which would encourage industry partners to provide commercial data. SIMON is a Government off the Shelf information sharing platform in use throughout DoD and DHS information sharing and situation awareness communities. SIMON providing fine grained control to data owners allowing them to determine exactly how and when their data is shared. SIMON supports a micro-service approach to system development, meaning M&S and analytic services can be easily built or adapted. It is uniquely positioned to fill this need as an information-sharing platform with a proven track record of successful situational awareness system deployments. Combined with the integration of new and legacy M&S tools, a SIMON-based architecture will provide a robust SA environment for the NASA SA COI that can be extended and expanded indefinitely. First Results of Coherent Uplink from a

  20. Toward a Concept of Psychosocial Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; Sorensen, Aage B.

    The first in a series of related reports (see TM 000 775), this paper attempts to define a concept of psychosocial maturity which would be appropriate as a comprehensive educational goal. Biological, sociological, psychological and temporal formulations of maturity are discussed and compared. Am interdisciplinary model of maturity is evolved which…

  1. Development of Multisensory Integration Approach Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, S. Prasanna; Nathan, B. Sami

    2016-01-01

    Every teacher expects optimum level of processing in mind of them students. The level of processing is mainly depends upon memory process. Most of the students have retrieval difficulties on past learning. Memory difficulties directly related to sensory integration. In these circumstances the investigator made an attempt to construct Multisensory…

  2. Toward an Integrative Model of Professional Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The cycles of growth of the nursing profession depict subordination of nursing to hospital administration and medicine. Nursing is ready to move into an integrative, collaborative stage of development that places nurses directly responsible to patients, and this would facilitate nursing's response to clients' health concerns wherever they occur.…

  3. A Model for an Integrated Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Shaila; Mehs, Doreen

    Fort Lewis College (Colorado) developed a 17 credit, multidisciplinary learning program for first-time freshmen. The Integrated Learning Program (ILP) meets several of the college's general education requirements, is issue-oriented, and is taught by a team of five faculty members. The goals of the program include getting students to learn how to…

  4. Integrating programming features with an algebraic modeling language for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fourer, R.; Gay, D.

    1994-12-31

    In describing optimization models to a computer, programming is best avoided. In using models as part of a larger scheme, however, programs must be written to specify how information is passed between models. We describe a programming environment for this purpose that has been integrated with the AMPL modeling language.

  5. EFFECTS OF VIDEO MODELING ON TREATMENT INTEGRITY OF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS

    PubMed Central

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased treatment integrity to 100% for all participants, and performance was maintained 1 week later. Teachers found video modeling to be more socially acceptable with performance feedback than alone, but rated both positively. PMID:21119903

  6. Integration models: multicultural and liberal approaches confronted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    European societies have been shaped by their Christian past, upsurge of international migration, democratic rule and liberal tradition rooted in religious tolerance. Boosting globalization processes impose new challenges on European societies, striving to protect their diversity. This struggle is especially clearly visible in case of minorities trying to resist melting into mainstream culture. European countries' legal systems and cultural policies respond to these efforts in many ways. Respecting identity politics-driven group rights seems to be the most common approach, resulting in creation of a multicultural society. However, the outcome of respecting group rights may be remarkably contradictory to both individual rights growing out from liberal tradition, and to reinforced concept of integration of immigrants into host societies. The hereby paper discusses identity politics upturn in the context of both individual rights and integration of European societies.

  7. A modified CDC biofilm reactor to produce mature biofilms on the surface of peek membranes for an in vivo animal model application.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin L; Woodbury, Kassie L; Haymond, Bryan S; Parker, Albert E; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2011-06-01

    Biofilm-related infections have become a major clinical concern. Typically, animal models that involve inoculation with planktonic bacteria have been used to create positive infection signals and examine antimicrobial strategies for eradicating or preventing biofilm-related infection. However, it is estimated that 99.9% of bacteria in nature dwell in established biofilms. As such, open wounds have significant potential to become contaminated with bacteria that reside in a well-established biofilm. In this study, a modified CDC biofilm reactor was developed to repeatably grow mature biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on the surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes for inoculation in a future animal model of orthopaedic implant biofilm-related infection. Results indicated that uniform, mature biofilms repeatably grew on the surface of the PEEK membranes.

  8. INTEGRATED MODELS OF SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION: LOGIC AND THEORY

    PubMed Central

    DOMITROVICH, CELENE E.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; GREENBERG, MARK T.; EMBRY, DENNIS; PODUSKA, JEANNE M.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2011-01-01

    School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to school-based prevention. These models leverage the most effective structural and content components of social-emotional and behavioral health prevention interventions. Integrated interventions are expected to have additive and synergistic effects that result in greater impacts on multiple student outcomes. Integrated programs are also expected to be more efficient to deliver, easier to implement with high quality and integrity, and more sustainable. We provide a detailed example of the process through which the PAX-Good Behavior Game and the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum were integrated into the PATHS to PAX model. Implications for future research are proposed. PMID:27182089

  9. The mathematics of cancer: integrating quantitative models.

    PubMed

    Altrock, Philipp M; Liu, Lin L; Michor, Franziska

    2015-12-01

    Mathematical modelling approaches have become increasingly abundant in cancer research. The complexity of cancer is well suited to quantitative approaches as it provides challenges and opportunities for new developments. In turn, mathematical modelling contributes to cancer research by helping to elucidate mechanisms and by providing quantitative predictions that can be validated. The recent expansion of quantitative models addresses many questions regarding tumour initiation, progression and metastases as well as intra-tumour heterogeneity, treatment responses and resistance. Mathematical models can complement experimental and clinical studies, but also challenge current paradigms, redefine our understanding of mechanisms driving tumorigenesis and shape future research in cancer biology.

  10. An integrated development environment for PMESII model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Lofdahl, Corey; Sao Pedro, Michael; Krikeles, Basil; Morley, Liam

    2007-04-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness in Air Operations Centers supporting the Joint Forces Commander and Joint Force Air Component Commander, BAE Systems is developing a Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging. CMIST is built on the versatile Eclipse framework, a widely used open development platform comprised of extensible frameworks that enable development of tools for building, deploying, and managing software. CMIST provides two distinct layers: 1) a Commander's IDE for supporting staff to author models spanning the Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information (PMESII) taxonomy; integrate multiple native (third-party) models; validate model interfaces and outputs; and debug the integrated models via intuitive controls and time series visualization, and 2) a PMESII IDE for modeling and simulation developers to rapidly incorporate new native simulation tools and models to make them available for use in the Commander's IDE. The PMESII IDE provides shared ontologies and repositories for world state, modeling concepts, and native tool characterization. CMIST includes extensible libraries for 1) reusable data transforms for semantic alignment of native data with the shared ontology, and 2) interaction patterns to synchronize multiple native simulations with disparate modeling paradigms, such as continuous-time system dynamics, agent-based discrete event simulation, and aggregate solution methods such as Monte Carlo sampling over dynamic Bayesian networks. This paper describes the CMIST system architecture, our technical approach to addressing these semantic alignment and synchronization problems, and initial results from integrating Political-Military-Economic models of post-war Iraq spanning multiple modeling paradigms.

  11. A Model for Curricula Integration Using the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Curricula integration presents possibilities for broadening and deepening students' learning, yet more models are required for teachers to engage effectively in curricula integration. Utilising other subject areas to enhance science learning can extend the science curriculum, particularly in primary schools. Linking standards from subject areas…

  12. NREL Wind Integrated System Design and Engineering Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew; Scott, George; Graf, Peter

    2013-09-30

    NREL_WISDEM is an integrated model for wind turbines and plants developed In python based on the open source software OpenMDAO. NREL_WISDEM is a set of wrappers for various wind turbine and models that integrate pre-existing models together into OpenMDAO. It is organized into groups each with their own repositories including Plant_CostSE. Plant_EnergySE, Turbine_CostSE and TurbineSE. The wrappers are designed for licensed and non-licensed models though in both cases, one has to have access to and install the individual models themselves before using them in the overall software platform.

  13. Development of the Integrated Communication Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    Human communication is a critical issue in personal life. It also should be the indispensable core element of general education curriculum in universities and colleges. Based on literature analysis and the author's clinical observation, the importance of human communication, functions of model, and often seen human communication models were…

  14. Developing a demand model integrating end uses of water (DMEUW): structure and process of integration.

    PubMed

    Sarker, R C; Gato-Trinidad, S

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing an integrated water demand model integrating end uses of water has been presented. The model estimates and forecasts average daily water demand based on the end-use pattern and trend of residential water consumption, daily rainfall and temperature, water restrictions and water conservation programmes. The end-use model uses the latest end-use data set collected from Yarra Valley Water, Australia. A computer interface has also been developed using hypertext markup language and hypertext pre-processor. The developed model can be used by water authorities and water resource planners in forecasting water demand and by household owners in determining household water consumption. PMID:25746644

  15. Integrability and Quantum Phase Transitions in Interacting Boson Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Arias, J. M.; Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Pittel, S.

    2004-04-01

    The exact solution of the boson pairing hamiltonian given by Richardson in the sixties is used to study the phenomena of level crossings and quantum phase transitions in the integrable regions of the sd and sdg interacting boson models.

  16. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  17. Integrated environmental modeling: A vision and roadmap for the future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the ex...

  18. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  19. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  20. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  1. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Physical Modelling Systems Design. A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Physical Modeling Systems Design project was undertaken in a time of rapid change in the industrial, business, technological, training, and educational areas in Australia. A specification of a manufacturing physical modeling system was drawn up. Physical modeling provides a flexibility and configurability…

  2. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  3. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  4. Integrative Modeling of Electrical Properties of Pacemaker Cardiac Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Babich, L.

    2016-06-01

    This work represents modeling of electrical properties of pacemaker (sinus) cardiac cells. Special attention is paid to electrical potential arising from transmembrane current of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ions. This potential is calculated using the NaCaX model. In this respect, molar concentration of ions in the intercellular space which is calculated on the basis of the GENTEX model is essential. Combined use of two different models allows referring this approach to integrative modeling.

  5. WILDFIRE EMISSION MODELING: INTEGRATING BLUESKY AND SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric chemical transport models are used to simulate historic meteorological episodes for developing air quality management strategies. Wildland fire emissions need to be characterized accurately to achieve these air quality management goals. The temporal and spatial esti...

  6. Constructing an Integrated Model for Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for a model of professional education based on an interdisciplinary approach developed at the University of Calgary. Highlights include professional growth; experts' behavior; mentorship; professional knowledge base; elaboration theory; and fuzzy logic. (Contains 21 references.) (LRW)

  7. An integral representation of functions in gas-kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelitsa, Misha

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the theory of kinetic models in gas dynamics, we obtain an integral representation of lower semicontinuous functions on {{{R}}^d,} {d≥1}. We use the representation to study the problem of compactness of a family of the solutions of the discrete time BGK model for the compressible Euler equations. We determine sufficient conditions for strong compactness of moments of kinetic densities, in terms of the measures from their integral representations.

  8. Regulation of flavonol content and composition in (Syrah×Pinot Noir) mature grapes: integration of transcriptional profiling and metabolic quantitative trait locus analyses

    PubMed Central

    Malacarne, Giulia; Costantini, Laura; Coller, Emanuela; Battilana, Juri; Velasco, Riccardo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Grando, Maria Stella; Moser, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids that accumulate preferentially in flowers and mature berries. Besides their photo-protective function, they play a fundamental role during winemaking, stabilizing the colour by co-pigmentation with anthocyanins and contributing to organoleptic characteristics. Although the general flavonol pathway has been genetically and biochemically elucidated, the genetic control of flavonol content and composition at harvest is still not clear. To this purpose, the grapes of 170 segregating F1 individuals from a ‘Syrah’×’Pinot Noir’ population were evaluated at the mature stage for the content of six flavonol aglycons in four seasons. Metabolic data in combination with genetic data enabled the identification of 16 mQTLs (metabolic quantitative trait loci). For the first time, major genetic control by the linkage group 2 (LG 2)/MYBA region on flavonol variation, in particular of tri-hydroxylated flavonols, is demonstrated. Moreover, seven regions specifically associated with the fine control of flavonol biosynthesis are identified. Gene expression profiling of two groups of individuals significantly divergent for their skin flavonol content identified a large set of differentially modulated transcripts. Among these, the transcripts coding for MYB and bZIP transcription factors, methyltranferases, and glucosyltranferases specific for flavonols, proteins, and factors belonging to the UV-B signalling pathway and co-localizing with the QTL regions are proposed as candidate genes for the fine regulation of flavonol content and composition in mature grapes. PMID:26071529

  9. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Bowman, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  10. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L. S. S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts. PMID:23858275

  11. { P }{ T } symmetry in quasi-integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P. E. G.

    2016-06-01

    Observations of almost stable scattering in nonintegrable models have been reinforced and a framework is proposed to describe quasi-integrability in terms of { P }{ T } symmetry. This new mechanism can be used to regard { P }{ T } symmetry in classical field theories as a guiding principle to also select relevant systems when it comes to integrability properties. It turns out that the if a deformed Lax pair is invariant under this symmetry, corresponding to the unbroken { P }{ T }-symmetric regime, quasi-integrable excitations are produced with asymptotically conserved charges. A generic nonlinear field equation is used in order to verify the validity of the assumptions but results for a specific non-integrable class of models are also presented. A set of quasi-integrable excitations is investigated and shown to have spectral functions with appropriate properties, which might lead to the determination of the almost conserved charges.

  12. Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait

  13. Multiscale modeling of integrated CCS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajaj, Ahmed; Shah, Nilay

    2015-01-01

    The world will continue consuming fossil fuel within the coming decades to meet its growing energy demand; however, this source must be cleaner through implementation of carbon capture, transport and storage (CCTS). This process is complex and involves multiple phases, owned by different operational companies and stakeholders with different business models and regulatory framework. The objective of this work is to develop a multiscale modeling approach to link process models, post-combustion capture plant model and network design models under an optimization framework in order to design and analyse the cost optimal CO2 infrastructure that match CO2 sources and sinks in capacity and time. The network comprises a number of CO2 sources at fixed locations and a number of potential CO2 storage sites. The decisions to be determined include from which sources it is appropriate to capture CO2 and the cost-optimal degree-of-capture (DOC) for a given source and the infrastructural layout of the CO2 transmission network.

  14. Maturation of the Human Papillomavirus 16 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Giovanni; Moyer, Adam L.; Cheng, Naiqian; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Dvoretzky, Israel; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Buck, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Papillomaviruses are a family of nonenveloped DNA viruses that infect the skin or mucosa of their vertebrate hosts. The viral life cycle is closely tied to the differentiation of infected keratinocytes. Papillomavirus virions are released into the environment through a process known as desquamation, in which keratinocytes lose structural integrity prior to being shed from the surface of the skin. During this process, virions are exposed to an increasingly oxidative environment, leading to their stabilization through the formation of disulfide cross-links between neighboring molecules of the major capsid protein, L1. We used time-lapse cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis to study the maturation of HPV16 capsids assembled in mammalian cells and exposed to an oxidizing environment after cell lysis. Initially, the virion is a loosely connected procapsid that, under in vitro conditions, condenses over several hours into the more familiar 60-nm-diameter papillomavirus capsid. In this process, the procapsid shrinks by ~5% in diameter, its pentameric capsomers change in structure (most markedly in the axial region), and the interaction surfaces between adjacent capsomers are consolidated. A C175S mutant that cannot achieve normal inter-L1 disulfide cross-links shows maturation-related shrinkage but does not achieve the fully condensed 60-nm form. Pseudoatomic modeling based on a 9-Å resolution reconstruction of fully mature capsids revealed C-terminal disulfide-stabilized “suspended bridges” that form intercapsomeric cross-links. The data suggest a model in which procapsids exist in a range of dynamic intermediates that can be locked into increasingly mature configurations by disulfide cross-linking, possibly through a Brownian ratchet mechanism. PMID:25096873

  15. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    PubMed

    Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A

    2015-03-01

    While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  16. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    PubMed

    Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A

    2015-03-01

    While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology. PMID:25790483

  17. Lung dendritic cells undergo maturation and polarization towards a T helper type 2-stimulating phenotype in a mouse model of asthma: Role of nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    QIN, QINGWU; WANG, ZHAN; PAN, PINHUA; CAO, ZU; XIA, QING; TAN, HONGYI; HU, CHENGPING

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been hypothesized to modulate T cell responses in a mouse model of asthma. However, whether NGF plays a role in regulating the maturation and polarization of lung DCs remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of NGF inhibition on the maturation and phenotype of lung DCs was investigated in a mouse model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and subsequently received anti-NGF treatment. At 24 h following the last challenge, airway responsiveness and inflammation were examined. The concentrations of NGF, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 were analyzed. In addition, maturation and CD103 expression in the lung DCs were investigated. Anti-NGF treatment was found to significantly reduce airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in asthmatic mice. In addition, a subdued T helper 2 (Th2) response was observed, characterized by the downregulation of IL-4 and the upregulation of IFN-γ. Furthermore, the expression of the DC surface molecules, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II, as well as the proportion of lung CD103+ DCs, decreased in the OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The proportion of lung CD103+ DCs also exhibited a positive correlation with the levels of plasma NGF in the mice. These results may provide an explanation for the role of NGF in amplifying the Th2 response in allergic diseases. Therefore, NGF may promote the maturation and polarization towards a Th2-stimulating phenotype of activated DCs, contributing to an amplification of the Th2 response in asthma. PMID:25289030

  18. Workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozny, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling was held on 12 May 1987. It was held to discuss the geometric modeling requirements of the finite element modeling process and to better understand the technical aspects of the integration of these two areas. The 11 papers are presented except for one for which only the abstract is given.

  19. Integrating Activity Patterns into Destination Choice Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesenmaier, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Factors affecting decision-making on where to go for recreation, specifically state park choice, were analyzed in a study based on data, collected via a telephone survey, from 452 Oklahoma households. The relative accuracy of various models for predicting individual destination choices were also examined. (IAH)

  20. IPEM: An Integrated Planning, Effectiveness Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donsky, Aaron P.

    While historically higher education has utilized many different planning paradigms and elements, two concepts (strategic planning and operational planning) can be presented as the major planning concepts into which the various paradigms can be placed. Starting in fall 1991, Seminole Community College developed a planning model which integrated…

  1. An integrated model for optimizing weld quality

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; Radhakrishnan, B.; Paul, A.J.; Cheng, C.

    1995-06-01

    Welding has evolved in the last few decades from almost an empirical art to an activity embodying the most advanced tools of, various basic and applied sciences. Significant progress has been made in understanding the welding process and welded materials. The improved knowledge base has been useful in automation and process control. In view of the large number of variables involved, creating an adequately large database to understand and control the welding process is expensive and time consuming, if not impractical. A recourse is to simulate welding processes through a set of mathematical equations representing the essential physical processes of welding. Results obtained from the phenomenological models depend crucially on the quality of the physical relations in the models and the trustworthiness of input data. In this paper, recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State of the art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. Current status and scientific issues in heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, and solidification microstructure are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.

  2. Integration of Heterogenous Digital Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, R.; Ginzler, C.

    2011-08-01

    The application of extended digital surface models often reveals, that despite an acceptable global accuracy for a given dataset, the local accuracy of the model can vary in a wide range. For high resolution applications which cover the spatial extent of a whole country, this can be a major drawback. Within the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI), two digital surface models are available, one derived from LiDAR point data and the other from aerial images. Automatic photogrammetric image matching with ADS80 aerial infrared images with 25cm and 50cm resolution is used to generate a surface model (ADS-DSM) with 1m resolution covering whole switzerland (approx. 41000 km2). The spatially corresponding LiDAR dataset has a global point density of 0.5 points per m2 and is mainly used in applications as interpolated grid with 2m resolution (LiDAR-DSM). Although both surface models seem to offer a comparable accuracy from a global view, local analysis shows significant differences. Both datasets have been acquired over several years. Concerning LiDAR-DSM, different flight patterns and inconsistent quality control result in a significantly varying point density. The image acquisition of the ADS-DSM is also stretched over several years and the model generation is hampered by clouds, varying illumination and shadow effects. Nevertheless many classification and feature extraction applications requiring high resolution data depend on the local accuracy of the used surface model, therefore precise knowledge of the local data quality is essential. The commercial photogrammetric software NGATE (part of SOCET SET) generates the image based surface model (ADS-DSM) and delivers also a map with figures of merit (FOM) of the matching process for each calculated height pixel. The FOM-map contains matching codes like high slope, excessive shift or low correlation. For the generation of the LiDAR-DSM only first- and last-pulse data was available. Therefore only the point distribution can

  3. Collaborative multi organ segmentation by integrating deformable and graphical models.

    PubMed

    Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Shaoting; Poh, Kilian M; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Organ segmentation is a challenging problem on which significant progress has been made. Deformable models (DM) and graphical models (GM) are two important categories of optimization based image segmentation methods. Efforts have been made on integrating two types of models into one framework. However, previous methods are not designed for segmenting multiple organs simultaneously and accurately. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multi organ segmentation approach by integrating DM and GM in a coupled optimization framework. Specifically, we show that region-based deformable models can be integrated with Markov Random Fields (MRF), such that multiple models' evolutions are driven by a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference. It brings global and local deformation constraints into a unified framework for simultaneous segmentation of multiple objects in an image. We validate this proposed method on two challenging problems of multi organ segmentation, and the results are promising. PMID:24579136

  4. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  5. Integrating O/S models during conceptual design, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center, which integrates a set of models for determining operational capabilities and support requirements during the conceptual design of proposed space systems. This research provides for the integration of the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model, both new and existing simulation models, and existing operations and support (O&S) costing equations in arriving at a complete analysis methodology. Details concerning the R&M model and the O&S costing model may be found in previous reports accomplished under this grant (NASA Research Grant NAG1-1327). In the process of developing this comprehensive analysis approach, significant enhancements were made to the R&M model, updates to the O&S costing model were accomplished, and a new simulation model developed. This is the 1st part of a 3 part technical report.

  6. Integrated Modeling Tools for Thermal Analysis and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark H.; Needels, Laura; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    1999-01-01

    Integrated modeling of spacecraft systems is a rapidly evolving area in which multidisciplinary models are developed to design and analyze spacecraft configurations. These models are especially important in the early design stages where rapid trades between subsystems can substantially impact design decisions. Integrated modeling is one of the cornerstones of two of NASA's planned missions in the Origins Program -- the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Common modeling tools for control design and opto-mechanical analysis have recently emerged and are becoming increasingly widely used. A discipline that has been somewhat less integrated, but is nevertheless of critical concern for high precision optical instruments, is thermal analysis and design. A major factor contributing to this mild estrangement is that the modeling philosophies and objectives for structural and thermal systems typically do not coincide. Consequently the tools that are used in these discplines suffer a degree of incompatibility, each having developed along their own evolutionary path. Although standard thermal tools have worked relatively well in the past. integration with other disciplines requires revisiting modeling assumptions and solution methods. Over the past several years we have been developing a MATLAB based integrated modeling tool called IMOS (Integrated Modeling of Optical Systems) which integrates many aspects of structural, optical, control and dynamical analysis disciplines. Recent efforts have included developing a thermal modeling and analysis capability, which is the subject of this article. Currently, the IMOS thermal suite contains steady state and transient heat equation solvers, and the ability to set up the linear conduction network from an IMOS finite element model. The IMOS code generates linear conduction elements associated with plates and beams/rods of the thermal network directly from the finite element structural

  7. An integrative CFD model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; McMillen, Tyler; Fauci, Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Swimming due to sinusoidal body undulations is observed across the full spectrum of swimming organisms, from microscopic flagella to fish. These undulations are achieved due to internal force-generating mechanisms, which, in the case of lamprey are due to a wave of neural activation from head to tail which gives rise to a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are also mediated by passive structural forces. Here we present recent results on a computational model of a swimming lamprey that couples activation of discrete muscle segments, passive elastic forces, and a surrounding viscous, incompressible fluid. The fluid dynamics is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations at appropriate Reynolds numbers, where the resulting flow field and vortex shedding may be measured.

  8. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 1: Mach 6 component integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project was initiated for the purpose of advancing the technology of airbreathing propulsion for hypersonic flight. A large component (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) and structures development program was encompassed by the project. The tests of a full-scale (18 in. diameter cowl and 87 in. long) HRE concept, designated the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM), at Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Computer program results for Mach 6 component integration tests are presented.

  9. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  10. Integrated Modeling Program, Applied Chemical Theory (IMPACT)

    PubMed Central

    BANKS, JAY L.; BEARD, HEGE S.; CAO, YIXIANG; CHO, ART E.; DAMM, WOLFGANG; FARID, RAMY; FELTS, ANTHONY K.; HALGREN, THOMAS A.; MAINZ, DANIEL T.; MAPLE, JON R.; MURPHY, ROBERT; PHILIPP, DEAN M.; REPASKY, MATTHEW P.; ZHANG, LINDA Y.; BERNE, BRUCE J.; FRIESNER, RICHARD A.; GALLICCHIO, EMILIO; LEVY, RONALD M.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the IMPACT molecular mechanics program with an emphasis on recent developments and a description of its current functionality. With respect to core molecular mechanics technologies we include a status report for the fixed charge and polarizable force fields that can be used with the program and illustrate how the force fields, when used together with new atom typing and parameter assignment modules, have greatly expanded the coverage of organic compounds and medicinally relevant ligands. As we discuss in this review, explicit solvent simulations have been used to guide our design of implicit solvent models based on the generalized Born framework and a novel nonpolar estimator that have recently been incorporated into the program. With IMPACT it is possible to use several different advanced conformational sampling algorithms based on combining features of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The program includes two specialized molecular mechanics modules: Glide, a high-throughput docking program, and QSite, a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics module. These modules employ the IMPACT infrastructure as a starting point for the construction of the protein model and assignment of molecular mechanics parameters, but have then been developed to meet specialized objectives with respect to sampling and the energy function. PMID:16211539

  11. Integrated Modeling Program, Applied Chemical Theory (IMPACT).

    PubMed

    Banks, Jay L; Beard, Hege S; Cao, Yixiang; Cho, Art E; Damm, Wolfgang; Farid, Ramy; Felts, Anthony K; Halgren, Thomas A; Mainz, Daniel T; Maple, Jon R; Murphy, Robert; Philipp, Dean M; Repasky, Matthew P; Zhang, Linda Y; Berne, Bruce J; Friesner, Richard A; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M

    2005-12-01

    We provide an overview of the IMPACT molecular mechanics program with an emphasis on recent developments and a description of its current functionality. With respect to core molecular mechanics technologies we include a status report for the fixed charge and polarizable force fields that can be used with the program and illustrate how the force fields, when used together with new atom typing and parameter assignment modules, have greatly expanded the coverage of organic compounds and medicinally relevant ligands. As we discuss in this review, explicit solvent simulations have been used to guide our design of implicit solvent models based on the generalized Born framework and a novel nonpolar estimator that have recently been incorporated into the program. With IMPACT it is possible to use several different advanced conformational sampling algorithms based on combining features of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The program includes two specialized molecular mechanics modules: Glide, a high-throughput docking program, and QSite, a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics module. These modules employ the IMPACT infrastructure as a starting point for the construction of the protein model and assignment of molecular mechanics parameters, but have then been developed to meet specialized objectives with respect to sampling and the energy function.

  12. Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy

  13. Integrative Analysis of Metabolic Models – from Structure to Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Schreiber, Falk

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of biological systems with respect to their behavior and functionality based on versatile biochemical interactions is a major challenge. To understand these complex mechanisms at systems level modeling approaches are investigated. Different modeling formalisms allow metabolic models to be analyzed depending on the question to be solved, the biochemical knowledge and the availability of experimental data. Here, we describe a method for an integrative analysis of the structure and dynamics represented by qualitative and quantitative metabolic models. Using various formalisms, the metabolic model is analyzed from different perspectives. Determined structural and dynamic properties are visualized in the context of the metabolic model. Interaction techniques allow the exploration and visual analysis thereby leading to a broader understanding of the behavior and functionality of the underlying biological system. The System Biology Metabolic Model Framework (SBM2 – Framework) implements the developed method and, as an example, is applied for the integrative analysis of the crop plant potato. PMID:25674560

  14. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts. PMID:22490937

  15. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-03-01

    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  16. Integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Jiafeng; Yan Zhaowen; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2009-11-15

    The Heisenberg supermagnet model is an integrable supersymmetric system and has a close relationship with the strong electron correlated Hubbard model. In this paper, we investigate the integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnet models with two different constraints: (i) S{sup 2}=3S-2I for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(U(2)xU(1)) and (ii) S{sup 2}=S for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(L(1/1)xU(1)). In terms of the gauge transformation, their corresponding gauge equivalent counterparts are derived.

  17. ARTEMIS: Ares Real Time Environments for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Walker, David

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ARTEMIS in the development and testing of the ARES launch vehicles. Ares Real Time Environment for Modeling, Simulation and Integration (ARTEMIS) is the real time simulation supporting Ares I hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing. ARTEMIS accurately models all Ares/Orion/Ground subsystems which interact with Ares avionics components from pre-launch through orbit insertion The ARTEMIS System integration Lab, and the STIF architecture is reviewed. The functional components of ARTEMIS are outlined. An overview of the models and a block diagram is presented.

  18. Integrating Tax Preparation with FAFSA Completion: Three Case Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan; Mabry, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research compares three different models implemented in four cities. The models integrated free tax-preparation services to assist low-income families with their completion of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). There has been an increased focus on simplifying the FAFSA process. However, simplification is not the only…

  19. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  20. Integrating the Study of Trigonometry, Vectors, and Force Through Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Helen M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the construction of understanding of the motion of an object down an inclined plane which takes place through the process of model building in an integrated algebra, trigonometry, and physics class. Discusses four major themes related to student learning through modeling that emerged from the results. Discusses implications for…

  1. A Connectionist Extension to Kintsch's Construction--Integration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjose, Vicente; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Padilla, Olga M.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes an extension to Kintsch's Construction-Integration (CI) model of text comprehension, which changes its mathematical implementation and emphasizes the connectionist features of the model. Specifically, the extension proposed here (a) simulates the learning process in a connectionist manner by making explicit changes in the…

  2. Teaching Service Modelling to a Mixed Class: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Jeremiah D.; Purvis, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    Service modelling has become an increasingly important area in today's telecommunications and information systems practice. We have adapted a Network Design course in order to teach service modelling to a mixed class of both the telecommunication engineering and information systems backgrounds. An integrated approach engaging mathematics teaching…

  3. An integrated system for nonpoint source pollution modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Chen, J; Du, P; He, W

    2006-01-01

    Modelling the impact of nonpoint source pollution (NSP) is a complex problem that has troubled water resource managers for many years when trying to set up proper management practices in catchment areas. In this paper, an integrated decision support system, NPSDSS (nonpoint source decision support system), was introduced to resolve this problem in a relatively easy way. The system was developed in a unique platform and integrated with the IMPULSE (integrated model of nonpoint source pollution processes) model, a stand alone geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, a well-structured database, a measure screening model, and an expert system, as well. The system has been applied in the Dianchi Lake catchment area and shown to give a good perspective on providing useful recommendations for appropriate NSP management.

  4. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management.

  5. Defining Scenarios: Linking Integrated Models, Regional Concerns, and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Mahmoud, M.

    2007-05-01

    Scenarios are important tools for long-term planning, and there is great interest in using integrated models in scenario studies. However, scenario definition and assessment are creative, as well as scientific, efforts. Using facilitated creative processes, we have worked with stakeholders to define regionally significant scenarios that encompass a broad range of hydroclimatic, socioeconomic, and institutional dimensions. The regional scenarios subsequently inform the definition of local scenarios that work with context-specific integrated models that, individually, can address only a subset of overall regional complexity. Based on concerns of stakeholders in the semi-arid US Southwest, we prioritized three dimensions that are especially important, yet highly uncertain, for long-term planning: hydroclimatic conditions (increased variability, persistent drought), development patterns (urban consolidation, distributed rural development), and the nature of public institutions (stressed, proactive). Linking across real-world decision contexts and integrated modeling efforts poses challenges of creatively connecting the conceptual models held by both the research and stakeholder communities.

  6. Integrated and spectral energetics of the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated and spectral error energetics of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) general circulation model are compared with observations for periods in January 1975, 1976, and 1977. For two cases the model shows significant skill in predicting integrated energetics quantities out to two weeks, and for all three cases, the integrated monthly mean energetics show qualitative improvements over previous versions of the model in eddy kinetic energy and barotropic conversions. Fundamental difficulties remain with leakage of energy to the stratospheric level. General circulation model spectral energetics predictions are compared with the corresponding observational spectra on a day by day basis. Eddy kinetic energy can be correct while significant errors occur in the kinetic energy of wavenumber three. Single wavenumber dominance in eddy kinetic energy and the correlation of spectral kinetic and potential energy are demonstrated.

  7. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Berestovsky, Natalie; Zhou, Wanding; Nagrath, Deepak; Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM) that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them using such more

  8. Triangular model integrating clinical teaching and assessment.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Adel; Koshak, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Structuring clinical teaching is a challenge facing medical education curriculum designers. A variety of instructional methods on different domains of learning are indicated to accommodate different learning styles. Conventional methods of clinical teaching, like training in ambulatory care settings, are prone to the factor of coincidence in having varieties of patient presentations. Accordingly, alternative methods of instruction are indicated to compensate for the deficiencies of these conventional methods. This paper presents an initiative that can be used to design a checklist as a blueprint to guide appropriate selection and implementation of teaching/learning and assessment methods in each of the educational courses and modules based on educational objectives. Three categories of instructional methods were identified, and within each a variety of methods were included. These categories are classroom-type settings, health services-based settings, and community service-based settings. Such categories have framed our triangular model of clinical teaching and assessment.

  9. Integrated Bayesian network framework for modeling complex ecological issues.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-07-01

    The management of environmental problems is multifaceted, requiring varied and sometimes conflicting objectives and perspectives to be considered. Bayesian network (BN) modeling facilitates the integration of information from diverse sources and is well suited to tackling the management challenges of complex environmental problems. However, combining several perspectives in one model can lead to large, unwieldy BNs that are difficult to maintain and understand. Conversely, an oversimplified model may lead to an unrealistic representation of the environmental problem. Environmental managers require the current research and available knowledge about an environmental problem of interest to be consolidated in a meaningful way, thereby enabling the assessment of potential impacts and different courses of action. Previous investigations of the environmental problem of interest may have already resulted in the construction of several disparate ecological models. On the other hand, the opportunity may exist to initiate this modeling. In the first instance, the challenge is to integrate existing models and to merge the information and perspectives from these models. In the second instance, the challenge is to include different aspects of the environmental problem incorporating both the scientific and management requirements. Although the paths leading to the combined model may differ for these 2 situations, the common objective is to design an integrated model that captures the available information and research, yet is simple to maintain, expand, and refine. BN modeling is typically an iterative process, and we describe a heuristic method, the iterative Bayesian network development cycle (IBNDC), for the development of integrated BN models that are suitable for both situations outlined above. The IBNDC approach facilitates object-oriented BN (OOBN) modeling, arguably viewed as the next logical step in adaptive management modeling, and that embraces iterative development

  10. The yeast rapid tRNA decay pathway primarily monitors the structural integrity of the acceptor and T-stems of mature tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, Joseph M.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Chernyakov, Irina; D'Silva, Sonia; Phizicky, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    tRNAs, like other RNAs, are subject to quality control steps during and after biosynthesis. We previously described a rapid tRNA degradation (RTD) pathway in which the 5′–3′ exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1 degrade mature tRNAVal(AAC) in yeast mutants lacking m7G and m5C, and mature tRNASer(CGA) in mutants lacking Um and ac4C. To understand how the RTD pathway selects substrate tRNAs among different tRNAs lacking the same modifications, we used a genetic screen to examine tRNASer(CGA) variants. Our results suggest that RTD substrate recognition in vivo depends primarily on the stability of the acceptor and T-stems, and not the anti-codon stem, and does not necessarily depend on modifications, since fully modified tRNAs are subject to RTD if appropriately destabilized. We found that weaker predicted stability of the acceptor and T-stems of tRNAs is strongly correlated with RTD sensitivity, increased RNase T2 sensitivity of this region of the tRNA in vitro, and increased exposure of the 5′ end to phosphatase. We also found that purified Xrn1 selectively degrades RTD substrate tRNAs in vitro under conditions in which nonsubstrates are immune. These results suggest that tRNAs have evolved not only for accurate translation, but for resistance to attack by RTD. PMID:21632824

  11. Meniscus maturation in the swine model: changes occurring along with anterior to posterior and medial to lateral aspect during growth.

    PubMed

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Deponti, Daniela; Addis, Alessandro; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2014-10-01

    The meniscus plays important roles in knee function and mechanics and is characterized by a heterogeneous matrix composition. The changes in meniscus vascularization observed during growth suggest that the tissue-specific composition may be the result of a maturation process. This study has the aim to characterize the structural and biochemical variations that occur in the swine meniscus with age. To this purpose, menisci were collected from young and adult pigs and divided into different zones. In study 1, both lateral and medial menisci were divided into the anterior horn, the body and the posterior horn for the evaluation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen 1 and 2 content. In study 2, the menisci were sectioned into the inner, the intermediate and the outer zones to determine the variations in the cell phenotype along with the inner-outer direction, through gene expression analysis. According to the results, the swine meniscus is characterized by an increasing enrichment in the cartilaginous component with age, with an increasing deposition in the anterior horn (GAGs and collagen 2; P < 0.01 both); moreover, this cartilaginous matrix strongly increases in the inner avascular and intermediate zone, as a consequence of a specific differentiation of meniscal cells towards a cartilaginous phenotype (collagen 2, P < 0.01). The obtained data add new information on the changes that accompany meniscus maturation, suggesting a specific response of meniscal cells to the regional mechanical stimuli in the knee joint.

  12. Early postnatal GABAA receptor modulation reverses deficits in neuronal maturation in a conditional neurodevelopmental mouse model of DISC1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yu; Rannals, Matthew D.; Merfeld, Emily B.; Ballinger, Michael D.; Koga, Minori; Ohtani, Yoshikazu; Gurley, David A.; Sedlak, Thomas W.; Cross, Alan; Moss, Stephen J.; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Maher, Brady J.; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Exploring drug targets based on disease-associated molecular mechanisms during development is crucial for the generation of novel prevention and treatment strategies for neurodevelopmental psychiatric conditions. We report that prefrontal cortex-specific postnatal knockdown of DISC1 via in utero electroporation combined with an inducible knockdown expression system drives deficits in synaptic GABAA function and dendritic development in pyramidal neurons, as well as abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, albeit without profound memory deficits. We show for the first time that DISC1 is specifically involved in regulating cell surface expression of α2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in immature developing neurons, but not after full maturation. Notably, pharmacological intervention with α2/3 subtype-selective GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators during the early postnatal period ameliorates dendritic deficits and behavioral abnormalities induced by knockdown of DISC1. These findings highlight a critical role of DISC1-mediated disruption of postnatal GABA signaling in aberrant prefrontal cortex maturation and function. PMID:26728564

  13. MoGIRE: A Model for Integrated Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, A.; Leenhardt, D.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change and growing water needs have resulted in many parts of the world in water scarcity problems that must by managed by public authorities. Hence, policy-makers are more and more often asked to define and to implement water allocation rules between competitive users. This requires to develop new tools aiming at designing those rules for various scenarios of context (climatic, agronomic, economic). If models have been developed for each type of water use however, very few integrated frameworks link these different uses, while such an integrated approach is a relevant stake for designing regional water and land policies. The lack of such integrated models can be explained by the difficulty of integrating models developed by very different disciplines and by the problem of scale change (collecting data on large area, arbitrate between the computational tractability of models and their level of aggregation). However, modelers are more and more asked to deal with large basin scales while analyzing some policy impacts at very high detailed levels. These contradicting objectives require to develop new modeling tools. The CALVIN economically-driven optimization model developed for managing water in California is a good example of this type of framework, Draper et al. (2003). Recent reviews of the literature on integrated water management at the basin level include Letcher et al. (2007) or Cai (2008). We present here an original framework for integrated water management at the river basin scale called MoGIRE ("Modèle pour la Gestion Intégrée de la Ressource en Eau"). It is intended to optimize water use at the river basin level and to evaluate scenarios (agronomic, climatic or economic) for a better planning of agricultural and non-agricultural water use. MoGIRE includes a nodal representation of the water network. Agricultural, urban and environmental water uses are also represented using mathematical programming and econometric approaches. The model then

  14. Nonzero solutions of nonlinear integral equations modeling infectious disease

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Sufficient conditions to insure the existence of periodic solutions to the nonlinear integral equation, x(t) = ..integral../sup t//sub t-tau/f(s,x(s))ds, are given in terms of simple product and product integral inequalities. The equation can be interpreted as a model for the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., gonorrhea or any of the rhinovirus viruses) if x(t) is the proportion of infectives at time t and f(t,x(t)) is the proportion of new infectives per unit time.

  15. DIVA: an iterative method for building modular integrated models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, J.

    2005-08-01

    Integrated modelling of global environmental change impacts faces the challenge that knowledge from the domains of Natural and Social Science must be integrated. This is complicated by often incompatible terminology and the fact that the interactions between subsystems are usually not fully understood at the start of the project. While a modular modelling approach is necessary to address these challenges, it is not sufficient. The remaining question is how the modelled system shall be cut down into modules. While no generic answer can be given to this question, communication tools can be provided to support the process of modularisation and integration. Along those lines of thought a method for building modular integrated models was developed within the EU project DINAS-COAST and applied to construct a first model, which assesses the vulnerability of the world's coasts to climate change and sea-level-rise. The method focuses on the development of a common language and offers domain experts an intuitive interface to code their knowledge in form of modules. However, instead of rigorously defining interfaces between the subsystems at the project's beginning, an iterative model development process is defined and tools to facilitate communication and collaboration are provided. This flexible approach has the advantage that increased understanding about subsystem interactions, gained during the project's lifetime, can immediately be reflected in the model.

  16. Working toward integrated models of alpine plant distribution

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Randin, Christophe F.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been frequently employed to forecast the response of alpine plants to global changes. Efforts to model alpine plant distribution have thus far been primarily based on a correlative approach, in which ecological processes are implicitly addressed through a statistical relationship between observed species occurrences and environmental predictors. Recent evidence, however, highlights the shortcomings of correlative SDMs, especially in alpine landscapes where plant species tend to be decoupled from atmospheric conditions in micro-topographic habitats and are particularly exposed to geomorphic disturbances. While alpine plants respond to the same limiting factors as plants found at lower elevations, alpine environments impose a particular set of scale-dependent and hierarchical drivers that shape the realized niche of species and that require explicit consideration in a modelling context. Several recent studies in the European Alps have successfully integrated both correlative and process-based elements into distribution models of alpine plants, but for the time being a single integrative modelling framework that includes all key drivers remains elusive. As a first step in working toward a comprehensive integrated model applicable to alpine plant communities, we propose a conceptual framework that structures the primary mechanisms affecting alpine plant distributions. We group processes into four categories, including multi-scalar abiotic drivers, gradient dependent species interactions, dispersal and spatial–temporal plant responses to disturbance. Finally, we propose a methodological framework aimed at developing an integrated model to better predict alpine plant distribution. PMID:24790594

  17. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems. PMID:27287489

  18. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems.

  19. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  20. Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Weinan E

    2012-03-29

    The main bottleneck in modeling transport in molecular devices is to develop the correct formulation of the problem and efficient algorithms for analyzing the electronic structure and dynamics using, for example, the time-dependent density functional theory. We have divided this task into several steps. The first step is to developing the right mathematical formulation and numerical algorithms for analyzing the electronic structure using density functional theory. The second step is to study time-dependent density functional theory, particularly the far-field boundary conditions. The third step is to study electronic transport in molecular devices. We are now at the end of the first step. Under DOE support, we have made subtantial progress in developing linear scaling and sub-linear scaling algorithms for electronic structure analysis. Although there has been a huge amount of effort in the past on developing linear scaling algorithms, most of the algorithms developed suffer from the lack of robustness and controllable accuracy. We have made the following progress: (1) We have analyzed thoroughly the localization properties of the wave-functions. We have developed a clear understanding of the physical as well as mathematical origin of the decay properties. One important conclusion is that even for metals, one can choose wavefunctions that decay faster than any algebraic power. (2) We have developed algorithms that make use of these localization properties. Our algorithms are based on non-orthogonal formulations of the density functional theory. Our key contribution is to add a localization step into the algorithm. The addition of this localization step makes the algorithm quite robust and much more accurate. Moreover, we can control the accuracy of these algorithms by changing the numerical parameters. (3) We have considerably improved the Fermi operator expansion (FOE) approach. Through pole expansion, we have developed the optimal scaling FOE algorithm.

  1. An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin; Chen, Zhenbin

    2011-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-ω model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July.

  2. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    PubMed

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error.

  3. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  4. New Integrated Modeling Capabilities: MIDAS' Recent Behavioral Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.; Jarvis, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated human performance modeling software tool that is based on mechanisms that underlie and cause human behavior. A PC-Windows version of MIDAS has been created that integrates the anthropometric character "Jack (TM)" with MIDAS' validated perceptual and attention mechanisms. MIDAS now models multiple simulated humans engaging in goal-related behaviors. New capabilities include the ability to predict situations in which errors and/or performance decrements are likely due to a variety of factors including concurrent workload and performance influencing factors (PIFs). This paper describes a new model that predicts the effects of microgravity on a mission specialist's performance, and its first application to simulating the task of conducting a Life Sciences experiment in space according to a sequential or parallel schedule of performance.

  5. Integrated community-based dementia care: the Geriant model

    PubMed Central

    Glimmerveen, Ludo; Nies, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an in-depth description of the service delivery model of Geriant, a Dutch organization providing community-based care services for people suffering from dementia. Core to its model is the provision of clinical case management, embedded in multidisciplinary dementia care teams. As Geriant's client group includes people from the first presumption of dementia until they can no longer live at home, its care model provides valuable lessons about how different mechanisms of integration are flexibly put to use if the complexity of clients” care needs increases. It showcases how the integration of services for a specific sub-population is combined with alignment of these services with generalist network partners. After a detailed description of the programme and its results, this article builds on the work of Walter Leutz for a conceptual discussion of Geriant's approach to care integration. PMID:26528095

  6. Integrated Multiscale Modeling of Molecular Computing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzy Bernholc

    2011-02-03

    will some day reach a miniaturization limit, forcing designers of Si-based electronics to pursue increased performance by other means. Any other alternative approach would have the unenviable task of matching the ability of Si technology to pack more than a billion interconnected and addressable devices on a chip the size of a thumbnail. Nevertheless, the prospects of developing alternative approaches to fabricate electronic devices have spurred an ever-increasing pace of fundamental research. One of the promising possibilities is molecular electronics (ME), self-assembled molecular-based electronic systems composed of single-molecule devices in ultra dense, ultra fast molecular-sized components. This project focused on developing accurate, reliable theoretical modeling capabilities for describing molecular electronics devices. The participants in the project are given in Table 1. The primary outcomes of this fundamental computational science grant are publications in the open scientific literature. As listed below, 62 papers have been published from this project. In addition, the research has also been the subject of more than 100 invited talks at conferences, including several plenary or keynote lectures. Many of the goals of the original proposal were completed. Specifically, the multi-disciplinary group developed a unique set of capabilities and tools for investigating electron transport in fabricated and self-assembled nanostructures at multiple length and time scales.

  7. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  8. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto; Burr, Tom; Coles, Garill A; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Garrett, Alfred; Gorensek, Maximilian; Hamm, Luther; Krebs, John; Kress, Reid L; Lamberti, Vincent; Schoenwald, David; Tzanos, Constantine P; Ward, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  9. The Thirring-Wess model revisited: a functional integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Belvedere, L.V. . E-mail: armflavio@if.uff.br

    2005-06-01

    We consider the Wess-Zumino-Witten theory to obtain the functional integral bosonization of the Thirring-Wess model with an arbitrary regularization parameter. Proceeding a systematic of decomposing the Bose field algebra into gauge-invariant- and gauge-non-invariant field subalgebras, we obtain the local decoupled quantum action. The generalized operator solutions for the equations of motion are reconstructed from the functional integral formalism. The isomorphism between the QED {sub 2} (QCD {sub 2}) with broken gauge symmetry by a regularization prescription and the Abelian (non-Abelian) Thirring-Wess model with a fixed bare mass for the meson field is established.

  10. Dynamical many-body localization in an integrable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keser, Aydin Cem; Ganeshan, Sriram; Refael, Gil; Galitski, Victor

    2016-08-01

    We investigate dynamical many-body localization and delocalization in an integrable system of periodically-kicked, interacting linear rotors. The linear-in-momentum Hamiltonian makes the Floquet evolution operator analytically tractable for arbitrary interactions. One of the hallmarks of this model is that depending on certain parameters, it manifests both localization and delocalization in momentum space. We present a set of "emergent" integrals of motion, which can serve as a fundamental diagnostic of dynamical localization in the interacting case. We also propose an experimental scheme, involving voltage-biased Josephson junctions, to realize such many-body kicked models.

  11. NREL Wind Integrated System Design and Engineering Model

    2013-09-30

    NREL_WISDEM is an integrated model for wind turbines and plants developed In python based on the open source software OpenMDAO. NREL_WISDEM is a set of wrappers for various wind turbine and models that integrate pre-existing models together into OpenMDAO. It is organized into groups each with their own repositories including Plant_CostSE. Plant_EnergySE, Turbine_CostSE and TurbineSE. The wrappers are designed for licensed and non-licensed models though in both cases, one has to have access to andmore » install the individual models themselves before using them in the overall software platform.« less

  12. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  13. A model-driven approach for biomedical data integration.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David; Farkash, Ariel; Timm, John T E

    2010-01-01

    A core challenge in biomedical data integration is to enable semantic interoperability between its various stakeholders as well as other interested parties. Promoting the adoption of worldwide accepted information standards along with common controlled terminologies is the right path to achieve this. Our paper describes a solution to this fundamental problem by proposing an approach to semantic data integration based on information models serving as a common language to represent health data coupled with technology that is able to represent the data semantics. We used the HL7 v3 Reference Information Model (RIM) [1] to derive a specific data model for the integrated data, the Web Ontology Language (OWL) [2] to build an ontology that harmonizes the metadata from the disparate data sources, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) [3] to model the data representation, and the Object Constraint Language (OCL) [4] to specify UML model constraints. To illustrate the approach, we use the Essential Hypertension Summary CDA document and related models from Hypergenes, a European Commission funded project [5] exploring the Essential Hypertension disease model.

  14. Design Principles as a Guide for Constraint Based and Dynamic Modeling: Towards an Integrative Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Sehr, Christiana; Kremling, Andreas; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    During the last 10 years, systems biology has matured from a fuzzy concept combining omics, mathematical modeling and computers into a scientific field on its own right. In spite of its incredible potential, the multilevel complexity of its objects of study makes it very difficult to establish a reliable connection between data and models. The great number of degrees of freedom often results in situations, where many different models can explain/fit all available datasets. This has resulted in a shift of paradigm from the initially dominant, maybe naive, idea of inferring the system out of a number of datasets to the application of different techniques that reduce the degrees of freedom before any data set is analyzed. There is a wide variety of techniques available, each of them can contribute a piece of the puzzle and include different kinds of experimental information. But the challenge that remains is their meaningful integration. Here we show some theoretical results that enable some of the main modeling approaches to be applied sequentially in a complementary manner, and how this workflow can benefit from evolutionary reasoning to keep the complexity of the problem in check. As a proof of concept, we show how the synergies between these modeling techniques can provide insight into some well studied problems: Ammonia assimilation in bacteria and an unbranched linear pathway with end-product inhibition. PMID:26501332

  15. Vertically-integrated Approaches for Carbon Sequestration Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Guo, B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is being considered as an approach to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as coal fired power plants and natural gas processing plants. Computer modeling is an essential tool for site design and operational planning as it allows prediction of the pressure response as well as the migration of both CO2 and brine in the subsurface. Many processes, such as buoyancy, hysteresis, geomechanics and geochemistry, can have important impacts on the system. While all of the processes can be taken into account simultaneously, the resulting models are computationally very expensive and require large numbers of parameters which are often uncertain or unknown. In many cases of practical interest, the computational and data requirements can be reduced by choosing a smaller domain and/or by neglecting or simplifying certain processes. This leads to a series of models with different complexity, ranging from coupled multi-physics, multi-phase three-dimensional models to semi-analytical single-phase models. Under certain conditions the three-dimensional equations can be integrated in the vertical direction, leading to a suite of two-dimensional multi-phase models, termed vertically-integrated models. These models are either solved numerically or simplified further (e.g., assumption of vertical equilibrium) to allow analytical or semi-analytical solutions. This presentation focuses on how different vertically-integrated models have been applied to the simulation of CO2 and brine migration during CCS projects. Several example sites, such as the Illinois Basin and the Wabamun Lake region of the Alberta Basin, are discussed to show how vertically-integrated models can be used to gain understanding of CCS operations.

  16. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-04-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative. PMID:23539229

  17. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-01-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative. PMID:24496184

  18. Toward population management in an integrated care model.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Franklin W; McMurray, Stephen; Nissenson, Allen R

    2013-01-01

    Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, accountable care organizations (ACOs) will be the primary mechanism for achieving the dual goals of high-quality patient care at managed per capita costs. To achieve these goals in the newly emerging health care environment, the nephrology community must plan for and direct integrated delivery and coordination of renal care, focusing on population management. Even though the ESRD patient population is a complex group with comorbid conditions that may confound integration of care, the nephrology community has unique experience providing integrated care through ACO-like programs. Specifically, the recent ESRD Management Demonstration Project sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the current ESRD Prospective Payment System with it Quality Incentive Program have demonstrated that integrated delivery of renal care can be accomplished in a manner that provides improved clinical outcomes with some financial margin of savings. Moving forward, integrated renal care will probably be linked to provider performance and quality outcomes measures, and clinical integration initiatives will share several common elements, namely performance-based payment models, coordination of communication via health care information technology, and development of best practices for care coordination and resource utilization. Integration initiatives must be designed to be measured and evaluated, and, consistent with principles of continuous quality improvement, each initiative will provide for iterative improvements of the initiative.

  19. Integrated urban water cycle management: the UrbanCycle model.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M J; Kuczera, G; Coombes, P J

    2005-01-01

    Integrated urban water cycle management presents a new framework in which solutions to the provision of urban water services can be sought. It enables new and innovative solutions currently constrained by the existing urban water paradigm to be implemented. This paper introduces the UrbanCycle model. The model is being developed in response to the growing and changing needs of the water management sector and in light of the need for tools to evaluate integrated watercycle management approaches. The key concepts underpinning the UrbanCycle model are the adoption of continuous simulation, hierarchical network modelling, and the careful management of computational complexity. The paper reports on the integration of modelling capabilities across the allotment, and subdivision scales, enabling the interactions between these scales to be explored. A case study illustrates the impacts of various mitigation measures possible under an integrated water management framework. The temporal distribution of runoff into ephemeral streams from a residential allotment in Western Sydney is evaluated and linked to the geomorphic and ecological regimes in receiving waters.

  20. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain–computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  1. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  2. An integrated coastal model for aeolian and hydrodynamic sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; den Bieman, J.; van Koningsveld, M.; Luijendijk, A. P.; Parteli, E. J. R.; Plant, N. G.; Roelvink, J. A.; Storms, J. E. A.; de Vries, S.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; Ye, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Dunes are formed by aeolian and hydrodynamic processes. Over the last decades numerical models were developed that capture our knowledge of the hydrodynamic transport of sediment near the coast. At the same time others have worked on creating numerical models for aeolian-based transport. Here we show a coastal model that integrates three existing numerical models into one online-coupled system. The XBeach model simulates storm-induced erosion (Roelvink et al., 2009). The Delft3D model (Lesser et al., 2004) is used for long term morphology and the Dune model (Durán et al., 2010) is used to simulate the aeolian transport. These three models were adapted to be able to exchange bed updates in real time. The updated models were integrated using the ESMF framework (Hill et al., 2004), a system for composing coupled modeling systems. The goal of this integrated model is to capture the relevant coastal processes at different time and spatial scales. Aeolian transport can be relevant during storms when the strong winds are generating new dunes, but also under relative mild conditions when the dunes are strengthened by transporting sand from the intertidal area to the dunes. Hydrodynamic transport is also relevant during storms, when high water in combination with waves can cause dunes to avalanche and erode. While under normal conditions the hydrodynamic transport can result in an onshore transport of sediment up to the intertidal area. The exchange of sediment in the intertidal area is a dynamic interaction between the hydrodynamic transport and the aeolian transport. This dynamic interaction is particularly important for simulating dune evolution at timescales longer than individual storm events. The main contribution of the integrated model is that it simulates the dynamic exchange of sediment between aeolian and hydrodynamic models in the intertidal area. By integrating the numerical models, we hope to develop a model that has a broader scope and applicability than

  3. Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, Florian Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.

  4. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntingzger, Deborah; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, A. M.; Bowman, Kevin; Cias, Philippe; Cook, Robert B.; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, A.; Jain, Atul K.; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multi-model ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill-based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model – one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (–1.16 vs. –1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  5. Thermal maturity of Jurassic shales from the Newark Basin, U.S.A.: influence of hydrothermal fluids and implications to basin modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, C.C.; Kotra, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Organic geochemical investigations were conducted on a series of cores that systematically sampled the uppermost Jurassic strata from the northern Newark Basin. Each sedimentary unit consists of fluvial red sandstones and siltstones with cyclic deposits of interbedded black lacustrine shales and gray deltaic siltstones. In a suite of organic-rich shales from the Boonton, Towaco and Feltville Formations, organic maturation parameters were used to determine aspects of the thermal history of the Newark Basin. Comparisons of model calculations and measured maturities support39 Ar/40 Ar-geochronometer studies that indicate a hydrothermal event occurred ???175 Ma ago. An increase in the regional geothermal gradient to ???7.5??C/100 m for ???5 Ma best conforms to the organic geochemical observations. Biomarker compounds in Boonton and Towaco strata should have been relatively unaltered by this regional event, but anomalous molecular distributions in the organic-rich rocks may have resulted from localized heating by hydrothermal fluids. The effects of this interaction would be very subtle and may be indistinguishable from variations caused by differences in organic facies. Within this uncertainty, sterane and hopane isomerization and steroid aromatization reactions advanced in the Boonton and Towaco Formation strata primarily because of burial and normal geothermal heating that followed the hydrothermal event. Biomarker kinetic models indicate that ???2400 m of Boonton and post-Boonton strata were eroded after basinal uplift commenced ???50 Ma ago. ?? 1990.

  6. The integrated model of restorative supervision for use within safeguarding.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya; Wonnacott, Jane

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers a review of a new model of supervision; the integrated restorative model, to underpin effective safeguarding supervision in health settings. This seeks to capitalize on the benefits of using both restorative supervision (Wallbank, 2010) and an integrated model commonly referred to as the 4x4x4 model (Morrison 2005, Wonnacott, 2012). It challenges the notion that restorative supervision is a stand- alone supervisory process sitting outside of safeguarding supervision and demonstrates how effective safeguarding supervision needs to combine critical reflective practice and critical thinking with a restorative experience in order for the professional to feel supported and maintain their capacity to think. The paper urges health settings to ensure that individuals undertaking safeguarding supervision are appropriately trained to identify how those sessions can support professionals to retain their reflective capacity and decision-making skills. PMID:26364336

  7. A comparative analysis of different approaches for integrated WWTP modelling.

    PubMed

    Grau, P; Copp, J; Vanrolleghem, P A; Takács, I; Ayesa, E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a comparative analysis of the most important approaches for integrated WWTP modelling is presented. After an introductory presentation of the most important drawbacks and challenges for plant wide modelling, the fundamentals of three different approaches to construct integrated models are presented: "Interfaces" "Standard Supermodel" and "Tailored Supermodel". Afterwards, a comparative analysis of these approaches from different points of view (difficulties for the model end user, characterization of the process in the plant, flexibility or adaptability for each case of study, simulation platform requirements and computational costs) is carried out. From this comparison, some important conclusions about the suitability of each alternative depending on the simulation case study are extracted. PMID:19151496

  8. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  9. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  10. Path Integral Solubility of Two-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ashok K.; Mathur, Vishnu S.

    1985-07-01

    We apply the technique of Fujikawa to solve for simple two-dimensional models by looking at the nontrivial transformation properties of the fermion measure in the path-integral formalism. We obtain the most general solution for the massless Thirring model and point out how the one-parameter solution reduces to that of Johnson and Sommerfield in a particular limit. We present the most general solution for the massive vector model indicating how it reduces to the solutions of Brown and Sommerfield for different values of the parameter. The solution of a gradient-coupling model is also discussed.

  11. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  12. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Mejean, Aurelie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economic systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. This article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wide range of integrated assessment models to classify differences among models based on their carbon price responses. Model diagnostics can uncover patterns and provide insights into why, under a given scenario, certain types of models behave in observed ways. Such insights are informative since model behavior can have a significant impact on projections of climate change mitigation costs and other policy-relevant information. The authors propose diagnostic indicators to characterize model responses to carbon price signals and test these in a diagnostic study with 11 global models. Indicators describe the magnitude of emission abatement and the associated costs relative to a harmonized baseline, the relative changes in carbon intensity and energy intensity and the extent of transformation in the energy system. This study shows a correlation among indicators suggesting that models can be classified into groups based on common patterns of behavior in response to carbon pricing. Such a classification can help to more easily explain variations among policy-relevant model results.

  13. Empathy: An Integral Model in the Counseling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding on a framework introduced by Carl Rogers, an integral model of empathy in counseling uses empathic understanding through 3 ways of knowing: Subjective empathy enables a counselor to momentarily experience what it is like to be a client, interpersonal empathy relates to understanding a client's phenomenological experiencing, and objective…

  14. Breathing Life into Training: A Model of Integrated Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton, Robin, Ed.; And Others

    A model of integrated training within the context of Australia's vehicle industry certificate (VIC) was developed, tested, and evaluated through six different pilot programs in different enterprises across Australia's automotive industry. The pilot programs' primary objective was to provide access to and ensure successful participation in…

  15. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  16. ITI: The Model. Integrated Thematic Instruction. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Susan; Olsen, Karen

    This book presents Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI), a model for implementing a "brain-compatible" learning environment for students and teachers using a year-long theme to organize curriculum content and skills. The book's introduction identifies six "mismemes" (or mistaken ideas) that have hindered educational reform, and proposes seven…

  17. Integrated Farm System Model: Reference Manual, Version 2.1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrated Farm System Model simulates the major biological and physical processes of a crop, beef, or dairy farm. Crop production, feed use, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land are simulated over each of 25 years of weather. Growth and development of alfalfa, grass, corn, soybea...

  18. College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchemin, James

    2014-01-01

    College student-athletes face unique stressors that can contribute to compromised well-being. Additionally, there are a variety of barriers that prevent student-athletes from accessing mental health supports. This study used self-report questionnaires and qualitative interviews to examine the impact of an integrative outreach model that…

  19. Models of Relevant Cue Integration in Name Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Luigi; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Semantic features have different levels of importance in indexing a target concept. The article proposes that semantic relevance, an algorithmically derived measure based on concept descriptions, may efficiently capture the relative importance of different semantic features. Three models of how semantic features are integrated in terms of…

  20. The Converging Literacies Center: An Integrated Model for Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Shannon; Dunbar-Odom, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Converging Literacies Center (CLiC) is a deeply integrated model for writing programs, bringing together the writing center, first-year writing, basic writing, professional development activities, graduate coursework, and research activities to re-imagine and support twenty-first-century literacies. What is unique about CLiC is not merely the…

  1. Enhancing Students' Thinking Skills: Exploring Model Technology-Integration Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moersch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways to integrate technology into social studies, science, mathematics, and language arts. Describes model elementary and middle-school classrooms in which technology is used to investigate the concept of property, study soil porosity and the water cycle, run a student store, and promote environmental activism. (PEN)

  2. A Model of Integrative Planning for Cultural Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    1997-01-01

    Consists of a chart that represents a model of integrative planning for cultural curriculum for a 9th- through 12th-grade classroom. The curriculum addresses history, literature, geography, biology, science, art, and music of the Great Civilizations and the Middle Ages and Renaissance Europe, and the vital functions of animals and plants. Includes…

  3. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  4. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  5. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  6. Model-Driven Design: Systematically Building Integrated Blended Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering curricula that are integrated and that use blended learning techniques requires a highly orchestrated design. While institutions have demonstrated the ability to design complex curricula on an ad-hoc basis, these projects are generally successful at a great human and capital cost. Model-driven design provides a…

  7. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements and crew rotation via spread sheets provide adequate benchmarks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  8. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  9. Integrated Models of School-Based Prevention: Logic and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Embry, Dennis; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to…

  10. TOWARD EFFICIENT RIPARIAN RESTORATION: INTEGRATING ECONOMIC, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper integrates economic, biological, and physical models to explore the efficient combination and spatial allocation of conservation efforts to protect water quality and increase salmonid populations in the Grande Ronde basin, Oregon. We focus on the effects of shade on wa...

  11. Applying the Integrated Developmental Model to Korean Supervisees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Keeyeon

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the age, gender, education, and counseling experience of Korean supervisees on their self-and-other awareness, motivation, and autonomy: the three structures of the Integrated Developmental Model of supervision (Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987). All three structures of the IDM had positive relationships with age,…

  12. INTEGRATION OF AN ECONOMIC WITH AN ECOLOGICAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize our work on integration of an economy under imperfect competition with a simple Lotka-Volterra type ecological model. Firms and households operate within a single period planning horizon, thus there is no savings or investment. Wages are set by a dominant employer. P...

  13. Type-I integrable quantum impurities in the Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-12-01

    Type-I quantum impurities are investigated in the context of the integrable Heisenberg model. This type of defects is associated to the (q)-harmonic oscillator algebra. The transmission matrices associated to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology for the XXX model, as well as for the critical and non-critical XXZ spin chain. In the attractive regime of the critical XXZ spin chain the transmission amplitudes for the breathers are also identified.

  14. An integrated model of human-wildlife interdependence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Kun H.; Walsh, Richard G.; Johnson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate wildlife-related ecologic and economic variables into an econometric model. The model reveals empirical evidence of the presumed interdependence of human-wildlife and the holistic nature of humanity's relationship to the ecosystem. Human use of biologic resources varies not only with income, education, and population, but also with sustainability of humankind's action relative to the quality and quantity of the supporting ecological base.

  15. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  16. Integrating microbial diversity in soil carbon dynamic models parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Benjamin; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Leterme, Philippe; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the numerous concerns about soil carbon dynamic, a large quantity of carbon dynamic models has been developed during the last century. These models are mainly in the form of deterministic compartment models with carbon fluxes between compartments represented by ordinary differential equations. Nowadays, lots of them consider the microbial biomass as a compartment of the soil organic matter (carbon quantity). But the amount of microbial carbon is rarely used in the differential equations of the models as a limiting factor. Additionally, microbial diversity and community composition are mostly missing, although last advances in soil microbial analytical methods during the two past decades have shown that these characteristics play also a significant role in soil carbon dynamic. As soil microorganisms are essential drivers of soil carbon dynamic, the question about explicitly integrating their role have become a key issue in soil carbon dynamic models development. Some interesting attempts can be found and are dominated by the incorporation of several compartments of different groups of microbial biomass in terms of functional traits and/or biogeochemical compositions to integrate microbial diversity. However, these models are basically heuristic models in the sense that they are used to test hypotheses through simulations. They have rarely been confronted to real data and thus cannot be used to predict realistic situations. The objective of this work was to empirically integrate microbial diversity in a simple model of carbon dynamic through statistical modelling of the model parameters. This work is based on available experimental results coming from a French National Research Agency program called DIMIMOS. Briefly, 13C-labelled wheat residue has been incorporated into soils with different pedological characteristics and land use history. Then, the soils have been incubated during 104 days and labelled and non-labelled CO2 fluxes have been measured at ten

  17. Integrable modification of the critical Chalker-Coddington network model

    SciTech Connect

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Fendley, Paul; Cardy, John

    2011-10-01

    We consider the Chalker-Coddington network model for the integer quantum Hall effect, and examine the possibility of solving it exactly. In the supersymmetric path integral framework, we introduce a truncation procedure, leading to a series of well-defined two-dimensional loop models with two loop flavors. In the phase diagram of the first-order truncated model, we identify four integrable branches related to the dilute Birman-Wenzl-Murakami braid-monoid algebra and parameterized by the loop fugacity n. In the continuum limit, two of these branches (1,2) are described by a pair of decoupled copies of a Coulomb-gas theory, whereas the other two branches (3,4) couple the two loop flavors, and relate to an SU(2){sub r}xSU(2){sub r}/SU(2){sub 2r} Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) coset model for the particular values n=-2cos[{pi}/(r+2)], where r is a positive integer. The truncated Chalker-Coddington model is the n=0 point of branch 4. By numerical diagonalization, we find that its universality class is neither an analytic continuation of the WZW coset nor the universality class of the original Chalker-Coddington model. It constitutes rather an integrable, critical approximation to the latter.

  18. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Bowman, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; et al

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially changemore » MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  19. Integrable modification of the critical Chalker-Coddington network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Fendley, Paul; Cardy, John

    2011-10-01

    We consider the Chalker-Coddington network model for the integer quantum Hall effect, and examine the possibility of solving it exactly. In the supersymmetric path integral framework, we introduce a truncation procedure, leading to a series of well-defined two-dimensional loop models with two loop flavors. In the phase diagram of the first-order truncated model, we identify four integrable branches related to the dilute Birman-Wenzl-Murakami braid-monoid algebra and parameterized by the loop fugacity n. In the continuum limit, two of these branches (1,2) are described by a pair of decoupled copies of a Coulomb-gas theory, whereas the other two branches (3,4) couple the two loop flavors, and relate to an SU(2)r×SU(2)r/SU(2)2r Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) coset model for the particular values n=-2cos[π/(r+2)], where r is a positive integer. The truncated Chalker-Coddington model is the n=0 point of branch 4. By numerical diagonalization, we find that its universality class is neither an analytic continuation of the WZW coset nor the universality class of the original Chalker-Coddington model. It constitutes rather an integrable, critical approximation to the latter.

  20. An integrated compartmental model for prediction of indoor radon concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ahmady, K.K.; Hintenlang, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    A carefully selected, heavily instrumented, and fully controlled experimental facility dedicated to research was used to investigate the interaction and effects of key parameters related to the indoor radon problem. Mechanistic and empirical models have been developed in which they return pressure differentials in response to indoor radon driving forces inputs. A semi-diurnal natural pumping model of radon-rich soil gas was based on an exponentially damped response of the sub-slab air volume pressure to changes in atmospheric pressure. A wind-induced pressure differentials model was based on the conservation of energy of the wind speed between the main stream and the structure shell corrected to the effect of wind fluctuation and direction. A temperature-induced pressure differential model was based on the linear approximation of the weakly exponentially-dependent pressures between two temperature zones under hydrostatic equilibrium. Mathematical frameworks were developed to incorporate driving force models into an integrated compartmental model allowed predictions of time-integrated and time-dependent indoor radon concentrations. The integrated predictions are in good agreement with the observed concentrations at the research site.

  1. Integration Strategies for Efficient Multizone Chemical Kinetics Models

    SciTech Connect

    McNenly, M J; Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; Pitz, W J

    2009-10-15

    Three integration strategies are developed and tested for the stiff, ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrators used to solve the fully coupled multizone chemical kinetics model. Two of the strategies tested are found to provide more than an order of magnitude of improvement over the original, basic level of usage for the stiff ODE solver. One of the faster strategies uses a decoupled, or segregated, multizone model to generate an approximate Jacobian. This approach yields a 35-fold reduction in the computational cost for a 20 zone model. Using the same approximate Jacobian as a preconditioner for an iterative Krylov-type linear system solver, the second improved strategy achieves a 75-fold reduction in the computational cost for a 20 zone model. The faster strategies achieve their cost savings with no significant loss of accuracy. The pressure, temperature and major species mass fractions agree with the solution from the original integration approach to within six significant digits; and the radical mass fractions agree with the original solution to within four significant digits. The faster strategies effectively change the cost scaling of the multizone model from cubic to quadratic, with respect to the number of zones. As a consequence of the improved scaling, the 40 zone model offers more than a 250-fold cost savings over the basic calculation.

  2. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan. PMID:20332160

  3. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    SciTech Connect

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  4. Integrated modeling and heat treatment simulation of austempered ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, E.; Hurevich, V.; Schäfer, W.

    2012-07-01

    The integrated modeling and simulation of the casting and heat treatment processes for producing austempered ductile iron (ADI) castings is presented. The focus is on describing different models to simulate the austenitization, quenching and austempering steps during ADI heat treatment. The starting point for the heat treatment simulation is the simulated microstructure after solidification and cooling. The austenitization model considers the transformation of the initial ferrite-pearlite matrix into austenite as well as the dissolution of graphite in austenite to attain a uniform carbon distribution. The quenching model is based on measured CCT diagrams. Measurements have been carried out to obtain these diagrams for different alloys with varying Cu, Ni and Mo contents. The austempering model includes nucleation and growth kinetics of the ADI matrix. The model of ADI nucleation is based on experimental measurements made for varied Cu, Ni, Mo contents and austempering temperatures. The ADI kinetic model uses a diffusion controlled approach to model the growth. The models have been integrated in a tool for casting process simulation. Results are shown for the optimization of the heat treatment process of a planetary carrier casting.

  5. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  6. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and

  7. Longitudinal omics modeling and integration in clinical metabonomics research: challenges in childhood metabolic health research

    PubMed Central

    Sperisen, Peter; Cominetti, Ornella; Martin, François-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modeling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modeling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system's components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modeling in the context of childhood metabolic health research. PMID:26301225

  8. Egocentric path integration models and their application to desert arthropods.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Tobias; Rost, Martin; Alt, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Path integration enables desert arthropods to find back to their nest on the shortest track from any position. To perform path integration successfully, speeds and turning angles along the preceding outbound path have to be measured continuously and combined to determine an internal global vector leading back home at any time. A number of experiments have given an idea how arthropods might use allothetic or idiothetic signals to perceive their orientation and moving speed. We systematically review the four possible model descriptions of mathematically precise path integration, whereby we favour and elaborate the hitherto not used variant of egocentric cartesian coordinates. Its simple and intuitive structure is demonstrated in comparison to the other models. Measuring two speeds, the forward moving speed and the angular turning rate, and implementing them into a linear system of differential equations provides the necessary information during outbound route, reorientation process and return path. In addition, we propose several possible types of systematic errors that can cause deviations from the correct homeward course. Deviations have been observed for several species of desert arthropods in different experiments, but their origin is still under debate. Using our egocentric path integration model we propose simple error indices depending on path geometry that will allow future experiments to rule out or corroborate certain error types.

  9. GISCOD: general integrated solid waste co-digestion model.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Usama; Li, Rongping; Jeppsson, Ulf; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Shulin

    2009-06-01

    This paper views waste as a resource and anaerobic digestion (AD) as an established biological process for waste treatment, methane production and energy generation. A powerful simulation tool was developed for the optimization and the assessment of co-digestion of any combination of solid waste streams. Optimization was aimed to determine the optimal ratio between different waste streams and hydraulic retention time by changing the digester feed rates to maximize the biogas production rate. Different model nodes based on the ADM1 were integrated and implemented on the Matlab-Simulink simulation platform. Transformer model nodes were developed to generate detailed input for ADM1, estimating the particulate waste fractions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and inerts. Hydrolysis nodes were modeled separately for each waste stream. The fluxes from the hydrolysis nodes were combined and generated a detailed input vector to the ADM1. The integrated model was applied to a co-digestion case study of diluted dairy manure and kitchen wastes. The integrated model demonstrated reliable results in terms of calibration and optimization of this case study. The hydrolysis kinetics were calibrated for each waste fraction, and led to accurate simulation results of the process and prediction of the biogas production. The optimization simulated 200,000 days of virtual experimental time in 8 h and determined the feedstock ratio and retention time to set the digester operation for maximum biogas production rate.

  10. Integrated and spectral energetics of the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated and spectral error energetics of the GLAS General circulation model are compared with observations for periods in January 1975, 1976, and 1977. For two cases the model shows significant skill in predicting integrated energetics quantities out to two weeks, and for all three cases, the integrated monthly mean energetics show qualitative improvements over previous versions of the model in eddy kinetic energy and barotropic conversions. Fundamental difficulties remain with leakage of energy to the stratospheric level, particularly above strong initial jet streams associated in part with regions of steep terrain. The spectral error growth study represents the first comparison of general circulation model spectral energetics predictions with the corresponding observational spectra on a day by day basis. The major conclusion is that eddy kinetics energy can be correct while significant errors occur in the kinetic energy of wavenumber 3. Both the model and observations show evidence of single wavenumber dominance in eddy kinetic energy and the correlation of spectral kinetics and potential energy.

  11. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems. PMID:26760203

  12. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  13. Multilayer Control Hierarchy in an Integrated Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Obeysekera, J.; Vanzee, R.

    2005-05-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the functionality of integrated hydrological models which can provide evaluation of anthropogenic control and management policies of water resources. Nonetheless, there is still room for improvement in the coupling and expression of water control policies into hydrological models [1]. The Management Simulation Engine (MSE) component of the Regional Simulation Model (RSM) incorporates a multi-level hierarchical control architecture which emphasizes the decoupling of hydrological state information from the management information processing applied to the states. The MSE is intended to allow a flexible, extensible expression of a wide variety anthropogenic water resource control schemes integrated with the hydrological state evaluations of the RSM. Synergy between the multilayer control hierarchy and decoupled hydrologic state and management information facilitates a water resource management feature set not typical of integrated hydrological models. Some of these features include: interoperation and compatibility of diverse management algorithms such as PID, Fuzzy control, LP; and dynamic switching of control processors. This paper describes the MSE control hierarchy with a focus on the aforementioned features and their implementation. [1] Belaineh, G., Peralta, R. C., Hughes, T. C., Simulation/ Optimization Modeling for Water Resources Management, ASCE Journal Water Resources Planning Management, 125(3), p 154-61, 1999

  14. Frequency Integrated Radiation Models for Absorbing and Scattering Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripoll, J. F.; Wray, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to contribute to the simplification of existing radiation models used in complex emitting, absorbing, scattering media. The application in view is the computation of flows occurring in such complex media, such as certain stellar interiors or combusting gases. In these problems, especially when scattering is present, the complexity of the radiative transfer leads to a high numerical cost, which is often avoided by simply neglecting it. The complexity lies partly in the strong dependence of the spectral coefficients on frequency. Models are then needed to capture the effects of the radiation when one cannot afford to directly solve for it. In this work, the frequency dependence will be modeled and integrated out in order retain only the average effects. A frequency-integrated radiative transfer equation (RTE) will be derived.

  15. Integrated science model for assessment of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.K.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Kheshgi, H.S.

    1994-04-01

    Integrated assessment models are intended to represent processes that govern physical, ecological, economic and social systems. This report describes a scientific model relating emissions to global temperature and sea level. This model is intended to be one component of an integrated assessment model which is, of course, much more comprehensive. The model is able to reproduce past changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, global temperature, and sea level. The model is used to estimate the emissions rates required to lead to stabilization of CO{sub 2} at various levels. The model is also used to estimate global temperature rise, the rate of temperature change, and sea level rise driven by IPCC emissions scenarios. The emission of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} is modeled to have the largest long term effect on climate. Results do show the importance of expected changes of trace greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} in the near future. Because of the importance of these other trace gases, further work is recommended to more accurately estimate their effects.

  16. An Integrated Modeling Framework for Probable Maximum Precipitation and Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangrade, S.; Rastogi, D.; Kao, S. C.; Ashfaq, M.; Naz, B. S.; Kabela, E.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Singh, N.; Preston, B. L.; Mei, R.

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation and flood events projected in the future climate, there is a strong need to enhance our modeling capabilities to assess the potential risks on critical energy-water infrastructures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. In this study, an integrated modeling framework is developed through high performance computing to investigate the climate change effects on probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and probable maximum flood (PMF). Multiple historical storms from 1981-2012 over the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin near the Atlanta metropolitan area are simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) forcings. After further WRF model tuning, these storms are used to simulate PMP through moisture maximization at initial and lateral boundaries. A high resolution hydrological model, Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model, implemented at 90m resolution and calibrated by the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow observations, is then used to simulate the corresponding PMF. In addition to the control simulation that is driven by CFSR, multiple storms from the Community Climate System Model version 4 under the Representative Concentrations Pathway 8.5 emission scenario are used to simulate PMP and PMF in the projected future climate conditions. The multiple PMF scenarios developed through this integrated modeling framework may be utilized to evaluate the vulnerability of existing energy-water infrastructures with various aspects associated PMP and PMF.

  17. Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) under contract Numbers FG22-83PC60271 and AC22-87PC79864. In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model.

  18. Integrating Multiscale Modeling with Drug Effects for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangfang L.; Oduola, Wasiu O.; Qian, Lijun; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review multiscale modeling for cancer treatment with the incorporation of drug effects from an applied system’s pharmacology perspective. Both the classical pharmacology and systems biology are inherently quantitative; however, systems biology focuses more on networks and multi factorial controls over biological processes rather than on drugs and targets in isolation, whereas systems pharmacology has a strong focus on studying drugs with regard to the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relations accompanying drug interactions with multiscale physiology as well as the prediction of dosage-exposure responses and economic potentials of drugs. Thus, it requires multiscale methods to address the need for integrating models from the molecular levels to the cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is a common belief that tumorigenesis and tumor growth can be best understood and tackled by employing and integrating a multifaceted approach that includes in vivo and in vitro experiments, in silico models, multiscale tumor modeling, continuous/discrete modeling, agent-based modeling, and multiscale modeling with PK/PD drug effect inputs. We provide an example application of multiscale modeling employing stochastic hybrid system for a colon cancer cell line HCT-116 with the application of Lapatinib drug. It is observed that the simulation results are similar to those observed from the setup of the wet-lab experiments at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. PMID:26792977

  19. An integrated system for rainfall induced shallow landslides modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides (RISL) cause significant damages involving loss of life and properties. Predict susceptible locations for RISL is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, statistic. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. In this work an open source (OS), 3-D, fully distributed hydrological model was integrated in an OS modeling framework (Object Modeling System). The chain is closed by linking the system to a component for safety factor computation with infinite slope approximation able to take into account layered soils and suction contribution to hillslope stability. The model composition was tested for a case study in Calabria (Italy) in order to simulate the triggering of a landslide happened in the Cosenza Province. The integration in OMS allows the use of other components such as a GIS to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. Finally, model performances were quantified by comparing modelled and simulated trigger time. This research is supported by Ambito/Settore AMBIENTE E SICUREZZA (PON01_01503) project.

  20. Complexity vs. Simplicity: Tradeoffs in Integrated Water Resources Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonda, J.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Razavi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is an interdisciplinary approach to managing water. Integration often involves linking hydrologic processes with socio-economic development. When implemented through a simulation or optimization model, complexities arise. This complexity is due to the large data requirements, making it difficult to implement by the end users. Not only is computational efficiency at stake, but it becomes cumbersome to future model users. To overcome this issue the model may be simplified through emulation, at the expense of information loss. Herein lies a tradeoff: Complexity involved in an accurate, detailed model versus the transparency and saliency of a simplified model. This presentation examines the role of model emulation towards simplifying a water allocation model. The case study is located in Southern Alberta, Canada. Water here is allocated between agricultural, municipal, environmental and energy sectors. Currently, water allocation is modeled through a detailed optimization model, WRMM. Although WRMM can allocate water on a priority basis, it lacks the simplicity needed by the end user. The proposed System Dynamics-based model, SWAMP 2.0, emulates this optimization model, utilizing two scales of complexity. A regional scale spatially aggregates individual components, reducing the complexity of the original model. A local scale retains the original detail, and is contained within the regional scale. This two tiered emulation presents relevant spatial scales to water managers, who may not be interested in all the details of WRMM. By evaluating the accuracy of SWAMP 2.0 against the original allocation model, the tradeoff of accuracy for simplicity can be further realized.

  1. Ca2+ signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Machaca, Khaled

    2007-11-01

    Oocyte maturation is an essential cellular differentiation pathway that prepares the egg for activation at fertilization leading to the initiation of embryogenesis. An integral attribute of oocyte maturation is the remodeling of Ca2+ signaling pathways endowing the egg with the capacity to produce a specialized Ca2+ transient at fertilization that is necessary and sufficient for egg activation. Consequently, mechanistic elucidation of Ca2+ signaling differentiation during oocyte maturation is fundamental to our understanding of egg activation, and offers a glimpse into Ca2+ signaling regulation during the cell cycle.

  2. Self-Improvement of Keratinocyte Differentiation Defects During Skin Maturation in ABCA12-Deficient Harlequin Ichthyosis Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors’ phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12−/−) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12−/− neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12−/− neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12−/− skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12−/− skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12−/− keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12−/− keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12−/− epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

  3. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  4. a 2d Integrable Axion Model and Target Space Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter

    2001-04-01

    A review is given on the recently proposed two dimensional axion model (O(3) σ-model with a dynamical θ-term) and the T-duality relating it to the SU(2)×U(1) symmetric anisotropic σ-model. The T-duality transformation leads to a new Lax-pair. Strong evidence is presented for the correctness of the proposed S-matrix for both models comparing perturbative and Thermodynamical Bethe Ansatz calculations for different types of free energies. The quantum non-integrability of the O(3) σ-model with a constant θ-term, in contradistinction to the axion model, is illustrated by calculating the 2 → 3 particle production amplitude to lowest order in θ

  5. Towards an integrated model of the NIC layered implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, O.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Glenzer, S.; Marinak, M.; Meezan, N.; Milovich, J.; Olson, R.; Patel, M.; Robey, H.; Sepke, S.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-40% of the calculated yields.

  6. An improved equivalent simulation model for CMOS integrated Hall plates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    An improved equivalent simulation model for a CMOS-integrated Hall plate is described in this paper. Compared with existing models, this model covers voltage dependent non-linear effects, geometrical effects, temperature effects and packaging stress influences, and only includes a small number of physical and technological parameters. In addition, the structure of this model is relatively simple, consisting of a passive network with eight non-linear resistances, four current-controlled voltage sources and four parasitic capacitances. The model has been written in Verilog-A hardware description language and it performed successfully in a Cadence Spectre simulator. The model's simulation results are in good agreement with the classic experimental results reported in the literature.

  7. An integrated modeling approach to age invariant face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, Fahad Bashir; Pears, Russel

    2015-03-01

    This Research study proposes a novel method for face recognition based on Anthropometric features that make use of an integrated approach comprising of a global and personalized models. The system is aimed to at situations where lighting, illumination, and pose variations cause problems in face recognition. A Personalized model covers the individual aging patterns while a Global model captures general aging patterns in the database. We introduced a de-aging factor that de-ages each individual in the database test and training sets. We used the k nearest neighbor approach for building a personalized model and global model. Regression analysis was applied to build the models. During the test phase, we resort to voting on different features. We used FG-Net database for checking the results of our technique and achieved 65 percent Rank 1 identification rate.

  8. Towards an Integrated Model of the NIC Layered Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O S; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Marinak, M M; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Olson, R E; Patel, M V; Robey, H F; Sepke, S M; Spears, B K; Springer, P T; Weber, S V; Wilson, D C

    2011-10-31

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60. Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-45% of the calculated yields.

  9. A New Model for the Integration of Science and Mathematics: The Balance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, S. Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an integrated scientific and mathematical model that is suited to the background of Turkish teachers. The dimensions of the model are given and compared to the models which have been previously developed and the findings of earlier studies on the topic. The model is called the balance, reflecting the…

  10. Integration of the DAYCENT Biogeochemical Model within a Multi-Model Framework

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth

    2012-07-01

    Agricultural residues are the largest near term source of cellulosic 13 biomass for bioenergy production, but removing agricultural residues sustainably 14 requires considering the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. 15 Determining sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues has received 16 significant attention and integrated modeling strategies have been built to evaluate 17 sustainable removal rates considering soil erosion and organic matter constraints. 18 However the current integrated model does not quantitatively assess soil carbon 19 and long term crop yields impacts of residue removal. Furthermore the current 20 integrated model does not evaluate the greenhouse gas impacts of residue 21 removal, specifically N2O and CO2 gas fluxes from the soil surface. The DAYCENT 22 model simulates several important processes for determining agroecosystem 23 performance. These processes include daily Nitrogen-gas flux, daily carbon dioxide 24 flux from soil respiration, soil organic carbon and nitrogen, net primary productivity, 25 and daily water and nitrate leaching. Each of these processes is an indicator of 26 sustainability when evaluating emerging cellulosic biomass production systems for 27 bioenergy. A potentially vulnerable cellulosic biomass resource is agricultural 28 residues. This paper presents the integration of the DAYCENT model with the 29 existing integration framework modeling tool to investigate additional environment 30 impacts of agricultural residue removal. The integrated model is extended to 31 facilitate two-way coupling between DAYCENT and the existing framework. The 32 extended integrated model is applied to investigate additional environmental 33 impacts from a recent sustainable agricultural residue removal dataset. The 34 integrated model with DAYCENT finds some differences in sustainable removal 35 rates compared to previous results for a case study county in Iowa. The extended 36 integrated model with

  11. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  12. An integrated modeling approach to predict flooding on urban basin.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis Kumar; Kamioka, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Correct prediction of flood extents in urban catchments has become a challenging issue. The traditional urban drainage models that consider only the sewerage-network are able to simulate the drainage system correctly until there is no overflow from the network inlet or manhole. When such overflows exist due to insufficient drainage capacity of downstream pipes or channels, it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extents using these traditional one-phase simulation techniques. On the other hand, the traditional 2D models that simulate the surface flooding resulting from rainfall and/or levee break do not consider the sewerage network. As a result, the correct flooding situation is rarely addressed from those available traditional 1D and 2D models. This paper presents an integrated model that simultaneously simulates the sewerage network, river network and 2D mesh network to get correct flood extents. The model has been successfully applied into the Tenpaku basin (Nagoya, Japan), which experienced severe flooding with a maximum flood depth more than 1.5 m on September 11, 2000 when heavy rainfall, 580 mm in 28 hrs (return period > 100 yr), occurred over the catchments. Close agreements between the simulated flood depths and observed data ensure that the present integrated modeling approach is able to reproduce the urban flooding situation accurately, which rarely can be obtained through the traditional 1D and 2D modeling approaches.

  13. Nonlinear Behaviour in Long Range Integrable Models with Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Franchini, Fabio; Abanov, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    We study nonlinear aspects of long range integrable models with spin by going beyond the Luttinger Liquid theory. We present here [1], the fully nonlinear dynamics of spin and charge in spin-Calogero model (sCM), an integrable 1D model of quantum spin-1/2 particles interacting through inverse square interaction and exchange. Hydrodynamic equations of motion are written for this model in the regime where gradient corrections to the exact theory may be neglected. In this approximation, variables separate in terms of dressed Fermi momenta of the model. Hydrodynamic equations reduce to a set of decoupled Riemann-Hopf equations for the dressed Fermi momenta. We study the dynamics of some non-equilibrium spin-charge configurations for times smaller than the time-scale of gradient catastrophe. We then show [2] how this field theory allows to calculate correlation functions that cannot be considered with conventional bosonization. We also highlight the connections between sCM, Haldane-Shastry model and λ=2 spin-less Calogero model. [1] M. Kulkarni, F. Franchini, A. G. Abanov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165105 (2009) [2] F. Franchini, M. Kulkarni, Nucl. Phys. B, 825, 320 (2010)

  14. A quantitative model for integrating landscape evolution and soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Stockmann, U.; Minasny, B.; McBratney, Alex B.

    2013-06-01

    evolution is closely related to soil formation. Quantitative modeling of the dynamics of soils and landscapes should therefore be integrated. This paper presents a model, named Model for Integrated Landscape Evolution and Soil Development (MILESD), which describes the interaction between pedogenetic and geomorphic processes. This mechanistic model includes the most significant soil formation processes, ranging from weathering to clay translocation, and combines these with the lateral redistribution of soil particles through erosion and deposition. The model is spatially explicit and simulates the vertical variation in soil horizon depth as well as basic soil properties such as texture and organic matter content. In addition, sediment export and its properties are recorded. This model is applied to a 6.25 km2 area in the Werrikimbe National Park, Australia, simulating soil development over a period of 60,000 years. Comparison with field observations shows how the model accurately predicts trends in total soil thickness along a catena. Soil texture and bulk density are predicted reasonably well, with errors of the order of 10%, however, field observations show a much higher organic carbon content than predicted. At the landscape scale, different scenarios with varying erosion intensity result only in small changes of landscape-averaged soil thickness, while the response of the total organic carbon stored in the system is higher. Rates of sediment export show a highly nonlinear response to soil development stage and the presence of a threshold, corresponding to the depletion of the soil reservoir, beyond which sediment export drops significantly.

  15. Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

    2014-06-01

    The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation.

  16. A Stochastic Model of the Germinal Center Integrating Local Antigen Competition, Individualistic T-B Interactions, and B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Shih, Chang-Ming; Qi, Hai; Lan, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-15

    The germinal center (GC) reaction underlies productive humoral immunity by orchestrating competition-based affinity maturation to produce plasma cells and memory B cells. T cells are limiting in this process. How B cells integrate signals from T cells and BCRs to make fate decisions while subjected to a cyclic selection process is not clear. In this article, we present a spatiotemporally resolved stochastic model that describes cell behaviors as rate-limited stochastic reactions. We hypothesize a signal integrator protein integrates follicular helper T (Tfh)- and Ag-derived signals to drive different B cell fates in a probabilistic manner and a dedicated module of Tfh interaction promoting factors control the efficiency of contact-dependent Tfh help delivery to B cells. Without assuming deterministic affinity-based decisions or temporal event sequence, this model recapitulates GC characteristics, highlights the importance of efficient T cell help delivery during individual contacts with B cells and intercellular positive feedback for affinity maturation, reveals the possibility that antagonism between BCR signaling and T cell help accelerates affinity maturation, and suggests that the dichotomy between affinity and magnitude of GC reaction can be avoided by tuning the efficiency of contact-dependent help delivery during reiterative T-B interactions. PMID:27421481

  17. A model of interval timing by neural integration.

    PubMed

    Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; de Souza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D; Holmes, Philip

    2011-06-22

    We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes, that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition, that neural populations can act as integrators, and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys, and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule's predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior.

  18. A model of interval timing by neural integration

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; deSouza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Holmes, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes; that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition; that neural populations can act as integrators; and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule’s predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior. PMID:21697374

  19. Integrability and conformal data of the dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Ruelle, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The central charge of the dimer model on the square lattice is still being debated in the literature. In this paper, we provide evidence supporting the consistency of a c=-2 description. Using Lieb’s transfer matrix and its description in terms of the Temperley-Lieb algebra {{TL}}n at β =0, we provide a new solution of the dimer model in terms of the model of critical dense polymers on a tilted lattice and offer an understanding of the lattice integrability of the dimer model. The dimer transfer matrix is analyzed in the scaling limit, and the result for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} is expressed in terms of fermions. Higher Virasoro modes are likewise constructed as limits of elements of {{TL}}n and are found to yield a c=-2 realization of the Virasoro algebra, familiar from fermionic bc ghost systems. In this realization, the dimer Fock spaces are shown to decompose, as Virasoro modules, into direct sums of Feigin-Fuchs modules, themselves exhibiting reducible yet indecomposable structures. In the scaling limit, the eigenvalues of the lattice integrals of motion are found to agree exactly with those of the c=-2 conformal integrals of motion. Consistent with the expression for {L}0-\\frac{c}{24} obtained from the transfer matrix, we also construct higher Virasoro modes with c = 1 and find that the dimer Fock space is completely reducible under their action. However, the transfer matrix is found not to be a generating function for the c = 1 integrals of motion. Although this indicates that Lieb’s transfer matrix description is incompatible with the c = 1 interpretation, it does not rule out the existence of an alternative, c = 1 compatible, transfer matrix description of the dimer model.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  2. The medical director in integrated clinical care models.

    PubMed

    Parker, Thomas F; Aronoff, George R

    2015-07-01

    Integrated clinical care models, like Accountable Care Organizations and ESRD Seamless Care Organizations, present new opportunities for dialysis facility medical directors to affect changes in care that result in improved patient outcomes. Currently, there is little scholarly information on what role the medical director should play. In this opinion-based review, it is predicted that dialysis providers, the hospitals in which the medical director and staff physicians practice, and the payers with which they contract are going to insist that, as care becomes more integrated, dialysis facility medical directors participate in new ways to improve quality and decrease the costs of care. Six broad areas are proposed where dialysis unit medical directors can have the greatest effect on shifting the quality-care paradigm where integrated care models are used. The medical director will need to develop an awareness of the regional medical care delivery system, collect and analyze actionable data, determine patient outcomes to be targeted that are mutually agreed on by participating physicians and institutions, develop processes of care that result in improved patient outcomes, and lead and inform the medical staff. Three practical examples of patient-centered, quality-focused programs developed and implemented by dialysis unit medical directors and their practice partners that targeted dialysis access, modality choice, and fluid volume management are presented. Medical directors are encouraged to move beyond traditional roles and embrace responsibilities associated with integrated care.

  3. Resolving model parameter values from carbon and nitrogen stock measurements in a wide range of tropical mature forests using nonlinear inversion and regression trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Anderson, P.; Zhou, G.; Kauffman, B.; Hughes, F.; Schimel, D.; Watson, Vicente; Tosi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objectively assessing the performance of a model and deriving model parameter values from observations are critical and challenging in landscape to regional modeling. In this paper, we applied a nonlinear inversion technique to calibrate the ecosystem model CENTURY against carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stock measurements collected from 39 mature tropical forest sites in seven life zones in Costa Rica. Net primary productivity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), C and N stocks in aboveground live biomass, litter, coarse woody debris (CWD), and in soils were used to calibrate the model. To investigate the resolution of available observations on the number of adjustable parameters, inversion was performed using nine setups of adjustable parameters. Statistics including observation sensitivity, parameter correlation coefficient, parameter sensitivity, and parameter confidence limits were used to evaluate the information content of observations, resolution of model parameters, and overall model performance. Results indicated that soil organic carbon content, soil nitrogen content, and total aboveground biomass carbon had the highest information contents, while measurements of carbon in litter and nitrogen in CWD contributed little to the parameter estimation processes. The available information could resolve the values of 2-4 parameters. Adjusting just one parameter resulted in under-fitting and unacceptable model performance, while adjusting five parameters simultaneously led to over-fitting. Results further indicated that the MODIS NPP values were compressed as compared with the spatial variability of net primary production (NPP) values inferred from inverse modeling. Using inverse modeling to infer NPP and other sensitive model parameters from C and N stock observations provides an opportunity to utilize data collected by national to regional forest inventory systems to reduce the uncertainties in the carbon cycle and generate valuable

  4. Toward Improved Simulation of Operations in Integrated Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morway, E. D.; Niswonger, R. G.; Triana, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) resources has received increased attention as the gap between freshwater supply and demand widens in arid and semi-arid regions. The modeling tools used by water managers and government agencies, among others, for distributing the available freshwater supply among a complex set of competing demands in a 'prior appropriation' context, rely on loosely-coupled (or 'feed-forward') model applications that fail to achieve true convergence among values common to both codes. Commonly, models used for quantifying supply, that is, watershed and groundwater models, are run separately from river operations models that specialize in distributing a finite supply among a wide range of demands. As a result, it may be difficult to achieve a proper water balance among the respective codes, especially during drought conditions. Taking a step closer to a truly integrated environmental modeling framework for conjunctive management of GW-SW resources, the river operations model MODSIM has been integrated with the hydrologic model MODFLOW. MODSIM is a river basin management decision support system that simulates administration of water rights and (or) operational rules within river basins. MODFLOW is a physically-based distributed-parameter finite-difference model historically used for simulating groundwater systems, though the streamflow routing (SFR2) and lake (LAK) packages are capable of simulating surface water systems in hydraulic connection with the underlying alluvial aquifer. On their own, these two packages cannot simulate diversions and (or) releases from reservoirs, instead requiring users to specify these quantities prior to model execution. Through the MODSIM-MODFLOW integration, however, hydrologic processes are simulated simultaneously with dynamic river operations. In this way, solutions are synchronized before moving to the next time step. The newly developed code provides water planners and managers with a

  5. A model integration approach linking signalling and gene-regulatory logic with kinetic metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Ryll, A; Bucher, J; Bonin, A; Bongard, S; Gonçalves, E; Saez-Rodriguez, J; Niklas, J; Klamt, S

    2014-10-01

    Systems biology has to increasingly cope with large- and multi-scale biological systems. Many successful in silico representations and simulations of various cellular modules proved mathematical modelling to be an important tool in gaining a solid understanding of biological phenomena. However, models spanning different functional layers (e.g. metabolism, signalling and gene regulation) are still scarce. Consequently, model integration methods capable of fusing different types of biological networks and various model formalisms become a key methodology to increase the scope of cellular processes covered by mathematical models. Here we propose a new integration approach to couple logical models of signalling or/and gene-regulatory networks with kinetic models of metabolic processes. The procedure ends up with an integrated dynamic model of both layers relying on differential equations. The feasibility of the approach is shown in an illustrative case study integrating a kinetic model of central metabolic pathways in hepatocytes with a Boolean logical network depicting the hormonally induced signal transduction and gene regulation events involved. In silico simulations demonstrate the integrated model to qualitatively describe the physiological switch-like behaviour of hepatocytes in response to nutritionally regulated changes in extracellular glucagon and insulin levels. A simulated failure mode scenario addressing insulin resistance furthermore illustrates the pharmacological potential of a model covering interactions between signalling, gene regulation and metabolism. PMID:25063553

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  7. Critical integer quantum Hall topology in the integrable Maryland model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshan, Sriram; Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn

    2014-03-01

    One-dimensional tight binding models such as Aubry-Andre-Harper (AAH) model (with onsite cosine potential) and the integrable Maryland model (with onsite tangent potential) have been the subjects of extensive theoretical research in localization studies. AAH can be directly mapped onto the two-dimensional Hofstadter model that manifests the integer quantum Hall topology on a lattice. However, no such connection has been made for the Maryland model (MM). In this talk, we present a generalized model that contains AAH and MM as the limiting cases with the MM lying precisely at a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) point. A remarkable feature of this critical point is that the 1D MM retains well-defined energy gaps whereas the equivalent 2D model becomes gapless, signifying the 2D nature of the TQPT. The criticality allows us to associate topological invariants with the Maryland model in a restricted mathematical sense at the special filling factors that are adiabatically connected to the spectral gaps in the 1D Aubry-Andre-Harper model. Our theory presented in this work establishes deep and unexpected mathematical connections between 2D topological models and a family of 1D incommensurate localization models. This work is supported by JQI-NSF-PFC, Microsoft Q and JQI-ARO-MU.

  8. An Improved Equivalent Simulation Model for CMOS Integrated Hall Plates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin

    2011-01-01

    An improved equivalent simulation model for a CMOS-integrated Hall plate is described in this paper. Compared with existing models, this model covers voltage dependent non-linear effects, geometrical effects, temperature effects and packaging stress influences, and only includes a small number of physical and technological parameters. In addition, the structure of this model is relatively simple, consisting of a passive network with eight non-linear resistances, four current-controlled voltage sources and four parasitic capacitances. The model has been written in Verilog-A hardware description language and it performed successfully in a Cadence Spectre simulator. The model’s simulation results are in good agreement with the classic experimental results reported in the literature. PMID:22163955

  9. Integrated Baseline Bystem (IBS) Version 1.03: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System)(IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planning and analysis. This document is the models guide for the IBS and explains how to use the emergency related computer models. This document provides information for the experienced system user, and is the primary reference for the computer modeling software supplied with the system. It is designed for emergency managers and planners, and others familiar with the concepts of computer modeling. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other IBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary.

  10. Integral equation model for warm and hot dense mixtures.

    PubMed

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D; Daligault, J; Hamel, S

    2014-09-01

    In a previous work [C. E. Starrett and D. Saumon, Phys. Rev. E 87, 013104 (2013)] a model for the calculation of electronic and ionic structures of warm and hot dense matter was described and validated. In that model the electronic structure of one atom in a plasma is determined using a density-functional-theory-based average-atom (AA) model and the ionic structure is determined by coupling the AA model to integral equations governing the fluid structure. That model was for plasmas with one nuclear species only. Here we extend it to treat plasmas with many nuclear species, i.e., mixtures, and apply it to a carbon-hydrogen mixture relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. Comparison of the predicted electronic and ionic structures with orbital-free and Kohn-Sham molecular dynamics simulations reveals excellent agreement wherever chemical bonding is not significant.

  11. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenhuener, Bernd . E-mail: bernd.siebenhuener@uni-oldenburg.de; Barth, Volker . E-mail: volker.barth@uni-oldenburg.de

    2005-05-15

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes.

  12. Process modeling of comprehensive integrated forest biorefinery--an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Lin, Weilu; Ramaswamy, Shri; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2009-05-01

    The key to expanding the energy supply, increasing energy security, and reducing the dependency on foreign oil is to develop advanced technologies to efficiently transform our renewable bioresources into domestically produced bioenergy and bioproducts. Conventional biorefineries, i.e., forest products industry's pulp and paper mills with long history of sustainable utilization of lignocellulose (wood), offer a suitable platform for being expanded into future integrated forest biorefineries. Due to the pre-existing infrastructure in current forest products operations, this could present a very cost-effective approach to future biorefineries. In order to better understand the overall process, technical, economic, and environmental impacts, a detailed process modeling of the whole integrated forest biorefinery is presented here. This approach uses a combination of Aspen Plus, WinGEMS, and Microsoft Excel to simulate the entire biorefinery in detail with sophisticated communication interface between the three simulations. Preliminary results for a simple case study of an integrated biorefinery show the feasibility of this approach. Further investigations, including additional details, more process options, and complete integration, are currently underway.

  13. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  14. Global land use data for integrated assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramankutty, Navin

    2005-12-12

    Changes in land use and land cover have been one of the major drivers of global change over the last three centuries. Detailed spatially-explicit data sets characterizing these historical land cover changes are now emerging. By synthesizing remotely-sensed land cover classification data sets with historical land use census data, our research group has developed comprehensive databases of historical land use and land cover change. Moreover, we are building estimates of the land suitability for agriculture to predict the constraints on future land use. In this project, we have interacted with the Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) at Purdue University, to adapt our land use data for use with the GTAP database, a baseline database widely used by the integrated assessment modeling community. Moreover, we have developed an interactive website for providing these newly emerging land use data products for the integrated assessment (IA) community and to the climate modeling community.

  15. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID).

    PubMed

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C; Niesters, Hubert G M; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model comprising three intertwined programs: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship, involving all stakeholders. The focus is a so-called 'theragnostics' approach. This leads to a personalized infection management plan, improving patient care and minimizing resistance development. Furthermore, it is important that healthcare regions nationally and internationally work together, ensuring that the patient (and microorganism) transfers will not cause problems in a neighboring institution. This antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model can serve as a blue print to implement innovative, integrative infection management.

  16. Modeling for Integrated Science Management and Resilient Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its science portfolio in an integrated manner to support cross-disciplinary risk mitigation strategies and to enable resilient human and engineered systems in the spaceflight environment. In this talk, we will share ideas being explored from fields such as network science, complexity theory, and system-of-systems modeling. Initial work on tools to support these explorations will be discussed briefly, along with ideas for future efforts.

  17. Frail elderly patients. New model for integrated service delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Rejean; Durand, Pierre J.; Dubuc, Nicole; Tourigny, André

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Given the complex needs of frail older people and the multiplicity of care providers and services, care for this clientele lacks continuity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: Integrated service delivery (ISD) systems have been developed to improve continuity and increase the efficacy and efficiency of services. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Program of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA) is an innovative ISD model based on coordination. It includes coordination between decision makers and managers of different organizations and services; a single entry point; a case-management process; individualized service plans; a single assessment instrument based on clients' functional autonomy, coupled with a case-mix classification system; and a computerized clinical chart for communicating between institutions and professionals for client monitoring. CONCLUSION: Preliminary results on the efficacy of this model showed a decreased incidence of functional decline, a decreased burden for caregivers, and a smaller proportion of older people wishing to enter institutions. PMID:12943358

  18. Probabilistic models of eukaryotic evolution: time for integration

    PubMed Central

    Lartillot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In spite of substantial work and recent progress, a global and fully resolved picture of the macroevolutionary history of eukaryotes is still under construction. This concerns not only the phylogenetic relations among major groups, but also the general characteristics of the underlying macroevolutionary processes, including the patterns of gene family evolution associated with endosymbioses, as well as their impact on the sequence evolutionary process. All these questions raise formidable methodological challenges, calling for a more powerful statistical paradigm. In this direction, model-based probabilistic approaches have played an increasingly important role. In particular, improved models of sequence evolution accounting for heterogeneities across sites and across lineages have led to significant, although insufficient, improvement in phylogenetic accuracy. More recently, one main trend has been to move away from simple parametric models and stepwise approaches, towards integrative models explicitly considering the intricate interplay between multiple levels of macroevolutionary processes. Such integrative models are in their infancy, and their application to the phylogeny of eukaryotes still requires substantial improvement of the underlying models, as well as additional computational developments. PMID:26323768

  19. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Input Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, B.; Orwig, K.; McCaa, J. R.; Harrold, S.; Draxl, C.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.

    2013-12-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States, such as the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS), and Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS), perform detailed simulations of the power system to determine the impact of high wind and solar energy penetrations on power systems operations. Some of the specific aspects examined include: infrastructure requirements, impacts on grid operations and conventional generators, ancillary service requirements, as well as the benefits of geographic diversity and forecasting. These studies require geographically broad and temporally consistent wind and solar power production input datasets that realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of wind and solar power plant production, and are time-synchronous with load profiles. The original western and eastern wind datasets were generated independently for 2004-2006 using numerical weather prediction (NWP) models run on a ~2 km grid with 10-minute resolution. Each utilized its own site selection process to augment existing wind plants with simulated sites of high development potential. The original dataset also included day-ahead simulated forecasts. These datasets were the first of their kind and many lessons were learned from their development. For example, the modeling approach used generated periodic false ramps that later had to be removed due to unrealistic impacts on ancillary service requirements. For several years, stakeholders have been requesting an updated dataset that: 1) covers more recent years; 2) spans four or more years to better evaluate interannual variability; 3) uses improved methods to minimize false ramps and spatial seams; 4) better incorporates solar power production inputs; and 5) is more easily accessible. To address these needs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Solar Programs have funded two

  20. An Integrated Universal Collapsar Gamma-ray Burst Model

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D

    2004-01-21

    Starting with two assumptions: (1) gamma-ray bursts originate from stellar death phenomena or so called ''collapsars'' and (2) that these bursts are quasi-universal, whereby the majority of the observed variation is due to our perspective of the jet, an integrated gamma-ray burst model is proposed. It is found that several of the key correlations in the data can be naturally explained with this simple picture and another possible correlation is predicted.

  1. Modeling the Dependency Structure of Integrated Intensity Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an important issue of dependence structure. To model this structure, the intensities within the Cox processes are driven by dependent shot noise processes, where jumps occur simultaneously and their sizes are correlated. The joint survival probability of the integrated intensities is explicitly obtained from the copula with exponential marginal distributions. Subsequently, this result can provide a very useful guide for credit risk management. PMID:26270638

  2. International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the development process of the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) Integrated Traffic Model which is a subsystem analyses tool utilized in the ISSA design analysis cycles. Fast-track prototyping of the detailed relationships between daily crew and station consumables, propellant needs, maintenance requirements, and crew rotation via spread sheets provides adequate bench marks to assess cargo vehicle design and performance characteristics.

  3. Defining Requirements for an Integrated Water Resource Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Peterson, Todd S.; Frodge, Jonathan

    2002-07-29

    This paper describes the process used to define the requirements for an integrated water resource modeling system that will be employed by a range of users with varying backgrounds and needs. A five-step process was initiated to ensure consideration of the needs and interests of users representing many different parts of the organization. The steps of the process, the results of each step and a summary of the results are presented.

  4. Perturbations in maturation of secretory proteins and their association with endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in a cell culture model for epithelial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, G; Bush, K T; Zhang, P L; Nigam, S K

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ischemia on the maturation of secretory proteins are not well understood. Among several events that occur during ischemia-reperfusion are a rapid and extensive decrease in ATP levels and an alteration of cellular oxidative state. Since the normal folding and assembly of secretory proteins are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones, the function of which depends on ATP and maintenance of an appropriate redox environment, ischemia might be expected to perturb folding of secretory proteins. In this study, whole animal and cultured cell models for the epithelial ischemic state were used to examine this possibility. After acute kidney ischemia, marked increases in the mRNA levels of the ER chaperones glucose-regulated protein (grp)78/immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP), grp94, and ER protein (ERp)72 were noted. Likewise, when cellular ATP was depleted to less than 10% of control with antimycin A, mRNA levels of BiP, ERp72, and grp94 were increased in kidney and thyroid epithelial cell culture models. Since the signal for the up-regulation of these stress proteins is believed to be the accumulation of misfolded/misassembled secretory proteins in the ER, their induction after ischemia in vivo and antimycin treatment of cultured cells suggests that maturation of secretory proteins in the ER lumen might indeed be perturbed. To analyze the effects of antimycin A on the maturation of secretory proteins, we studied the fate of thyroglobulin (Tg), a large oligomeric secretory glycoprotein, the folding and assembly of which seems to require a variety of ER chaperones. Treatment of cultured thyroid epithelial cells with antimycin A greatly inhibited ( > 90%) the secretion of Tg. Sucrose density gradient analysis revealed that in antimycin A-treated cells Tg associates into large macromolecular complexes which, by immunofluorescence, appeared to localize to the ER. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation studies after antimycin A treatment

  5. Development of the Delta Shell as an integrated modeling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Jagers, Bert

    2010-05-01

    Many engineering problem require the use of multiple numerical models from multiple disciplines. For example the use of river model for flow calculation coupled with groundwater model and rainfall-runoff model. These models need to be setup, coupled, run, results need to be visualized, input and output data need to be stored. For some of these steps a software or standards already exist, but there is a need for an environment allowing to perform all these steps.The goal of the present work is to create a modeling environment where models from different domains can perform all the sixe steps: setup, couple, run, visualize, store. This presentation deals with the different problems which arise when setting up a modelling framework, such as terminology, numerical aspects as well as the software development issues which arise. In order to solve these issues we use Domain Driven Design methods, available open standards and open source components. While creating an integrated modeling environment we have identified that a separation of the following domains is essential: a framework allowing to link and exchange data between models; a framework allowing to integrate different components of the environment; graphical user interface; GIS; hybrid relational and multi-dimensional data store; discipline-specific libraries: river hydrology, morphology, water quality, statistics; model-specific components Delta Shell environment which is the basis for several products such as HABITAT, SOBEK and the future Delft3D interface. It implements and integrates components covering the above mentioned domains by making use of open standards and open source components. Different components have been developed to fill in gaps. For exchaning data with the GUI an object oriented scientific framework in .NET was developed within Delta Shell somewhat similar to the JSR-275. For the GIS domain several OGC standards were used such as SFS, WCS and WFS. For storage the CF standard together with

  6. Parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space and integrated models

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete state‐space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state‐space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state‐space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state‐space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant. PMID:27362826

  7. Parameter redundancy in discrete state-space and integrated models.

    PubMed

    Cole, Diana J; McCrea, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Discrete state-space models are used in ecology to describe the dynamics of wild animal populations, with parameters, such as the probability of survival, being of ecological interest. For a particular parametrization of a model it is not always clear which parameters can be estimated. This inability to estimate all parameters is known as parameter redundancy or a model is described as nonidentifiable. In this paper we develop methods that can be used to detect parameter redundancy in discrete state-space models. An exhaustive summary is a combination of parameters that fully specify a model. To use general methods for detecting parameter redundancy a suitable exhaustive summary is required. This paper proposes two methods for the derivation of an exhaustive summary for discrete state-space models using discrete analogues of methods for continuous state-space models. We also demonstrate that combining multiple data sets, through the use of an integrated population model, may result in a model in which all parameters are estimable, even though models fitted to the separate data sets may be parameter redundant.

  8. The Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration: Adding Pedagogy as a New Model Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    An expansion of the Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration to include teacher's pedagogical style is proposed by the authors as a means of advancing the predictive power for level of classroom technology integration to beyond 90%. Suggested advantages to this expansion include more precise identification of areas to be targeted for…

  9. The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  10. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; et al

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  11. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  12. Selective reduction of striatal mature BDNF without induction of proBDNF in the zQ175 mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Yang, Jianmin; Li, Thomas; Milner, Teresa A.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by massive loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. However, the mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin leads to this selective neuronal death remain incompletely understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be neuroprotective on HD striatal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. ProBDNF, the precursor of mature BDNF (mBDNF), also can be secreted but promotes apoptosis of neurons expressing p75NTR and sortilin receptors. Although a reduction of total striatal BDNF protein has been reported in HD patients and mouse models, it remains unclear whether conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF is altered in HD, and whether the proBDNF receptors, p75NTR and sortilin are dysregulated, leading to impaired striatal neuron survival. To test these hypotheses, we generated bdnf-HA knock-in (KI) mice on the zQ175 HD background to accurately quantitate the levels of both proBDNF and mBDNF in the HD striatum. In aged zQ175 HD mice, we observed a significant loss of mBDNF and decreased TrkB activation, but no increase of proBDNF or p75NTR levels either in the sensorimotor cortex or the striatum. However, immunoreactivities of p75NTR and sortilin receptor are both increased in immature striatal oligodendrocytes, which associate with significant myelin defects in the HD striatum. Taken together, the present study indicates that diminished mature BDNF trophic signaling through the TrkB receptor, rather than an induction in proBDNF, is a main contributing factor to the vulnerability of striatal neurons in the zQ175 HD mouse model. PMID:26282324

  13. Challenges and opportunities for integrating lake ecosystem modelling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis; Jeppesen, Erik; Arhonditsis, George; Belolipetsky, Pavel V.; Chitamwebwa, Deonatus B.R.; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Domis, Lisette N. De Senerpont; Downing, Andrea S.; Elliott, J. Alex; Ruberto, Carlos Ruberto; Gaedke, Ursula; Genova, Svetlana N.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Hakanson, Lars; Hamilton, David P.; Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hoen, Jochem 't; Hulsmann, Stephan; Los, F. Hans; Makler-Pick, Vardit; Petzoldt, Thomas; Prokopkin, Igor G.; Rinke, Karsten; Schep, Sebastiaan A.; Tominaga, Koji; Van Dam, Anne A.; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Wells, Scott A.; Janse, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others ('reinventing the wheel'). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available ('having tunnel vision'). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: super-individual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and trait-based models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its 'leading principle', there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single 'right' approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative

  14. K-string tensions at finite temperature and integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, Michele; Giudice, Pietro; Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Grinza, Paolo; Lottini, Stefano

    2007-11-01

    It has recently been pointed out that simple scaling properties of Polyakov correlation functions of gauge systems in the confining phase suggest that the ratios of k-string tensions in the low temperature region is constant up to terms of order T3. Here we argue that, at least in a three-dimensional Bbb Z4 gauge model, the above ratios are constant in the whole confining phase. This result is obtained by combining numerical experiments with known exact results on the mass spectrum of an integrable two-dimensional spin model describing the infrared behaviour of the gauge system near the deconfining transition.

  15. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  16. Integrated modeling and systems engineering for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, George Z.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; MacMynowski, Doug; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Cho, Myung

    2011-09-01

    Modeling is an integral part of systems engineering. It is utilized in requirement validation, system verification, as well as for supporting design trade studies. Modeling highly complex systems poses particular challenges, including the definition and interpretation of system performance, and the combined evaluation of physical processes spanning a wide range of time frames. Our solution is based on statistical interpretation of system performance and a unique image quality metric developed by TMT. The Stochastic Framework and Point Source Sensitivity allow us to properly estimate and combine the optical effects of various disturbances and telescope imperfections.

  17. Some Do's and Dont's in Integrated Modelling for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated models were originally developed to encompass an inter-disciplinary approach to the study of climate change and climate change policy. However, simple integrated models that have been applied to cost-benefit analysis (e.g., DICE/RICE, FUND, PAGE, etc.) suffer from a number of problems. Firstly, the ‘optimal’ climate policy is highly dependent on a number of key assumptions, such as discount rate and equity considerations. Secondly, impacts are generally represented simplistically, typically based on global estimates of market and non-market damages; the damage function shape used is theoretical and often based on an arbitrary choice of function; it is often calibrated using studies of climate change impacts in the USA, scaled to represent impacts in other regions. Thirdly, the representation of climate change itself may be inconsistent with IPCC projections. Fourthly, the ‘optimal’ policy derived is highly dependent on the methodology and parameters chosen in valuation of the damages. Thus it is recommended that future decision support in climate policy is supported by a risk assessment approach rather than an attempt to derive an ‘optimal’ level of climate change mitigation. Such a risk assessment approach is better suited to use of biophysically-based, IAMs such as CIAS, IMAGE, AIM, ICLIPS, GCAM, and CLIMPACTS that variously examine sectors and/or regions of the world, spanning multiple disciplines. The representation of impacts in these models is detailed but varies significantly between them. In the case of IMAGE, they are detailed and include interactions such as carbon cycle induced terrestrial vegetation die-back due to climate change (leading to an accelerated rate of climate change), links between climate change, land use change and changes to agricultural systems, and demographics. In others, such as ICLIPS and AIM, lookup tables relating impacts to climate variables are used. Even these models still generally omit the interactions

  18. Quantum projectors and local operators in lattice integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oota, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method, we consider a problem of constructing local operators for one-dimensional quantum integrable models, especially for the lattice versions of the nonlinear Schrödinger and sine-Gordon models. We show that a certain class of local operators can be constructed from the matrix elements of the monodromy matrix in a simple way. They are closely related to the quantum projectors and have nice commutation relations with half of the matrix elements of the elementary monodromy matrix. The form factors of these operators can be calculated by using the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz techniques.

  19. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  20. IMPACT: Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, J.; Brennan, S.; Godinez, H. C.; Higdon, D. M.; Klimenko, A.; Larsen, B.; Lawrence, E.; Linares, R.; McLaughlin, C. A.; Mehta, P. M.; Palmer, D.; Ridley, A. J.; Shoemaker, M.; Sutton, E.; Thompson, D.; Walker, A.; Wohlberg, B.

    2013-12-01

    Low-Earth orbiting satellites suffer from atmospheric drag due to thermospheric density which changes on the order of several magnitudes especially during space weather events. Solar flares, precipitating particles and ionospheric currents cause the upper atmosphere to heat up, redistribute, and cool again. These processes are intrinsically included in empirical models, e.g. MSIS and Jacchia-Bowman type models. However, sensitivity analysis has shown that atmospheric drag has the highest influence on satellite conjunction analysis and empirical model still do not adequately represent a desired accuracy. Space debris and collision avoidance have become an increasingly operational reality. It is paramount to accurately predict satellite orbits and include drag effect driven by space weather. The IMPACT project (Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking), funded with over $5 Million by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development office, has the goal to develop an integrated system of atmospheric drag modeling, orbit propagation, and conjunction analysis with detailed uncertainty quantification to address the space debris and collision avoidance problem. Now with over two years into the project, we have developed an integrated solution combining physics-based density modeling of the upper atmosphere between 120-700 km altitude, satellite drag forecasting for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and conjunction analysis with non-Gaussian uncertainty quantification. We are employing several novel approaches including a unique observational sensor developed at Los Alamos; machine learning with a support-vector machine approach of the coupling between solar drivers of the upper atmosphere and satellite drag; rigorous data assimilative modeling using a physics-based approach instead of empirical modeling of the thermosphere; and a computed-tomography method for extracting temporal maps of thermospheric densities