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Sample records for maximal leg strength

  1. A Behavioral Mechanism of How Increases in Leg Strength Improve Old Adults’ Gait Speed

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Azusa; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Kadono, Norio; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Kaetsu, Takamasa; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We examined a behavioral mechanism of how increases in leg strength improve healthy old adults’ gait speed. Leg press strength training improved maximal leg press load 40% (p = 0.001) and isometric strength in 5 group of leg muscles 32% (p = 0.001) in a randomly allocated intervention group of healthy old adults (age 74, n = 15) but not in no-exercise control group (age 74, n = 8). Gait speed increased similarly in the training (9.9%) and control (8.6%) groups (time main effect, p = 0.001). However, in the training group only, in line with the concept of biomechanical plasticity of aging gait, hip extensors and ankle plantarflexors became the only significant predictors of self-selected and maximal gait speed. The study provides the first behavioral evidence regarding a mechanism of how increases in leg strength improve healthy old adults’ gait speed. PMID:25310220

  2. Sensitivity of sensor-based sit-to-stand peak power to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Folkersma, Marjanne; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    Increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance can improve mobility and reduce fall risk. Sensor-based assessment of peak power during the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer may be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Therefore, this study investigated whether sensor-based STS peak power and related measures are sensitive to the effects of increasing leg strength, leg power and overall balance in older adults. A further aim was to compare sensitivity between sensor-based STS measures and standard clinical measures of leg strength, leg power, balance, mobility and fall risk, following an exercise-based intervention. To achieve these aims, 26 older adults (age: 70-84 years) participated in an eight-week exercise program aimed at improving leg strength, leg power and balance. Before and after the intervention, performance on normal and fast STS transfers was evaluated with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. In addition, standard clinical tests (isometric quadriceps strength, Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale) were performed. Standard clinical tests as well as sensor-based measures of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal and fast STS showed significant improvements. Sensor-based measurement of peak power, maximal velocity and duration of normal STS demonstrated a higher sensitivity (absolute standardized response mean (SRM): ≥ 0.69) to the effects of training leg strength, leg power and balance than standard clinical measures (absolute SRM: ≤ 0.61). Therefore, the presented sensor-based method appears to be useful for detecting changes in mobility and fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Plyometric Training on Single and Double Leg Jumping Performance and Strength.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, Gregory C; Tsoukos, Athanasios; Kaloheri, Olga; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis; Brown, Lee E

    2017-04-18

    This study compared the effects of unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on single and double-leg jumping performance, maximal strength and rate of force development (RFD). Fifteen moderately trained subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (U, n=7) or bilateral group (B, n=8). Both groups performed maximal effort plyometric leg exercises two times per week for 6 weeks. The B group performed all exercises with both legs, while the U group performed half the repetitions with each leg, so that total exercise volume was the same. Jumping performance was assessed by countermovement jumps (CMJ) and drop jumps (DJ), while maximal isometric leg press strength and RFD were measured before and after training for each leg separately and both legs together. CMJ improvement with both legs was not significantly different between U (12.1±7.2%) and B (11.0±5.5%) groups. However, the sum of right and left leg CMJ only improved in the U group (19.0±7.1%, p<0.001) and was unchanged in the B group (3.4±8.4%, p=0.80). Maximal isometric leg press force with both legs was increased similarly between groups (B: 20.1±6.5%, U: 19.9±6.2%). However, the sum of right and left leg maximal force increased more in U compared to B group (23.8±9.1% vs. 11.9±6.2%, p=0.009, respectively). Similarly, the sum of right and left leg RFD0-50 and RFD0-100 were improved only in the U group (34-36%, p<0.01). Unilateral plyometric training was more effective at increasing both single and double-leg jumping performance, isometric leg press maximal force and RFD when compared to bilateral training.

  4. Maximal strength training improves work economy, rate of force development and maximal strength more than conventional strength training.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Jørn; Fimland, Marius S; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan

    2013-06-01

    This study compared maximal strength training (MST) with equal training volume (kg × sets × repetitions) of conventional strength training (CON) primarily with regard to work economy, and second one repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) of single leg knee extension. In an intra-individual design, one leg was randomized to knee-extension MST (4 or 5RM) and the other leg to CON (3 × 10RM) three times per week for 8 weeks. MST was performed with maximal concentric mobilization of force while CON was performed with moderate velocity. Eight untrained or moderately trained men (26 ± 1 years) completed the study. The improvement in gross work economy was -0.10 ± 0.08 L min(-1) larger after MST (P = 0.011, between groups). From pre- to post-test the MST and CON improved net work economy with 31 % (P < 0.001) and 18 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Compared with CON, the improvement in 1RM and dynamic RFD was 13.7 ± 8.4 kg (P = 0.002) and 587 ± 679 N s(-1) (P = 0.044) larger after MST, whereas isometric RFD was of borderline significance 3,028 ± 3,674 N s(-1) (P = 0.053). From pre- to post-test, MST improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 50 % (P < 0.001) and 155 % (P < 0.001), respectively whereas CON improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 35 % (P < 0.001) and 83 % (P = 0.028), respectively. Anthropometric measures of quadriceps femoris muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake did not change. In conclusion, 8 weeks of MST was more effective than CON for improving work economy, 1RM and RFD in untrained and moderately trained men. The advantageous effect of MST to improve work economy could be due to larger improvements in 1RM and RFD.

  5. Effects of In-Season Explosive Strength Training on Maximal Leg Strength, Jumping, Sprinting, and Intermittent Aerobic Performance in Male Handball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-09-01

    Background  Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective  The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an in-season high-intensity strength training program on the physical performance of elite handball players. Materials and methods  Twenty-two handball players (a single national-level Tunisian team) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 10) or a training group (TG; n = 12). At the beginning of the pilot study, all subjects performed a battery of motor tests: one repetition maximum (1-RM) half-squat test, a repeated sprint test [6 × (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints], squat jumps, counter movement jumps (CMJ), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1. The TG additionally performed a maximal leg strength program twice a week for 10 weeks immediately before engaging in regular handball training. Each strength training session included half-squat exercises to strengthen the lower limbs (80 - 95 % of 1-RM, 1 - 3 repetitions, 3 - 6 sets, 3 - 4 min rest between sets). The control group underwent no additional strength training. The motor test battery was repeated at the end of the study interventions. Results  In the TG, 3 parameters (maximal strength of lower limb: η² = 0.74; CMJ: η² = 0.70, and RSA best time: η² = 0.25) showed significant improvements, with large effect sizes (e. g. CMJ: d = 3.77). A reduction in performance for these same 3 parameters was observed in the CG (d = -0.24). Conclusions  The results support our hypothesis that additional strength training twice a week enhances the maximal strength of the lower limbs and jumping or repeated sprinting performance. There was no evidence of shuttle sprints ahead of regular

  6. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  7. Maximal strength and power assessment in novice weight trainers.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John B; Henderson, Melanie E

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in maximal strength and power output occurred over time in the absence of strength and power training in novice weight trainers. It also investigated whether differences existed between upper- and lower-body assessments and unilateral and bilateral assessments. The power output and maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) of 10 male novice subjects were measured on 4 occasions, each assessment 7-10 days apart. The exercises used to measure the upper- and lower-body strength and power outputs were the bench press and supine squat, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) changes in unilateral (9.8-16.8%) and bilateral 1RM (6.8-15.0%) leg strength were found, the first assessment being significantly different from all other assessments and assessment 2 significantly different from assessment 4. Changes in the upper body (10-13.6%) were also observed. The only significant difference was between assessment 1 and the other testing occasions. No differences in power output were observed for both the upper and lower body during the study. It would seem that considerable changes in maximal strength occur rapidly and in the absence of any formal strength training program in novice weight trainers.

  8. Leg strength or velocity of movement: which is more influential on the balance of mobility limited elders?

    PubMed

    Mayson, Douglas J; Kiely, Dan K; LaRose, Sharon I; Bean, Jonathan F

    2008-12-01

    To determine which component of leg power (maximal limb strength or limb velocity) is more influential on balance performance in mobility limited elders. In this cross-sectional analysis we evaluated 138 community-dwelling older adults with mobility limitation. Balance was measured using the Unipedal Stance Test, the Berg Balance Test (BERG), the Dynamic Gait Index, and the performance-oriented mobility assessment. We measured one repetition maximum strength and power at 40% one repetition maximum strength, from which velocity was calculated. The associations between maximal estimated leg strength and velocity with balance performance were examined using separate multivariate logistic regression models. Strength was found to be associated [odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.11)] with performance on the Unipedal Stance Test, whereas velocity showed no statistically significant association. In contrast, velocity was consistently associated with performance on all composite measures of balance (BERG 14.23 [1.84-109.72], performance-oriented mobility assessment 33.92 [3.69-312.03], and Dynamic Gait Index 35.80 [4.77-268.71]). Strength was only associated with the BERG 1.08 (1.01-1.14). Higher leg press velocity is associated with better performance on the BERG, performance-oriented mobility assessment, and Dynamic Gait Index, whereas greater leg strength is associated with better performance on the Unipedal Stance Test and the BERG. These findings are likely related to the intrinsic qualities of each test and emphasize the relevance of limb velocity.

  9. H:q ratios and bilateral leg strength in college field and court sports players.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Smith, Andrew W; Wong, Del P

    2012-06-01

    One of the key components in sports injury prevention is the identification of imbalances in leg muscle strength. However, different leg muscle characteristics may occur in large playing area (field) sports and small playing area (court) sports, which should be considered in regular injury prevention assessment. This study examined the isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and bilateral leg strength balance in 40 male college (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs) team sport players (field sport = 23, soccer players; court sport = 17, volleyball and basketball players). Five repetitions of maximal knee concentric flexion and concentric extension were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at two speeds (slow: 60°·s(-1) and fast: 300°·s(-1)) with 3 minutes rest between tests. Both legs were measured in counterbalanced order with the dominant leg being determined as the leg used to kick a ball. The highest concentric peak torque values (Nm) of the hamstrings and quadriceps of each leg were analyzed after body mass normalization (Nm·kg(-1)). Court sport players showed significantly weaker dominant leg hamstrings muscles at both contraction speeds (P < 0.05). The H:Q ratio was significantly larger in field players in their dominant leg at 60°·s(-1) (P < 0.001), and their non-dominant leg at 300°·s(-1) (P < 0.001) respectively. Sport-specific leg muscle strength was evident in college players from field and court sports. These results suggest the need for different muscle strength training and rehabilitation protocols for college players according to the musculature requirements in their respective sports.

  10. Muscular Maximal Strength Indices and Bone Variables in a Group of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Riad; Al Rassy, Nathalie; Watelain, Eric; Matta, Joseph; Frenn, Fabienne; Rizkallah, Maroun; Maalouf, Ghassan; El Khoury, César; Berro, Abdel-Jalil; El Hage, Rawad

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relations between muscular maximal strength indices and bone parameters (bone mineral density [BMD], hip geometry indices, and trabecular bone score [TBS]) in a group of elderly women. This study included 35 healthy elderly women whose ages range between 65 and 75 yr (68.1 ± 3.1 yr). BMD (in gram per square centimeter) was determined for each individual by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN). L1-L4 TBS and hip geometry indices were also evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal muscle strength of bench press (1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press), maximal muscle strength of leg press (1-RM leg press), and handgrip were measured using validated methods. 1-RM bench press was positively correlated to TH BMD (r = 0.40; p < 0.05), FN BMD (r = 0.41; p < 0.05), FN section modulus (r = 0.33; p < 0.05), and FN cross-sectional moment of inertia (r = 0.35; p < 0.05). 1-RM leg press was positively correlated to TH BMD (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), FN BMD (r = 0.35; p < 0.05), FN cross-sectional area (r = 0.38; p < 0.05), and TBS (r = 0.37; p < 0.05). Handgrip was correlated only to FN cross-sectional moment of inertia (r = 0.43; p < 0.01). This study suggests that 1-RM bench press and 1-RM leg press are positive determinants of BMD in elderly women. Copyright © 2018 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships between maximal anaerobic power of the arms and legs and javelin performance.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, E; Chelly, M S; Tabka, Z; Shephard, R

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships between maximal anaerobic power, as measured by leg and arm force-velocity tests, estimates of local muscle volume and javelin performance. Ten trained national level male javelin throwers (mean age 19.6+/- 2 years) participated in this study. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal force and maximal velocity were measured during leg (Wmax-L) and arm (Wmax-A) force-velocity tests, performed on appropriately modified forms of Monark cycle ergometer. Estimates of leg and arm muscle volume were made using a standard anthropometric kit. Maximal force of the leg (Fmax-L) was significantly correlated with estimated leg muscle volume (r=0.71, P<0.05). Wmax-L and Wmax-A were both significantly correlated with javelin performance (r=0.76, P<0.01; r=0.71, P <0.05, respectively). Maximal velocity of the leg (Vmax-L) was also significantly correlated with throwing performance (r=0.83; P<0.001). Wmax of both legs and arms were significantly correlated with javelin performance, the closest correlation being for Wmax-L; this emphasizes the importance of the leg muscles in this sport. Fmax-L and Vmax-L were related to muscle volume and to javelin performance, respectively. Force-velocity testing may have value in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation in sports involving throwing.

  12. Strength, body composition, and functional outcomes in the squat versus leg press exercises.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício E; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ocetnik, Skyler; Young, Jonathan; Vigotsky, Andrew; Contreras, Bret; Krieger, James W; Miller, Michael G; Cholewa, Jason

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare strength, body composition, and functional outcome measures following performance of the back squat, leg press, or a combination of the two exercises. Subjects were pair-matched based on initial strength levels and then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a squat-only group (SQ) that solely performed squats for the lower body; a leg press-only group (LP) that solely performed leg presses for the lower body, or a combined squat and leg press group (SQ-LP) that performed both squats and leg presses for the lower body. All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 10 weeks with subjects performing 2 lower body workouts per week comprising 6 sets per session at loads corresponding to 8-12 RM with 90- to 120-second rest intervals. Results showed that SQ had greater transfer to maximal squat strength compared to the leg press. Effect sizes favored SQ and SQ-LP versus LP with respect to countermovement jump while greater effect sizes for dynamic balance were noted for SQ-LP and LP compared to SQ, although no statistical differences were noted between conditions. These findings suggest that both free weights and machines can improve functional outcomes, and that the extent of transfer may be specific to the given task.

  13. Leg Strength or Velocity of Movement Which Is More Influential on the Balance of Mobility Limited Elders?

    PubMed Central

    Mayson, Douglas J.; Kiely, Dan K.; LaRose, Sharon I.; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine which component of leg power (maximal limb strength or limb velocity) is more influential on balance performance in mobility limited elders. Design In this cross-sectional analysis we evaluated 138 community-dwelling older adults with mobility limitation. Balance was measured using the Unipedal Stance Test, the Berg Balance Test (BERG), the Dynamic Gait Index, and the performance-oriented mobility assessment. We measured one repetition maximum strength and power at 40% one repetition maximum strength, from which velocity was calculated. The associations between maximal estimated leg strength and velocity with balance performance were examined using separate multivariate logistic regression models. Results Strength was found to be associated [odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.11)] with performance on the Unipedal Stance Test, whereas velocity showed no statistically significant association. In contrast, velocity was consistently associated with performance on all composite measures of balance [BERG 14.23 (1.84–109.72), performance-oriented mobility assessment 33.92 (3.69–312.03), and Dynamic Gait Index 35.80 (4.77–268.71))]. Strength was only associated with the BERG 1.08 (1.01–1.14). Conclusions Higher leg press velocity is associated with better performance on the BERG, performance-oriented mobility assessment, and Dynamic Gait Index, whereas greater leg strength is associated with better performance on the Unipedal Stance Test and the BERG. These findings are likely related to the intrinsic qualities of each test and emphasize the relevance of limb velocity. PMID:19033758

  14. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  15. The reliability of isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength assessment in youth.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César M P; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael M G; Jidovtseff, Boris; Pinder, Shane

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session reliability of force-velocity-power profiling and estimated maximal strength in youth. Thirty-six males (11-15 years old) performed a ballistic supine leg press test at five randomized loads (80%, 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% body mass) on three separate occasions. Peak and mean force, power, velocity, and peak displacement were collected with a linear position transducer attached to the weight stack. Mean values at each load were used to calculate different regression lines and estimate maximal strength, force, velocity, and power. All variables were found reliable (change in the mean [CIM] = - 1 to 14%; coefficient of variation [CV] = 3-18%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.74-0.99), but were likely to benefit from a familiarization, apart from the unreliable maximal force/velocity ratio (CIM = 0-3%; CV = 23-25%; ICC = 0.35-0.54) and load at maximal power (CIM = - 1 to 2%; CV = 10-13%; ICC = 0.26-0.61). Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength in youth can be assessed after a familiarization session. Such profiling may provide valuable insight into neuromuscular capabilities during growth and maturation and may be used to monitor specific training adaptations.

  16. The influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Minahan, Clare; Joyce, Sarah; Bulmer, Andrew C; Cronin, Neil; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2015-07-01

    To examine the influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise. Eight men (MEN), eight normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and eight women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated in this study. Subjects performed 240 maximal-effort bilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscle groups designed to elicit exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) concentrations were measured before (pre-) EiMD, as well as 0, 6, 24, and 48 h post-EiMD. Peak isometric quadriceps torque (i.e., leg strength) was measured pre-EiMD, as well as 24 and 48 h post-EiMD. The increases in CK, Mb, and FABP concentrations from pre- to post-EiMD were greater in MEN (10-fold, 15-fold, and fourfold, respectively) and WomenOC (sevenfold, 11-fold, and ninefold) compared with WomenNM (five-, six-, and threefold; p < 0.05). The decline in leg strength was about 10 % pre- to 24 h post-EiMD in all groups and decreased a further 10-15 % by 48 h post-EiMD in the MEN and WomenOC only. Our findings suggest an important role of estradiol in blunting the muscle damage response to intense eccentric exercise and preserving muscle function after EiMD.

  17. Reliability and relationships among handgrip strength, leg extensor strength and power, and balance in older men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-10-01

    To quantify the reliability of isometric leg extension torque (LEMVC), rate of torque development (LERTD), isometric handgrip force (HGMVC) and RFD (HGRFD), isokinetic leg extension torque and power at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1); and explore relationships among strength, power, and balance in older men. Sixteen older men completed 3 isometric handgrips, 3 isometric leg extensions, and 3 isokinetic leg extensions at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1) during two visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), ICC confidence intervals (95% CI), coefficients of variation (CVs), and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. LERTD demonstrated no reliability. The CVs for LERTD and HGRFD were ≤23.26%. HGMVC wasn't related to leg extension torque or power, or balance (r=0.14-0.47; p>0.05). However, moderate to strong relationships were found among isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05rad·s(-1) and 3.14rad·s(-1), leg extension mean power at 1.05rad·s(-1), and functional reach (r=0.51-0.95; p≤0.05). LERTD and HGRFD weren't reliable and shouldn't be used as outcome variables in older men. Handgrip strength may not be an appropriate surrogate for lower body strength, power, or balance. Instead, perhaps handgrip strength should only be used to describe upper body strength or functionality, which may compliment isokinetic assessments of lower body strength, which were reliable and related to balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Profiling Isokinetic Strength by Leg Preference and Position in Rugby Union Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Bridgeman, Lee A

    2016-05-01

    Muscle imbalances aid in the identification of athletes at risk for lower-extremity injury. Little is known regarding the influence that leg preference or playing position may have on lower-extremity muscle strength and asymmetry. To investigate lower-extremity strength profiles in rugby union athletes and compare isokinetic knee- and hip-strength variables between legs and positions. Thirty male academy rugby union athletes, separated into forwards (n = 15) and backs (n = 15), participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque, angle of peak torque, and strength ratios of the preferred and nonpreferred legs during seated knee extension/flexion and supine hip extension/flexion at 60°/s. Backs were older (ES = 1.6) but smaller in stature (ES = -0.47) and body mass (ES = -1.3) than the forwards. The nonpreferred leg was weaker than the preferred leg for forwards during extension (ES = -0.37) and flexion (ES = -0.21) actions and for backs during extension (ES = -0.28) actions. Backs were weaker at the knee than forwards in the preferred leg during extension (ES = -0.50) and flexion (ES = -0.66) actions. No differences were observed in strength ratios between legs or positions. Backs produced peak torque at longer muscle lengths in both legs at the knee (ES = -0.93 to -0.94) and hip (ES = -0.84 to -1.17) than the forwards. In this sample of male academy rugby union athletes, the preferred leg and forwards displayed superior strength compared with the nonpreferred leg and backs. These findings highlight the importance of individualized athletic assessments to detect crucial strength differences in male rugby union athletes.

  19. Predicting maximal strength of quadriceps from submaximal performance in individuals with knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McNair, Peter J; Colvin, Matt; Reid, Duncan

    2011-02-01

    To compare the accuracy of 12 maximal strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) equations for predicting quadriceps strength in people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. Eighteen subjects with OA of the knee joint attended a rehabilitation gymnasium on 3 occasions: 1) a familiarization session, 2) a session where the 1-RM of the quadriceps was established using a weights machine for an open-chain knee extension exercise and a leg press exercise, and 3) a session where the subjects performed with a load at which they could lift for approximately 10 repetitions only. The data were used in 12 prediction equations to calculate 1-RM strength and compared to the actual 1-RM data. Data were examined using Bland and Altman graphs and statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and typical error values between the actual 1-RM and the respective 1-RM prediction equation data. Difference scores (predicted 1-RM--actual 1-RM) across the injured and control legs were also compared. For the knee extension exercise, the Brown, Brzycki, Epley, Lander, Mayhew et al, Poliquin, and Wathen prediction equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. All of the ICCs were high (range 0.96–0.99), and typical errors were between 3% and 4%. For the knee press exercise, the Adams, Berger, Kemmler et al, and O'Conner et al equations demonstrated the greatest levels of predictive accuracy. All of the ICCs were high (range 0.95-0.98), and the typical errors ranged from 5.9-6.3%. This study provided evidence supporting the use of prediction equations to assess maximal strength in individuals with a knee joint with OA.

  20. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  1. Maximal voluntary isokinetic knee flexion torque is associated with femoral shaft bone strength indices in knee replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Valtonen, A; Sipilä, S; Pöyhönen, T; Heinonen, A

    2012-03-01

    It is currently unknown whether knee replacement-associated bone loss is modified by rehabilitation programs. Thus, a sample of 45 (18 men and 25 women) persons with unilateral knee replacement were recruited; age 66 years (sd 6), height 169 cm (sd 8), body mass 83 kg (sd 15), time since operation 10 months (sd 4) to explore the associations between maximal torque/power in knee extension/flexion and femoral mid-shaft bone traits (Cortical cross-sectional area (CoA, mm(2)), cortical volumetric bone mineral density (CoD, mg/mm(3)) and bone bending strength index (SSI, mm(3))). Bone traits were calculated from a single computed tomography slice from the femoral mid-shaft. Pain in the operated knee was assessed with the WOMAC questionnaire. Stepwise regression models were built for the operated leg bone traits, with knee extension and flexion torque and power, age, height, body mass, pain score and time since operation as independent variables. CoA was 2.3% (P=0.015), CoD 1.2% (P<0.001) and SSI 1.6% (P=0.235) lower in the operated compared to non-operated leg. The overall proportions of the variation explained by the regression models were 50%, 29% and 55% for CoA, CoD and SSI, respectively. Body mass explained 12% of Coa, 11% of CoD and 11% of SSI (P≤0.003). Maximal knee flexion torque explained 38% of Coa, 7% of CoD and 44% of SSI (p≤0.047). For CoD time since operation also became a significant predictor (11%, P=0.045). Knee flexion torque of the operated leg was positively associated with bone strength in the operated leg. Thus, successful rehabilitation may diminish bone loss in the operated leg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key points Greater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes. Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes. Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit. PMID

  3. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  4. Relationships between maximal strength of lower limb, anthropometric characteristics and fundamental explosive performance in handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Wagner, Herbert; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2018-02-14

     The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between lower body muscular strength, anthropometric characteristics and several measures of explosive performance in elite team-handball players.  22 male elite team-handball players (age: 19.1 ± 1.7 years) were studied during the competitive season. Standard anthropometric and body composition measures included body mass index, lower limb and thigh muscle volume, and body fat percentage. Maximal leg strength was determined by a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) half back-squat. Vertical jump performance was assessed using a squat jump (SJ) and a counter movement jump (CMJ). Repeated shuttle-sprint ability (RSA) was tested by 6 (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints with 20 s of active recovery intervals. The best time in a single shuttle sprint (30m; RSA best ), fastest total time (RSA TT ) and RSA test performance decrement (RSA dec ) were recorded. Agility was measured using a modified T-half test (MAT). Throwing velocities of jump shooting and 3-step throwing were recorded by digital video camera.  The explained variance of 1-RM half-back-squats ranged from 0.2 % (RSA% Fatigue Index) to 70.1 % (CMJ). Four out of 8 variables (RSA Best Time, CMJ, SJ, throwing velocity of jump shoot) demonstrated an r 2  > 0.5. Jump performances seemed closely related to 1-RM half-back-squats. Furthermore, 1-RM half-back-squats were positively correlated with leg and thigh muscle volumes (r = 0.652, r = 0.768).  The anthropometric characteristics and some physical performance tests are closely related to the maximal strength performance of handball players. Coaches should focus on maximal strength training programs for the lower limbs when seeking improvements in the throwing velocity and jump performance of handball players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Relationship between leg extensor muscle strength and knee joint loading during gait before and after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vahtrik, Doris; Gapeyeva, Helena; Ereline, Jaan; Pääsuke, Mati

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the leg extensor muscles and its relationship with knee joint loading during gait prior and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Custom-made dynamometer was used to assess an isometric MVC force of the leg extensor muscles and 3-D motion analysis system was used to evaluate the knee joint loading during gait in 13 female patients (aged 49-68 years) with knee osteoarthritis. Patients were evaluated one day before, and three and six months following TKA in the operated and non-operated leg. Six months after TKA, MVC force of the leg extensor muscles for the operated leg did not differ significantly as compared to the preoperative level, whereas it remained significantly lower for the non-operated leg and controls. The knee flexion moment and the knee joint power during mid stance of gait was improved six months after TKA, remaining significantly lowered compared with controls. Negative moderate correlation between leg extensor muscles strength and knee joint loading for the operated leg during mid stance was noted three months after TKA. The correlation analysis indicates that due to weak leg extensor muscles, an excessive load is applied to knee joint during mid stance of gait in patients, whereas in healthy subjects stronger knee-surrounding muscles provide stronger knee joint loading during gait. III (correlational study). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P < 0.001). Periodization model (β = 0.51; P = 0.0010), training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non

  7. Strength improvements through occlusal splints? The effects of different lower jaw positions on maximal isometric force production and performance in different jumping types

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Christian; Heller, Sebastian; Sure, Jil-Julia; Fuchs, Daniel; Mickel, Christoph; Wanke, Eileen M.; Groneberg, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The influence of the jaw position on postural control, body posture, walking and running pattern has been reported in the literature. All these movements have in common that a relatively small, but well controlled muscle activation is required. The induced effects on motor output through changed jaw positions have been small. Therefore, it has been questioned if it could still be observed in maximal muscle activation. Method Twenty-three healthy, mid age recreational runners (mean age = 34.0 ± 10.3 years) participated in this study. Three different jump tests (squat jump, counter movement jump, and drop jumps from four different heights) and three maximal strength tests (trunk flexion and extension, leg press of the right and left leg) were conducted. Four different dental occlusion conditions and an additional familiarization condition were tested. Subjects performed the tests on different days for which the four occlusion conditions were randomly changed. Results No familiarization effect was found. Occlusion conditions with a relaxation position and with a myocentric condylar position showed significantly higher values for several tests compared to the neutral condition and the maximal occlusion position. Significance was found in the squat jump, countermovement jump, the drop jump from 32cm and 40cm, trunk extension, leg press force and rate of force development. The effect due to the splint conditions is an improvement between 3% and 12% (min and max). No influence of the jaw position on symmetry or balance between extension and flexion muscle was found. Conclusion An influence of occlusion splints on rate of force development (RFD) and maximal strength tests could be confirmed. A small, but consistent increase in the performance parameters could be measured. The influence of the occlusion condition is most likely small compared to other influences as for example training status, age, gender and circadian rhythm. PMID:29474465

  8. Predicting maximal strength in trained postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang K; Lauber, Dirk; Wassermann, Alfred; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present an equation that accurately predicts 1 repetition maximum (RM) over a wide range of repetitions to fatigue (RTF) for 4 different machine resistance exercises in postmenopausal women. Seventy trained women (age = 57.4 +/- 3.1 years) performed maximal and submaximal repetitions on leg press, bench press, rowing, and leg adduction machines at the conclusion of a 2-year training program. Maximal repetitions were performed on each exercise in the following ranges: 3-5RM, 6-10RM, 11-15RM, and 16-20RM. Special regard was taken to maintain the identical execution of each test (i.e., range of motion, starting angle, speed of movement). One cubic polynomial (w(i) [0.988-0.0000584 r(i)(3) + 0.00190 r(i)(2) + 0.0104 r(i),] where w(i) is the load of measurement I, and r(i) is the number of repetitions) accurately predicted 1RM from RTF with mean absolute differences between actual 1RM and predicted 1RM for the 4 exercises of 1.5-3.1% and with coefficients of variation of <3.3%. Equation accuracy was independent of the exercise type or the number of RTF. Thus, this study supported the validity of RTF to adequately estimate 1RM over a wide range of repetitions and within different exercises in trained, older female subjects.

  9. Strength testing and training of rowers: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82-0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.57-0.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r = -0.54 to -0.68; p < 0.05). Repetition tests that assess muscular or strength endurance by quantifying the number of repetitions accrued at a fixed percentage of the strength maximum (e.g. 50-70% 1RM leg press) or set absolute load (e.g. 40 kg prone bench pulls) were less reliable and more time consuming when compared with briefer maximal strength tests. Only leg press repetition tests were correlated with 2000-m ergometer times (e.g. r = -0.67; p < 0.05). However, these tests differentiate training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio <45% or knee extensor-elbow flexor ratio around 4.2 ± 0.22 to

  10. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and leg muscles?

    PubMed

    Parkin, S; Nowicky, A V; Rutherford, O M; McGregor, A H

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused on the trunk and leg muscles. Comparisons of strength were made between and within groups for right and left symmetry patterns, hamstring: quadriceps ratios, and trunk flexor and extensor ratios. The results revealed no left and right asymmetries in either the knee extensor or flexor strength parameters (including both isometric and isokinetic measures). Knee extensor strength was significantly greater in the rowing population, but knee flexor strength was similar between the two groups. No difference was seen between the groups for the hamstring: quadriceps strength ratio. In the rowing population, stroke side had no influence on leg strength. No differences were observed in the isometric strength of the trunk flexors and extensors between groups, although EMG activity was significantly higher in the rowing population. Patterns of asymmetry of muscle activity were observed between the left and right erector spinae muscles during extension, which was significantly related to rowing side (P < 0.01). These observations could be related to the high incidence of low back pain in oarsmen.

  11. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  12. Dynamic balance ability in young elite soccer players: implication of isometric strength.

    PubMed

    Chtara, Moktar; Rouissi, Mehdi; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Owen, Adam L; Haddad, Monoem; Chamari, Karim

    2018-04-01

    Soccer requires maintaining unilateral balance when executing movement with the contralateral leg. Despite the fact that balance requires standing with maintaining isometric posture with the support leg, currently there is a lack of studies regarding the implication of isometric strength on dynamic balance's performance among young soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Y-Balance Test and 12 lower limbs isometric strength tests. Twenty-six right footed soccer players (mean±SD, age=16.2±1.6 years, height=175±4.2 cm, body mass=68.8±6.1 kg) performed a dynamic balance test (star excursion balance-test with dominant- (DL) and nondominant-legs (NDL). Furthermore, maximal isometric contraction tests of 12 lower limb muscle groups were assessed in DL and NDL. Correlations analysis reported a significant positive relationship between some of isometric strength tests (with DL and NDL) and the Y-Balance Test. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that maximal isometric strength explained between 21.9% and 49.4% of the variance of the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, maximal isometric strength was dependent upon the reaching angle of the Y-Balance Test and the leg used to support body weight. This study showed a significant implication of maximal isometric strength of the lower limb and the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, the present investigation suggests the implementation of specific lower limb strengthening exercises depending on players' deficit in each reaching direction and leg. This result suggests that further studies should experiment if increasing lower limbs isometric strength could improve dynamic balance ability among young soccer players.

  13. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    SciTech Connect

    Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightlymore » less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.« less

  14. Isometric parameters in the monitoring of maximal strength, power, and hypertrophic resistance-training.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Heikki; Walker, Simon; Lähitie, Anuliisa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Avela, Janne

    2018-02-01

    This study monitored strength-training adaptations via isometric parameters throughout 2 × 10 weeks of hypertrophic (HYP I-II) or 10 weeks maximum strength (MS) followed by 10 weeks power (P) training with untrained controls. Trainees performed bilateral isometric leg press tests analyzed for peak force (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and rate of force development (RFD) every 3.5 weeks. These parameters were compared with dynamic performance, voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions, muscle activity, and cross-sectional area (CSA) in the laboratory before and after 10 and 20 weeks. RFD increased similarly during the first 7 weeks (HYP I, 44% ± 53%; MS, 48% ± 55%, P < 0.05), but RFD continued to increase up to 65% ± 61% from baseline (P < 0.01) only during P. These increases were concomitant with enhanced dynamic performances of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (HYP I, 8% ± 6%; MS, 11% ± 6%, P < 0.001), and explosive repetitions during P (11% ± 15%, P < 0.05). Time to reach peak RFD differed (P < 0.001) between HYP (mean 42 ± 20 ms) and MS-P (mean 31 ± 12 ms) groups because of training. The changes in MVC correlated with the changes in CSA during weeks 1-20 (HYP I-II, r = 0.664; MS-P, r = 0.595, P ≤ 0.05), as well as changes in 1RM (r = 0.724, P < 0.05) during weeks 11-20 (HYP II). Muscle activity increased during MS and P only. Both MVC and RFD improvements reflected combinations of central and peripheral adaptations. RFD parameters may be effective tools to evaluate adaptations, particularly during maximal strength/power training, while MVC cannot distinguish between strength or muscle mass changes. Monitoring RFD provided important information regarding plateaus in RFD improvement, which were observed in dynamic explosive performances after HYP II compared with P.

  15. Sprint running: how changes in step frequency affect running mechanics and leg spring behaviour at maximal speed.

    PubMed

    Monte, Andrea; Muollo, Valentina; Nardello, Francesca; Zamparo, Paola

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in selected biomechanical variables in 80-m maximal sprint runs while imposing changes in step frequency (SF) and to investigate if these adaptations differ based on gender and training level. A total of 40 athletes (10 elite men and 10 women, 10 intermediate men and 10 women) participated in this study; they were requested to perform 5 trials at maximal running speed (RS): at the self-selected frequency (SF s ) and at SF ±15% and ±30%SF s . Contact time (CT) and flight time (FT) as well as step length (SL) decreased with increasing SF, while k vert increased with it. At SF s , k leg was the lowest (a 20% decrease at ±30%SF s ), while RS was the largest (a 12% decrease at ±30%SF s ). Only small changes (1.5%) in maximal vertical force (F max ) were observed as a function of SF, but maximum leg spring compression (ΔL) was largest at SF s and decreased by about 25% at ±30%SF s . Significant differences in F max , Δy, k leg and k vert were observed as a function of skill and gender (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that RS is optimised at SF s and that, while k vert follows the changes in SF, k leg is lowest at SF s .

  16. Normalized knee-extension strength or leg-press power after fast-track total knee arthroplasty: which measure is most closely associated with performance-based and self-reported function?

    PubMed

    Aalund, Peter K; Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben B; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    To investigate which of the 2 muscle-impairment measures for the operated leg, normalized knee extension strength or leg press power, was most closely associated with performance-based and self-reported measures of function shortly after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Cross-sectional, exploratory study. Laboratory at a regional hospital. Individuals (N=39) with an average age ± SD of 65.5±10.3 years, who all had unilateral TKA 28 days prior. None. The patients performed maximal isometric knee extensions and dynamic leg presses to determine their body-mass normalized knee extension strength and leg press power, respectively. The 10-meter fast speed walking- and 30-second chair stand tests were used to determine performance-based function, while the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Oxford Knee Scores were used to determine self-reported function. Normalized leg press power was more closely associated with both performance-based (r=.82, P<.001) and self-reported (r=.48, P=.002) measures of function compared with normalized knee extension strength (r=.51, P=.001 and r=.39, P=.015, respectively). Normalized leg press power was more closely associated with both performance-based and self-reported function early after TKA than normalized knee extension strength. It may be explained by the fact that performance-based measures of function are typically closed kinetic chain tasks, such as walking or rising from a chair, and self-reported measures of function typically include questions that address perceived difficulty with performing these same tasks. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two pilot studies of the effect of bicycling on balance and leg strength among older adults.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44-79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49-72 were recruited into a 12-week cycling program. The same pre- and postmeasures as used in Study 1 were collected. Study 1: participants who had cycled in the last month performed significantly better on measures of decision time and response time. Study 2: cycling at least one hour a week was associated with significant improvements in balance (decision time and response time) and timed single leg standing. Cycling by healthy older adults appears promising for improving risk factors for falls.

  18. Two Pilot Studies of the Effect of Bicycling on Balance and Leg Strength among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rissel, Chris; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Merom, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Study 1 examines whether age-related declines in balance are moderated by bicycling. Study 2 tests whether regular cycling can increase leg strength and improve balance. Methods. Study 1: a cross-sectional survey of 43 adults aged 44–79 was conducted. Leg strength was measured, and Balance was measured using the choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) test (decision time and response time), leg strength and timed single leg standing. Study 2: 18 older adults aged 49–72 were recruited into a 12-week cycling program. The same pre- and postmeasures as used in Study 1 were collected. Results. Study 1: participants who had cycled in the last month performed significantly better on measures of decision time and response time. Study 2: cycling at least one hour a week was associated with significant improvements in balance (decision time and response time) and timed single leg standing. Conclusions. Cycling by healthy older adults appears promising for improving risk factors for falls. PMID:23690805

  19. Isokinetic Extension Strength Is Associated With Single-Leg Vertical Jump Height

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Felix; Blank, Cornelia; Dünnwald, Tobias; Gföller, Peter; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. Hypothesis: A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 169 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in this study. Isokinetic testing was performed on the injured and noninjured legs. Additionally, a single-leg countermovement jump was performed to assess jump height using a jump accelerometer sensor. Extension strength values were used to assess the association between isokinetic muscle strength and jump height. Results: The sample consisted of 60 female (mean age, 20.8 ± 8.3 years; mean weight, 61.7 ± 6.5 kg; mean height, 167.7 ± 5.3 cm) and 109 male (mean age, 23.2 ± 7.7 years; mean weight, 74.6 ± 10.2 kg; mean height, 179.9 ± 6.9 cm) patients. Bivariate correlation analysis showed an association (r = 0.56, P < .001) between jump height and isokinetic extension strength on the noninvolved side as well as an association (r = 0.52, P < .001) for the involved side. Regression analysis showed that in addition to jump height (beta = 0.49, P < .001), sex (beta = –0.17, P = .008) and body mass index (beta = 0.37, P < .001) affected isokinetic strength. The final model explained 51.1% of the variance in isokinetic muscle strength, with jump height having the strongest impact (beta = 0.49, P < .001) and explaining 31.5% of the variance. Conclusion: Initial analysis showed a strong association between isokinetic strength and jump height. The study population

  20. Isokinetic Extension Strength Is Associated With Single-Leg Vertical Jump Height.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felix; Blank, Cornelia; Dünnwald, Tobias; Gföller, Peter; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 169 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in this study. Isokinetic testing was performed on the injured and noninjured legs. Additionally, a single-leg countermovement jump was performed to assess jump height using a jump accelerometer sensor. Extension strength values were used to assess the association between isokinetic muscle strength and jump height. The sample consisted of 60 female (mean age, 20.8 ± 8.3 years; mean weight, 61.7 ± 6.5 kg; mean height, 167.7 ± 5.3 cm) and 109 male (mean age, 23.2 ± 7.7 years; mean weight, 74.6 ± 10.2 kg; mean height, 179.9 ± 6.9 cm) patients. Bivariate correlation analysis showed an association ( r = 0.56, P < .001) between jump height and isokinetic extension strength on the noninvolved side as well as an association ( r = 0.52, P < .001) for the involved side. Regression analysis showed that in addition to jump height (beta = 0.49, P < .001), sex (beta = -0.17, P = .008) and body mass index (beta = 0.37, P < .001) affected isokinetic strength. The final model explained 51.1% of the variance in isokinetic muscle strength, with jump height having the strongest impact (beta = 0.49, P < .001) and explaining 31.5% of the variance. Initial analysis showed a strong association between isokinetic strength and jump height. The study population encompassed various backgrounds, skill levels, and activity profiles

  1. Contribution of Leg-Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal-Effort Flat-Water Paddling.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted--the knee joints "locked." Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers' paddling performance.

  2. Isokinetic Leg Strength and Power in Elite Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Ravé, José M.; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A.; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  3. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    PubMed

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  4. Single- vs. Multiple-Set Strength Training in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlumberger, Andreas; Stec, Justyna; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Compared the effects of single- and multiple-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training. Both training groups had significant strength improvements in leg extension. In the seated bench press, only the three-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength. There were higher strength gains overall in the…

  5. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  6. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Bishop, David J.

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V˙O2peak, 44 ± 11 mL kg−1·min−1) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk−1) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P < 0.001), HIT+RT (28.7 ± 5.3%; ES, 1.17 ± 0.19; P < 0.001), and MICT+RT (27.5 ± 4.6%, ES, 0.81 ± 0.12; P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ± 8.7%; ES, 0.40 ± 0.40) and MICT+RT (8.2 ± 9.9%; ES, 0.60 ± 0.45). There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ± 4.5%; ES, 0.41 ± 0.28) and MICT+RT (9.9 ± 11.2%; ES, 0.54 ± 0.65), and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD) vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ± 26.1%; ES, 0.72 ± 0.88). Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower

  7. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P < 0.001), HIT+RT (28.7 ± 5.3%; ES, 1.17 ± 0.19; P < 0.001), and MICT+RT (27.5 ± 4.6%, ES, 0.81 ± 0.12; P < 0.001); however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ± 8.7%; ES, 0.40 ± 0.40) and MICT+RT (8.2 ± 9.9%; ES, 0.60 ± 0.45). There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ± 4.5%; ES, 0.41 ± 0.28) and MICT+RT (9.9 ± 11.2%; ES, 0.54 ± 0.65), and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD) vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ± 26.1%; ES, 0.72 ± 0.88). Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower

  8. Relationship between hip and core strength and frontal plane alignment during a single leg squat.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Laurie; Finley, Margaret; Gulgin, Heather

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between frontal plane kinematics of the single leg squat and strength of the trunk and hip in females. Forty healthy females participated in this study. An isometric "make" test using a dynamometer was used to assess peak force normalized to body weight for hip abduction, hip extension, hip external rotation, and a sidelying plank test. Two-dimensional software was used to analyze the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) and pelvic angle during a single leg squat to 60°. All 4 strength factors were significantly correlated with the FPPA, ranging from r = 0.396 to r = 0.466. During multiple regression analysis, hip abduction strength was the greatest predictor of the variation in FPPA at r(2) = 0.22, p = 0.002. Thus, hip abduction strength accounted for 22% of the variation in the FPPA during the single leg squat. The only strength factor demonstrating a significant correlation with the pelvic angle was hip extension strength (r = 0.550, p < 0.001). Clinicians should consider the role of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, hip extensors and core musculature on the impact on the FPPA during a single squat, with focus on the hip abductors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance. PMID:28149424

  10. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance.

  11. Gender differences in rotation of the shank during single-legged drop landing and its relation to rotational muscle strength of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Shinya; Sato, Haruhiko; Takahira, Naonobu

    2009-01-01

    Increased shank rotation during landing has been considered to be one of the factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. There have been no known gender differences in rotational knee muscle strength, which is expected to inhibit exaggerated shank rotation. Women have less knee external rotator strength than do men. Lower external rotator strength is associated with increased internal shank rotation at the time of landing. Controlled laboratory study. One hundred sixty-nine healthy young subjects (81 female and 88 male; age, 17.0 +/- 1.0 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects performed single-legged drop landings from a 20-cm height. Femoral and shank kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the joint angles around the knee (flexion/extension, valgus/varus, and internal/external rotation) were calculated. The maximal isometric rotational muscle strength of the knee was measured at 30 degrees of knee flexion in a supine position using a dynamometer. The female subjects had significantly less external shank rotation strength than did the male subjects (P < .001). Female subjects also exhibited significantly greater peak shank internal rotation angles than did males during landing (P < .05). Moderate but significant association was found between the maximum shank external rotation strength and the peak shank internal rotation angle during landing (r = -0.322, P < .01). Female subjects tended to have poor shank external rotator strength. This may lead to large shank internal rotation movement during the single-legged drop landing. Improving strength training of the external rotator muscle may help decrease the rates of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes.

  12. Strong correlation of maximal squat strength with sprint performance and vertical jump height in elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Wisloff, U; Castagna, C; Helgerud, J; Jones, R; Hoff, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: A high level of strength is inherent in elite soccer play, but the relation between maximal strength and sprint and jumping performance has not been studied thoroughly. Objective: To determine whether maximal strength correlates with sprint and vertical jump height in elite male soccer players. Methods: Seventeen international male soccer players (mean (SD) age 25.8 (2.9) years, height 177.3 (4.1) cm, weight 76.5 (7.6) kg, and maximal oxygen uptake 65.7 (4.3) ml/kg/min) were tested for maximal strength in half squats and sprinting ability (0–30 m and 10 m shuttle run sprint) and vertical jumping height. Result: There was a strong correlation between maximal strength in half squats and sprint performance and jumping height. Conclusions: Maximal strength in half squats determines sprint performance and jumping height in high level soccer players. High squat strength did not imply reduced maximal oxygen consumption. Elite soccer players should focus on maximal strength training, with emphasis on maximal mobilisation of concentric movements, which may improve their sprinting and jumping performance. PMID:15155427

  13. Ischemic conditioning increases strength and volitional activation of paretic muscle in chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurological populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 yr poststroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of 5 min of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for sham) followed by 5 min of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6 ± 8.5 Nm, whereas no difference was observed in the sham group (change in sham = 1.3 ± 2.9 Nm, P = 0.001 IC vs. sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31 ± 15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and nonparetic legs had the largest increases in strength ( r 2  = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Present rehabilitation strategies for chronic stroke survivors do not optimally activate paretic muscle, and this limits potential strength gains. Ischemic conditioning of a limb has emerged as an effective strategy to improve muscle performance in healthy individuals but has never been tested in neurological populations. In this study, we show that ischemic conditioning on the paretic leg of chronic stroke survivors

  14. Evaluating the influence of massage on leg strength, swelling, and pain following a half-marathon.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Lance G; Dawson, Kimberley A; Tiidus, Peter M

    2004-11-01

    Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female) completed a half marathon (21.1 km) road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control) leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline) and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and soreness and leg circumference significantly elevated (p < 0.05) relative to pre-race values with no difference between legs. This suggested that exercise-induced muscle disruption did occur. Comparing the rate of return to baseline measures between the massaged and control legs, revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12

  15. Repeatability and validity of a standardised maximal step-up test for leg function-a diagnostic accuracy study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Objectively assessed physical performance is a strong predictor for morbidity and premature death and there is an increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia in many chronic diseases. There is a need for robust and valid functional tests in clinical practice. Therefore, the repeatability and validity of a newly developed maximal step up test (MST) was assessed. Methods The MST, assessing maximal step-up height (MSH) in 3-cm increments, was evaluated in 60 healthy middle-aged subjects, 30 women and 30 men. The repeatability of MSH and the correlation between MSH and isokinetic knee extension peak torque (IKEPT), self-reported physical function (SF-36, PF), patient demographics and self-reported physical activity were investigated. Results The repeatability between occasions and between testers was 6 cm. MSH (range 12-45 cm) was significantly correlated to IKEPT, (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), SF-36 PF score, (r = 0.29, P = 0.03), sex, age, weight and BMI. The results also show that MSH above 32 cm discriminates subjects in our study with no limitation in self-reported physical function. Conclusions The standardised MST is considered a reliable leg function test for clinical practice. The MSH was related to knee extension strength and self-reported physical function. The precision of the MST for identification of limitations in physical function needs further investigation. PMID:21854575

  16. Low-Budget Instrumentation of a Conventional Leg Press to Measure Reliable Isometric-Strength Capacity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Groppa, Alessia Severina; Limacher, Regula; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-02-02

    Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the test-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.

  17. Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD 0-200ms and RTD 0-peak torque ). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD 0-200ms , and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at postrehabilitation, the peak knee flexion angle was

  18. Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z.; Chmielewski, Terese L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. Purpose: To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0–peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Results: Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at

  19. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  20. Effects of age and muscle action type on acute strength and power recovery following fatigue of the leg flexors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Stock, Matt S

    2015-12-01

    Short-term strength and power recovery patterns following fatigue have received little research attention, particularly as they pertain to age-specific responses, and the leg flexors (i.e., hamstrings) muscle group. Thus, research is warranted addressing these issues because both age-related alterations in the neuromuscular system and mode of muscle action (e.g., eccentric, concentric, isometric) may differentially influence recovery responses from fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength and power recovery responses for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions of the leg flexors in young and older men following an isometric, intermittent fatigue-inducing protocol. Nineteen young (age = 25 ± 3 years) and nineteen older (71 ± 4) men performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions followed by a fatigue protocol of intermittent (0.6 duty cycle) isometric contractions of the leg flexors at 60% of isometric MVC. MVCs of each muscle action were performed at 0, 7, 15, and 30 min following fatigue. Peak torque (PT) and mean power values were calculated from the MVCs and the eccentric/concentric ratio (ECR) was derived. For PT and mean power, young men showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, whereas the older men had recovered by 7 min. Eccentric and isometric muscle actions showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, but concentric recovered by 7 min, independent of age. The ECR was depressed for up to 30 min following fatigue. More rapid and pronounced recovery in older men and concentric contractions may be related to physiological differences specific to aging and muscle action motor unit patterns. Individuals and clinicians may use these time course responses as a guide for recovery following activity-induced fatigue.

  1. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  2. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes’ readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation (r). Results: The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s (P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s (P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s (P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s (r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s (r = –0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop

  3. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  4. Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61–3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults. PMID:25695770

  5. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    PubMed

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  6. Influence of Isokinetic Strength Training of Unilateral Ankle on Ipsilateral One-legged Standing Balance of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung Min; Kang, Kyung Woo; Lee, Na Kyung; Nam, Seok Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the changes in one-legged standing balance of the ipsilateral lower limb following unilateral isokinetic strength training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group, so that each group included 15 subjects. Subjects in the training group performed unilateral ankle isokinetic exercises of the dominant leg using the Biodex 3 PRO System for a period of four weeks. Ipsilateral one-legged standing balance was evaluated before and after the intervention with three stability indexes of balance using the Biodex System: Anterior-Posterior Stability Index (APSI), Medial-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI), and Overall Stability Index (OSI). [Results] Comparison of pre- and post-test data revealed significant improvements in strength values (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, eversion, and inversion) and stability indexes (APSI, MLSI, OSI). [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle strengthening exercise can be considered as a form of exercise that may assist individuals with improvement of balance. PMID:24259783

  7. High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs compromise muscle strength and hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lilja, M; Mandić, M; Apró, W; Melin, M; Olsson, K; Rosenborg, S; Gustafsson, T; Lundberg, T R

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high doses of anti-inflammatory drugs would attenuate the adaptive response to resistance training compared with low doses. Healthy men and women (aged 18-35 years) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of ibuprofen (IBU; 1200 mg; n = 15) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 75 mg; n = 16) for 8 weeks. During this period, subjects completed supervised knee-extensor resistance training where one leg was subjected to training with maximal volitional effort in each repetition using a flywheel ergometer (FW), while the other leg performed conventional (work-matched across groups) weight-stack training (WS). Before and after training, muscle volume (MRI) and strength were assessed, and muscle biopsies were analysed for gene and protein expression of muscle growth regulators. The increase in m. quadriceps volume was similar between FW and WS, yet was (averaged across legs) greater in ASA (7.5%) compared with IBU (3.7%, group difference 34 cm 3 ; P = 0.029). In the WS leg, muscle strength improved similarly (11-20%) across groups. In the FW leg, increases (10-23%) in muscle strength were evident in both groups yet they were generally greater (interaction effects P < 0.05) for ASA compared with IBU. While our molecular analysis revealed several training effects, the only group interaction (P < 0.0001) arose from a downregulated mRNA expression of IL-6 in IBU. Maximal over-the-counter doses of ibuprofen attenuate strength and muscle hypertrophic adaptations to 8 weeks of resistance training in young adults. Thus, young individuals using resistance training to maximize muscle growth or strength should avoid excessive intake of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison between linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training to increase strength.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Jonato; Frollini, Anelena B; de Lima, Cristiane; Donatto, Felipe F; Foschini, Denis; de Cássia Marqueti, Rita; Figueira, Aylton; Fleck, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    To determine the most effective periodization model for strength and hypertrophy is an important step for strength and conditioning professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear (LP) and daily undulating periodized (DUP) resistance training on body composition and maximal strength levels. Forty men aged 21.5 +/- 8.3 and with a minimum 1-year strength training experience were assigned to an LP (n = 20) or DUP group (n = 20). Subjects were tested for maximal strength in bench press, leg press 45 degrees, and arm curl (1 repetition maximum [RM]) at baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2), and after 12 weeks of training (T3). Increases of 18.2 and 25.08% in bench press 1 RM were observed for LP and DUP groups in T3 compared with T1, respectively (p < or = 0.05). In leg press 45 degrees , LP group exhibited an increase of 24.71% and DUP of 40.61% at T3 compared with T1. Additionally, DUP showed an increase of 12.23% at T2 compared with T1 and 25.48% at T3 compared with T2. For the arm curl exercise, LP group increased 14.15% and DUP 23.53% at T3 when compared with T1. An increase of 20% was also found at T2 when compared with T1, for DUP. Although the DUP group increased strength the most in all exercises, no statistical differences were found between groups. In conclusion, undulating periodized strength training induced higher increases in maximal strength than the linear model in strength-trained men. For maximizing strength increases, daily intensity and volume variations were more effective than weekly variations.

  9. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; P<.0001). Mean difference analysis suggested that the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; P<.0001) and age (β=-.20; P<.0001) were positively correlated with 1-RM bench press strength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gilberto Monteiro dos; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; Moura, Leandro Pereira de; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training's equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals.

  11. Conformity of modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength for cross tape application direction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Su

    2018-06-01

    Although cross tape has recently been used by clinicians for various musculoskeletal conditions, scientific studies on the direction of cross tape application are lacking. The present study aimed to investigate whether the direction of cross tape application affected the outcomes of the modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge and the conformity between these 2 tests when cross tape was applied to the forearm muscles of individuals with no upper extremity pain and no restriction of joint range of motion.This study used a single-blinding crossover design. The subjects comprised 39 adults (16 men and 23 women). Cross tape was applied to the dominant hand so that the 4 rows were at an angle of 45° to the right or left of the direction of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle fibers, and then the subjects underwent a modified O-ring test and a test of maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge. Both tests were performed in both directions, and the order of the directions and tests was randomized. SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to analyze the conformity of the results from the 2 tests. The statistical significance level was P < .05. A positive response in the modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength were both affected by cross tape direction. The modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength using pinch gauge results were in agreement (P < .00), and the kappa coefficient was significant at 1.00. The direction of cross tape application that produced a positive response in the modified O-ring test also produced greater maximal pinch strength. Thus, we propose that when applying cross tape to muscles, the direction of the 4 lines of the cross tape should be 45° relative to the direction of the muscle fibers, toward the side that produces a positive response in the modified O-ring test or produces the greatest maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge.

  12. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. Purpose: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m2) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm2). Results: Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3

  13. Are changes in leg power responsible for clinically meaningful improvements in mobility in older adults?

    PubMed

    Bean, Jonathan F; Kiely, Dan K; LaRose, Sharon; Goldstein, Richard; Frontera, Walter R; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2010-12-01

    From among physiological attributes commonly targeted in rehabilitation, to identify those in which changes led to clinically meaningful differences (CMDs) in mobility outcomes. Secondary analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial of exercise using binary outcomes defined by recording a large CMD (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)=1 unit; gait speed (GS)=0.1 m/s). Iterative models were performed to evaluate possible confounding between physiological variables and relevant covariates. Outpatient rehabilitation centers. Community-dwelling mobility-limited older adults (n=116) participating in a 16-week randomized controlled trial of two modes of exercise. Physiological measures included leg power, leg strength, balance as measured according to the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and rate pressure product at the maximal stage of an exercise tolerance test. Outcomes included GS and SPPB. Leg power and leg strength were measured using computerized pneumatic strength training equipment and recorded in Watts and Newtons, respectively. Participants were 68% female, had a mean age of 75.2, a mean of 5.5 chronic conditions, and a baseline mean SPPB score of 8.7. After controlling for age, site, group assignment, and baseline outcome values, leg power was the only attribute in which changes were significantly associated with a large CMD in SPPB (odds ratio (OR)=1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09-2.02) and GS (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.01-1.70). Improvements in leg power, independent of strength, appear to make an important contribution to clinically meaningful improvements in SPPB and GS. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  15. Undulatory physical resistance training program increases maximal strength in elderly type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Gilberto Monteiro; Montrezol, Fábio Tanil; Pauli, Luciana Santos Souza; Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Colantonio, Emilson; Gomes, Ricardo José; Marinho, Rodolfo; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of a specific protocol of undulatory physical resistance training on maximal strength gains in elderly type 2 diabetics. Methods The study included 48 subjects, aged between 60 and 85 years, of both genders. They were divided into two groups: Untrained Diabetic Elderly (n=19) with those who were not subjected to physical training and Trained Diabetic Elderly (n=29), with those who were subjected to undulatory physical resistance training. The participants were evaluated with several types of resistance training’s equipment before and after training protocol, by test of one maximal repetition. The subjects were trained on undulatory resistance three times per week for a period of 16 weeks. The overload used in undulatory resistance training was equivalent to 50% of one maximal repetition and 70% of one maximal repetition, alternating weekly. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.05) between pre-test and post-test over a period of 16 weeks. Results The average gains in strength were 43.20% (knee extension), 65.00% (knee flexion), 27.80% (supine sitting machine), 31.00% (rowing sitting), 43.90% (biceps pulley), and 21.10% (triceps pulley). Conclusion Undulatory resistance training used with weekly different overloads was effective to provide significant gains in maximum strength in elderly type 2 diabetic individuals. PMID:25628192

  16. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order.

    PubMed

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Differences in maximal strength and endurance of the tongue according to region in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Hwan; Park, Ji-Su; Kim, Won-Jin

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximal strength and endurance of the tongue among healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 60 healthy volunteers (30 men; 30 women; age range, 20–26 years) were recruited and evaluated for maximal strength and endurance of the anterior and posterior regions of the tongue using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. [Results] Tongue strength in the anterior region was greater than that in the posterior region. In contrast, tongue endurance in the posterior region was greater than that in the anterior region. [Conclusion] In conclusion, these results confirm that the anterior region of the tongue exhibits greater strength, whereas the posterior region exhibits greater endurance. PMID:29184299

  18. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; P<0.0001). Mean-difference analysis suggested that the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; P<0.0001) and age (β=−0.20; P<0.0001) were positively correlated with 1-RM bench press strength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  19. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  20. Short-Term Training Cessation as a Method of Tapering to Improve Maximal Strength.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Barnes, Matthew J; Stewart, Robin J C; Keogh, Justin W L; McGuigan, Michael R

    2018-02-01

    Pritchard, HJ, Barnes, MJ, Stewart, RJC, Keogh, JWL, and McGuigan, MR. Short-term training cessation as a method of tapering to improve maximal strength. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 458-465, 2018-The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 2 different durations of training cessation on upper- and lower-body maximal strength performance and to investigate the mechanisms underlying performance changes following short-term training cessation. Eight resistance trained males (23.8 ± 5.4 years, 79.6 ± 10.2 kg, 1.80 ± 0.06 m, relative deadlift 1 repetition maximum of 1.90 ± 0.30 times bodyweight [BW]) each completed two 4-week strength training periods followed by either 3.5 days (3.68 ± 0.12 days) or 5.5 days (5.71 ± 0.13 days) of training cessation. Testing occurred pretraining (T1), on the final day of training (T2), and after each respective period of training cessation (T3). Participants were tested for salivary testosterone and cortisol, plasma creatine kinase, psychological profiles, and performance tests (countermovement jump [CMJ], isometric midthigh pull, and isometric bench press [IBP]) on a force plate. Participants' BW increased significantly over time (p = 0.022). The CMJ height and IBP peak force showed significant increases over time (p = 0.013, 0.048, and 0.004, respectively). Post hoc testing showed a significant increase between T1 and T3 for both CMJ height and IBP peak force (p = 0.022 and 0.008 with effect sizes of 0.30 and 0.21, respectively). No other significant differences were seen for any other measures. These results suggest that a short period of strength training cessation can have positive effects on maximal strength expression, perhaps because of decreases in neuromuscular fatigue.

  1. Are Changes in Leg Power Responsible for Clinically Meaningful Improvements in Mobility Among Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Jonathan F.; Kiely, Dan K.; LaRose, Sharon; Goldstein, Richard; Frontera, Walter R.; Leveille, Suzanne G.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Mobility as measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) or habitual Gait Speed (GS) is predictive of mortality and disability among older adults. Clinically meaningful changes of these measures have been identified. Among physiologic attributes commonly targeted in rehabilitation, we sought to identify those attributes in which changes led to clinically meaningful differences (CMD) in the mobility outcomes. Participants Community-dwelling, mobility-limited older adults (n=116) participating in a 16-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) of two modes of exercise Setting Outpatient rehabilitation centers Design Secondary analysis of data collected for a RCT of exercise using binary outcomes defined by recording a large CMD (SPPB=1 unit; GS=.1m/s). Iterative models were performed to evaluate possible confounding between physiologic variables and relevant covariates. Measures Physiologic measures included leg power, leg strength, balance as measured by the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), rate pressure product (RPP) at the maximal stage of an exercise tolerance test. Outcomes included GS and SPPB. Leg power and leg strength were measured using computerized pneumatic strength training equipment and recorded in Watts and Newtons respectively. Results Participants were 68% female, had a mean age of 75.2 years, with a mean of 5.5 chronic conditions and a baseline mean SPPB score of 8.7. After controlling for age, site, group assignment, and baseline outcome values, leg power was the only attribute in which changes were significantly associated with a large CMD in SPPB (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09, 2.02) and GS (OR1.31, 95% CI 1.01, 1.70). Conclusion Improvements in leg power, independent of strength, appear to make an important contribution towards clinically meaningful improvements in both SPPB and GS. PMID:21143443

  2. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength, and Incident Mobility Disability in Elders

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Evans, Denis A.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle strength, including leg strength and respiratory muscle strength, are relatively independently associated with mobility disability in elders. However, the factors linking muscle strength with mobility disability are unknown. To test the hypothesis that pulmonary function mediates the association of muscle strength with the development of mobility disability in elders, we used data from a longitudinal cohort study of 844 ambulatory elders without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project with a mean follow-up of 4.0 years (SD = 1.39). A composite measure of pulmonary function was based on spirometric measures of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory muscle strength was based on maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and leg strength based on hand-held dynamometry. Mobility disability was defined as a gait speed less than or equal to 0.55 m/s based on annual assessment of timed walk. Secondary analyses considered time to loss of the ability to ambulate. In separate proportional hazards models which controlled for age, sex, and education, composite measures of pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and leg strength were each associated with incident mobility disability (all P values < 0.001). Further, all three were related to the development of incident mobility disability when considered together in a single model (pulmonary function: hazard ratio [HR], 0.721; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577, 0.902; respiratory muscle strength: HR, 0.732; 95% CI, 0.593, 0.905; leg strength: HR, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.640, 0.976). Secondary analyses examining incident loss of the ability to ambulate revealed similar findings. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of pulmonary function and muscle strength are relatively independently associated with the development of mobility disability in the elderly. PMID:19934353

  3. The Effects of High Intensity Exercise on Overall Leg Strength of Non-Sickel-Cell-Trait and Sickle-Cell-Trait Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Hill, Jr.; Evans, Mel

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant difference in overall leg strength gains in individuals with sickle-cell-trait as compared to non-sickle-cell-trait individuals, as measured by the leg dynamometer. Twenty black male first-year college students were used in this study. The subjects were divided into a control…

  4. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  6. Core strength and lower extremity alignment during single leg squats.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Davis, Irene

    2006-05-01

    Muscles of the trunk, hip, and knee influence the orientation of the lower extremity during weight bearing activities. The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to compare the orientation of the lower extremity during a single leg (SL) squat among male and female athletes; second, to compare the strength of muscle groups in the trunk, hips, and knees between these individuals; and third, to evaluate the association between trunk, hip, and knee strength and the orientation of the knee joint during this activity. Twenty-four male and 22 female athletes participated in this study. Peak isometric torque was determined for the following muscle actions: trunk flexion, extension, and lateral flexion, hip abduction and external rotation, and knee flexion and extension. The frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee during a 45 degrees SL squat was determined using photo editing software. Males and females moved in opposite directions during the SL squat test (F(1,42) = 5.05, P = 0.03). Females typically moved toward more extreme FPPA during SL squats (P = 0.056), while males tended to move toward more neutral alignment (P = 0.066). Females also generated less torque in all muscle groups, with the exception of trunk extension. The projection angle of the knee during the SL squat test was most closely associated with hip external rotation strength. Using instruments suitable for a clinical setting, females were found to have greater FPPA and generally decreased trunk, hip, and knee isometric torque. Hip external rotation strength was most closely associated with the frontal plane projection angle.

  7. Effects of Variable Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soria-Gila, Miguel A; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Bautista, Iker J; Baena, Salvador; Chirosa, Luis J

    2015-11-01

    Variable resistance training (VRT) methods improve the rate of force development, coordination between antagonist and synergist muscles, the recruitment of motor units, and reduce the drop in force produced in the sticking region. However, the beneficial effects of long-term VRT on maximal strength both in athletes and untrained individuals have been much disputed. The purpose of this study was to compare in a meta-analysis the effects of a long-term (≥7 weeks) VRT program using chains or elastic bands and a similar constant resistance program in both trained adults practicing different sports and untrained individuals. Intervention effect sizes were compared among investigations meeting our selection and inclusion criteria using a random-effects model. The published studies considered were those addressing VRT effects on the 1 repetition maximum. Seven studies involving 235 subjects fulfilled the selection and inclusion criteria. Variable resistance training led to a significantly greater mean strength gain (weighted mean difference: 5.03 kg; 95% confidence interval: 2.26-7.80 kg; Z = 3.55; p < 0.001) than the gain recorded in response to conventional weight training. Long-term VRT training using chains or elastic bands attached to the barbell emerged as an effective evidence-based method of improving maximal strength both in athletes with different sports backgrounds and untrained subjects.

  8. Lower Limb Symmetry: Comparison of Muscular Power Between Dominant and Nondominant Legs in Healthy Young Adults Associated With Single-Leg-Dominant Sports.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Alex; Guiloff, Rodrigo; Rojas, Juan; Delgado, Iris; Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Achieving a symmetrical power performance (difference <15%) between lower limbs is generally recommended during sports rehabilitation. However, athletes in single-leg-dominant sports, such as professional soccer players, could develop significant asymmetry between their dominant and nondominant legs, such that symmetry does not act as a viable comparison. To (1) compare maximal muscular power between the dominant and nondominant legs in healthy young adults, (2) evaluate the effect of a single-leg-dominant sport activity performed at the professional level, and (3) propose a parameter of normality for maximal power difference in the lower limbs of this young adult population. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 78 healthy, male, young adults were divided into 2 groups according to sport activity level. Group 1 consisted of 51 nonathletes (mean ± SD age, 20.8 ± 1.5 years; weight, 71.9 ± 10.5 kg) who participated in less than 8 hours a week of recreational physical activity with nonspecific training; group 2 consisted of 27 single-leg-dominant professional soccer players (age, 18.4 ± 0.6 years; weight, 70.1 ± 7.5 kg) who specifically trained and competed at their particular activity 8 hours or more a week. For assessment of maximal leg power, both groups completed the single-leg squat jump test. Dominance was determined when participants completed 2 of 3 specific tests with the same extremity. Statistical analysis included the Student t test. No statistical difference was found for maximal power between dominant and nondominant legs for nonathletes ( t = -1.01, P = .316) or single-leg-dominant professional soccer players ( t = -1.10, P = .281). A majority (95%) of participants studied showed a power difference of less than 15% between their lower extremities. Among young healthy adults, symmetrical power performance is expected between lower extremities independent of the existence of dominance and difference in sport activity level. A less than 15

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF HIP STRENGTH ON KNEE KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE-LEGGED MEDIAL DROP LANDING AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidetomo; Omori, Go; Uematsu, Daisuke; Nishino, Katsutoshi; Endo, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    A smaller knee flexion angle and larger knee valgus angle during weight-bearing activities have been identified as risk factors for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. To prevent such injuries, attention has been focused on the role of hip strength in knee motion control. However, gender differences in the relationship between hip strength and knee kinematics during weight-bearing activities in the frontal plane have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hip strength on knee kinematics in both genders during a single-legged landing task in the frontal plane. The hypotheses were that 1) subjects with a greater hip strength would demonstrate larger knee flexion and smaller knee valgus and internal rotation angles and 2) no gender differences would exist during the single-legged landing task. Forty-three Japanese collegiate basketball players (20 males, 23 females) participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to evaluate knee kinematics during a single-legged medial drop landing (SML). A hand-held dynamometer was used to assess hip extensor (HEXT), abductor (HAB), and external rotator (in two positions: seated position [SHER] and prone [PHER]) isometric strength. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were determined for correlations between hip strength and knee kinematics at initial contact (IC) and peak (PK) during SML (p < 0.05). Negative correlations were observed between the knee valgus angle at IC and HEXT (ρ = -0.48, p = 0.02), HAB (ρ = -0.46, p = 0.03) and PHER (ρ = -0.44, p = 0.04) strength in females. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the knee flexion angle at PK and HEXT strength (ρ = 0.61, p = 0.004) in males. Significant correlations between hip strength and knee kinematics during SML were observed in both genders. Hip strength may, therefore, play an important role in knee motion control during sports activities

  10. Intracyclic Velocity Variation of the Center of Mass and Hip in Breaststroke Swimming With Maximal Intensity.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Koulexidis, Stylianos; Gketzenis, Panagiotis; Tzouras, Grigoris

    2018-03-01

    Gourgoulis, V, Koulexidis, S, Gketzenis, P, and Tzouras, G. Intra-cyclic velocity variation of the center of mass and hip in breaststroke swimming with maximal intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 830-840, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the center of mass (CM) and hip (HIP) intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimming using 3-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine male breaststrokes, of moderate performance level, swam 25-m breaststroke with maximal intensity, and their movements were recorded, both under and above the water surface, using 8 digital cameras. Their CM and HIP velocities and their intracyclic variations were estimated after manual digitization of 28 selected points on the body in a complete arm and leg breaststroke cycle. Paired sample t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, when the assumption of normality was broken, were used for statistical analyses. In both, CM and HIP velocity-time curves, the results revealed a similar pattern of 2 clear peaks associated with the leg and arm propulsive phases and 2 minimal velocities that corresponded to the arm and leg recovery phase and the lag time between the leg and arm propulsive phases, respectively. However, despite this similar general pattern, the HIP minimum resultant velocity was significantly lower, whereas its maximal value was significantly greater, than the corresponding CM values. Consequently, the HIP intracyclic swimming velocity fluctuation significantly overestimates the actual variation of the swimmer's velocity in breaststroke swimming.

  11. A Single 30-s Stretch Is Sufficient to Inhibit Maximal Voluntary Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Jason B.; Nelson, Arnold G.; Kokkonen, Joke

    2009-01-01

    While it has been well established that an acute stretching program can inhibit maximal muscle performance, the amount of stretching needed to produce the deleterious response is unknown. Therefore this study examined the dose-response relationship between acute stretching and strength inhibition. Eighteen college students performed a one…

  12. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  13. Muscle hypertrophy, strength development, and serum hormones during strength training in elderly women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Valkeinen, H; Häkkinen, K; Pakarinen, A; Hannonen, P; Häkkinen, A; Airaksinen, O; Niemitukia, L; Kraemer, W J; Alén, M

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects of strength training on maximal force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles and serum hormone concentrations in elderly females with fibromyalgia (FM). Twenty-six patients with FM were randomly assigned to a training (FMT; n = 13; mean age 60 years) or a control (FMC; n = 13; 59 years) group. FMT performed progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The measurements included maximal isometric and concentric leg extension forces, EMG activity of the vastus lateralis and medialis, CSA of the quadriceps femoris, and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol. Subjectively perceived symptoms of FM were also assessed. All patients were able to complete the training. In FMT strength training led to increases of 36% (p<0.001) and 33% (p<0.001) in maximal isometric and concentric forces, respectively. The CSA increased by 5% (p<0.001) and the EMG activity in isometric action by 47% (p<0.001) and in concentric action by 57% (p<0.001). Basal serum hormone concentrations remained unaltered during strength training. The subjective perceived symptoms showed a minor decreasing tendency (ns). No statistically significant changes occurred in any of these parameters in FMC. Progressive strength training increases strength, CSA, and voluntary activation of the trained muscles in elderly women with FM, while the measured basal serum hormone concentrations remain unaltered. Strength training benefits the overall physical fitness of the patients without adverse effects or any exacerbation of symptoms and should be included in the rehabilitation programmes of elderly patients with FM.

  14. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training.

    PubMed

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Sato, Kimitake; Wassinger, Craig A; Lamont, Hugh S; Stone, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of 2 different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to 2 groups: full range of motion (ROM) squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that there was a statistically significant group-by-time interaction for impulse scaled at 50, 90, and 250 milliseconds at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 milliseconds with 120° of knee flexion (p ≤ 0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120°, and impulse allometrically scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1RM) during the final 3 weeks of training (p ≤ 0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1RM squat (+3.1%, d = 0.53 vs. 0.32), 1RM partial squat (+4.7%, d = 0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d = 0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d = 0.50-1.01 vs. 0.30-0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d = 0.45-1.11 vs. 0.08-0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in men with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking

  17. Specificity of endurance, sprint and strength training on physical performance capacity in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, K; Mero, A; Kauhanen, H

    1989-03-01

    Three prebubescent athlete groups of endurance runners (E; n = 4), sprinters (S; n = 4) and weightlifters (WL; n = 4) and one control group (C; n = 6) as well as one junior but postpubescent weightlifter group (JWL; n = 6) volunteered as subjects in order to investigate specific effects of endurance, sprint and strength training on physical performance capacity during a 1 year follow-up period. The prepubescent E-group had higher (p less than 0.05) VO2 max (66.5 +/- 2.9 ml x kg1 x min-1) already at the beginning of the study than the other three groups. The prepubescent WL-group demonstrated greater (p less than 0.05) maximal muscular strength than the E-group and the WL-group increased its strength greatly by 21.4% (p less than 0.05) during the follow-up. No significant differences were observed in physical performance capacity between the prepubescent WL- and S-groups. Both groups demonstrated a slightly (ns.) better force-time curve recorded from the leg extensor muscles than the E-group and significant (p less than 0.05) increases occurred in these two groups in dynamic explosive performance during the follow-up. The postpubescent JWL-group demonstrated much greater (p less than 0.001) muscular mass and maximal strength than the prepubescent groups. No significant changes occurred in explosive types of performances in these athletes but significant (p less than 0.05) increase took place in the maximal neural activation and strength of the leg extensor muscles during the 1 year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Bilateral effects of 6 weeks' unilateral acupuncture and electroacupuncture on ankle dorsiflexors muscle strength: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi; Huang, Li-Ping; Liu, Jun; Yu, Jun-Hai; Tian, Qiang; Cao, Long-Jun

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of unilateral manual acupuncture at selected acupoints on ankle dorsiflexion strength of both limbs, and compare the effect with that of electroacupuncture at the same acupoints and sham points. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation laboratory of a university. Young men (N=43) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control; manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture on 2 acupoints (ST-36 and ST-39); and electroacupuncture on 2 nonacupoints. These points were located on the tibialis anterior muscle. The participants in the experimental groups received 15 to 30 minutes of acupuncture or electroacupuncture on the right leg in each session, 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks. The maximal strength in isometric ankle dorsiflexion of both legs was assessed before and after the experimental period. Repeated-measures analysis of variance identified significant and similar strength gains (range, 35%-64% in the right leg and 32%-49% in the left leg; P<.01) in all acupuncture groups, but not in the control group (-2% to 2%, P>.05). Unilateral manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture at the acupoints can improve muscle strength in both limbs, and electroacupuncture at the nonacupoints as used in this study can also induce similar strength gains. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual responses to combined endurance and strength training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kauhanen, Antti; Arija-Blázquez, Alfredo; Sillanpää, Elina; Rinkinen, Niina; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-03-01

    A combination of endurance and strength training is generally used to seek further health benefits or enhanced physical performance in older adults compared with either of the training modes alone. The mean change within a training group, however, may conceal a wide range of individual differences in the responses. The purpose, therefore, was to examine the individual trainability of aerobic capacity and maximal strength, when endurance and strength training are performed separately or concurrently. For this study, 175 previously untrained volunteers, 89 men and 86 women between the ages of 40 and 67 yr, completed a 21-wk period of either strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (ES) four times per week, or served as controls. Training adaptations were quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and maximal isometric bilateral leg extension force (MVC) in a dynamometer. A large range in training responses, similar to endurance or strength training alone, was also observed with combined endurance and strength training in both ΔVO2peak (from -8% to 42%) and ΔMVC (from -12% to 87%). There were no significant correlations between the training responses in VO2peak and MVC in the E, S, or especially in the ES group, suggesting that the same subjects did not systematically increase both aerobic capacity and maximal strength. The goal of combined endurance and strength training--increasing both aerobic capacity and maximal strength simultaneously--was only achieved by some of the older subjects. New means are needed to personalize endurance, strength, and especially combined endurance and strength training programs for optimal individual adaptations.

  20. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.

  1. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; van Hall, G; Holmberg, H -C; Rosdahl, H; Saltin, B

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg−1 min−1 in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean ± s.e.m.) 24 ± 2 years, height 180 ± 2 cm, weight 74 ± 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) 5.1 ± 0.1 l min−1 participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at ∼76% of V̇O2,max and at V̇O2,max with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26–27 l min−1), mean blood pressure (MAP) (∼87 mmHg), systemic VC, systemic oxygen delivery and pulmonary V̇O2 (∼4 l min−1) attained similar values regardless of exercise mode. The distribution of cardiac output was modified depending on the musculature engaged in the exercise. There was a close relationship between VC and V̇O2 in arms (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and legs (r = 0.98, P < 0.05). Peak arm VC (63.7 ± 5.6 ml min−1 mmHg−1) was attained during double poling, while peak leg VC was reached at maximal exercise with the diagonal technique (109.8 ± 11.5 ml min−1 mmHg−1) when arm VC was 38.8 ± 5.7 ml min−1 mmHg−1. If during maximal exercise arms and legs had been vasodilated to the observed maximal levels then mean arterial pressure would have dropped at least to 75–77 mmHg in our experimental conditions. It is concluded that

  2. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, M; Pelttari, P; Doma, K; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2016-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HR max ). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, p<0.001) and 24 (E+S+7±7%, E -6±5%, p<0.001) weeks. 1 000 m running time determined during an incremental field test decreased in E+S and E after 12 (-7±3%, p<0.001 and -8±5%, p=0.001) and 24 (-9±5%, p=0.001 and -13±5%, p<0.001) weeks. Strength training performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on leg flexor and extensor isokinetic strength in elite women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekir, U; Arabaci, R; Akova, B; Kadagan, S M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of static and dynamic stretching of the leg flexors and extensors on concentric and eccentric peak torque (PT) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the leg extensors and flexors in women athletes. Ten elite women athletes completed the following intervention protocol in a randomized order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. Stretched muscles were the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Before and after the stretching or control intervention, concentric and eccentric isokinetic PT and EMG activity of the leg extensors and flexors were measured at 60 and 180 degrees/s. Concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength at both test speeds displayed a significant decrease following static stretching (P<0.01-0.001). In contrast, a significant increase was observed after dynamic stretching for these strength parameters (P<0.05-0.001). Parallel to this, normalized EMG amplitude parameters exhibited significant decreases following static (P<0.05-0.001) and significant increases following dynamic stretching (P<0.05-0.001) during quadriceps and hamstring muscle actions at both concentric and eccentric testing modes. Our findings suggest that dynamic stretching, as opposed to static or no stretching, may be an effective technique for enhancing muscle performance during the pre-competition warm-up routine in elite women athletes.

  4. Surgery-Induced Changes and Early Recovery of Hip-Muscle Strength, Leg-Press Power, and Functional Performance after Fast-Track Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits. Objective(s) Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values) in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling. Design Prospective, cohort study. Setting Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011. Participants Thirty-five patients (65.9±7.2 years) undergoing THA. Main outcome measures Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively). Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined. Results Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41–58%, P<0.001), but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23–31%, P<0.017). Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL) improved at Day 8 (P<0.014). Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses. Conclusion(s) Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA – especially at Day 2 – with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post

  5. Twins Bed Rest Project: LBNP/Exercise Minimizes Changes in Lean Leg Mass, Strength and Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amorim, Fabiano T.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in muscle strength and endurance frequently are observed in non-weightbearing conditions such as bed rest (BR), spaceflight or limb immobilization. Purpose: Ow purpose was to determine if supine treadmill exercise against simulated gravity, by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), prevents loss of lean leg mass, strength and endurance during 30 d of 6deg head-down bed rest (BR). Methods: Fifteen pairs of monozygous twins (8 male, 7 female pairs; 26+/-4 yrs; 170+/-12 cm; 62.6+/-11.3 kg; mean+/-SD) were subjects in the present study. One sibling of each pair of twins was randomly assigned to either an exercise (EX) or non-exercise (CON) group. The EX twin walked/jogged on a vertical treadmill within LBNP chamber 6 d/wk using a 40-min interval exercise protocol at 40-80% of pre-BR VO(sub 2peak). LBNP was adjusted individually for each subject such that footward force was between 1.0 and 1.2 times body weight (-53+/-5 mmHg LBNP). The CON twin performed no exercise during BR. Subjects performed isokinetic knee (60 and 120deg/s) and ankle (60deg/s) testing to assess strength and endurance (End) before and after BR. They also had their lean leg mass (L(sub mass)) evaluated by DEXA before and after BR. Results: Changes in peak torque (T(sub pk)) were smaller for flexion (flex) than for extension (ext) after BR and did not differ between groups. The CON group had larger decreases (P<0.05) in L(sub mass), knee and ankle ext T(sub pk), and knee ext End.

  6. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  7. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  8. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  9. Greater Hip Extension but Not Hip Abduction Explosive Strength Is Associated With Lesser Hip Adduction and Knee Valgus Motion During a Single-Leg Jump-Cut

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Baker; Johnson, Samuel T.; Chang, Eunwook; Pollard, Christine D.; Norcross, Marc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationships between hip abductor and extensor strength and frontal plane hip and knee motions that are associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk are equivocal. However, previous research on these relationships has evaluated relatively low-level movement tasks and peak torque rather than a time-critical strength measure such as the rate of torque development (RTD). Hypothesis: Females with greater hip abduction and extension RTD would exhibit lesser frontal plane hip and knee motion during a single-leg jump-cutting task. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Forty recreationally active females performed maximal isometric contractions and single-leg jump-cuts. From recorded torque data, hip extension and abduction RTD was calculated from torque onset to 200 ms after onset. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to quantify frontal plane hip and knee kinematics during the movement task. For each RTD measure, jump-cut biomechanics were compared between participants in the highest (high) and lowest (low) RTD tertiles. Results: No differences in frontal plane hip and knee kinematics were identified between high and low hip abduction RTD groups. However, those in the high hip extension RTD group exhibited lower hip adduction (high, 3.8° ± 3.0°; low, 6.5° ± 3.0°; P = .019) and knee valgus (high, –2.5° ± 2.3°; low, –4.4° ± 3.2°; P = .046) displacements during the jump-cut. Conclusion: In movements such as cutting that are performed with the hip in a relatively abducted and flexed position, the ability of the gluteus medius to control hip adduction may be compromised. However, the gluteus maximus, functioning as a hip abductor, may take on a pivotal role in controlling hip adduction and knee valgus motion during these types of tasks. Clinical Relevance: Training with a specific emphasis on increasing explosive strength of the hip extensors may be a means through which to improve frontal plane hip and knee

  10. The single-leg Roman chair hold is more effective than the Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance in Gaelic footballers with previous hamstring injury.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ben; O'Neill, John; Pollock, Noel; Van Hooren, Bas

    2018-03-06

    Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.

  11. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  12. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  13. Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process. Age and strength loss.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Engelhardt, Martin

    2013-10-01

    aging process is associated with changes in muscle mass and strength with decline of muscle strength after the 30(th) life year. The aim of this study was to investigate these changes in muscle mass and strength. for this analysis 26 participants were subdivided in two groups. Group 1 comprises participants aged <40 years (n=14), group 2 those >40 years (n=12). We assessed anthropometrics, range of motions, leg circumferences and isometric strength values of the knee joints. besides comparable anthropometrics, circumferences and strength were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Circumference of upper leg (20 cm above knee articular space) showed for right leg a trend to a significant (median: 54.45 cm (1(st) quartile: 49.35/3(rd) quartile: 57.78) vs 49.80 cm (49.50/50.75), p=0.0526) and for left leg a significant 54.30 cm (49.28/58.13) vs 49.50 cm (48.00/52.53), p=0.0356) larger circumference in group 1. Isometric strength was in 60° knee flexion significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 for right (729.88N (561.47/862.13) vs 456.92N (304.67/560.12), p=0.00448) and left leg (702.49N (581.36/983.87) vs 528.49N (332.95/648.58), p=0.0234). aging process leads to distinct muscle mass and strength loss. Muscle strength declines from people aged <40 years to those >40 years between 16.6% and 40.9%.

  14. Muscular strength and incident hypertension in normotensive and prehypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Participants were 4147 men (age = 20-82 yr) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a one-repetition maximal leg and a one-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. During a mean follow-up of 19 yr, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in normotensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (P = 0.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (P = 0.26). The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF.

  15. Muscular Strength and Incident Hypertension in Normotensive and Prehypertensive Men

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. Purpose This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Methods Participants were 4147 men (20–82 years) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a 1-repetition maximal leg and a 1-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. Results During a mean follow-up of 19 years, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in normotensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (p=.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (p=.26). Conclusions The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF. PMID:19927030

  16. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional Methods Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants’ height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Results Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=<.01) and landed with greater hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=<.01) compared with their healthy counterparts. In the ACL group, Pearson's r demonstrated a moderate and indirect relationship (r=-.62, p=.03) between hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the

  17. THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HIP STRENGTH AND HIP KINEMATICS DURING A SINGLE LEG HOP IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES POST ACL RECONSTRUCTION COMPARED TO HEALTHY CONTROLS.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jeremiah; Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants' height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=<.01) and landed with greater hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=<.01) compared with their healthy counterparts. In the ACL group, Pearson's r demonstrated a moderate and indirect relationship ( r =-.62, p=.03) between hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the involved ( r =.62) and uninvolved limb ( r

  18. Muscular Strength and Power in 3-to 7-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew C; Irwin, Carol C; Nicoll, Justin X; Ferebee, David E

    2015-08-01

    To determine absolute and relative (adjusted for body mass) strength, mean power, and mean velocity for upper and lower body resistance exercises, forty-seven young boys and girls participated in maximal strength testing. Healthy young boys and girls, ages 3- to 7-years old, were tested for one-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength, and 70% of 1-RM to determine mean power and mean velocity on the chest press and leg press exercises. Adult weight machines were modified to accommodate the smaller size and lower strength levels of the children. A 2 × 4 (sex × age) ANOVA was used to determine age and sex differences in performance. No interaction or sex differences were observed for any variable at any age. 1-RM strength, mean power, and mean velocity significantly increased across ages (p ≤ .05). When adjusted for body mass, the changes were insignificant, with one exception. Relative mean power for the bench press increased with age. Data indicated children from 3-7 years of age are capable of performing strength and power tests, but may require more attempts at maximal loads compared with adults. It appears that muscular strength and velocity during this stage of development are primarily dependent on increasing body mass, whereas power is influenced by additional variable(s).

  19. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise.

    PubMed

    de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Alves, Victor Tavares; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of creatine (CR) supplementation on the acute interference induced by aerobic exercise on subsequent maximum dynamic strength (1RM) and strength endurance (SE, total number of repetitions) performance. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men were submitted to a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 41.56 ± 5.24 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv: 8.3 ± 1.18 km h(-1)), and baseline performance (control) on the 1RM and SE (4 × 80 % 1RM to failure) tests. After the control tests, participants were randomly assigned to either a CR (20 g day(-1) for 7 days followed by 5 g day(-1) throughout the study) or a placebo (PL-dextrose) group, and then completed 4 experimental sessions, consisting of a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (90 % ATv) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max) followed by either a leg- or bench-press SE/1RM test. CR was able to maintain the leg-press SE performance after the intermittent aerobic exercise when compared with C (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the PL group showed a significant decrease in leg-press SE (p ≤ 0.05). CR supplementation significantly increased bench-press SE after both aerobic exercise modes, while the bench-press SE was not affected by either mode of aerobic exercise in the PL group. Although small increases in 1RM were observed after either continuous (bench press and leg press) or intermittent (bench press) aerobic exercise in the CR group, they were within the range of variability of the measurement. The PL group only maintained their 1RM. In conclusion, the acute interference effect on strength performance observed in concurrent exercise may be counteracted by CR supplementation.

  20. Validity of maximal isometric knee extension strength measurements obtained via belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, Naoko; Kurobe, Yasushi; Momose, Kimito

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To determine the validity of knee extension muscle strength measurements using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with and without body stabilization compared with the gold standard isokinetic dynamometry in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy adults (mean age, 21.3 years) were included. Study parameters involved right side measurements of maximal isometric knee extension strength obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with and without body stabilization and the gold standard. Measurements were performed in all subjects. [Results] A moderate correlation and fixed bias were found between measurements obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization and the gold standard. No significant correlation and proportional bias were found between measurements obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry without body stabilization and the gold standard. The strength identified using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization may not be commensurate with the maximum strength individuals can generate; however, it reflects such strength. In contrast, the strength identified using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry without body stabilization does not reflect the maximum strength. Therefore, a chair should be used to stabilize the body when performing measurements of maximal isometric knee extension strength using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry in healthy adults. [Conclusion] Belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization is more convenient than the gold standard in clinical settings.

  1. An investigation of leg and trunk strength and reaction times of hard-style martial arts practitioners.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Oliver O; Cheung, Jeanette; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H; Strutton, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts. Key PointsMartial artists undertaking hard-style martial arts have greater strength in their knee flexor and extensor muscles as tested under isokinetic testing. Under isometric testing conditions they have stronger knee extensors only.The trunk musculature is generally higher under both conditions of testing in the martial artists, although not significantly.The total reaction times of the martial artists to an auditory stimulus were significantly faster than the control participants. When analysed further it was revealed that the decrease in reaction time

  2. An Investigation Of Leg And Trunk Strength And Reaction Times Of Hard-Style Martial Arts Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Oliver O; Cheung, Jeanette; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H.; Strutton, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts. Key Points Martial artists undertaking hard-style martial arts have greater strength in their knee flexor and extensor muscles as tested under isokinetic testing. Under isometric testing conditions they have stronger knee extensors only. The trunk musculature is generally higher under both conditions of testing in the martial artists, although not significantly. The total reaction times of the martial artists to an auditory stimulus were significantly faster than the control participants. When analysed further it was revealed that the decrease in reaction

  3. Functional and Neuromuscular Changes in the Hamstrings After Drop Jumps and Leg Curls

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

  4. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Morouço, Pedro G.; Marinho, Daniel A.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Neiva, Henrique; Marques, Mário C.

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female) randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking). A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r = 0.77, P < 0.01), whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws. PMID:26539511

  5. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  6. Knee Proprioception and Strength and Landing Kinematics During a Single-Leg Stop-Jump Task

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; House, Anthony J; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Context The importance of the sensorimotor system in maintaining a stable knee joint has been recognized. As individual entities, knee-joint proprioception, landing kinematics, and knee muscles play important roles in functional joint stability. Preventing knee injuries during dynamic tasks requires accurate proprioceptive information and adequate muscular strength. Few investigators have evaluated the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Objective To examine the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fifty physically active men (age = 26.4 ± 5.8 years, height = 176.5 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 79.8 ± 16.6 kg). Intervention(s) Three tests were performed. Knee conscious proprioception was evaluated via threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM). Knee strength was evaluated with a dynamometer. A 3-dimensional biomechanical analysis of a single-legged stop-jump task was used to calculate initial contact (IC) knee-flexion angle and knee-flexion excursion. Main Outcome Measure(s) The TTDPM toward knee flexion and extension, peak knee flexion and extension torque, and IC knee-flexion angle and knee flexion excursion. Linear correlation and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships of both proprioception and strength against landing kinematics. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Enhanced TTDPM and greater knee strength were positively correlated with greater IC knee-flexion angle (r range = 0.281–0.479, P range = .001–.048). The regression analysis revealed that 27.4% of the variance in IC knee-flexion angle could be accounted for by knee-flexion peak torque and TTDPM toward flexion (P = .001). Conclusions The current research highlighted the relationship between knee proprioception and strength and landing kinematics. Individuals with enhanced

  7. Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Maximizing Response to Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0763 TITLE: Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Maximizing Response...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2016-29 Sep 2017 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Increasing Bone Mass and Bone Strength in Individuals with...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Rapid bone loss is a universal

  8. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark C; Carville, Serena F; Smith, I Christopher H; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0.8 years) were studied. Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and leg extension power were measured bilaterally. The younger group was stronger in all muscles and types of contraction than both older groups (P < 0.02-0.0001). Strength differences between the older groups occasionally reached significance in individual muscles and types of contraction but overall the fallers had 85% of the strength and 79% of the power of the non-fallers (P < 0.001). Young subjects generated more power than both older groups (P < 0.0001) and the fallers generated less than the non-fallers (P = 0.03). Strength symmetry showed an inconsistent age effect in some muscles and some contraction types. This was similar overall in the two older groups. Both older groups had greater asymmetry in power than the young (P < 0.02-0.004). Power asymmetry tended to be greater in the fallers than the non-fallers but this did not reach significance. These data do not support the suggestion that asymmetry of strength and power are associated with either increasing age or fall history. Power output showed clear differences between age groups and fall status and appears to be the most relevant measurement of fall risk and highlights the cumulative effects on function of small changes in strength in individual muscle groups.

  9. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  10. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  11. Lower eccentric hamstring strength and single leg hop for distance predict hamstring injury in PETE students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting.

  12. Using Maximal Isometric Force to Determine the Optimal Load for Measuring Dynamic Muscle Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason R.; Nash, Roxanne E.; Sinka, Joseph; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal power output occurs when subjects perform ballistic exercises using loads of 30-50% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM). However, performing 1-RM testing prior to power measurement requires considerable time, especially when testing involves multiple exercises. Maximal isometric force (MIF), which requires substantially less time to measure than 1-RM, might be an acceptable alternative for determining the optimal load for power testing. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal load based on MIF for maximizing dynamic power output during leg press and bench press exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (12 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age: 31+/-6 y; body mass: 72 +/- 15 kg) performed isometric leg press and bench press movements, during which MIF was measured using force plates. Subsequently, subjects performed ballistic leg press and bench press exercises using loads corresponding to 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of MIF presented in randomized order. Maximal instantaneous power was calculated during the ballistic exercise tests using force plates and position transducers. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher LSD post hoc tests were used to determine the load(s) that elicited maximal power output. RESULTS: For the leg press power test, six subjects were unable to be tested at 20% and 30% MIF because these loads were less than the lightest possible load (i.e., the weight of the unloaded leg press sled assembly [31.4 kg]). For the bench press power test, five subjects were unable to be tested at 20% MIF because these loads were less than the weight of the unloaded aluminum bar (i.e., 11.4 kg). Therefore, these loads were excluded from analysis. A trend (p = 0.07) for a main effect of load existed for the leg press exercise, indicating that the 40% MIF load tended to elicit greater power output than the 60% MIF load (effect size = 0.38). A significant (p . 0.05) main effect of load existed for the bench press exercise; post hoc analysis indicated that the effect of

  13. Young Athletes With Quadriceps Femoris Strength Asymmetry at Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Demonstrate Asymmetric Single-Leg Drop-Landing Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ithurburn, Matthew P; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Schmitt, Laura C

    2015-11-01

    Young athletes who have had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction demonstrate suboptimal rates of return to sport, high rates of second ACL injuries, and persistent movement asymmetries. Therefore, the influence of musculoskeletal impairments on movement mechanics in this population needs to be further evaluated. The primary hypothesis was that among young athletes who have had ACL reconstruction, those with greater quadriceps strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered single-leg drop-landing mechanics at return to sport compared with individuals with more symmetric quadriceps strength and also compared with healthy controls (ie, those with no ACL reconstruction). A second hypothesis was that quadriceps strength symmetry would predict single-leg drop-landing symmetry in individuals who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. The study entailed a total of 103 participants (age, 17.4 years) at the time of return to sport after ACL reconstruction and 47 control participants (age, 17.0 years). The quadriceps index (QI) was calculated for isometric quadriceps strength, which was then used to divide the ACL reconstruction participants into high-quadriceps (QI ≥90%; n = 52) and low-quadriceps (QI <85%; n = 41) subgroups. Biomechanical data were collected by use of 3-dimensional motion analysis during a single-leg drop-landing task. The LSI was calculated for kinematic and kinetic sagittal-plane variables of interest during landing. Group differences were compared by use of 1-way analysis of variance and linear regression analyses (α < .05). Both the low- and high-quadriceps groups demonstrated greater limb asymmetry during landing compared with the control group in knee flexion excursion (mean LSI ± SD: low quadriceps, 85.8% ± 15.5% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 94.2% ± 15.6% [P = .019]; control, 102.7% ± 14.1%), peak trunk flexion angle (low quadriceps, 129.2% ± 36.6% [P < .001]; high quadriceps, 110.5% ± 22.6% [P = .03

  14. Therapeutic effects of maximal strength training on walking efficiency in patients with schizophrenia - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Jørn; Morken, Gunnar; Helgerud, Jan; Nilsberg, Geir E; Hoff, Jan

    2012-07-03

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently have disabling gait deficits. The net mechanical efficiency of walking (ϵnet) is an accurate measure often used to evaluate walking performance. Patients with gait deficits have a reduced ϵnet with excessive energy expenditure during sub-maximal walking. Maximal strength training (MST) improves ϵnet in healthy individuals and is associated with reduced risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MST improves ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. Patients (ICD-10 schizophrenia, schizotypal or delusional disorders (F20-F29)) were included in a non-randomized trial. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: 1) MST consisting of 4x4 repetitions at 85-90% one repetition maximum (1RM) performed in a leg press apparatus or 2) playing computer games (CG). Both groups carried out their activity three days per week for eight weeks. 1RM, ϵnet at 60 watt walking, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 36-items short form (SF-36) were measured pre and post intervention. The baseline ϵnet was 17.3 ± 1.2% and 19.4 ± 3.0% in the MST (n = 6) and CG groups (n = 7), respectively, which is categorized as mechanical inefficiency. The MST group improved 1RM by 79 kg (p = 0.006) and ϵnet by 3.4% (p = 0.046) more than the CG group. The MST group improved 1RM and ϵnet, by a mean of 83 kg (p = 0.028) and 3.4% (p = 0.028), respectively. VO2peak at baseline was 34.2 ± 10.2 and 38.3 ± 9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 in the MST and CG groups, respectively, and did not change (p > 0.05). No change was observed in PANSS or SF-36 (p > 0.05). MST improves 1RM and ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. MST could be used as a therapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia to normalize their reduced ϵnet.

  15. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV <10%, ICC >0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC <0.80. (1) Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  16. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (P<0.0001, effect size=0.31-0.42). Muscle weaknesses also persisted in the plantarflexors of the injured ankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (P<0.0001, effect size 0.27-0.31). The strength of the invertor and dorsiflexor muscles did not differ between sides. The use of an isokinetic protocol with preloading demonstrates significant but small strength deficits in the evertor and plantarflexor muscles. These impairments may contribute to the high incidence of recurrence of lateral ankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Age, Maturity, and Body Size on the Spatiotemporal Determinants of Maximal Sprint Speed in Boys.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Robert W; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B

    2017-04-01

    Meyers, RW, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Lloyd, RS, and Cronin, JB. Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Three-hundred and seventy-five boys (age: 13.0 ± 1.3 years) completed a 30-m sprint test, during which maximal speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were recorded using an optical measurement system. Body mass, height, leg length, and a maturity offset represented somatic variables. Step frequency accounted for the highest proportion of variance in speed (∼58%) in the pre-peak height velocity (pre-PHV) group, whereas step length explained the majority of the variance in speed (∼54%) in the post-PHV group. In the pre-PHV group, mass was negatively related to speed, step length, step frequency, and contact time; however, measures of stature had a positive influence on speed and step length yet a negative influence on step frequency. Speed and step length were also negatively influence by mass in the post-PHV group, whereas leg length continued to positively influence step length. The results highlighted that pre-PHV boys may be deemed step frequency reliant, whereas those post-PHV boys may be marginally step length reliant. Furthermore, the negative influence of body mass, both pre-PHV and post-PHV, suggests that training to optimize sprint performance in youth should include methods such as plyometric and strength training, where a high neuromuscular focus and the development force production relative to body weight are key foci.

  18. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Nicholas; Christian Gibbon, Karl; Howatson, Glyn; Grant Thompson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK), maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors) (MVC), static-squat jumps (SSJ), counter-movement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing power strokes (PS) and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m) with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG) analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST) sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01). However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05), and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086). In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected. PMID:28149354

  19. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p < 0.05). A significant interaction existed between side and gender for thigh length and peak vertical ground reaction force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p < 0.05) existed between the men and women in jump height, several anthropometric parameters, minimum ankle and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different.

  20. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  1. Laboratory on legs: an architecture for adjustable morphology with legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, G. Clark; Pusey, Jason; Knopf, Ryan; Johnson, Aaron M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2012-06-01

    For mobile robots, the essential units of actuation, computation, and sensing must be designed to fit within the body of the robot. Additional capabilities will largely depend upon a given activity, and should be easily reconfigurable to maximize the diversity of applications and experiments. To address this issue, we introduce a modular architecture originally developed and tested in the design and implementation of the X-RHex hexapod that allows the robot to operate as a mobile laboratory on legs. In the present paper we will introduce the specification, design and very earliest operational data of Canid, an actively driven compliant-spined quadruped whose completely different morphology and intended dynamical operating point are nevertheless built around exactly the same "Lab on Legs" actuation, computation, and sensing infrastructure. We will review as well, more briefly a second RHex variation, the XRL platform, built using the same components.

  2. Role of maximal inspiratory presure in the evaluetion of respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics - Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante Marcelino, Alessandra M F; da Silva, Hilton Justino

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic illness of the airways that can reduce respiratory muscle strength due to the resulting hyperinflation or treatment with corticosteroids. One of the ways to evaluate this respiratory muscular weakness is the Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax). A systematic review of the databases PUBMED/MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO was carried through, using the key words: Asthma, respiratory muscle and muscle strength. Fifty were found and six articles that evaluated the PImax in asthmatics, from these, thirty were excluded, making a total of twenty six articles. Through the present revision we show the effectiveness of PImax in evaluating respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics. More studies are needed, however, fot better understanding of the asthmatic individual. Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (3): 463-470. © 2010 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia/SPP.

  3. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii training on mechanical leg muscle function and postural balance in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Ole Bruno Faurholt; Aagaard, Per

    2013-07-01

    Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown. This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction strength (18%) than the control group at follow up (between-group difference = 269 N, 95% CI = 122; 416, and p = .001). In contrast, the center of pressure velocity moment did not differ (1%) between WII and CON at follow-up (between-group difference = 0.23 mm(2)/s, 95% CI = -4.1; 4.6, and p = .92). For secondary end points, pre-to-post changes favoring the WII group were evident in the rate of force development (p = .03), Timed Up and Go test (p = .01), short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p = .03), and 30-second repeated Chair Stand Test (p = .01). Finally, participants rated the Wii training highly motivating at 5 and 10 weeks into the intervention. Biofeedback-based Wii training led to marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction; rate of force development) and overall functional performance in community-dwelling older adults. Unexpectedly, static bilateral postural balance remained unaltered with Wii training. The high level of participant motivation suggests that biofeedback-based Wii exercise may ensure a high degree of compliance to home- and/or community

  4. Association between leg strength and muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris with the physical activity level in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Arévalo-Arévalo, Juan Manuel; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-03

    Aging is a complex physiological process whose main feature is the progressive loss of functionality, which may be delayed or attenuated by improving physical fitness.  To determine the association between leg strength and the muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in relation to physical activity level in the elderly.  Thirty-two functionally autonomous people over 80 years (men: 82.80±2.09 years; women: 83.77±4.09 years) participated in this study. The Barthel Index, the Yale Physical Activity Survey and the Chair Stand Test were the instruments used.  There were significant differences between sexes in muscle area (p<0.001) in the Chair Stand Test (p=0.028) and the walk index (p=0.029), with higher values in men. The muscle area and the Chair Stand Test correlated significantly with the walk index (r=0.445, p<0.005, and r=0.522, p<0.001, respectively) and the total weekly activity index (r=0.430, p<0.005, and r=0.519, p<0.001, respectively). In the multiple linear regression models for the total weekly activity index, muscle area and the Chair Stand Test, only the latter behaved as a predictor variable.  Muscle strength and muscle mass of quadriceps showed a significant association with the physical activity level in older people. Leg muscle strength was useful to reveal muscle mass and physical activity level in older people, which is relevant as a clinical practice indicator.

  5. Role of Vertical Jumps and Anthropometric Variables in Maximal Kicking Ball Velocities in Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Lois; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Sanchez-Molina, José Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kicking is one of the most important skills in soccer and the ability to achieve ma ximal kicking velocity with both legs leads to an advantage for the soccer player. This study examined the relationship be tween kicking ball velocity with both legs using anthropometric measurements and vertical jumps (a squat jump (SJ); a countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with the arm swing (CMJA) and a reactive jump (RJ)). Anthropome tric measurements did not correlate with kicking ball velocity. Vertical jumps correlated significantly with kicking ball velocity using the dominant leg only (r = .47, r = .58, r = .44, r = .51, for SJ, CMJ, CMJA and RJ, respectively) . Maximal kicking velocity with the dominant leg was significantly higher than with the non-dominant leg (t = 18.0 4, p < 0.001). Our results suggest that vertical jumps may be an optimal test to assess neuromuscular skills involved in kicking at maximal speed. Lack of the relationship between vertical jumps and kicking velocity with the non-dominant leg may reflect a difficulty to exhibit the neuromuscular skills during dominant leg kicking. PMID:28149419

  6. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    PubMed

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p < 0.05) following the second bout. Cortisol was increased until T24 (p < 0.05) although there were no differences between bouts and no differences were found for testosterone and T/C ratio (p > 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  7. Influence of respiratory muscle work on VO(2) and leg blood flow during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Wetter, T J; Harms, C A; Nelson, W B; Pegelow, D F; Dempsey, J A

    1999-08-01

    The work of breathing (W(b)) normally incurred during maximal exercise not only requires substantial cardiac output and O(2) consumption (VO(2)) but also causes vasoconstriction in locomotor muscles and compromises leg blood flow (Q(leg)). We wondered whether the W(b) normally incurred during submaximal exercise would also reduce Q(leg). Therefore, we investigated the effects of changing the W(b) on Q(leg) via thermodilution in 10 healthy trained male cyclists [maximal VO(2) (VO(2 max)) = 59 +/- 9 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)] during repeated bouts of cycle exercise at work rates corresponding to 50 and 75% of VO(2 max). Inspiratory muscle work was 1) reduced 40 +/- 6% via a proportional-assist ventilator, 2) not manipulated (control), or 3) increased 61 +/- 8% by addition of inspiratory resistive loads. Increasing the W(b) during submaximal exercise caused VO(2) to increase; decreasing the W(b) was associated with lower VO(2) (DeltaVO(2) = 0.12 and 0.21 l/min at 50 and 75% of VO(2 max), respectively, for approximately 100% change in W(b)). There were no significant changes in leg vascular resistance (LVR), norepinephrine spillover, arterial pressure, or Q(leg) when W(b) was reduced or increased. Why are LVR, norepinephrine spillover, and Q(leg) influenced by the W(b) at maximal but not submaximal exercise? We postulate that at submaximal work rates and ventilation rates the normal W(b) required makes insufficient demands for VO(2) and cardiac output to require any cardiovascular adjustment and is too small to activate sympathetic vasoconstrictor efferent output. Furthermore, even a 50-70% increase in W(b) during submaximal exercise, as might be encountered in conditions where ventilation rates and/or inspiratory flow resistive forces are higher than normal, also does not elicit changes in LVR or Q(leg).

  8. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living. PMID:25197712

  9. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  10. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Results Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Conclusion Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention. PMID:25926725

  11. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Torres, Ferran; Rubio, Jordi; Prieto, Esther; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of free leucine supplementation combined with resistance training versus resistance training only on muscle strength and functional status in older adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study with two intervention groups. Thirty older adults were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g leucine/day (leucine group [LG], n=15) or a placebo (control group [CG], n=15), plus resistance training over a 12-week period. Maximal overcoming isometric leg strength, functional status, nutritional status, body composition, health-related quality of life, depression, and dietary intake were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks. Missing data at 12 weeks were handled using mixed models for repeated measurements for data imputation. Twenty-four subjects completed the 4-week assessment and eleven completed the 12-week intervention. Clinically significant gains were found in isometric leg strength at both assessment time points. Analysis of the effect size also showed how participants in LG outperformed those in CG for chair stands and the timed up and go test. No significant changes were observed for the rest of the outcomes. Our combined analysis showed moderate changes in isometric leg muscle strength and certain components of functional status. The magnitude of changes found on these outcomes should be qualified as a positive effect of the concomitant intervention.

  12. Maximal Upper Body Strength and Oxygen Uptake are Associated with Performance in High-Level 200-M Sprint Kayakers.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Craig W; Nosaka, Kazunori; Zois, James; Hopkins, Will G; J, Anthony; Blazevich

    2017-12-27

    Current training and monitoring methods in sprint kayaking are based on the premise that upper-body muscular strength and aerobic power are both important for performance, but limited evidence exists to support this premise in high-level athletes. Relationships between measures of strength, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and 200-m race times in kayakers competing at national-to-international levels were examined. Data collected from Australian Canoeing training camps and competitions for 7 elite, 7 national and 8 club level male sprint kayakers were analyzed for relationships between maximal isoinertial strength (3-RM bench press, bench row, chin-up and deadlift), VO2max on a kayak ergometer, and 200-m race time. Correlations between race time and bench press, bench row, chin-up, and VO2max were -0.80, -0.76, -0.73, -0.02 and 0.71, respectively (90% confidence limits ∼±0.17). The multiple correlation coefficient for 200-m race time with bench press and VO2max was 0.84. Errors in prediction of 200-m race time in regression analyses were extremely large (∼4%) in relation to the smallest important change of 0.3%. However, from the slopes of the regressions, the smallest important change could be achieved with a 1.4% (±0.5%) change in bench-press strength and a 0.9% (±0.5%) change in VO2max. Substantial relationships were found between upper-body strength or aerobic power and 200-m performances. These measures may not accurately predict individual performance times, but would be practicable for talent identification purposes. Training aimed at improving upper-body strength or aerobic power in lowerperforming athletes could also enhance the performance in 200-m kayak sprints.

  13. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (P<0.05). Furthermore, low to high significant positive correlations were detected between the isokinetic measures of the knee extensors and the vertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, P<0.001). The results accounted for an optimal velocity at which a strong relationship could be obtained between isokinetic knee extensors strength and vertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  14. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when the dominant knee was flexed to 135 ° (23.49% MVIC) versus the traditional 90 ° (75.34% MVIC), while gluteal activation remained similarly high (51.01% and 57.81% MVIC in the traditional position, versus 47.35% and 57.23% MVIC in the modified position for the gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the

  15. Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and functional performance after short-term high intensity training.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Lephart, S M; Karunakara, R G

    1997-09-01

    The ability to maximally generate active muscle tension during resistance training has been established to be a primary determinant for strength development. The influence of intrasession rest intervals may have a profound effect on strength gains subsequent to short-term high intensity training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rest interval on strength and functional performance after four weeks of isokinetic training. Fifteen healthy college aged individuals were randomly assigned to either a short rest interval group (group 1, n = 8) or a long rest interval group (group 2, n = 7). Subjects were evaluated for quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength at 60 (five repetitions) and 180 (30 repetitions) degrees/second and functional performance with the single leg hop for distance test. One leg of each subject was randomly assigned to a four week, three days/week isokinetic strength training programme for concentric knee extension and flexion performed at 90 degrees/second. Subjects in group 1 received a 40 second rest interval in between exercise sets, whereas subjects in group 2 received a 160 second rest period. A two factor analysis of variance for the pre-test--post-test gain scores (%) showed significantly greater improvements for isokinetic hamstring total work and average power at 180 degrees/second for the trained limb of subjects in group 2 than their contralateral non-trained limb and the subjects in group 1. Significantly greater improvements for the single leg hop for distance were also found for the trained limbs of subjects in both groups as compared with the non-trained limbs. The findings indicate that a relatively longer intrasession rest period resulted in a greater improvement in hamstring muscle strength during short term high intensity training.

  16. Cardio-Respiratory Responses to Maximal Work During Arm and Bicycle Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; Hardison, George T.

    This study compared cardio-respiratory responses during maximal arm work using a Monarch Model 880 Rehab Trainer to cardio-respiratory responses during maximal leg work on a Monarch Model 850 Bicycle Ergometer. Subjects for the investigation were 17 male university students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age. The specific variables compared…

  17. Loading and performance of the support leg in kicking.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Cross sectional study. Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  19. Lower-extremity strength ratios of professional soccer players according to field position.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Cassio V; Minozzo, Felipe; Pinto, Matheus D; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S

    2015-05-01

    Previous investigators have proposed that knee strength, hamstrings to quadriceps, and side-to-side asymmetries may vary according to soccer field positions. However, different results have been found in these variables, and a generalization of this topic could lead to data misinterpretation by coaches and soccer clubs. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure knee strength and asymmetry in soccer players across different field positions. One hundred and two male professional soccer players performed maximal concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee actions on the preferred and nonpreferred legs at a velocity of 60° · s. Players were divided into their field positions for analysis: goalkeepers, side backs, central backs, central defender midfielders, central attacking midfielders, and forwards. Results demonstrated that only goalkeepers (GK) differed from most other field positions on players' characteristics, and concentric peak torque across muscles. Although all players presented functional ratios of the preferred (0.79 ± 0.14) and nonpreferred (0.75 ± 0.13) legs below accepted normative values, there were no differences between positions for conventional or functional strength ratios or side-to-side asymmetry. The same comparisons were made only between field players, without inclusion of the GK, and no differences were found between positions. Therefore, the hamstrings to quadriceps and side-to-side asymmetries found here may reflect knee strength functional balance required for soccer skills performance and game demands across field positions. These results also suggest that isokinetic strength profiles should be considered differently in GK compared with other field positions due to their specific physiological and training characteristics.

  20. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Assessment and monitoring of ballistic and maximal upper-body strength qualities in athletes.

    PubMed

    Young, Kieran P; Haff, G Gregory; Newton, Robert U; Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether the dynamic strength index (DSI: ballistic peak force/isometric peak force) could be effectively used to guide specific training interventions and detect training-induced changes in maximal and ballistic strength. Twenty-four elite male athletes were assessed in the isometric bench press and a 45% 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) ballistic bench throw using a force plate and linear position transducer. The DSI was calculated using the peak force values obtained during the ballistic bench throw and isometric bench press. Athletes were then allocated into 2 groups as matched pairs based on their DSI and strength in the 1RM bench press. Over the 5 wk of training, athletes performed either high-load (80-100% 1RM) bench press or moderate-load (40-55% 1RM) ballistic bench throws. The DSI was sensitive to disparate training methods, with the bench-press group increasing isometric bench-press peak force (P=.035, 91% likely), and the ballistic-bench-throw group increasing bench-throw peak force to a greater extent (P≤.001, 83% likely). A significant increase (P≤.001, 93% likely) in the DSI was observed for both groups. The DSI can be used to guide specific training interventions and can detect training-induced changes in isometric bench-press and ballistic bench-throw peak force over periods as short as 5 wk.

  2. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  3. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes.

    PubMed

    Kurt, C; Pekünlü, E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes.

  4. Can maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics predict playing level in division I American collegiate football players?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Ryan, Eric D; Sobolewski, Eric J; Smith, Doug B; Conchola, Eric C; Akehi, Kazuma; Buckminster, Tyler

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics could discriminate starters from nonstarters in elite Division I American collegiate football players. Sixteen starters (mean ± SD: age = 20.81 ± 1.28 years; height = 184.53 ± 6.58 cm; and mass = 108.69 ± 22.16 kg) and 15 nonstarters (20.40 ± 1.68 years; 182.27 ± 10.52 cm; and 104.60 ± 22.44 kg) performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg flexor and extensor muscle groups. Peak torque (PT), rate of torque development (RTD), the time to peak RTD (TTRTDpeak), contractile impulse (IMPULSE), and absolute torque values (TORQUE) at specific time intervals were calculated from a torque-time curve. The results indicated significant and nonsignificant differences between starters and nonstarters for the early rapid leg flexion torque characteristics that included RTD, IMPULSE, and TORQUE at 30 and 50 milliseconds, and TTRTDpeak. These variables also demonstrated the largest effect sizes of all the variables examined (0.71-0.82). None of the leg extensor variables, leg flexion PT, or later leg flexion rapid torque variables (≥ 100 milliseconds) were significant discriminators of playing level. These findings suggest that the early rapid leg flexion torque variables may provide an effective and sensitive muscle performance measurement in the identification of collegiate football talent. Further, coaches and practitioners may use these findings when designing training programs for collegiate football players with the intent to maximize rapid leg flexion characteristics.

  5. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Moriya, Erika T U; Maciel, Carlos D; Serrão, Fábio V

    2012-06-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. To determine whether there are any differences between the sexes in trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during the performance of a single-leg squat in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and control participants. Though there is a greater incidence of PFPS in females, PFPS is also quite common in males. Trunk kinematics may affect hip and knee function; however, there is a lack of studies of the influence of the trunk in individuals with PFPS. Eighty subjects were distributed into 4 groups: females with PFPS, female controls, males with PFPS, and male controls. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics and gluteal muscle activation were evaluated during a single-leg squat. Hip abduction and external rotation eccentric strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Group differences were assessed using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (sex by PFPS status). Compared to controls, subjects with PFPS had greater ipsilateral trunk lean (mean ± SD, 9.3° ± 5.3° versus 6.7° ± 3.0°; P = .012), contralateral pelvic drop (10.3° ± 4.7° versus 7.4° ± 3.8°; P = .003), hip adduction (14.8° ± 7.8° versus 10.8° ± 5.6°; P<.0001), and knee abduction (9.2° ± 5.0° versus 5.8° ± 3.4°; P<.0001) when performing a single-leg squat. Subjects with PFPS also had 18% less hip abduction and 17% less hip external rotation strength. Compared to female controls, females with PFPS had more hip internal rotation (P<.05) and less muscle activation of the gluteus medius (P = .017) during the single-leg squat. Despite many similarities in findings for males and females with PFPS, there may be specific sex differences that warrant consideration in future studies and when clinically evaluating and treating females with PFPS.

  6. Quantifying Bone–relevant Activity and its Relation to Bone Strength in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is critical for maximizing bone development during growth. However, there is no consensus on how well existing PA measurement tools predict bone strength. PURPOSE Compare four methods of quantifying physical activity (PA) (pedometer, 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ), and past year physical activity questionnaire (PYPAQ)), in young girls and evaluate their ability to predict indices of bone strength. METHODS 329 girls aged 8–13 years completed a pedometer assessment, the 3DPAR, the BPAQ, and a modified PYPAQ. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone strength index (BSI) at metaphyseal (4% distal femur and tibia) sites and strength-strain index (SSI) at diaphyseal (femur = 20%, tibia = 66%) sites of the non-dominant leg. Correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were used to assess relationships among PA measures and indices of bone strength. RESULTS After adjustment for maturity, correlations between PA measures and indices of bone strength were positive, although low (r = 0.01–0.20). Regression models that included covariates (maturity, body mass, leg length, and ethnicity) and PA variables showed that PYPAQ score was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BSI and SSI at all sites and explained more variance in BSI and SSI than any other PA measure. Pedometer steps were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with metaphyseal femur and tibia BSI and 3DPAR score was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with metaphyseal femur BSI. BPAQ score was not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with BSI or SSI at any sites. CONCLUSION A modified PYPAQ that accounts for the duration, frequency, and load of PA predicted indices of bone strength better than other PA measures. PMID:20631644

  7. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jared; Herr, Hugh

    2016-05-01

    Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT) values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured) with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  8. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strength Gains by Motor Imagery with Different Ratios of Physical to Mental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, Mathias; Büsch, Dirk; Munzert, Jörn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this training study was to determine the magnitude of strength gains following a high-intensity resistance training (i.e., improvement of neuromuscular coordination) that can be achieved by imagery of the respective muscle contraction imagined maximal isometric contraction (IMC training). Prior to the experimental intervention, subjects completed a 4-week standardized strength training program. 3 groups with different combinations of real maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and mental (IMC) strength training (M75, M50, M25; numbers indicate percentages of mental trials) were compared to a MVC-only training group (M0) and a control condition without strength training (CO). Training sessions (altogether 12) consisted of four sets of two maximal 5-s isometric contractions with 10 s rest between sets of either MVC or IMC training. Task-specific effects of IMC training were tested in four strength exercises commonly used in practical settings (bench pressing, leg pressing, triceps extension, and calf raising). Maximum isometric voluntary contraction force (MVC) was measured before and after the experimental training intervention and again 1 week after cessation of the program. IMC groups (M25, M50, M75) showed slightly smaller increases in MVC (3.0% to 4.2%) than M0 (5.1%), but significantly stronger improvements than CO (−0.2%). Compared to further strength gains in M0 after 1 week (9.4% altogether), IMC groups showed no “delayed” improvement, but the attained training effects remained stable. It is concluded that high-intensity strength training sessions can be partly replaced by IMC training sessions without any considerable reduction of strength gains. PMID:21897826

  10. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  11. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Prior, Steven J.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Macko, Richard F.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Methods Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Results ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P < .01) and non-paretic legs (161% versus 12%, P < .01). These gains were accompanied by group differences for 6MWD (P < .05) and VO2 peak (P < .05). Conclusion Our ST regimen had a large impact on the capacity to sustain submaximal muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. PMID:27865696

  12. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p < 0.01), whereas no changes in body mass occurred. No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for VO2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short

  13. Long-term adherence and effects on grip strength and upper leg performance of prescribed supplemental vitamin D in pregnant and recently pregnant women of Somali and Swedish birth with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency: a before-and-after treatment study.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Paul; Rodhe, Nils; Bergqvist, Yngve; Löfvander, Monica

    2016-11-15

    Muscular weakness and severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Somali (veiled) pregnant women, Sweden. The study aims here were to explore adherence to prescribed supplemental vitamin D in new mothers with vitamin D deficiency and its effects on grip strength and upper leg performance in Somali (target group TG) and Swedish women (reference group RG) from spring through winter. A before- and after study was designed. A cross-sectional sample of women in antenatal care with serum 25-OHD ≤50 nmol/L were prescribed one or two tablets daily (800 or 1600 IU vitamin D3 with calcium) for 10 months. Reminders were made by Somali nurses (TG) or Swedish doctors (RG). Baseline and 10 month measurements of plasma nmol/L 25-OHD, maximal grip strength held for 10 s (Newton, N) and ability to squat (yes;no) were done. Total tablet intake (n) was calculated. Outcome variables were changes from baseline in grip strength and ability to squat. Predicting variables for change in grip strength and ability to squat were calculated using linear and binary regression in final models. Undetectable 25-OHD values (<10 nmol/L) were replaced with '9' in statistic calculations. Seventy-one women (46 TG, 1/3 with undetectable baseline 25-OHD; 25 RG) participated. At the 10-month follow up, 17% TG and 8% RG women reported having refrained from supplement. Mean 25-OHD increased 16 to 49 nmol/L (TG) and 39 nmol/L to 67 nmol/L (RG), (both p < 0.001). Grip strength had improved from 153 to 188 N (TG) (p < 0.001) and from 257 to 297 N (RG) (p = 0.003) and inability to squat had decreased in TG (35 to 9, p < 0.001). Intake of number of tablets predicted increased grip strength (B 0.067, 95%CI 0.008-0.127, p = 0.027). One tablet daily (>300 in total) predicted improved ability to squat (OR 16; 95% CI 1.8-144.6). Adherence to supplemental vitamin D and calcium should be encouraged as an even moderate intake was associated to improved grip strength and upper leg

  14. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, Bengt; Calbet, José A L

    2006-01-01

    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake () within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O2 extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia, and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle O2 extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0 ± 1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O2 extraction was 83.2 ± 2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia. The capillary oxygen conductance of the lower extremity, a measure of oxygen diffusing capacity, was decreased in the Danish lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization, but was still higher than the value obtained from the high altitude natives. The values were (in ml min−1 mmHg−1) 55.2 ± 3.7 (SL), 48.0 ± 1.7 (W2), 37.8 ± 0.4 (W8) and 27.7 ± 1.5 (Nat). However, when correcting oxygen conductance for the observed reduction in maximal leg blood flow with acclimatization the effect diminished. When calculating a hypothetical leg at altitude using either the leg blood flow or the O2 conductance values obtained at sea level, the former values were almost completely restored to sea level values. This would suggest that the major determinant for not to increase with acclimatization is the observed reduction in maximal leg blood flow and O2 conductance. PMID:16581864

  15. Effects of six weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Donna M; Crowe, Melissa J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks of dietary supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB combined with creatine monohydrate (HMBCr) on the muscular strength and endurance, leg power, and anthropometry of elite male rugby league players. The subjects were divided into a control group (n = 8), a HMB group (n = 11; 3 g.d(-1)) or a HMBCr group (n = 11; 12 g.d(-1) with 3 g HMB, 3 g Cr, 6 g carbohydrates). Three repetition maximum lifts on bench press, deadlifts, prone row, and shoulder press, maximum chin-up repetitions, 10-second maximal cycle test, body mass, girths, and sum of skinfolds were assessed pre- and postsupplementation. Statistical analysis revealed no effect of HMB or HMBCr on any parameter compared with presupplementation measures or the control group. HMB and HMBCr were concluded to have no ergogenic effect on muscular strength and endurance, leg power, or anthropometry when taken orally by highly trained male athletes over 6 weeks.

  16. Effects of 18-week in-season heavy-resistance and power training on throwing velocity, strength, jumping, and maximal sprint swim performance of elite male water polo players.

    PubMed

    Ramos Veliz, Rafael; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Newton, Robert U; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of 18 weeks of strength and high-intensity training on key sport performance measures of elite male water polo (WP) players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 2 groups, control (in-water training only) and strength group, (strength training sessions [twice per week] + in-water training). In-water training was conducted 5 d·wk. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for upper bench press (BP) and lower full squat (FS) body, countermovement jump (CMJ), and throwing velocity were measured before and after the training. The training program included upper and lower body strength and high-intensity exercises (BP, FS, military press, pull-ups, CMJ loaded, and abs). Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the control group; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (2.38 cm, 6.9%, effect size [ES] = 0.48), BP (9.06 kg, 10.53%, ES = 0.66), FS (11.06 kg, 14.21%, ES = 0.67), throwing velocity (1.76 km·h(-1), 2.76%, ES = 0.25), and 20-m maximal sprint swim (-0.26 seconds, 2.25%, ES = 0.29). Specific strength and high-intensity training in male WP players for 18 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to WP. Therefore, we propose modifications to the current training methodology for WP players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  17. Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25% and accuracy of 93.48%.

  18. Knee strength, power and stair performance of the elderly 5 years after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Yumeng; Kakar, Rumit S; Fu, Yang-Chieh; Mahoney, Ormonde M; Kinsey, Tracy L; Simpson, Kathy J

    2018-04-13

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been shown to demonstrate some satisfactory short-term outcomes. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports on midterm or long-term knee extensor strength and leg extensor power post-UKA. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (1) to assess the isokinetic knee extensor strength, leg extensor power and stair performance of elderly participants at 5 years UKA post-operation; (2) to compare the differences in knee extensor strength and leg extensor power between the UKA and contralateral healthy limbs. Nineteen elderly participants (75 ± 5 years) who had a medial or a lateral compartment UKA at 5 years post-operation were recruited. The isokinetic knee extensor strength and leg extensor power were measured. The stair performance was tested on a 4-step stair, and ascent and descent velocities were calculated. The pain level was assessed. The UKA limbs' knee extensor strength and leg extensor power were 1.01 ± 0.39 Nm/kg and 0.98 ± 0.27 W/kg, respectively. The stair ascent and descent velocities were 0.37 ± 0.07 and 0.38 ± 0.11 m/s, respectively. In addition, the UKA limbs exhibited comparable knee strength and leg power relative to the contralateral limbs. In general, the knee extensor strength and leg extensor power exhibited by the UKA limbs at 5 years post-operation may be typical in comparison with the normative data. We suggest that UKA is a satisfactory treatment in regard to the recovery of knee strength, leg power and ability to climb up and down stairs.

  19. INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF THE MULTIPLE SINGLE-LEG HOP-STABILIZATION TEST AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH AGE, LEG DOMINANCE AND TRAINING.

    PubMed

    Sawle, Leanne; Freeman, Jennifer; Marsden, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Balance is a complex construct, affected by multiple components such as strength and co-ordination. However, whilst assessing an athlete's dynamic balance is an important part of clinical examination, there is no gold standard measure. The multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test is a functional test which may offer a method of evaluating the dynamic attributes of balance, but it needs to show adequate intra-tester reliability. The purpose of this study was to assess the intra-rater reliability of a dynamic balance test, the multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test on the dominant and non-dominant legs. Intra-rater reliability study. Fifteen active participants were tested twice with a 10-minute break between tests. The outcome measure was the multiple single-leg hop-stabilization test score, based on a clinically assessed numerical scoring system. Results were analysed using an Intraclass Correlations Coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) and Bland-Altman plots. Regression analyses explored relationships between test scores, leg dominance, age and training (an alpha level of p = 0.05 was selected). ICCs for intra-rater reliability were 0.85 for the dominant and non-dominant legs (confidence intervals = 0.62-0.95 and 0.61-0.95 respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed scores within two standard deviations. A significant correlation was observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg on balance scores (R 2 =0.49, p<0.05), and better balance was associated with younger participants in their non-dominant leg (R 2 =0.28, p<0.05) and their dominant leg (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05), and a higher number of hours spent training for the non-dominant leg R 2 =0.37, p<0.05). The multiple single-leg hop-stabilisation test demonstrated strong intra-tester reliability with active participants. Younger participants who trained more, have better balance scores. This test may be a useful measure for evaluating the dynamic attributes of balance. 3.

  20. The Effects of a Sport-Specific Maximal Strength and Conditioning Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, and 5-km Race Performance.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bettina; Stevens, Liesbeth; Colpus, Mark; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT). 16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy). Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-training-only group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests. No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training. Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.

  1. Neuromuscular Evaluation With Single-Leg Squat Test at 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael P.; Paik, Ronald S.; Ware, Anthony J.; Mohr, Karen J.; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2015-01-01

    Background: Criteria for return to unrestricted activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction varies, with some using time after surgery as the sole criterion—most often at 6 months. Patients may have residual neuromuscular deficits, which may increase the risk of ACL injury. A single-leg squat test (SLST) can dynamically assess for many of these deficits prior to return to unrestricted activity. Hypothesis: A significant number of patients will continue to exhibit neuromuscular deficits with SLST at 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients using a standardized accelerated rehabilitation protocol at their 6-month follow-up after primary ACL reconstruction were enrolled. Evaluation included bilateral SLST, single-leg hop distance, hip abduction strength, and the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. Poor performance of the operative leg SLST was found in 15 of 33 patients (45%). Of those 15 patients, 7 (45%) had concomitant poor performance of the nonoperative leg compared with 2 of 18 patients (11%) in those who demonstrated good performance in the operative leg. The poor performers were significantly older (33.6 years) than the good performers (24.2 years) (P = .007). Those with poor performance demonstrated decreased hip abduction strength (17.6 kg operative leg vs 20.5 kg nonoperative leg) (P = .024), decreased single-leg hop distance (83.3 cm operative leg vs 112.3 cm nonoperative leg) (P = .036), and lower IKDC scores (67.9 vs 82.3) (P = .001). Conclusion: Nearly half of patients demonstrated persistent neuromuscular deficits on SLST at 6 months, which is when many patients return to unrestricted activity. Those with poor performance were of a significantly older age, decreased hip abduction strength, decreased single-leg hop distance, and lower IKDC subjective scores. Clinical Relevance: The SLST

  2. Evaluating injury risk in first and second league professional Portuguese soccer: muscular strength and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alberto; Brown, Scott; Abade, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75) and second league (n = 84) Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively) compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.

  3. Evaluating injury risk in first and second league professional Portuguese soccer: muscular strength and asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alberto; Brown, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75) and second league (n = 84) Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively) compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players. PMID:28149364

  4. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  5. Does a bout of strength training affect 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power 24 h later?

    PubMed

    Gee, Thomas I; French, Duncan N; Howatson, Glyn; Payton, Stephen J; Berger, Nicolas J; Thompson, Kevin G

    2011-11-01

    Rowers regularly undertake rowing training within 24 h of performing bouts of strength training; however, the effect of this practice has not been investigated. This study evaluated the impact of a bout of high-intensity strength training on 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power. Eight highly trained male club rowers performed baseline measures of five separate, static squat jumps (SSJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing ergometer power strokes (PS) and a single 2,000 m rowing ergometer test (2,000 m). Subsequently, participants performed a high-intensity strength training session consisting of various multi-joint barbell exercises. The 2,000 m test was repeated at 24 and 48 h post-ST, in addition SSJ, CMJ and PS tests were performed at these time points and also at 2 h post-ST. Muscle soreness, serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-ST and 2, 24 and 48 h post-ST. Following the ST, there were significant elevations in muscle soreness (2 and 24 h, P < 0.01), CK (2, 24 and 48 h, P < 0.01), and LDH (2 h, P < 0.05) in comparison to baseline values. There were significant decrements across all time points for SSJ, CMJ and PS, which ranged between 3 and 10% (P < 0.05). However, 2,000 m performance and related measurements of heart rate and blood lactate were not significantly affected by ST. In summary, a bout of high-intensity strength training resulted in symptoms of muscle damage and decrements in rowing-specific maximal power, but this did not affect 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance in highly trained rowers.

  6. Acute achilles tendon repair: strength outcomes after an acute bout of exercise in recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Porter, David A; Barnes, Adam F; Rund, Angela M; Kaz, Ari J; Tyndall, James A; Millis, Andrew A

    2014-02-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the effect of an acute bout of exercise on strength evaluation after Achilles tendon (AT) rupture and repair. Forty patients sustained an acute AT injury and met inclusion criteria for this study. At a minimum of 12 months after operative repair, patients were measured for (1) calf circumference, (2) bilateral isokinetic strength on a Cybex dynamometer before and after 30 minutes of walking at 70% maximal exertion, and (3) subjective evaluation by AAOS lower limb core and foot and ankle modules. Follow-up occurred at a mean of 32.4 ± 20.7 (range, 12-80) months after surgery, and patients were on average 44.4 ± 8.6 (range, 20-62) years old. One-tailed Student's paired t tests analyzed significance for strength and fatigue between the involved and uninvolved ankle (P < .05). The calf circumference of the involved ankle was significantly smaller than the uninvolved ankle by 1.9 cm, or 4.7%. Plantarflexion deficits of the involved ankle ranged from 12% to 18% for peak torque (P < .0001) and from 17% to 25% for work per repetition (P < .0001), but both ankles fatigued at equal proportions as measured after exercise. Dorsiflexion strength of the involved ankle increased 6% to 11% for peak torque (P = .070) and 1% to 25% for peak work (P = .386). Reported AAOS lower limb core and foot and ankle scores averaged 99.8 and 96.0, respectively. After an AT rupture with repair, patients had less plantarflexion strength, and equal dorsiflexion strength in the operative leg compared to the uninvolved, normal leg. However, subjective results indicated near normal pain and function despite mild plantarflexion strength deficits. Dorsiflexion strength was normal after repair and remained normal even after an acute bout of exercise. Plantarflexion strength ratios postexercise remained similar to pre-exercise after acute exercise bouts. Athletes reported a "flat tire" feeling while running, which suggests a probable gait adjustment as cause for long

  7. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Concurrent Strength and HIIT Training in Octogenarians with COPD.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Aznar-Laín, Susana; Mañas, Asier; Castellanos, Juan; Alcázar, Julián; Ara, Ignacio; Mata, Esmeralda; Daimiel, Rosa; García-García, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of concurrent strength and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on octogenarian COPD patients, nine males (age = 84.2 ± 2.8 years, BMI = 29.3 ± 2.3) with low to severe COPD levels (2.1 ± 1.5 BODE index) underwent a supervised 9-week strength and HIIT exercise program. Training had a significant (p < .05) impact on senior fitness test scores (23-45%), 30-m walking speed (from 1.29 ± 0.29-1.62 ± 0.33 m/s), leg and chest press 1RM (38% and 45% respectively), maximal isometric strength (30-35%), and 6-min walking test (from 286.1 ± 107.2-396.2 ± 106.5 m), and tended to increase predicted forced vital capacity by 14% (p = .07). One year after the intervention all training-induced gains returned to their preintervention values except for the chest press 1RM (p <.05). Short-term concurrent strength and HIIT training increases physical fitness in the oldest-old COPD patients, and has potential long-term benefits.

  8. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation.

    PubMed

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often without appropriate control groups. We measured a broad array of neuromuscular functions between legs of ACL patients and compared outcomes to age, sex, and physical activity matched controls. Thirty-two ACL-deficient patients (208 ± 145 days post-injury) and active and less-active controls (N = 20 each) participated in the study. We measured single- and multi-joint neuromuscular function in both legs in each group and expressed the overall neuromuscular function in each leg by calculating a mean z-score across all neuromuscular measures. A group by leg MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to examine group and leg differences for the selected outcomes. After an ACL injury, duration (-4.3 h/week) and level (Tegner activity score of -3.9) of sports activity decreased and was comparable to less-active controls. ACL patients showed bilateral impairments in the star excursion balance test compared to both control groups (P ≤ 0.004) and for central activation ratio compared to active controls (P ≤ 0.002). There were between-leg differences within each group for maximal quadriceps and hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, star excursion balance test performance, and single-leg hop distance (all P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in quadriceps force accuracy and variability, knee joint proprioception, and static balance. Overall neuromuscular function (mean z-score) did not differ between groups, but ACL patients' non-injured leg displayed better neuromuscular function than the injured leg (P < 0.05). Except for poorer dynamic balance and reduced quadriceps activation, ACL patients had no bilateral neuromuscular deficits despite

  9. Muscular strength profile in Tunisian male national judo team.

    PubMed

    Ghrairi, Mourad; Hammouda, Omar; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2014-04-01

    it is well established that muscle strength is a determinant factor in judo. However, little data are available for African athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide reference data of the muscular strength profile (MSP) for an African team, Tunisian judo team. the study was conducted among ten international judo athletes from Tunisia. To determine their MSP, we used an isokinetic dynamometer to assess Hamstrings, Quadriceps of both knees and external, internal rotators of both shoulders. The angular velocities of the assessments were; 90, 180, 240°/s for the knees and 60, 120°/s for the shoulders. MSP was determined based on two parameters; the maximum peak torque (PT) of each muscle and the ratio agonistic/antagonistic muscles (R). The knee extensors and flexors in the "supporting leg" had higher PT than in the "attacking leg"; respectively, 245N.m versus 237 (p<0.05) and 147 N.m versus 145 (p>0.05). R was normal for both legs. Furthermore, both rotators of the dominant shoulder had higher PT; 84 N.m versus 71 for the internal rotators (p<0.05) and 34,7 N.m versus 29,0 for the lateral rotators (p<0.05). Inversely, R was higher in the non-dominant side; 45% versus 35, p<0.05). the MSP of the selected elites Tunisian judo athletes was characterized by 3 major features; a strength of the quadriceps in the standing leg significantly higher than in the attacking leg, a normal muscular balance Hamstrings/quadriceps in both legs and a strength of the shoulder' rotators higher in the dominant side.

  10. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-12-07

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments.

  11. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-12-01

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments.

  12. Effects of combined and classic training on different isometric rate of force development parameters of leg extensors in female volleyball players: Discriminative analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Branislav, Rajić; Milivoj, Dopsaj; Abella, Carlos Pablos; Deval, Vicente Caratalla; Siniša, Karišik

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to verify the effects of the combined and classic training of different isometric rates of force development (RFD) parameters of legs. Materials and Methods: Three groups of female athletes was tested: Experimental group (N = 12), classically trained group (N = 11), and control group (N = 20) of athletes. The isometric “standing leg extension” and “Rise on Toes” tests were conducted to evaluate the maximal force, time necessary time to reach it and the RFD analyzed at 100 ms, 180 ms, 250 ms from the onset, and 50-100% of its maximal result. Results: The maximal RFD of legs and calves are dominant explosive parameters. Special training enhanced the RFD of calves of GROUPSPEC at 100 ms (P = 0.05), at 180 ms (P = 0.039), at 250 ms (P = 0.039), at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.031) and the Fmax (P = 0.05). Domination of GROUPSPEC toward GROUPCLASS and GROUPCONTROL is in case of legs at 100 ms (P = 0.04); at 180 ms (P = 0.04); at 250 ms (P = 0.00); at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.01) and at the Fmax (P = 0.00); in case of calves at 100 ms (P = 0.07); 180 ms (P = 0.001); at 250 ms (P = 0.00); at 50% of the Fmax (P = 0.00) and at Fmax (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Dominant explosive factors are maximal RFD of leg extensors and calves, and legs at 250ms. Specific training enhanced explosiveness of calves of GROUPSPEC general and partial domination of GROUPSPEC by 87% over GROUPCLASS, and 35% over GROUPCONTROL. PMID:24497853

  13. Decreased muscle strength is associated with impaired long-term functional outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Larsen, P; Elsoe, R; Graven-Nielsen, T; Laessoe, U; Rasmussen, S

    2015-12-01

    To examine the long-term outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral diaphysial fractures measured as disease-specific patient reported function, walking ability, muscle strength, pain and quality of life (QOL). Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review and follow-up with clinical examination of 48 patients treated with intramedullary nailing after femoral shaft fracture between 2007 and 2010. The patients underwent a clinical examination and assessment of walking ability, maximal muscle strength during knee flexion and extension and hip abduction. Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and questionnaire evaluating QOL (Eq5D-5L) were completed by patients. Fourty-eight patients agreed to participate. Mean time for follow-up was 4.7 years. The mean HOOS scores were 84.9 (Pain), 86.6 (ADL), 85.0 (Symptoms), 72.6 (QOL), and 69.1 (Sport). The mean muscle strength of knee flexion with the injured leg (226.0 N) was significantly lower then knee flexion with the non-injured leg (259.5 N, P < 0.0001). Likewise for knee extension (335.2 vs 406.4 N, P < 0.001) and hip abduction (129.2 vs 156.0 N, P < 0.001). Significant association between HOOS and an increase in the difference in muscle strength were observed as well as between worse HOOS outcome and increasing body mass index. This study showed that decreased muscle strength for knee flexion, knee extension and hip abduction was associated with worse long-term functional outcome measured with a disease-specific questionnaire (HOOS) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture.

  14. The effect of an intensive exercise programme on leg function in chronic stroke patients: a pilot study with one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Stock, Roland; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of two weeks of intensive exercise on leg function in chronic stroke patients and to evaluate the feasibility of an intensive exercise programme in a group setting. Pilot study with one-group pre-test post-test design with two pre-tests and one-year follow-up. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twelve hemiparetic patients completed the intervention. Ten patients participated at one-year follow-up. Six hours of daily intensive exercise for two weeks with focus on weight-shifting towards the affected side and increased use of the affected extremity during functional activities. An insole with nubs in the shoe of the non-paretic limb was used to reinforce weight-shift toward the affected side. Timed Up and Go, Four Square Step Test, gait velocity, gait symmetry and muscle strength in knee and ankle muscles. Maximal gait velocity (P = 0.002) and performance time (seconds) on Timed Up and Go (mean, SD; 12.2, 3.8 vs. 9.4, 3.2) and Four Square Step Test improved from pre- to post-test (P = 0.005). Improvements remained significant at follow-up. Preferred gait velocity and gait symmetry remained unchanged. Knee extensor (P<50.009) and flexor (P<50.001) strength increased bilaterally from pre- to post-test but only knee flexor strength remained significant at follow-up. Ankle dorsi flexor (P = 0.02) and plantar flexor (P<0.001) strength increased on paretic side only (not tested at follow-up). Intensive exercise for lower extremity is feasible in a group setting and was effective in improving ambulatory function, maximal gait velocity and muscle strength in chronic stroke patients. Most improvements persisted at the one-year follow-up.

  15. Non-linear dynamics in muscle fatigue and strength model during maximal self-perceived elbow extensors training.

    PubMed

    Gacesa, Jelena Popadic; Ivancevic, Tijana; Ivancevic, Nik; Paljic, Feodora Popic; Grujic, Nikola

    2010-08-26

    Our aim was to determine the dynamics in muscle strength increase and fatigue development during repetitive maximal contraction in specific maximal self-perceived elbow extensors training program. We will derive our functional model for m. triceps brachii in spirit of traditional Hill's two-component muscular model and after fitting our data, develop a prediction tool for this specific training system. Thirty-six healthy young men (21 +/- 1.0 y, BMI 25.4 +/- 7.2 kg/m(2)), who did not take part in any formal resistance exercise regime, volunteered for this study. The training protocol was performed on the isoacceleration dynamometer, lasted for 12 weeks, with a frequency of five sessions per week. Each training session included five sets of 10 maximal contractions (elbow extensions) with a 1 min resting period between each set. The non-linear dynamic system model was used for fitting our data in conjunction with the Levenberg-Marquardt regression algorithm. As a proper dynamical system, our functional model of m. triceps brachii can be used for prediction and control. The model can be used for the predictions of muscular fatigue in a single series, the cumulative daily muscular fatigue and the muscular growth throughout the training process. In conclusion, the application of non-linear dynamics in this particular training model allows us to mathematically explain some functional changes in the skeletal muscle as a result of its adaptation to programmed physical activity-training. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic CP.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Beckung, Eva

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral palsy is often associated with an abnormal gait pattern. This study put focus on relation between muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and compares them with a reference group. In total 20 children with CP and 20 typically developing children participated. They were all assessed with measurement of muscle strength in eight muscle groups in the legs and a 3-dimensional gait analysis including force data. It was found that children with CP were not only significantly weaker in all muscle groups but also walked with slower velocity and shorter stride length when compared with the reference group. Gait moments differed at the ankle level with significantly lower moments in children with CP. Gait moments were closer to the maximal muscle strength in the group of children with CP. Furthermore a correlation between plantarflexing gait moment and muscle strength was observed in six of the eight muscle groups in children with CP, a relation not found in the reference group. A similar pattern was seen between muscle strength and generating ankle power with a rho=0.582-0.766. The results of this study state the importance of the relationship of the overall muscle strength pattern in the lower extremity, not only the plantarflexors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees: a 9-month randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This 9-month randomised controlled workplace physical activity trial investigated the effects of soccer and Zumba exercise, respectively, on muscle strength, maximal jump height, sit-and-reach flexibility and postural sway among female workers. A total of 107 female hospital employees aged 25-63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal neck extension strength both after 3 (1.2 kg; P < 0.05) and 9 months (1.7 kg; P < 0.01) compared to the control group. The Zumba group improved maximal trunk extension strength (3.1 kg; P = 0.04) after 3 months, with improvements in postural sway velocity moment (-9.2 mm(2)/s; P < 0.05) and lower limb lean mass (0.4 kg; P < 0.05) after 9 months. No significant intervention effects were revealed in vertical jump height or sit-and-reach flexibility. The present study indicates that workplace-initiated soccer and Zumba exercise may be beneficial for improvement of the neck and trunk strength, which may have preventive effects with regard to future perceived muscle pain in the respective body regions. Furthermore, the Zumba group revealed positive effects on lower limb lean mass and postural sway compared to the control group.

  18. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-06-01

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e., exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 yr) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume, and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals, but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 vs 104 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 vs 101 ± 10 mm Hg, P < 0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single leg and the double leg (267 ± 150 vs 214 ± 169 μM·cm, P = 0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (P < 0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3% ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1% ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  19. Fall and balance outcomes after an intervention to promote leg strength, balance, and walking in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: "feet first" randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Robin L; Lemaster, Joseph W; Madsen, Richard W

    2010-11-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been discouraged for people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DM+PN). However, people with diabetes mellitus and insensate feet have an increased risk of falling. Lower-extremity exercise and balance training reduce fall risk in some older adults. It is unknown whether those with neuropathy experience similar benefits. As part of a study of the effects of weight-bearing exercise on foot ulceration in people with DM+PN, the effects of a lower-extremity exercise and walking intervention on balance, lower-extremity strength (force-generating capacity), and fall incidence were determined. Design The study was an observer-masked, 12-month randomized controlled trial. Part 1 of the intervention took place in physical therapy offices, and part 2 took place in the community. The participants were 79 people who were mostly sedentary, who had DM+PN, and who were randomly assigned to either a control group (n=38) or an intervention group (n=41). Intervention Part 1 included leg strengthening and balance exercises and a graduated, self-monitored walking program; part 2 included motivational telephone calls. Both groups received regular foot care, foot care education, and 8 sessions with a physical therapist. The measurements collected were strength, balance, and participant-reported falls for the year after enrollment. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for falls during follow-up. At 12 months, there was a small increase in the amount of time that participants in the intervention group could stand on 1 leg with their eyes closed. No other strength or balance measurements differed between the groups. The study was designed to detect differences in physical activity, not falls. The intensity of the intervention was insufficient to improve strength and balance in this population. The training program had a minimal effect on participants' balance and lower-extremity strength. Increasing weight

  20. Bilateral and Unilateral Asymmetries of Isokinetic Strength and Flexibility in Male Young Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated bilateral and unilateral asymmetries of strength and flexibility in male young professional soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) participated in this study. A Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to assess the hamstring and quadriceps strength at selected speeds of 60°/s, 180°/s and 300°/s. Hip joint flexibility was measured using a goniometer. No difference was observed in conventional strength ratio, dynamic control ratio and fast/slow speed ratio between the dominant and non-dominant legs (p>0.05). All but one of the players (97.2%) had musculoskeletal abnormality (bilateral imbalance > 10%) in one or more specific muscle groups. The dominant leg had greater hip joint flexibility compared with the non-dominant leg (108.8 ± 10.7° versus 104.6 ± 9.8°, respectively). The findings support the hypothesis that physical performance and movement pattern experienced during soccer playing may negatively change the balance of strength in both legs (bilateral strength balance), but not on the same leg of the young male professional soccer players. The results can be helpful for trainers and coaches to decide whether the players need to improve their balance and strength which in turn may prevent injury. It is suggested that in professional soccer training, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, as well as hip joint flexibility should not be overlooked. PMID:23717354

  1. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P < 0.05 vs. before bed rest) and reduced the maximal voluntary force of plantar flexion by 15%. In contrast, bed rest did not alter the increase in MSNA response to fatiguing handgrip and had no effects on the maximal voluntary force of handgrip. Although PEMI sustained MSNA activation before bed rest in all trials, bed rest entirely eliminated the PEMI-induced increase in MSNA in leg exercises but partially attenuated it in forearm exercises. These results do not support our hypothesis but indicate that bed rest causes a reduction in isometric exercise-induced sympathetic activation in (probably atrophied) antigravity leg muscles.

  2. A system for evaluation and exercise-conditioning of paralyzed leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruner, J A; Glaser, R M; Feinberg, S D; Collins, S R; Nussbaum, N S

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop instrumentation and protocols in which electrical stimulation is used to induce exercise in paralyzed quadriceps muscles strength and endurance evaluation and conditioning. A computer-controlled electrical stimulation system, using surface electrodes, automatically regulates the bouts of leg extension exercise. Load weights attached just above the ankles can be progressively increased over a number of training sessions in such a manner that a measure of the fitness of the legs can be obtained. With three exercise sessions per week for 9 weeks, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscles of two paraplegic and four quadriplegic subjects were gradually and safely increased. During exercise at a means load weight of 5.4 kg, means heart rate did not rise above rest, whereas systolic blood pressure increased about 20 mm Hg, and skin temperature above the active muscles increased about 1.75 degrees C. Such exercise conditioning appears to be safe and may provide important health benefits, including improved fitness of the muscles and bones, better circulation in the paralyzed limbs, and enhanced self-image. Conditioned electrically stimulated paralyzed leg muscles may be used for locomotion in conjunction with special vehicles.

  3. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength profiling in professional rugby league and rugby union.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Griffiths, Peter C; Cronin, John B

    2014-03-01

    While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players. 32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players. Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/ flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s. Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49-2.26) than rugby union players. It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

  4. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  5. Lower limb progressive resistance training improves leg strength but not gait speed or balance in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M; Johnson, Liam G; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J; Enticott, Peter G; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I (2) statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464-2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI -0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD.

  6. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, J J; Gokeler, A; Hof, A L

    2007-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that the landing after a single-leg hop for distance (horizontal hop) might give insight in the differences in kinematics and kinetics between uninjured legs and ACL-reconstructed legs. Before the ACL-reconstructed leg can be compared with the contralateral leg, knowledge of differences between legs of uninjured subjects is needed. Kinematic and kinetic variables of both legs were measured with an optoelectronic system and a force plate and calculated by inverse dynamics. The dominant leg (the leg with biggest horizontal hop distance) and the contralateral leg of nine uninjured subjects were compared. No significant differences were found in most of the kinematic and kinetic variables between dominant leg and contralateral leg of uninjured subjects. Only hop distance and hip extension angles differed significantly. This study suggests that there are no important differences between dominant leg and contralateral leg in healthy subjects. As a consequence, the uninvolved leg of ACL-reconstructed patients can be used as a reference. The observed variables of this study can be used as a reference of normal values and normal differences between legs in healthy subjects.

  7. Measures of Strength and Fitness for Older Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Wayne H.; Hiebert, Lujean M.

    The overall strength of the musculature does not require testing of large numbers of muscle groups and can be accomplished from three or four tests. Small batteries of strength tests have been devised to predict total strength. The best combination of tests for males are thigh flexors, leg extensors, arm flexors, and pectoralis major. The battery…

  8. Relationship between strength, power and balance performance in seniors.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Besemer, Carmen; Wehrle, Anja; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in strength, power and balance represent important intrinsic risk factors for falls in seniors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of lower extremity muscle strength/power and balance, assessed under various task conditions. Twenty-four healthy and physically active older adults (mean age: 70 ± 5 years) were tested for their isometric strength (i.e. maximal isometric force of the leg extensors) and muscle power (i.e. countermovement jump height and power) as well as for their steady-state (i.e. unperturbed standing, 10-meter walk), proactive (i.e. Timed Up & Go test, Functional Reach Test) and reactive (i.e. perturbed standing) balance. Balance tests were conducted under single (i.e. standing or walking alone) and dual task conditions (i.e. standing or walking plus cognitive and motor interference task). Significant positive correlations were found between measures of isometric strength and muscle power of the lower extremities (r values ranged between 0.608 and 0.720, p < 0.01). Hardly any significant associations were found between variables of strength, power and balance (i.e. no significant association in 20 out of 21 cases). Additionally, no significant correlations were found between measures of steady-state, proactive and reactive balance or balance tests performed under single and dual task conditions (all p > 0.05). The predominately nonsignificant correlations between different types of balance imply that balance performance is task specific in healthy and physically active seniors. Further, strength, power and balance as well as balance under single and dual task conditions seem to be independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The Effects of Blood Flow Restricted Electrostimulation on Strength and Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Slysz, Joshua T; Burr, Jamie F

    2018-05-22

    The combined effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle mass and strength has not been thoroughly investigated. To examine the effects of combined and independent BFR and a low-intensity NMES on skeletal muscle adaptation. Exploratory study. Laboratory. Twenty recreationally active subjects. Subjects had each leg randomly allocated to 1 of 4 possible intervention groups: (1) cyclic BFR alone, (2) NMES alone, (3) BFR + NMES, or (4) control. Each leg was stimulated in its respective intervention group for 32 minutes, 4 days per week for 6 weeks. Mean differences in size (in grams) and isometric strength (in kilograms), between week 0 and week 6, were calculated for each group. Leg strength increased 32 (19) kg in the BFR + NMES group, which differed from the 3 (11) kg change in the control group (P = .03). The isolated NMES and BFR groups revealed increases of 16 (28) kg and 18 (17) kg, respectively, but these did not statistically differ from the control, or one another. No alterations were statistically significant for leg size. Compared with a control that received no treatment, the novel combination of BFR and NMES led to increasing muscular strength of the knee extensors, but not muscle mass which had a large interindividual variability in response.

  10. Postural stabilization after single-leg vertical jump in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Guilherme S; de Noronha, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the impact different ways to define reference balance can have when analysing time to stabilization (TTS). Secondarily, to investigate the difference in TTS between people with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Fifty recreational athletes (25 CAI, 25 controls). TTS of the center of pressure (CoP) after maximal single-leg vertical jump using as reference method the single-leg stance, pre-jump period, and post-jump period; and the CoP variability during the reference methods. The post-jump reference period had lower values for TTS in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction when compared to single-leg stance (P = 0.001) and to pre-jump (P = 0.002). For TTS in the medio-lateral (ML) direction, the post-jump reference period showed lower TTS when compared to single-leg stance (P = 0.01). We found no difference between CAI and control group for TTS for any direction. The CAI group showed more CoP variability than control group in the single-leg stance reference period for both directions. Different reference periods will produce different results for TTS. There is no difference in TTS after a maximum vertical jump between groups. People with CAI have more CoP variability in both directions during single-leg stance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in muscle strength in patients with statin myalgia.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Roman, William; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-10-15

    Statins can produce myalgia or muscle pain, which may affect medication adherence. We measured the effects of statins on muscle strength in patients with previous statin myalgia. Leg isokinetic extension average power at 60° per second (-8.8 ± 10.5N-M, p = 0.02) and average peak torque at 60° per second (-14.0 ± 19.7N-M, p = 0.04) decreased slightly with statin use, but 8 of 10 other variables for leg strength did not change (all p >0.13). Handgrip, muscle pain, respiratory exchange ratio, and daily activity also did not change (all p >0.09). In conclusion, statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength or muscle performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Reactivity, stability, and strength performance capacity in motor sports.

    PubMed

    Baur, H; Müller, S; Hirschmüller, A; Huber, G; Mayer, F

    2006-11-01

    Racing drivers require multifaceted cognitive and physical abilities in a multitasking situation. A knowledge of their physical capacities may help to improve fitness and performance. To compare reaction time, stability performance capacity, and strength performance capacity of élite racing drivers with those of age-matched, physically active controls. Eight élite racing drivers and 10 physically active controls matched for age and weight were tested in a reaction and determination test requiring upper and lower extremity responses to visual and audio cues. Further tests comprised evaluation of one-leg postural stability on a two-dimensional moveable platform, measures of maximum strength performance capacity of the extensors of the leg on a leg press, and a test of force capacity of the arms in a sitting position at a steering wheel. An additional arm endurance test consisted of isometric work at the steering wheel at +30 degrees and -30 degrees where an eccentric threshold load of 30 N.m was applied. Subjects had to hold the end positions above this threshold until exhaustion. Univariate one way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) including a Bonferroni adjustment was used to detect group differences between the drivers and controls. The reaction time of the racing drivers was significantly faster than the controls (p = 0.004). The following motor reaction time and reaction times in the multiple determination test did not differ between the groups. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found for postural stability, leg extensor strength, or arm strength and endurance. Racing drivers have faster reaction times than age-matched physically active controls. Further development of motor sport-specific test protocols is suggested. According to the requirements of motor racing, strength and sensorimotor performance capacity can potentially be improved.

  13. Lower Limb Progressive Resistance Training Improves Leg Strength but Not Gait Speed or Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M.; Johnson, Liam G.; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Enticott, Peter G.; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I2 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464–2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI −0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD. PMID:25852550

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOKINETIC KNEE STRENGTH AND JUMP CHARACTERISTICS FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin; Evans, Daniel; Wong, Regan; Allen, Aaron; Kirsch, Tom; Long, Brian; Meister, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Clinicians are often challenged when making return-to-play decisions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Isokinetic strength and jump performance testing are common tools used to make this decision. Unfortunately, vertical jump performance standards have not been clearly established and many clinicians do not have access to isokinetic testing equipment. To establish normative jump and strength characteristics in ACL-R patients cleared by an orthopedic physician to return-to-play and to determine if relationships exist between knee isokinetic strength measurements and jump characteristics described using an electronic jump map system. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty-three ACL-R patients who had been cleared to return to athletic competition participated in this study. Twenty-six of these ACL-R participants were also matched to 26 asymptomatic athletes based on sex, limb, height, and mass to determine isokinetic strength and jump characteristic differences between groups. Jump tests consisted of single leg vertical, double leg vertical, and a 4-jump single leg vertical jump assessed using an electronic jump mat system. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses were used to identify any relationships between jump performance and knee strength (p<0.05). The ACL-R group had lower vertical jump capabilities and some bilateral knee strength deficiencies compared to the matched control group. The ACL-R group also showed several moderate-to-strong positive relationships for both knee extension and flexion strength with several jump performance characteristics, such as single and double leg vertical jump height. The current results indicate that ACL-R patients present with several knee strength and vertical jump differences compared to a matched control group at the time of return-to-play. Also, ACL-R patient's performance on an electronic jump mat system is strongly related to

  15. Maximal voluntary isometric neck strength deficits in adults with whiplash-associated disorders and association with pain and fear of movement.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Isabelle; Reichert, Alison; De Serres, Sophie J; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Côté, Julie N

    2009-03-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. To quantify maximal voluntary isometric neck forces in healthy subjects and individuals with whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), using an objective measurement system to evaluate the test-retest properties of these strength measurements and to assess the links between neck strength, pain, kinesiophobia, and catastrophizing in patients with WAD. The prognosis of WAD is difficult to predict due to a lack of objective measurement methods and to our limited understanding of the role of psychological factors in the development of chronic WAD symptoms. Fourteen subjects with chronic WAD grade I or II and an age-matched, healthy group (n = 28) participated in this study. Cervical strength was measured with the Multi-Cervical Unit (MCU) in 6 directions, and pain was measured with a visual analog scale. Individuals in the WAD group completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Significant deficits in strength were observed for the individuals in the WAD group compared to the healthy group, particularly in extension, retraction, and left lateral flexion (P<.05). The MCU demonstrated good intratester reliability for the healthy group (ICC = 0.80-0.92) and the WAD group (ICC = 0.85-0.98), and small standard errors of measurement for both groups. No significant association was found between neck strength and NDI, TSK, and PCS. The MCU demonstrated good test-retest properties for healthy subjects and individuals with WAD. Cervical strength was lower in individuals with WAD; however, the strength deficits were not clearly linked with psychological factors.

  16. [Paraesthesia in the legs].

    PubMed

    Eisensehr, Ilonka

    2007-10-18

    Paraesthesia in the legs can have numerous causes. In addition to the restless legs syndrome, other primary causes include venous insufficiency in the leg, propriospinal myoclonus, nocturnal leg cramps, peripheral polyneuropathy that affects mostly the legs or neuroleptic drug-induced akathisia. Through detailed questioning of the patient, restless legs syndrome can be specifically distinguished from the other named differential diagnoses.

  17. Old adults perform activities of daily living near their maximal capabilities.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Mizelle, Chris; Beam, Stacey; DeVita, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Old adults' ability to execute activities of daily living (ADLs) declines with age. One possible reason for this decline is that the execution of customary motor tasks requires a substantially greater effort in old compared with young adults relative to their available maximal capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the relative effort (i.e., the percentage of joint moment relative to maximal joint moment) to execute ADLs is higher in old adults compared with young adults. Healthy young adults (n = 13; mean age, 22 years) and old adults (n = 14; mean age, 74 years) ascended and descended stairs and rose from a chair and performed maximal-effort isometric supine leg press. Using inverse dynamics analysis, we determined knee joint moments in ADLs and computed relative effort. Compared with young adults, old adults had 60% lower maximal leg press moments, 53% slower knee angular velocity at peak torque, and 27% lower knee joint moments in the ADLs (all p <.05). Relative effort in ascent was 54% (SD +/- 16%) and 78% (+/-20%) in young and old adults, respectively; in descent, it was 42% (+/-20%) and 88% (+/-43%); and in chair rise, it was 42% (+/-19%) and 80% (+/-34%) (all p <.05). The relative electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis and the coactivity of the biceps femoris associated with this relative effort were, respectively, 2- and 1.6-fold greater in old compared with young adults in the 3 ADLs (p <.05). For healthy old adults, the difficulty that arises while performing ADLs may be due more to working at a higher level of effort relative to their maximum capability than to the absolute functional demands imposed by the task.

  18. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.

  19. The isokinetic strength profile of elite soccer players according to playing position

    PubMed Central

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Hojszyk, Radosław; Jadczak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland) were examined during the 2010–2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD), external defenders (ED), central midfielders (CM), external midfielders (EM), forwards (F), and goalkeepers (G). The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios) was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s–1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s–1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q) and hamstrings (PT-H) generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q) peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q) and hamstrings (TW-H), statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance. PMID:28759603

  20. The isokinetic strength profile of elite soccer players according to playing position.

    PubMed

    Śliwowski, Robert; Grygorowicz, Monika; Hojszyk, Radosław; Jadczak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland) were examined during the 2010-2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD), external defenders (ED), central midfielders (CM), external midfielders (EM), forwards (F), and goalkeepers (G). The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios) was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s-1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s-1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q) and hamstrings (PT-H) generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q) peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q) and hamstrings (TW-H), statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance.

  1. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  2. Divertor-leg instability for finite beta and radially-tilted divertor plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Ryutov, D. D.

    2004-11-01

    Plasma in the divertor leg may experience a fast instability caused by sheath boundary conditions (BC). Perturbations cannot penetrate beyond the X point because of very strong shearing in its vicinity. Accordingly, this instability could increase cross-field transport in the divertor leg, and thereby reduce the heat load on the divertor plate, without having any appreciable negative effect on core plasma confinement. A way of describing the role of shearing in terms of the surface resistivity attributed to a ``control plane'' below the X point has recently been suggested (Contr. Plasma Phys., v. 44, p. 168, 2004). We use this BC, plus sheath BC at the divertor plate. We include effects of finite beta and of the radial tilt of the divertor plate. We optimize the radial tilt in order to maximize radial transport in divertor legs. We discuss experimental signatures of the instability: i) phase velocity and wave-numbers of the most unstable modes; ii) correlations between fluctuations of various parameters; and iii) the differences between fluctuations in the common and private flux regions.

  3. The Effect of Concentric Isokinetic Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris on Electromyography and Muscle Strength in the Trained and Untrained Limb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetovich, Tammy K.; Housh, Terry J.; Housh, Dona J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Smith, Douglas B.; Ebersole, Kyle T.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of unilateral concentric isokinetic leg extension training on peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses in trained and untrained limbs. Adult men participated in training and control groups. Overall, unilateral concentric isokinetic strength training induced strength increases in trained as well as untrained limbs.…

  4. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  5. Cardiovascular control during concomitant dynamic leg exercise and static arm exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Strange, S

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is thought to be determined by a balance between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of high levels of sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in control of blood flow to human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise.Muscle sympathetic nerve activity to the exercising leg was increased by static or static ischaemic arm exercise added to on-going dynamic leg exercise. Ten subjects performed light (20 W) or moderate (40 W) dynamic knee extension for 6 min with one leg alone or concomitant with bilateral static handgrip at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction force with or without forearm muscle ischaemia or post-exercise forearm muscle ischaemia.Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was measured by microneurography (peroneal nerve) and leg muscle blood flow by a constant infusion thermodilution technique (femoral vein).Activation of an exercise pressor reflex from the arms, causing a 2- to 4-fold increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and a 15–32% increase in mean arterial blood pressure, did not affect blood flow to the dynamically exercising leg muscles at any level of leg exercise. Leg vascular conductance was reduced in line with the higher perfusion pressure.The results demonstrate that the vasoconstrictor effects of high levels of muscle sympathetic nerve activity does not affect blood flow to human skeletal muscle exercising at moderate intensities. One question remaining is whether the observed decrease in muscle vascular conductance is the result of sympathetic vasoconstriction or metabolic autoregulation of muscle blood flow. PMID:9831733

  6. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  7. Effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training on dancers' muscular strength.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Rheba E; Dorgo, Sandor

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training (PIRT) on muscular strength, body circumference, and body fat percentage in 10 female college-age dancers in comparison with 8 female dancers in a control group. The PIRT program, based on the concepts of manual resistance training, is the application of contact improvisation in a systematic strength development program, which proposes a way of contextualizing muscular strength development within the dance class. The program lasted 8 weeks, meeting 3 times weekly for 60-minute sessions. The muscular strength pre- and posttests included 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for leg extension, leg flexion, leg press, bench press, lat pulldown, back extension, and modified sit-up. Hydrostatic weighing for body composition and circumference measures on the waist, hip, shoulder, upper arm, and thigh were made pre- and posttest analyses. There were no significant pretest differences between the groups for age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, any of the circumference measures, or 5 of the 7 muscular strength measures. At posttest, neither group showed significant changes in total body weight, body fat percentage, or lean body weight. The experimental group showed significant decrements in the waist and hip circumference measures, and all other body circumference changes were nonsignificant. The experimental group showed significant changes from pretest to posttest for all seven 1RM strength measures and greater absolute and relative strength improvements in 5 measures compared with the control group. Thus, the 8-week PIRT program for female dancers was found effective in improving overall muscular strength and decreasing circumference in the waist-hip region, but it did not elicit significant changes in body composition.

  8. Muscular strength profile in Tunisian male national judo team

    PubMed Central

    Ghrairi, Mourad; Hammouda, Omar; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: it is well established that muscle strength is a determinant factor in judo. However, little data are available for African athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide reference data of the muscular strength profile (MSP) for an African team, Tunisian judo team. Methods: the study was conducted among ten international judo athletes from Tunisia. To determine their MSP, we used an isokinetic dynamometer to assess Hamstrings, Quadriceps of both knees and external, internal rotators of both shoulders. The angular velocities of the assessments were; 90, 180, 240°/s for the knees and 60, 120°/s for the shoulders. Results: MSP was determined based on two parameters; the maximum peak torque (PT) of each muscle and the ratio agonistic/antagonistic muscles (R). The knee extensors and flexors in the “supporting leg” had higher PT than in the “attacking leg”; respectively, 245N.m versus 237 (p<0.05) and 147 N.m versus 145 (p>0.05). R was normal for both legs. Furthermore, both rotators of the dominant shoulder had higher PT; 84 N.m versus 71 for the internal rotators (p<0.05) and 34,7 N.m versus 29,0 for the lateral rotators (p<0.05). Inversely, R was higher in the non-dominant side; 45% versus 35, p<0.05). Conclusion: the MSP of the selected elites Tunisian judo athletes was characterized by 3 major features; a strength of the quadriceps in the standing leg significantly higher than in the attacking leg, a normal muscular balance Hamstrings/quadriceps in both legs and a strength of the shoulder’ rotators higher in the dominant side. PMID:25332926

  9. Back Strength Predicts Walking Improvement in Obese, Older Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Vincent, Kevin R.; Seay, Amanda N.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Hurley, Robert W.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of 4 months of isolated lumbar resistance exercise and total body resistance exercise on walking performance in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain. A secondary analysis examined whether responsiveness to training modulated walking improvement. Design Randomized, controlled trial. Setting Research laboratory affiliated with tertiary care facility. Methods and Intervention Participants (N = 49; 60–85 years) were randomized into a 4-month resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT), or a control group (CON). Main Outcome Measurements Walking performance, maximal low back strength and leg strength, and average resting and low back pain severity score (from an 11-point numerical pain rating scale; NRSpain) were collected at baseline and month 4. Results The TOTRX and LEXT improved lumbar extensor strength relative to CON and the TOTRX (P < .05). NRSpain scores at month 4 were lowest in the TOTRX group compared with the LEXT and CON groups, respectively (2.0 ± 1.7 points vs 3.7 ± 2.6 points and 4.6 ± 2.4 points; P < .006). A total of 53% and 67% of participants in the TOTRX and LEXT groups were responders who made lumbar extensor strength gains that achieved ≥20% greater than baseline values. Although the TOTRX demonstrated the greatest improvement in walking endurance among the intervention groups, this did not reach significance (10.1 ± 12.2% improvement in TOTRX vs 7.4 ± 30.0% LEXT and −1.7 ± 17.4% CON; P = .11). Gait speed increased most in the TOTRX (9.0 ± 13.5%) compared with the LEXT and CON groups (P < .05). The change in lumbar extensor strength explained 10.6% of the variance of the regression model for the change in walking endurance (P = .024). Conclusions The use of LEXT and TOTRX produced similar modest improvements in patients’ walking endurance. Lumbar extensor strength gain compared with leg strength gain is a moderate but important contributor to

  10. Asymmetry between the Dominant and Non-Dominant Legs in the Kinematics of the Lower Extremities during a Running Single Leg Jump in Collegiate Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takashi; Kameda, Mai; Kageyama, Masahiro; Kiba, Kazufusa; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the asymmetry between the dominant (DL) and non-dominant takeoff legs (NDL) in terms of lower limb behavior during running single leg jumps (RSJ) in collegiate male basketball players in relation to that of the jump height. Twenty-seven players performed maximal RSJ with a 6 m approach. Three-dimensional kinematics data during RSJ was collected using a 12 Raptor camera infrared motion analysis system (MAC 3D system) at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. The symmetry index in the jump heights and the kinematics variables were calculated as {2 × (DL - NDL) / (DL + NDL)} × 100. The run-up velocity was similar between the two legs, but the jump height was significantly higher in the DL than in the NDL. During the takeoff phase, the joint angles of the ankle and knee were significantly larger in the DL than the NDL. In addition, the contact time for the DL was significantly shorter than that for the NDL. The symmetry index of the kinematics for the ankle joint was positively correlated with that of jump height, but that for the knee joint was not. The current results indicate that, for collegiate basketball players, the asymmetry in the height of a RSJ can be attributed to that in the joint kinematics of the ankle during the takeoff phase, which may be associated with the ability to effectively transmit run-up velocity to jump height. Key pointsAsymmetry of height during running single leg jump between two legs is due to the behavior of the ankle joint (i.e. stiffer the ankle joint and explosive bounding).The dominant leg can transmit run-up velocity into the vertical velocity at takeoff phase to jump high compared with the non-dominant leg.Basketball players who have a greater asymmetry of the RSJ at the collegiate level could be assessed as non-regulars judging by the magnitude of asymmetry.

  11. Influence of fear of falling on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion.

    PubMed

    Yiou, E; Deroche, T; Do, M C; Woodman, T

    2011-04-01

    During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability is organized in advance during "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APA). During these APA, inertial forces are generated that propel the centre of gravity (CoG) laterally towards stance leg side. This study examined how fear of falling (FoF) may influence this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral (ML) stability. Ten young healthy participants performed a series of leg flexions at maximal velocity from low and high surface heights (6 and 66 cm above ground, respectively). In this latter condition with increased FoF, stance foot was placed at the lateral edge of the support surface to induce maximal postural threat. Results showed that the amplitude of ML inertial forces generated during APA decreased with FoF; this decrease was compensated by an increase in APA duration so that the CoG position at time of swing foot-off was located further towards stance leg side. With these changes in ML APA, the CoG was propelled in the same final (unipodal) position above stance foot as in condition with low FoF. These results contrast with those obtained in the literature during quiet standing which showed that FoF did not have any influence on the ML component of postural control. It is proposed that ML APA are modified with increased FoF, in such a way that the risk of a sideway fall induced by the large CoG motion is attenuated.

  12. Strength tests for elite rowers: low- or high-repetition?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the utility of low- and high-repetition maximum (RM) strength tests used to assess rowers. Twenty elite heavyweight males (age 23.7 ± 4.0 years) performed four tests (5 RM, 30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM) using leg press and seated arm pulling exercise on a dynamometer. Each test was repeated on two further occasions; 3 and 7 days from the initial trial. Per cent typical error (within-participant variation) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated using log-transformed repeated-measures data. High-repetition tests (30 RM, 60 RM and 120 RM), involving seated arm pulling exercise are not recommended to be included in an assessment battery, as they had unsatisfactory measurement precision (per cent typical error > 5% or ICC < 0.9). Conversely, low-repetition tests (5 RM) involving leg press and seated arm pulling exercises could be used to assess elite rowers (per cent typical error ≤ 5% and ICC ≥ 0.9); however, only 5 RM leg pressing met criteria (per cent typical error = 2.7%, ICC = 0.98) for research involving small samples (n = 20). In summary, low-repetition 5 RM strength testing offers greater utility as assessments of rowers, as they can be used to measure upper- and lower-body strength; however, only the leg press exercise is recommended for research involving small squads of elite rowers.

  13. The cross education of strength and skill following unilateral strength training in the upper and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Green, Lara A; Gabriel, David A

    2018-04-18

    Cross education is the strength gain or skill improvement transferred to the contralateral limb following unilateral training or practice. The present study examined the transfer of both strength and skill following a strength training program. Forty participants (20M, 20F) completed a 6-week unilateral training program of dominant wrist flexion or dorsiflexion. Strength, force variability, and muscle activity were assessed pre-training, post-training, and following 6-weeks of detraining (retention). Analyses of covariance compared the experimental limb (trained or untrained) to the control (dominant or non-dominant). There were no sex differences in the training response. Cross education of strength at post-training was 6% (p<0.01) in the untrained arm and 13% (p<0.01) in the untrained leg. Contralateral strength continued to increase following detraining to 15% in the arm (p<0.01) and 14% in the leg (p<0.01). There was no difference in strength gains between upper and lower limbs (p>0.05). Cross education of skill (force variability) demonstrated greater improvements in the untrained limbs compared to the control limbs during contractions performed without concurrent feedback. Significant increases in V-wave amplitude (p=0.02) and central activation (p<0.01) were highly correlated with contralateral strength gains. There was no change in agonist amplitude or motor unit firing rates in the untrained limbs (p>0.05). The neuromuscular mechanisms mirrored the force increases at post-training and retention supporting central drive adaptations of cross education. The continued strength increases at retention identified the presence of motor learning in cross education, as confirmed by force variability.

  14. The effect of starting or stopping skin cooling on the thermoregulatory responses during leg exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Demachi, K; Yoshida, T; Kume, M; Tsuneoka, H

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of starting or stopping leg cooling on the thermoregulatory responses during exercise, 60 min of cycling exercise at 30% of maximal oxygen uptake was performed under 4 conditions using tube trouser perfused with water at 10 °C; no leg cooling (NC), starting of leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (delayed cooling, DC), continuous leg cooling (CC), and stopping of continuous leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (SC) at an environmental temperature of 28.5 °C. During exercise under the DC conditions, an instantaneous increase in the esophageal temperature (Tes), a suppression of the cutaneous vascular conductance at the forearm (%CVC), and a decrease in the mean skin temperature (Tsk) were observed after leg cooling. The total sweat loss (Δm sw,tot) was lower under the DC than the NC condition. In the SC study, however, the Tes remained constant, while the %CVC increased gradually after leg cooling was stopped, and the Δm sw,tot was greater than that under the CC condition. These results suggest that during exercise, rapid skin cooling of the leg may cause an increase in core temperature, while also enhancing thermal stress. However, stopping skin cooling did not significantly affect the core temperature long-term, because the skin blood flow and sweat rate subsequently increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans: leg vs arm exercise.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; González-Alonso, J; Helge, J W; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Saltin, B; Boushel, R

    2015-12-01

    In humans, arm exercise is known to elicit larger increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) than leg exercise. However, the precise regulation of regional vascular conductances (VC) for the distribution of cardiac output with exercise intensity remains unknown. Hemodynamic responses were assessed during incremental upright arm cranking (AC) and leg pedalling (LP) to exhaustion (Wmax) in nine males. Systemic VC, peak cardiac output (Qpeak) (indocyanine green) and stroke volume (SV) were 18%, 23%, and 20% lower during AC than LP. The mean BP, the rate-pressure product and the associated myocardial oxygen demand were 22%, 12%, and 14% higher, respectively, during maximal AC than LP. Trunk VC was reduced to similar values at Wmax. At Wmax, muscle mass-normalized VC and fractional O2 extraction were lower in the arm than the leg muscles. However, this was compensated for during AC by raising perfusion pressure to increase O2 delivery, allowing a similar peak VO2 per kg of muscle mass in both extremities. In summary, despite a lower Qpeak during arm cranking the cardiovascular strain is much higher than during leg pedalling. The adjustments of regional conductances during incremental exercise to exhaustion depend mostly on the relative intensity of exercise and are limb-specific. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Lindsay Leg Club: supporting the NHS to provide leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Morag

    2013-06-01

    Public health services will need to cope with additional demands due to an ageing society and the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions. Lower-limb ulceration is a long-term, life-changing condition and leg ulcer management can be challenging for nursing staff. The Lindsay Leg Club model is a unique partnership between community nurses, members and the local community, which provides quality of care and empowerment for patients with leg ulcers, while also supporting and educating nursing staff. The Leg Club model works in accord with core themes of Government and NHS policy. Patient feedback on the Leg Club model is positive and the Leg Clubs provide a service to members which is well accepted by patients, yet is more economically efficient than the traditional district nursing practice of home visits. Lindsay Leg Clubs provide a valuable support service to the NHS in delivering improved quality of care while improving efficiency.

  17. Validity and reliability of an instrumented leg-extension machine for measuring isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Caroline; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Jacomel, Gabriel Fernandes; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Santos, Daniela Pacheco dos; Scoz, Robson Dias; Roesler, Helio

    2015-05-20

    Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. University laboratory. 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

  18. Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Moloney, David J; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-05-24

    Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

  19. Lower skin temperature decreases maximal cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Imai, Daiki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shinya; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyazawa, Taiki; Suzuki, Akina; Takeda, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Takeshi; Zako, Tetsuo; Kawabata, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2011-12-01

    It is known that external cooling of body regions involved in exercise, prior to exercise, decreases anaerobic performance. However, there have been no studies reporting the effects of whole body skin surface cooling before exercise on maximal anaerobic capacity. In order to clarify the effects, we compared power output during the Wingate anaerobic test between preconditioning by exposure to temperature 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males carried out the Wingate test for 30 seconds, after pre-conditioning for 60 minutes using a perfusion suit with water at a temperature of 10 degrees C or 25 degrees C. We evaluated the peak power (PP) and peak power slope (PS) of the power output. Mean skin temperature (T(sk)) at 60 minutes of pre-conditioning in the 10 degrees C trial was significantly lower than in the 25 degrees C trial (p < 0.05). PP and also PS were significantly lower in the 10 degrees C trial than in the 25 degrees C trial. Changes (Δ) in PP between the 10 degrees C trial and the 25 degrees C trial were strongly correlated with ΔT(sk) and Δ in thigh and leg skin temperature (ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg), respectively), whereas ΔPS was strongly correlated with ΔT(sk), but not with ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg). Whole body skin surface cooling prior to exercise restricts anaerobic capacity, especially in the initial phase of exercise.

  20. Physical strength is associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in Spanish institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Albers, Ulrike; Tobaruela, José L; Meléndez, Agustín; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-10-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing muscle strength of hands, the dominant arm and legs in Spanish institutionalized elderly people according to sex, age and cognitive status. A total of 153 elderly subjects (102 females, 51 males, mean age 83.6 ± 6.8 years) living in the region of Madrid were measured for handgrip strength (kg) with a Takei TKK 5101 digital dynamometer (range 5-100 kg, precision 0.1 kg), and arm and leg endurance strength (repetitions) according to the Rikli and Jones tests. Cognitive status was determined with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The values for men and women were, respectively: 23.5 ± 7.3 kg and 11.6 ± 4.6 kg (right handgrip), 22.0 ± 7.8 kg and 10.7 ± 4.8 kg (left handgrip), 13 ± 5 and 10 ± 5 repetitions (arm strength), 8 ± 5 and 5 ± 4 repetitions (legs strength), and 21 ± 6 and 17 ± 7 (MMSE score). All parameters were significantly higher for men (P ≤ 0.01), but strength decline with age was less pronounced in women. In all MMSE groups, lower strength was associated with lower cognitive status. Strength values were lower in older subjects in both sexes; this difference was higher in men than in women. Higher strength values were associated with better cognitive status, which was the most influencing variable, even more than sex and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Predicting one repetition maximum equations accuracy in paralympic rowers with motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Paulo A; Porto, Yuri C; Dias, Marcelo C M; Moreira, Mônica M; Zoppi, Cláudio C

    2009-05-01

    Predicting one repetition maximum equations accuracy in paralympic rowers Resistance training intensity is prescribed using percentiles of the maximum strength, defined as the maximum tension generated for a muscle or muscular group. This value is found through the application of the one maximal repetition (1RM) test. One maximal repetition test demands time and still is not appropriate for some populations because of the risk it offers. In recent years, the prediction of maximal strength, through predicting equations, has been used to prevent the inconveniences of the 1RM test. The purpose of this study was to verify the accuracy of 12 1RM predicting equations for disabled rowers. Nine male paralympic rowers (7 one-leg amputated rowers and 2 cerebral paralyzed rowers; age, 30 +/- 7.9 years; height, 175.1 +/- 5.9 cm; weight, 69 +/- 13.6 kg) performed 1RM test for lying T-bar row and flat barbell bench press exercises to determine upper-body strength and leg press exercise to determine lower-body strength. One maximal repetition test was performed, and based on submaximal repetitions loads, several linear and exponential equations models were tested with regard of their accuracy. We did not find statistical differences for lying T-bar row and bench press exercises between measured and predicted 1RM values (p = 0.84 and 0.23 for lying T-bar row and flat barbell bench press, respectively); however, leg press exercise reached a high significant difference between measured and predicted values (p < 0.01). In conclusion, rowers with motor disabilities tolerate 1RM testing procedures, and predicting 1RM equations are accurate for bench press and lying T-bar row, but not for leg press, in this kind of athlete.

  2. Investigation of the relationship between anthropometric measurements and maximal handgrip strength in young adults.

    PubMed

    Eidson, Christopher A; Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Abernathy, Anne M; Brannon, Mary Beth; Pung, Anna R; Ward, Kiara D; Weaver, Tara E

    2017-01-01

    To identify physical measures that predict maximal handgrip strength (MHGS) and provide evidence for identifying lack of sincerity of effort when assessing upper extremity weakness. This study investigated anthropometric measurements associated with MHGS of healthy young adults. A convenience sample of 150 healthy adults ages 19 to 34 years old completed the MHGS assessment, which was measured using a Jamar dynamometer according to the protocol of the American Society of Hand Therapists, for both dominant and non-dominant hands. Several anthropometric data were collected, which included height, body weight, forearm length, forearm circumference, hand length, and hand width. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated gender and hand width were uniquely and significantly associated with participants' MHGS for dominant and non-dominant hand and accounted for more than 60% of the variance, with R2 = 0.60, P < 0.001 for the dominant hand model and R2 = 0.64, P < 0.001 for the non-dominant hand model. Among the forearm and hand anthropometric measures, hand width is the best predictor of MHGS in both the non-dominant and dominant hands for healthy young adults.

  3. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences in leg dexterity are not present in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emily L; Peppoloni, Lorenzo; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2017-10-03

    We studied whether the time-varying forces that control unstable foot-ground interactions provide insight into the neural control of dynamic leg function. Twenty elite (10F, 26.4±3.5yrs) and 20 recreational (10F, 24.8±2.4yrs) athletes used an isolated leg to maximally compress a slender spring designed to buckle at low forces while seated. The foot forces during the compression at the edge of instability quantify the maximal sensorimotor ability to control dynamic foot-ground interactions. Using the nonlinear analysis technique of attractor reconstruction, we characterized the spatial (interquartile range IQR) and geometric (trajectory length TL, volume V, and sum of edge lengths SE) features of the dynamical behavior of those force time series. ANOVA confirmed the already published effect of sex, and a new effect of athletic ability, respectively, in TL (p=0.014 and p<0.001), IQR (p=0.008 and p<0.001), V (p=0.034 and p=0.002), and SE (p=0.033 and p<0.001). Further analysis revealed that, for recreational athletes, females exhibited weaker corrective actions and greater stochasticity than males as per their greater mean values of TL (p=0.003), IQR (p=0.018), V (p=0.017), and SE (p=0.025). Importantly, sex differences disappeared in elite athletes. These results provide an empirical link between sex, athletic ability, and nonlinear dynamical control. This is a first step in understanding the sensorimotor mechanisms for control of unstable foot-ground interactions. Given that females suffer a greater incidence of non-contact knee ligament injuries, these non-invasive and practical metrics of leg dexterity may be both indicators of athletic ability, and predictors of risk of injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.

  6. Ankle Joint Angle and Lower Leg Musculotendinous Unit Responses to Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akehi, Kazuma; Long, Blaine C; Warren, Aric J; Goad, Carla L

    2016-09-01

    Akehi, K, Long, BC, Warren, AJ, and Goad, CL. Ankle joint angle and lower leg musculotendinous unit responses to cryotherapy. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2482-2492, 2016-The use of cold application has been debated for its influence on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute ice bag application to the plantarflexor muscles or ankle influences passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM and lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Thirty-five recreationally active college-aged individuals with no history of lower leg injury 6 months before data collection volunteered. On each testing day, we measured maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM (°) and plantarflexor torque (N·m) on an isokinetic dynamometer to calculate the passive plantarflexor MTS (N·m per degree) at 4 joint angles before, during, and after a treatment. Surface electromyography amplitudes (μV), and skin surface and ambient air temperature (°C) were also measured. Subjects received an ice bag to the posterior lower leg, ankle joint, or nothing for 30 minutes in different days. Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle did not influence passive ROM (F(12,396) = 0.67, p = 0.78). Passive torque increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.21, p = 0.011). Passive MTS at the initial joint angle increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.14, p = 0.014) but not at the other joint angles (p > 0.05). Surface electromyography amplitudes for gastrocnemius and soleus muscles increased after ice application to the lower leg (F(2,66) = 5.61, p = 0.006; F(12,396) = 3.60, p < 0.001). Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle joint does not alter passive dorsiflexion ROM but increases passive ankle plantarflexor torque in addition to passive ankle plantarflexor MTS at the initial joint angle.

  7. The reliability of a maximal isometric hip strength and simultaneous surface EMG screening protocol in elite, junior rugby league athletes.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Paula C; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Grimaldi, Alison; Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A

    2017-02-01

    Firstly to describe the reliability of assessing maximal isometric strength of the hip abductor and adductor musculature using a hand held dynamometry (HHD) protocol with simultaneous wireless surface electromyographic (sEMG) evaluation of the gluteus medius (GM) and adductor longus (AL). Secondly, to describe the correlation between isometric strength recorded with the HHD protocol and a laboratory standard isokinetic device. Reliability and correlational study. A sample of 24 elite, male, junior, rugby league athletes, age 16-20 years participated in repeated HHD and isometric Kin-Com (KC) strength testing with simultaneous sEMG assessment, on average (range) 6 (5-7) days apart by a single assessor. Strength tests included; unilateral hip abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) and bilateral ADD assessed with squeeze (SQ) tests in 0 and 45° of hip flexion. HHD demonstrated good to excellent inter-session reliability for all outcome measures (ICC (2,1) =0.76-0.91) and good to excellent association with the laboratory reference KC (ICC (2,1) =0.80-0.88). Whilst intra-session, inter-trial reliability of EMG activation and co-activation outcome measures ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC (2,1) =0.70-0.94), inter-session reliability was poor (all ICC (2,1) <0.50). Isometric strength testing of the hip ABD and ADD musculature using HHD may be measured reliably in elite, junior rugby league athletes. Due to the poor inter-session reliability of sEMG measures, it is not recommended for athlete screening purposes if using the techniques implemented in this study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The biomechanics of leg ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Chant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Research performed in the late 1960s, using 24Na, suggested that the perfusion of skin and subcutaneous tissues is critically dependent on the relationship between capillary (Pc) and tissue pressures (Pt). Perfusion changes differed significantly between controls and patients with venous disease and the differences could be interpreted as evidence that Pt remained high in venous diseased patients. From this starting point, a biomechanical theory for the aetiology of venous ulceration was developed and tested by measuring skin elasticity, limb cross-sectional area and laser Doppler flux. The results confirm that, modelled as a two-compartment system (vascular and interstitial fluid), forces can be demonstrated sufficient to cause intermittent capillary closure and subsequent reperfusion injury. These forces are maximal in the gaiter area, the site of most leg ulcers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10364960

  9. Muscle strength and body composition are clinical indicators of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Salovaara, Kari; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Honkanen, Risto; Kröger, Heikki

    2012-08-01

    We examined the role of muscle strength, lean tissue distribution, and overall body composition as indicators of osteoporosis (OP) in a pooled sample of 979 Finnish postmenopausal women (mean age 68.1 years) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and total body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The women (n = 979) were divided into three groups according to WHO criteria, based on FN BMD T score: normal (n = 474), osteopenia (n = 468), and OP (n = 37). Soft tissue proportions, fat mass index (FMI, fat/height²), lean mass index (LMI, lean/height²), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, (arms + legs)/height²) were calculated. Handgrip and knee extension strength measurements were made. OP subjects had significantly smaller LMI (p = 0.001), ASM (p = 0.001), grip strength (p < 0.0001), and knee extension strength (p < 0.05) but not FMI (p > 0.05) compared to other subjects. Grip and knee extension strength were 19 and 16 % weaker in OP women compared to others, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69 % for grip and 71 % for knee extension strength. In tissue proportions only LMI showed predictive power (63 %, p = 0.016). An overall linear association of LMI (R² = 0.007, p = 0.01) and FMI (R² = 0.028, p < 0.001) with FN BMD remained significant. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for age, grip strength, leg extension strength, FMI, LMI, number of medications, alcohol consumption, current smoking, dietary calcium intake, and hormone therapy, grip strength (adjusted OR = 0.899, 95 % CI 0.84-0.97, p < 0.01), leg extension strength (OR = 0.998, 95 % CI 0.99-1, p < 0.05), and years of hormone therapy (OR = 0.905, 95 % CI 0.82-1, p < 0.05) remained as significant determinants of OP. Muscle strength tests, especially grip strength, serve as an independent and useful tool for postmenopausal OP risk assessment

  10. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    PubMed

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p < 0.001] respectively). Changes in period 2 compared with period 1 were smaller for leg BMD (p = 0.001), leg BMC (p < 0.001), leg fat mass (p = 0.028), and total BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  11. Measurement of maximal isometric torque and muscle quality of the knee extensors and flexors in healthy 50- to 70-year-old women.

    PubMed

    Francis, Peter; Toomey, Clodagh; Mc Cormack, William; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Muscle quality is defined as strength per unit muscle mass. The aim of this study was to measure the maximal voluntary isometric torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups in healthy older women and to develop an index of muscle quality based on the combined knee extensor and flexor torque per unit lean tissue mass (LTM) of the upper leg. One hundred and thirty-six healthy 50- to 70-year-old women completed an initial measurement of isometric peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG, Dubendorf, Switzerland) that was repeated 7 days later. Subsequently, 131 women returned for whole- and regional-body composition analysis (iDXA ™ ; GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK). Isometric peak torque demonstrated excellent within-assessment reliability for both the knee extensors and flexors (ICC range: 0·991-1·000). Test-retest reliability was lower (ICC range: 0·777-0·828) with an observed mean increase of 5% in peak torque [6·2 (17·2) N m] on the second day of assessment (P<0·001). The relative mean decrease in combined isometric peak torque (-12·2%; P = 0·001) was double that of the relative, non-significant, median difference in upper leg LTM (-5·3%; P = 0·102) between those in the 5th and 6th decade. The majority of difference in peak isometric torque came from the knee extensors (15·1 N m, P<0·001 versus 2·4 N m, P = 0·234). Isometric peak torque normalized for upper leg LTM (muscle quality) was 8% lower between decades (P = 0·029). These findings suggest strength per unit tissue may provide a better indication of age-related differences in muscle quality prior to change in LTM. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effects of two different frequencies of whole-body vibration on knee extensors strength in healthy young volunteers: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Akpinar, M.; Polat, S.; Yildiz, A.; Oral, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensors muscle strength in healthy young volunteers. Twenty-two eligible healthy untrained young women aged 22-31 years were allocated randomly to the 30-Hz (n=11) and 50-Hz (n=11) groups. They participated in a supervised WBV training program that consisted of 24 sessions on a synchronous vertical vibration platform (peak-to-peak displacement: 2-4 mm; type of exercises: semi-squat, one-legged squat, and lunge positions on right leg; set numbers: 2-24) three times per week for 8 weeks. Isometric and dynamic strength of the knee extensors were measured prior to and at the end of the 8-week training. In the 30-Hz group, there was a significant increase in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (p=0.039) and the concentric peak torque (p=0.018) of knee extensors and these changes were significant (p<0.05) compared with the 50-Hz group. In addition, the eccentric peak torque of knee extensors was increased significantly in both groups (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.873). We concluded that 8 weeks WBV training in 30 Hz was more effective than 50 Hz to increase the isometric contraction and dynamic strength of knee extensors as measured using peak concentric torque and equally effective with 50 Hz in improving eccentric torque of knee extensors in healthy young untrained women. PMID:26636279

  13. The Relationship Between Maximum Unilateral Squat Strength and Balance in Young Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Kevin; Langford, George

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs) and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs) completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2) for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects’ dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s) and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s) leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s) and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s) leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help practitioners make

  14. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    PubMed

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  15. Specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Philip X; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2018-01-01

    Team handball is a dynamic sport game that is played professionally in numerous countries. However, knowledge about training and competition is based mostly on practical experience due to limited scientific studies. Consequently, the aims of our study were to compare specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players. Thirty-six elite, sub-elite and non-elite male team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper-body and lower-body strength tests, 30-m sprint test, counter movement jump test and an incremental treadmill running test. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the peak oxygen uptake, heart rate, offense and defense time, jump height and ball velocity during the jump throw in the game based performance test, maximal oxygen uptake in the incremental treadmill running test as well as in maximal leg strength and leg explosive strength in the isometric strength test. Elite male players have an enhanced specific agility, a better throwing performance, a higher team handball specific oxygen uptake and higher leg strength compared to sub-elite and non-elite players. Based on these results we recommend that training in team handball should focus on game based training methods to improve performance in specific agility, endurance and technique.

  16. The effects of shoulder stabilization exercises and pectoralis minor stretching on balance and maximal shoulder muscle strength of healthy young adults with round shoulder posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Jung Chul; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of pectoralis minor stretching and shoulder strengthening with an elastic band on balance and maximal shoulder muscle strength in young adults with rounded shoulder posture. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects with rounded shoulder posture were randomly divided into 2 groups: a shoulder stabilization exercise group and a stretching exercise group. The groups performed each exercise for 40 minutes, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. Static balance (eyes open and closed), dynamic balance (the limits of stability in 4 directions) and shoulder muscle strength in 5 directions were measure before and after the exercises. [Results] The stretching exercise demonstrated a significant difference between the pre- and post-exercise in the static balance with eyes closed and extension and horizontal abduction strength while the stabilization exercise demonstrated significant difference in the left and right directions between the pre- and post-exercise of the dynamic balance and flexion strength. The stabilization exercise demonstrated significant differences shown in the flexion between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The shoulder stabilization and stretching exercises improved the static balance, dynamic balance, and muscle strength.

  17. Comparative analysis of a jack-up drilling unit with different leg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiangang; Bai, Yong; Jia, Lusheng

    2012-09-01

    The jack-up unit is one of the best drilling platforms in offshore oil fields with water depth shallower than 150 meters. As the most pivotal component of the jack-up unit, the leg system can directly affect the global performance of a jack-up unit. Investigation shows that there are three kinds of leg structure forms in the world now: the reverse K, X, and mixing types. In order to clarify the advantage and defects of each one, as well as their effect on the global performance of the jack-up unit, this paper commenced to study performance targets of a deepwater jack-up unit with different leg systems (X type, reverse K type, and mixing type). In this paper a typical leg scantling dimension and identical external loads were selected, detailed finite element snalysis (FEA) models were built to simulate the jack-up unit's structural behavior, and the multi-point constraint (MPC) element together with the spring element was used to deal with the boundary condition. Finally, the above problems were solved by comparative analysis of their main performance targets (including ultimate static strength, dynamic response, and weight).

  18. Muscle strength and soft tissue composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in women aged 18-87 years.

    PubMed

    Madsen, O R; Lauridsen, U B; Hartkopp, A; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) offers the possibility of assessing regional soft tissue composition, i.e. lean mass (LM) and fat mass: LM may be considered a measure of muscle mass. We examined age-related differences in LM, percentage fat (%fat) and muscle strength in 100 healthy non-athletic women aged 18-87 years. Relationships between muscle strength and leg LM in 20 elite female weight lifters and in 18 inactive women with previous hip fractures were also studied. The LM and %fat of the whole body, trunk, arms and legs were derived from a whole body DEXA scan. Isokinetic knee extensor strength (KES) and flexor strength (KFS) at 30 degrees.s-1 were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. The women aged 71-87 years had 35% lower KES and KFS than the women aged 18-40 years (P < 0.0001). Differences in LM were less pronounced. The LM of the legs, for instance, was 15% lower in the old than in the young women (P < 0.0001). In a multiple regression analysis with age, body mass, height and leg LM or KES as independent variables and KES or leg LM as the dependent variable, age was the most important predictor of KES (r(partial) = -0.74, P < 0.0001). The same applied to KFS. Body mass, not age, was the most important predictor of leg LM (r(partial) = 0.65, P < 0.0001) and of LM at all other measurement sites. The LM measured at different regions decreased equally with increasing age. The KES:leg LM ratio was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.70, P < 0.0001). The weight lifters had significantly higher KES:leg LM ratios than age-matched controls (+ 12%, P < 0.0001) and vice versa for the women with previous hip fractures (-36%, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, from our study it would seem that in healthy nonathletic women, age is a more important determinant of muscle strength than is LM as measured by DEXA. Muscle strengthening exercises and inactivity seem to have a considerably stronger influence on muscle strength than on LM.

  19. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-27

    sweeps the leg during stance, and the third places the foot during flight and controls body attitude during stance. Each of the three methods elucidates...secondary strategy has been to examine systems with springy legs, so that the role of resonant oscillatory leg behavior might be better understood. ’ The ...body attitude : I lopping _leit: ’ The control system rcgulate:; hopping height by manlil)Lulating hopping energy. The leg is springy, so hopping is a

  20. The effect of lactate concentration on the handgrip strength during judo bouts.

    PubMed

    Bonitch-Góngora, Juan G; Bonitch-Domínguez, Juan G; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belen

    2012-07-01

    Judo is a combat sport in which the athletes attempt to hold and control their adversary through gripping techniques (kumi-kata) to apply opportune throwing techniques (nage-waza). Twelve male judo athletes, representing national teams, were recruited to investigate the changes in the maximal isometric strength in both hands before (pre) and after (post) 4 judo bouts and its relationship with the maximal blood lactic acid concentration. The subjects performed a maximal isometric contraction with each hand immediately before and after each bout. A blood sample was taken at 1, 3, and 14 minutes after each bout, and the lactic acid concentration was determined. An overall effect of the successive bouts on the maximal isometric handgrip strength of prebouts was observed for both hands (p < 0.05) but not in that of postbouts (p > 0.05). The dominant hand showed an overall decrease in the maximal isometric strength because of the bout, with the decrease being significant for the first, third, and fourth bouts (p < 0.05). The nondominant hand only showed a significant decrease in the first prebout and postbout (p < 0.05). We observed an inverse relationship between the maximal isometric handgrip strength of postbouts and maximum lactic acid concentration (Lacmax), and between the maximal isometric handgrip strength of postbouts and the lactic acid concentration at minute 14 of the recovery period (Lac14) (p < 0.05). These results show that successive judo bouts significantly reduce the maximal isometric strength of both hands and may suggest that fatigue of each hand depends on different factors. An enhanced understanding of the behavior of the isometric handgrip strength, and the factors that affect grip fatigue during judo bouts in the dominant and nondominant hands, can aid coaches in developing optimal training and exercise interventions that are aimed at mitigating decreases in the capacity of judo athletes to perform a grip.

  1. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Diffusion Properties and 3D Architecture of Human Lower Leg Muscles Assessed with Ultra-High-Field-Strength Diffusion-Tensor MR Imaging and Tractography: Reproducibility and Sensitivity to Sex Difference and Intramuscular Variability.

    PubMed

    Fouré, Alexandre; Ogier, Augustin C; Le Troter, Arnaud; Vilmen, Christophe; Feiweier, Thorsten; Guye, Maxime; Gondin, Julien; Besson, Pierre; Bendahan, David

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the reproducibility of the diffusion properties and three-dimensional structural organization measurements of the lower leg muscles by using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) assessed with ultra-high-field-strength (7.0-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and tractography of skeletal muscle fibers. On the basis of robust statistical mapping analyses, this study also aimed at determining the sensitivity of the measurements to sex difference and intramuscular variability. Materials and Methods All examinations were performed with ethical review board approval; written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Reproducibility of diffusion tensor indexes assessment including eigenvalues, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy (FA) as well as muscle volume and architecture (ie, fiber length and pennation angle) were characterized in lower leg muscles (n = 8). Intramuscular variability and sex differences were characterized in young healthy men and women (n = 10 in each group). Student t test, statistical parametric mapping, correlation coefficients (Spearman rho and Pearson product-moment) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used for statistical data analysis. Results High reproducibility of measurements (mean CV ± standard deviation, 4.6% ± 3.8) was determined in diffusion properties and architectural parameters. Significant sex differences were detected in FA (4.2% in women for the entire lower leg; P = .001) and muscle volume (21.7% in men for the entire lower leg; P = .008), whereas architecture parameters were almost identical across sex. Additional differences were found independently of sex in diffusion properties and architecture along several muscles of the lower leg. Conclusion The high-spatial-resolution DTI assessed with 7.0-T MR imaging allows a reproducible assessment of structural organization of superficial and deep muscles, giving indirect information on muscle function. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is

  4. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio.

    PubMed

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2003-08-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.

  5. Does on-water resisted rowing increase or maintain lower-body strength?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, endurance volumes have increased by >20% among the rowing elite; therefore, informed decisions about the value of weight training over other possible activities in periodized training plans for rowing need to be made. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in lower-body strength development after two 14-week phases of intensive resisted on-water rowing, either incorporating weight training or rowing alone. Ten elite women performed 2 resisted rowing ("towing ropes," e.g., 8 × 3 minutes) plus 6 endurance (e.g., 16-28 km at 70-80% maximum heart rate) and 2 rate-regulated races (e.g., 8,000 m at 24 strokes per minute) on-water each week. After a 4-week washout phase, the 14-week phase was repeated with the addition of 2 weight-training sessions (e.g., 3-4 sets × 6-15 reps). Percent (±SD) and standardized differences in effects (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence limit) for 5-repetition leg pressing and isometric pulling strength were calculated from data ratio scaled for body mass, log transformed and adjusted for pretest scores. Resisted rowing alone did not increase leg pressing (-1.0 ± 5.3%, p = 0.51) or isometric pulling (5.3 ± 13.4%, p = 0.28) strength. In contrast, after weight training, a moderately greater increase in leg pressing strength was observed (ES = 0.72 ± 0.49, p = 0.03), although differences in isometric pulling strength were unclear (ES = 0.56 ± 1.69, p = 0.52). In conclusion, intensive on-water training including resisted rowing maintained but did not increase lower-body strength. Elite rowers or coaches might consider the incorporation of high-intensity nonfatiguing weight training concurrent to endurance exercise if increases in lower-body strength without changes in body mass are desired.

  6. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  7. Dyssynchronous breathing during arm but not leg exercise in patients with chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Celli, B R; Rassulo, J; Make, B J

    1986-06-05

    Some patients with chronic airflow obstruction experience dyspnea with mild arm exercise but not with more-intense leg exercise. To investigate why these patients have limited endurance during arm exertion, we studied ventilatory responses to exercise with unsupported arms in 12 patients with chronic airflow obstruction (mean [+/- SD] forced expiratory volume in one second, 0.68 +/- 0.28 liters). Unloaded leg cycling was also studied for comparison. In the five patients who had the most severe airflow obstruction, arm exercise was limited by dyspnea after 3.3 +/- 0.7 minutes, and dyssynchronous thoracoabdominal breathing developed. In the other seven patients, arm exercise was limited by the sensation of muscle fatigue after 6.1 +/- 2.0 minutes (P less than 0.05), and dyssynchronous breathing did not occur. None of the 12 patients had dyssynchronous breathing during unloaded leg cycling. Maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure, a measure of diaphragmatic fatigue, declined similarly after arm and leg exercise in both groups. During unsupported arm work, the accessory muscles of inspiration help position the torso and arms. We hypothesize that the extra demand placed on these muscles during arm exertion leads to early fatigue, an increased load on the diaphragm, and dyssynchronous thoracoabdominal inspirations. This sequence may contribute to dyspnea and limited endurance during upper-extremity exercise.

  8. Potential benefits of maximal exercise just prior to return from weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance of a single maximal bout of exercise during weightlessness within hours of return to earth would enhance recovery of aerobic fitness and physical work capacities under a 1G environment. Ten healthy men were subjected to a 10-d bedrest period in the 6-deg headdown position. A graded maximal supine cycle ergometer test was performed before and at the end of bedrest to simulate exercise during weightlessness. Following 3 h of resumption of the upright posture, a second maximal exercise test was performed on a treadmill to measure work capacity under conditions of 1G. Compared to before bedrest, peak oxygen consumption, V(O2), decreased by 8.7 percent and peak heart rate (HR) increased by 5.6 percent in the supine cycle test at the end of bedrest. However, there were no significant changes in peak V(O2) and peak HR in the upright treadmill test following bedrest. These data suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise prior to return from 10 d of weightlessness may be adequate to restore preflight aerobic fitness and physical work capacity.

  9. (31)P cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy during leg exercise at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Hudsmith, Lucy E; Tyler, Damian J; Emmanuel, Yaso; Petersen, Steffen E; Francis, Jane M; Watkins, Hugh; Clarke, Kieran; Robson, Matthew D; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Investigation of phosphorus ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy under stress conditions provides a non-invasive tool to examine alterations in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism that may not be evident at rest. Our aim was to establish cardiac (31)P MR spectroscopy during leg exercise at 3T. The increased field strength should provide a higher signal to noise ratio than at lower field strengths. Furthermore, relatively high temporal resolution at a sufficiently fine spatial resolution should be feasible. (31)P MR spectra were obtained with a 3D acquisition weighted chemical shift imaging sequence in 20 healthy volunteers at rest, during dynamic physiological leg exercise and after recovery at 3T. Haemodynamic measurements were made throughout and the rate pressure product calculated. With exercise, the mean heart rate increased by 73%, achieving a mean increase in rate pressure product of 115%. The corrected PCr/ATP ratio for subjects at rest was 2.02 +/- 0.43, exercise 2.14 +/- 0.67 (P = 0.54 vs. rest) and at recovery 2.03 +/- 0.52 (P = 0.91 vs. rest, P = 0.62 vs. exercise). A cardiac (31)P MR spectroscopy physiological exercise-recovery protocol is feasible at 3T. There was no significant change in high-energy cardiac phosphate metabolite concentrations in healthy volunteers at rest, during physiological leg exercise or during recovery. When applied to patients with heart disease, this protocol should provide insights into physiological and pathological cardiac metabolism.

  10. Muscular coordination and strength training. Implications for injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, O M

    1988-03-01

    Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself. After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the major improvement was in weightlifting ability with only small increases in isometric strength. The maximum dynamic force and power output during sprint cycling showed no improvement. These results suggest that the major benefit of this type of training is learning to coordinate the different muscle groups involved in the training movement rather than intrinsic increases in strength of the muscle group being trained. Other studies have shown changes in strength to be specific to the length and speed at which the muscle has been trained. The implication for rehabilitation is that strength training for isolated muscle groups may not be the most effective way of increasing functional ability. As the major changes are task-specific it may be better to incorporate the training into task-related practice. This would have the advantage of strengthening the muscle groups affected whilst increasing performance in those activities which are required in daily life.

  11. The relationship between leg preference and knee mechanics during sidestepping in collegiate female footballers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Wang, Henry; Dickin, D Clark; Weiss, Kaitlyn J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between leg preference and knee mechanics in females during sidestepping. Three-dimensional data were recorded on 16 female collegiate footballers during a planned 45° sidestep manoeuvre with their preferred and non-preferred kicking leg. Knee kinematics and kinetics during initial contact, weight acceptance, peak push-off, and final push-off phases of sidestepping were analysed in both legs. The preferred leg showed trivial to small increases (ES = 0.19-0.36) in knee flexion angle at initial contact, weight acceptance, and peak push-off, and small increases (ES = 0.21-0.34) in peak power production and peak knee extension velocity. The non-preferred leg showed a trivial increase (ES = 0.10) in knee abduction angle during weight acceptance; small to moderate increases (ES = 0.22-0.64) in knee internal rotation angle at weight acceptance, peak push-off, and final push-off; a small increase (ES = 0.22) in knee abductor moment; and trivial increases (ES = 0.09-0.14) in peak power absorption and peak knee flexion velocity. The results of this study show that differences do exist between the preferred and non-preferred leg in females. The findings of this study will increase the knowledge base of anterior cruciate ligament injury in females and can aid in the design of more appropriate neuromuscular, plyometric, and strength training protocols for injury prevention.

  12. Effects of underwater treadmill training on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sandra L; Caputo, Jennifer L; Fuller, Dana K; Morgan, Don W

    2015-01-01

    To document the effects of underwater treadmill training (UTT) on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Pre-test and post-test design. Exercise physiology laboratory. Adult volunteers with iSCI (n = 11). Participants completed 8 weeks (3 × /week) of UTT. Each training session consisted of three walks performed at a personalized speed, with adequate rest between walks. Body weight support remained constant for each participant and ranged from 29 to 47% of land body weight. Increases in walking speed and duration were staggered and imposed in a gradual and systematic fashion. Lower-extremity strength (LS), balance (BL), preferred and rapid walking speeds (PWS and RWS), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and daily step activity (DSA). Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in LS (13.1 ± 3.1 to 20.6 ± 5.1 N·kg(-1)), BL (23 ± 11 to 32 ± 13), PWS (0.41 ± 0.27 to 0.55 ± 0.28 m·s(-1)), RWS (0.44 ± 0.31 to 0.71 ± 0.40 m·s(-1)), 6MWD (97 ± 80 to 177 ± 122 m), and DSA (593 ± 782 to 1310 ± 1258 steps) following UTT. Physical function and walking ability were improved in adults with iSCI following a structured program of UTT featuring individualized levels of body weight support and carefully staged increases in speed and duration. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential of UTT in persons with physical disabilities and diseases that would benefit from weight-supported exercise.

  13. Gender differences in hip adduction motion and torque during a single-leg agility maneuver.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Wanstrath, Kim; Scheper, Melia

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in hip motion and kinetics during a single leg bidirectional deceleration maneuver. The rationale for the development of this maneuver was to test dynamic hip control during the deceleration of three different types of single-leg landings. The hypothesis was that female athletes would display increased hip adduction angles and moments during the maneuver compared to male athletes. Thirty-six collegiate soccer players (19 female, 17 male) volunteered to participate. Subjects were instructed to start the maneuver balancing on one foot, to hop through an agility-speed ladder on the same leg "up two boxes, back one, and then up one and hold it." Hip kinematics and kinetics during all three landings were examined. Females demonstrated significantly greater hip adduction angles at initial contact during all three landings and greater maximal hip adduction during landings 1 and 2 compared to male athletes. Females also exhibited significantly increased external hip adduction moments during landing 1, however, no differences were found between genders during landings 2 and 3. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  16. The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players.

    PubMed

    Freckleton, Grant; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-04-01

    Hamstring muscle strain injuries (HMSI) are the greatest injury problem in kicking sports such as Australian Rules Football. Reduced hamstring muscle strength is commonly perceived to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, evidence is inconclusive. Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. The primary aim of this prospective study was to examine if reduced hamstring muscle strength assessed with the single leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was a risk factor for hamstring injury. Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. Players were then monitored throughout the 2011 playing season for HMSI. A total of 28 hamstring injuries, 16 right and 12 left, were recorded. Players who sustained a right HMSI during the season had a significantly lower mean right SLHB score (p=0.029), were older (p=0.002) and were more likely to have sustained a past right hamstring injury (p=0.02) or right knee injury (p=0.035). For left-sided hamstring injury, the injured group was more likely to be left leg dominant (p=0.001), older athletes (p=0.002) and there was a trend towards a history of left hamstring injury (p=0.07). This study demonstrated a significant deficit in preseason SLHB scores on the right leg of players that subsequently sustained a right-sided hamstring injury. Age, previous knee injury and a history of hamstring injury were other risk factors supported in this study. Low hamstring strength appears to be a risk factor for hamstring injury; however, due to the confounding variables and low injury rate in this study, further studies are required.

  17. Relationship between lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2013-01-01

    Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  18. Changes in muscle strength in individuals with statin-induced myopathy: A summary of 3 investigations.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings regarding muscular weakness in individuals with statin-induced myalgia. We used rigorous muscle testing to compare findings from 3 investigations in 3 different study populations to determine if statin myalgia is associated with measurable weakness. In all 3 studies, we measured maximal isometric handgrip strength, resting respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and knee extensor isometric and isokinetic force. In 2 of the 3 studies, elbow flexor isometric and isokinetic force and knee endurance fatigue index were also assessed. Knee extensor and elbow flexor measurements were obtained using an isokinetic dynamometer. Resting RER was measured using a metabolic breath-by-breath collection method. Measurement outcomes were compared on vs off drug. In study 1, 18 participants fit the criteria for statin myalgia. Participants taking atorvastatin 80 mg daily had significantly lower muscle strength in 5 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. Participants on placebo (N = 10) with myalgia had significantly lower muscle strength in 4 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. In study 2, 18 participants tested positive for statin-induced myalgia when receiving simvastatin 20 mg daily and displayed no significant muscle strength changes (all P > .05). In study 3, 11 patients with statin-induced myalgia completed the study and had a significant decrease in 2 (P < .05) of 10 leg muscle strength variables. In all 3 studies, no significant changes were shown for handgrip strength or RER (all P > .05). Our results indicate that after a short-term treatment with statin therapy, a rigorous muscle strength protocol does not show decrements of muscle strength in subjects with statin myalgia. Short-term treatment with statin therapy is not common in clinical practice. Thus, future studies should examine the effects of prolonged statin therapy on muscle strength. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Exercise capacity in young adults with hypertension and systolic blood pressure difference between right arm and leg after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Instebø, Arne; Norgård, Gunnar; Helgheim, Vegard; Røksund, Ola Drange; Segadal, Leidulf; Greve, Gottfried

    2004-10-01

    Coarctation of the aorta represents 5-7% of congenital heart defects. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the degree of stenosis, age at surgery, surgical method and the presence of other heart defects. Postoperative complications are hypertension, restenosis and an abnormal blood pressure response during exercise. This study includes 41 patients, 15-40 years old, operated in the period 1975-1996. All were exercised on a treadmill until maximal oxygen consumption was achieved. Blood pressure was measured in the right arm and leg before and immediately after exercise, and in the right arm during exercise. Oxygen consumption was monitored and we defined an aerobic phase, an isocapnic buffering phase and a hypocapnic hyperventilation phase. The resting systolic blood pressure correlates with the resting systolic blood pressure difference between right arm and leg. A resting systolic blood pressure difference between the right arm and leg of 0.13 kPa (1 mmHg) to 2.67 kPa (20 mmHg) corresponds with a slight increase in resting systolic blood pressure. This rise in blood pressure increases the aerobic phase of the exercise test, helping the patients to achieve higher maximal oxygen consumption. A resting systolic blood pressure difference of more than 2.67 kPa (20 mmHg) corresponds with severe hypertension and causes reduction in the aerobic phase and maximal oxygen consumption. Resting systolic blood pressure and resting systolic blood pressure difference between the right arm and leg are not indicators for blood pressure response during exercise. Exercise testing is important to reveal exercise-induced hypertension and to monitor changes in transition from aerobic to anaerobic exercise and limitation to exercise capacity.

  20. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training

  1. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, P<0.05) and EX3 improved more than EX1 (P=0.007) at month 9. Compared to CON, EX3 improved in backward walk (P=0.047) and EX1 in timed-up-and-go (P=0.029) tests. No significant changes occurred in body composition. The present study found no evidence that higher training frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-leg lateral, horizontal, and vertical jump assessment: reliability, interrelationships, and ability to predict sprint and change-of-direction performance.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Cesar; McMaster, Travis; Cronin, John; Mohammad, Nur Ikhwan; Rogers, Cailyn; Deklerk, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral countermovement jump assessments, the interrelationship between these tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint (10 m) and change-of-direction (COD) performance for 80 men and women physical education students. Jump performance was assessed on a contact mat and sprint, and COD performances were assessed using timing lights. With regard to the reliability statistics, the largest coefficient of variation (CV) was observed for the vertical jump (CV = 6.7-7.2%) of both genders, whereas the sprint and COD assessments had smallest variability (CV = 0.8 to 2.8%). All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were greater than 0.85, except for the men's COD assessment with the alternate leg. The shared variance between the single-leg vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps for men and women was less than 50%, indicating that the jumps are relatively independent of one another and represent different leg strength/power qualities. The ability of the jumps to predict sprint and COD performance was limited (R2 < 43%). It would seem that the ability to change direction with 1 leg is relatively independent of a COD with the other leg, especially in the women (R < 30%) of this study. However, if 1 jump assessment were selected to predict sprint and COD performance in a test battery, the single-leg horizontal countermovement jump would seem the logical choice, given the results of this study. Many of the findings in this study have interesting diagnostic and training implications for the strength and conditioning coach.

  3. The relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers.

    PubMed

    Booysen, Marc Jon; Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Watson, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral balance is critical to kicking accuracy in football. In order to design interventions to improve dynamic balance, knowledge of the relationships between dynamic balance and specific neuromuscular factors such as eccentric strength and power is essential. Therefore, the aim was to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers. The Y-balance test, eccentric isokinetic strength testing (knee extensors and flexors) and the countermovement jump were assessed in fifty male footballers (university (n = 27, mean age = 20.7 ± 1.84 years) and professional (n = 23, mean age = 23.0 ± 3.08 years). Spearman Rank Order correlations were used to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance. Multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, mass, stature, playing experience and competitive level was performed on significant relationships. Normalised reach score in the Y-balance test using the non-dominant leg for stance correlated with (1) eccentric strength of the non-dominant leg knee extensors in the university group (r = 0.50, P = 0.008) and (2) countermovement jump height in the university (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and professional (r = 0.56, P = 0.006) football groups, respectively. No relationships were observed between eccentric strength (knee flexors) and normalised reach scores. Despite the addition of potential confounders, the relationship of power and dynamic balance was significant (r = 0.52, P < 0.0002). The ability to generate power correlates moderately with dynamic balance on the non-dominant leg in male footballers.

  4. Those are Your Legs: The Effect of Visuo-Spatial Viewpoint on Visuo-Tactile Integration and Body Ownership

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Galli, Giulia; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a body part as one’s own, i.e., body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information) with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective) has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs. We thus investigated whether and how leg visuo-tactile integration and leg ownership depended on the visuo-spatial viewpoint from which the legs were seen and the anatomical similarity of the visual leg stimuli. Using a virtual leg illusion, we tested the strength of visuo-tactile integration of leg stimuli using the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE) as well as the subjective sense of leg ownership (assessed by a questionnaire). Fifteen participants viewed virtual legs or non-corporeal control objects, presented either from their habitual first-person viewpoint or from a viewpoint that was rotated by 90°(third-person viewpoint), while applying visuo-tactile stroking between the participants legs and the virtual legs shown on a head-mounted display. The data show that the first-person visuo-spatial viewpoint significantly boosts the visuo-tactile integration as well as the sense of leg ownership. Moreover, the viewpoint-dependent increment of the visuo-tactile integration was only found in the conditions when participants viewed the virtual legs (absent for control objects). These results confirm the importance of first person visuo-spatial viewpoint for the integration of visuo-tactile stimuli and extend findings from the upper extremity and the trunk to visuo-tactile integration and ownership for the legs. PMID:26635663

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  6. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry Following ACL Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri-Smith, RM; Lepley, LK

    2016-01-01

    Background Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically following anterior cruciate injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. Purpose To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry, as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Study Design Cross-Sectional study. Methods Seventy-three patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity following ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Results Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared to patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P<0.05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry was higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared to those with low symmetry (P<0.05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. PMID:25883169

  7. Efficacy of manual versus free-weight training to improve maximal strength and performance for microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Schüren, Thomas; McCourt, Molly; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We tested a simple and compact device designed for manual resistance training in conditions of microgravity (Self-Powered Rope Trainer Duo (SPoRT Duo)) to increase muscle performance. Twenty-four participants (20.8 ± 2.1 years) were randomly assigned to a manual resistance group (n = 12) and a free-weight group (n = 12). Participants performed eight exercises (three sets; 8-12 efforts) either with free weights or the SPoRT Duo twice a week for 6 weeks. Maximal isometric force of trunk flexion, back extension and chest press increased (P at least 0.01, d at least 0.52) both in the manual resistance group (18.4% ± 15.0%; 32.7% ± 22.7%; 15.3% ± 9.7%) and free-weight group (18.0% ± 13.9%; 26.6% ± 28.9%; 13.3% ± 7.6%). The change in maximal isometric force of wide grip row in both groups (d at best 0.38) did not reach statistical significance (P at best 0.08). The squat one-repetition-maximum increased in the manual resistance group (29.8% ± 22.1%) and the free-weight group (32.4% ± 26.6%). Jump height, determined by a jump-and-reach test, increased in the free-weight group (9.8% ± 13.2%) but not in the manual resistance group (2.0% ± 8.5%). Manual resistance training was equally effective in increasing strength as traditional resistance training with free weights. This apparatus is a useful addition to current in-flight exercise systems.

  8. [Repairing of soft tissue defect in leg by free vascularized thoracoumbilical flap with reversed flow].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Q; Li, Z Y; Li, J

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of free vascularized thoracoumbilical flap with reversal flow in repairing the soft tissue defect in leg with tibia exposure. Forty-four casting mould specimens of leg arteries were studied firstly. Then 25 cases with soft tissue defect and tibia exposure in the proximal-middle segment of leg were adopted in this study. Among them, 18 cases had long distance thrombosis of the anterior tibial vessels or posterior tibial vessels due to traumatic lesion. The maximal size of defect was 28 cm x 11 cm and the minimal size of defect was 11 cm x 9 cm. In operation, the thoracoumbilical flap which was based on the inferior epigastric vessels was anastomosed to the distal end of the anterior tibial vessels or posterior tibial vessels. Anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery and fibular artery had rich communication branches in foot and ankle. All the flaps survived, the color and cosmetic result of them were good. The free vascularized thoracoumbilical flap with reversed flow is practical in repairing the soft tissue defect of leg with tibia exposure. Either the anterior tibial vessels or the posterior tibial vessels is normal, and the distal end of injured blood vessels is available, this technique can be adopted.

  9. Knee strength ratios in competitive female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Murawa, Michal; Mackala, Krzysztof; Dworak, Lechoslaw Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    Knee strength ratios are related to the movement patterns, sport-specific training and knee injuries in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the ratios in the concentric isokinetic strength of the hamstrings and quadriceps and the isometric strength of the knee extensors. In female basketball players (n = 14) and female volleyball players (n = 12) were evaluated: the hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratio (H/Q) and side-to-side peak torque ratio (TR) for hamstrings and quadriceps; the ratio of the maximal bilateral strength to the summed maximal unilateral strength (B/U) and side-to-side maximal strength ratio (SR) for knee extensors. For the H/Q values, a 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test were computed. The H/Q values increased from 48.0 (3.9)% at 60°/s to 70.4 (7.9)% at 300°/s. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the H/Q values between 300°/s and 180°/s, 300°/s and 60°/s in basketball and volleyball athletes, and between 180°/s and 60°/s only in basketball athletes (p < .05). Significantly higher H/Q results at 60°/s demonstrated basketball players than volleyball players (p < .05). Differences in the TR and SR mean values ranged from 4.4% to 8.6% and indicated no significant side-to-side strength deficits (p > .05). In both groups, greater isometric strength developed bilaterally was found (B/U > 100%). The findings revealed the magnitude of knee strength ratios in female athletes determined by sport-specific movements in basketball and volleyball. This study highlighted the importance of the bilateral strength deficit and muscular balance between the hamstrings and quadriceps in basketball and volleyball athletes in activities related to their movement patterns and specific training. PMID:29315348

  10. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  11. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  12. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response.

  13. Biomechanical comparisons of single- and double-legged drop jumps with changes in drop height.

    PubMed

    Wang, L-I; Peng, H-T

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of single- and double-legged drop jumps (SDJ vs. DDJ) with changes in drop height. Jumping height, ground contact time, reactive strength index, ground reaction force, loading rate of ground reaction force, joint power and stiffness were measured in 12 male college students during SDJ from 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-cm heights and DDJ from of 20- and 40-cm heights. The peak impact force was increased with the incremental drop height during SDJs. The jumping height and leg and ankle stiffness of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ40 and SDJ50. The knee and hip stiffnesses of SDJ30 were greater than those of SDJ50. The impact forces of SDJ30-50 were greater than those of DDJ40. The leg, ankle, knee and hip joint stiffnesses of SDJ20-30 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The propulsive forces of SDJ20-50 were greater than those of DDJ20 and DDJ40. The jumping height of SDJ30 was greater than that of DDJ20. Drop height of 30 cm was recommended during single-legged drop jump with the best biomechanical benefit. Single-legged drop jump from 20-30 cm could provide comparable intensity to double-legged drop jump from 40 cm. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of a Modified German Volume Training Program on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    PubMed

    Amirthalingam, Theban; Mavros, Yorgi; Wilson, Guy C; Clarke, Jillian L; Mitchell, Lachlan; Hackett, Daniel A

    2017-11-01

    Amirthalingam, T, Mavros, Y, Wilson, GC, Clarke, JL, Mitchell, L, and Hackett, DA. Effects of a modified German volume training program on muscular hypertrophy and strength. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3109-3119, 2017-German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations after GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy men were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split routine performed 3 times per week. Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however, greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; effect size [ES] = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects, it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it seems gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.

  15. Influence of running velocity on vertical, leg and joint stiffness : modelling and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John

    2008-01-01

    Human running can be modelled as either a spring-mass model or multiple springs in series. A force is required to stretch or compress the spring, and thus stiffness, the variable of interest in this paper, can be calculated from the ratio of this force to the change in spring length. Given the link between force and length change, muscle stiffness and mechanical stiffness have been areas of interest to researchers, clinicians, and strength and conditioning practitioners for many years. This review focuses on mechanical stiffness, and in particular, vertical, leg and joint stiffness, since these are the only stiffness types that have been directly calculated during human running. It has been established that as running velocity increases from slow-to-moderate values, leg stiffness remains constant while both vertical stiffness and joint stiffness increase. However, no studies have calculated vertical, leg or joint stiffness over a range of slow-to-moderate values to maximum values in an athletic population. Therefore, the effects of faster running velocities on stiffness are relatively unexplored. Furthermore, no experimental research has examined the effects of training on vertical, leg or joint stiffness and the subsequent effects on running performance. Various methods of training (Olympic style weightlifting, heavy resistance training, plyometrics, eccentric strength training) have shown to be effective at improving running performance. However, the effects of these training methods on vertical, leg and joint stiffness are unknown. As a result, the true importance of stiffness to running performance remains unexplored, and the best practice for changing stiffness to optimize running performance is speculative at best. It is our hope that a better understanding of stiffness, and the influence of running speed on stiffness, will lead to greater interest and an increase in experimental research in this area.

  16. Motor-Neuron Pool Excitability of the Lower Leg Muscles After Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Klykken, Lindsey W.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Kim, Kyung-Min; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Context: Neuromuscular deficits in leg muscles that are associated with arthrogenic muscle inhibition have been reported in people with chronic ankle instability, yet whether these neuromuscular alterations are present in individuals with acute sprains is unknown. Objective: To compare the effect of acute lateral ankle sprain on the motor-neuron pool excitability (MNPE) of injured leg muscles with that of uninjured contralateral leg muscles and the leg muscles of healthy controls. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten individuals with acute ankle sprains (6 females, 4 males; age = 19.2 ± 3.8 years, height = 169.4 ± 8.5 cm, mass = 66.3 ±11.6 kg) and 10 healthy individuals (6 females, 4 males; age = 20.6 ± 4.0 years, height = 169.9 ± 10.6 cm, mass = 66.3 ± 10.2 kg) participated. Intervention(s): The independent variables were group (acute ankle sprain, healthy) and limb (injured, uninjured). Separate dependent t tests were used to determine differences in MNPE between legs. Main Outcome Measure(s): The MNPE of the soleus, fibularis longus, and tibialis anterior was measured by the maximal Hoffmann reflex (Hmax) and maximal muscle response (Mmax) and was then normalized using the Hmax:Mmax ratio. Results: The soleus MNPE in the ankle-sprain group was higher in the injured limb (Hmax:Mmax = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46, 0.80) than in the uninjured limb (Hmax:Mmax = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.93) (t6 = 3.62, P = .01). In the acute ankle-sprain group, tibialis anterior MNPE tended to be lower in the injured ankle (Hmax:Mmax = 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.10) than in the uninjured ankle (Hmax:Mmax = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.35), but this finding was not different (t9 = −2.01, P = .07). No differences were detected between injured (0.22; 95% CI, 0.14, 0.29) and uninjured (0.25; 95% CI, 0.12, 0.38) ankles for the fibularis longus in the ankle-sprain group (t9 = −0.739, P = .48). We found no side-to-side differences in

  17. Motor-neuron pool excitability of the lower leg muscles after acute lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Klykken, Lindsey W; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Kim, Kyung-Min; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular deficits in leg muscles that are associated with arthrogenic muscle inhibition have been reported in people with chronic ankle instability, yet whether these neuromuscular alterations are present in individuals with acute sprains is unknown. To compare the effect of acute lateral ankle sprain on the motor-neuron pool excitability (MNPE) of injured leg muscles with that of uninjured contralateral leg muscles and the leg muscles of healthy controls. Case-control study. Laboratory. Ten individuals with acute ankle sprains (6 females, 4 males; age= 19.2 ± 3.8 years, height= 169.4 ± 8.5 cm, mass= 66.3 ± 11.6 kg) and 10 healthy individuals(6 females,4 males; age= 20.6 ± 4.0 years, height = 169.9 ± 10.6 cm, mass= 66.3 ± 10.2 kg) participated. The independent variables were group (acute ankle sprain, healthy) and limb (injured, uninjured). Separate dependent t tests were used to determine differences in MNPE between legs. The MNPE of the soleus, fibularis longus, and tibialis anterior was measured by the maximal Hoffmann reflex (H(max)) and maximal muscle response (M(max)) and was then normalized using the H(max):M(max) ratio. The soleus MNPE in the ankle-sprain group was higher in the injured limb (H(max):M(max) = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [Cl],0.46, 0.80) than the uninjured limb (H(max):M(max) = 0.47; 95%Cl, 0.08, 0.93)(t(6) = 3.62,P =.01).In the acute ankle-sprain group, tibialis anterior MNPE tended to be lower in the injured ankle (H(max):M(max) =0.06; 95% Cl, 0.01, 0.10) than in the uninjured ankle (H(max):M(max) =0.22; 95%Cl, 0.09, 0.35),but this finding was not different (t(9) =-2.01, P =.07). No differences were detected between injured (0.22; 95% Cl, 0.14, 0.29) and uninjured (0.25; 95%Cl, 0.12, 0.38) ankles for the fibularis longus in the ankle-sprain group (t(9) =-0.739, P =.48). We found no side-to-side differences in any muscle among the healthy group. Facilitated MNPE was present in the involved soleus muscle of patients with acute

  18. Body-terrain interaction affects large bump traversal of insects and legged robots.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean W; Li, Chen

    2018-02-02

    Small animals and robots must often rapidly traverse large bump-like obstacles when moving through complex 3D terrains, during which, in addition to leg-ground contact, their body inevitably comes into physical contact with the obstacles. However, we know little about the performance limits of large bump traversal and how body-terrain interaction affects traversal. To address these, we challenged the discoid cockroach and an open-loop six-legged robot to dynamically run into a large bump of varying height to discover the maximal traversal performance, and studied how locomotor modes and traversal performance are affected by body-terrain interaction. Remarkably, during rapid running, both the animal and the robot were capable of dynamically traversing a bump much higher than its hip height (up to 4 times the hip height for the animal and 3 times for the robot, respectively) at traversal speeds typical of running, with decreasing traversal probability with increasing bump height. A stability analysis using a novel locomotion energy landscape model explained why traversal was more likely when the animal or robot approached the bump with a low initial body yaw and a high initial body pitch, and why deflection was more likely otherwise. Inspired by these principles, we demonstrated a novel control strategy of active body pitching that increased the robot's maximal traversable bump height by 75%. Our study is a major step in establishing the framework of locomotion energy landscapes to understand locomotion in complex 3D terrains.

  19. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  20. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  1. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  2. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Is Acutely Impaired during Maximal Apnoea in Trained Divers

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Troy J.; Kavanagh, Justin J.; Breskovic, Toni; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dujic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal voluntary apnoea in trained divers. Methods Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral blood flow-velocity (CBFV) and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2) were measured in eleven trained, male apnoea divers (28±2 yr; 182±2 cm, 76±7 kg) during maximal “dry” breath holding. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by determining the strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV during maximal apnoea. Results The strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV increased from rest until the end of maximal voluntary apnoea (P<0.05), suggesting that dynamic cerebral autoregulation had weakened by the apnoea breakpoint. The magnitude of impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was strongly, and positively related to the rise in PETCO2 observed during maximal breath holding (R 2 = 0.67, P<0.05). Interestingly, the impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not related to the fall in PETO2 induced by apnoea (R 2 = 0.01, P = 0.75). Conclusions This study is the first to report that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired in trained divers performing maximal voluntary apnoea. Furthermore, our data suggest that the impaired autoregulatory response is related to the change in PETCO2, but not PETO2, during maximal apnoea in trained divers. PMID:24498340

  3. Sagittal plane bending moments acting on the lower leg during running.

    PubMed

    Haris Phuah, Affendi; Schache, Anthony G; Crossley, Kay M; Wrigley, Tim V; Creaby, Mark W

    2010-02-01

    Sagittal bending moments acting on the lower leg during running may play a role in tibial stress fracture development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these moments at nine equidistant points along the length of the lower leg (10% point-90% point) during running. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected for 20 male runners, who each performed 10 running trials. Inverse dynamics and musculoskeletal modelling techniques were used to estimate sagittal bending moments due to reaction forces and muscle contraction. The muscle moment was typically positive during stance, except at the most proximal location (10% point) on the lower leg. The reaction moment was predominantly negative throughout stance and greater in magnitude than the muscle moment. Hence, the net sagittal bending moment acting on the lower leg was principally negative (indicating tensile loads on the posterior tibia). Peak moments typically occurred around mid-stance, and were greater in magnitude at the distal, compared with proximal, lower leg. For example, the peak reaction moment at the most distal point was -9.61+ or - 2.07%Bw.Ht., and -2.73 + or - 1.18%Bw.Ht. at the most proximal point. These data suggest that tensile loads on the posterior tibia are likely to be higher toward the distal end of the bone. This finding may explain the higher incidence of stress fracture in the distal aspect of the tibia, observed by some authors. Stress fracture susceptibility will also be influenced by bone strength and this should also be accounted for in future studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  5. Kinetic Determinants of Reactive Strength in Highly Trained Sprint Athletes.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jamie; Pearson, Simon; Ross, Angus; McGuigan, Mike

    2018-06-01

    Douglas, J, Pearson, S, Ross, A, and McGuigan, M. Kinetic determinants of reactive strength in highly trained sprint athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1562-1570, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the braking and propulsive phase kinetic variables underpinning reactive strength in highly trained sprint athletes in comparison with a nonsprint-trained control group. Twelve highly trained sprint athletes and 12 nonsprint-trained participants performed drop jumps (DJs) from 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 m onto a force plate. One familiarization session was followed by an experimental testing session within the same week. Reactive strength index (RSI), contact time, flight time, and leg stiffness were determined. Kinetic variables including force, power, and impulse were assessed within the braking and propulsive phases. Sprint-trained athletes demonstrated higher RSI vs. nonsprint-trained participants across all drop heights {3.02 vs. 2.02; ES (±90% confidence limit [CL]): 3.11 ± 0.86}. This difference was primarily attained by briefer contact times (0.16 vs. 0.22 seconds; effect size [ES]: -1.49 ± 0.53) with smaller differences observed for flight time (0.50 vs. 0.46 seconds; ES: 0.53 ± 0.58). Leg stiffness, braking and propulsive phase force, and power were higher in sprint-trained athletes. Very large differences were observed in mean braking force (51 vs. 38 N·kg; ES: 2.57 ± 0.73) which was closely associated with contact time (r ±90% CL: -0.93 ± 0.05). Sprint-trained athletes exhibited superior reactive strength than nonsprint-trained participants. This was due to the ability to strike the ground with a stiffer leg spring, an enhanced expression of braking force, and possibly an increased utilization of elastic structures. The DJ kinetic analysis provides additional insight into the determinants of reactive strength which may inform subsequent testing and training.

  6. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  7. A clinical measure of maximal and rapid stepping in older women.

    PubMed

    Medell, J L; Alexander, N B

    2000-08-01

    In older adults, clinical measures have been used to assess fall risk based on the ability to maintain stance or to complete a functional task. However, in an impending fall situation, a stepping response is often used when strategies to maintain stance are inadequate. We examined how maximal and rapid stepping performance might differ among healthy young, healthy older, and balance-impaired older adults, and how this stepping performance related to other measures of balance and fall risk. Young (Y; n = 12; mean age, 21 years), unimpaired older (UO; n = 12; mean age, 69 years), and balance-impaired older women IO; n = 10; mean age, 77 years) were tested in their ability to take a maximal step (Maximum Step Length or MSL) and in their ability to take rapid steps in three directions (front, side, and back), termed the Rapid Step Test (RST). Time to complete the RST and stepping errors occurring during the RST were noted. The IO group, compared with the Y and UO groups, demonstrated significantly poorer balance and higher fall risk, based on performance on tasks such as unipedal stance. Mean MSL was significantly higher (by 16%) in the Y than in the UO group and in the UO (by 30%) than in the IO group. Mean RST time was significantly faster in the Y group versus the UO group (by 24%) and in the UO group versus the IO group (by 15%). Mean RST errors tended to be higher in the UO than in the Y group, but were significantly higher only in the UO versus the IO group. Both MSL and RST time correlated strongly (0.5 to 0.8) with other measures of balance and fall risk including unipedal stance, tandem walk, leg strength, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. We found substantial declines in the ability of both unimpaired and balance-impaired older adults to step maximally and to step rapidly. Stepping performance is closely related to other measures of balance and fall risk and might be considered in future studies as a predictor of falls and fall

  8. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  9. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain

    PubMed Central

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. Purpose: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Results: Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P < .001). No other hip strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Conclusion: Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor

  10. Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Joint Biomechanics and Functional Performance at Time of Return to Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Lepley, Lindsey K

    2015-07-01

    Quadriceps strength deficits are observed clinically after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and are often not overcome despite rehabilitation. Given that quadriceps strength may be important for achieving symmetrical joint biomechanics and promoting long-term joint health, determining the magnitude of strength deficits that lead to altered mechanics is critical. To determine if the magnitude of quadriceps strength asymmetry alters knee and hip biomechanical symmetry as well as functional performance and self-reported function. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 73 patients were tested at the time they were cleared for return to activity after ACL reconstruction. Quadriceps strength and activation, scores on the International Knee Documentation Committee form, the hop for distance test, and sagittal plane lower extremity biomechanics were recorded while patients completed a single-legged hop. Patients with high and moderate quadriceps strength symmetry had larger central activation ratios as well as greater limb symmetry indices on the hop for distance compared with patients with low quadriceps strength symmetry (P < .05). Similarly, knee flexion angle and external moment symmetry were higher in the patients with high and moderate quadriceps symmetry compared with those with low symmetry (P < .05). Quadriceps strength was found to be associated with sagittal plane knee angle and moment symmetry (P < .05). Patients with low quadriceps strength displayed greater movement asymmetries at the knee in the sagittal plane. Quadriceps strength was related to movement asymmetries and functional performance. Rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction needs to focus on maximizing quadriceps strength, which likely will lead to more symmetrical knee biomechanics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Relationship between strength qualities and short track speed skating performance in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Felser, S; Behrens, M; Fischer, S; Heise, S; Bäumler, M; Salomon, R; Bruhn, S

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationships between isometric as well as concentric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength of the leg muscles and the times as well as speeds over different distances in 17 young short track speed skaters. Isometric as well as concentric single-joint MVC strength and multi-joint MVC strength in a stable (without skates) and unstable (with skates) condition were tested. Furthermore, time during maximum skating performances on ice was measured. Results indicate that maximum torques during eversion and dorsal flexion have a significant influence on skating speed. Concentric MVC strength of the knee extensors was higher correlated with times as well as speeds over the different distances than isometric MVC strength. Multi-joint MVC testing revealed that the force loss between measurements without and with skates amounts to 25%, while biceps femoris and soleus showed decreased muscle activity and peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, as well as rectus femoris exhibited increased muscle activity. The results of this study depict evidence that the skating times and speeds are primarily influenced by concentric MVC strength of the leg extensors. To be able to transfer the strength onto ice in an optimal way, it is necessary to stabilize the knee and ankle joints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Improving the Q:H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kavin K W; DiPasquale, Angela A

    2011-10-01

    Plyometric training programs have been implemented in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Plyometric exercises are designed to aid in the improvement of muscle strength and neuromuscular control. Our purpose was to examine the effects of plyometric training on lower leg strength in women. Thirty (age = 20.3 ± 1.9 years) recreationally active women were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed a plyometric training program for 6 weeks, 3 d·wk(-1). All subjects attended 4 testing sessions: before the start of the training program and after weeks 2, 4, and 6. Concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength (dominant leg) was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60 and 120°·s(-1). Peak torque, average peak torque, and average power (AvgPower) were measured. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction between time and group for flexion PkTq and AvgPower at 120°·s(-1). Post hoc analysis further revealed that PkTq at 120°·s(-1) was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group at testing session 4 and that AvgPower was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group in testing sessions 2-4. Our results indicate that the plyometric training program increased hamstring strength while maintaining quadriceps strength, thereby improving the Q:H strength ratio.

  13. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  14. Differences in kinematics and electromyographic activity between men and women during the single-legged squat.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Brian L; McCrory, Jean L; Kibler, W Ben; Uhl, Timothy L

    2003-01-01

    Numerous factors have been identified as potentially increasing the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. However, differences between the sexes in lower extremity coordination, particularly hip control, are only minimally understood. There is no difference in kinematic or electromyographic data during the single-legged squat between men and women. Descriptive comparison study. We kinematically and electromyographically analyzed the single-legged squat in 18 intercollegiate athletes (9 male, 9 female). Subjects performed five single-legged squats on their dominant leg, lowering themselves as far as possible and then returning to a standing position without losing balance. Women demonstrated significantly more ankle dorsiflexion, ankle pronation, hip adduction, hip flexion, hip external rotation, and less trunk lateral flexion than men. These factors were associated with a decreased ability of the women to maintain a varus knee position during the squat as compared with the men. Analysis of all eight tested muscles demonstrated that women had greater muscle activation compared with men. When each muscle was analyzed separately, the rectus femoris muscle activation was found to be statistically greater in women in both the area under the linear envelope and maximal activation data. Under a physiologic load in a position commonly assumed in sports, women tend to position their entire lower extremity and activate muscles in a manner that could increase strain on the anterior cruciate ligament.

  15. Efficacy of Hip Strengthening Exercises Compared With Leg Strengthening Exercises on Knee Pain, Function, and Quality of Life in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Marsh, Andrew; Bray, Robert; Lindsay, David; Wiley, Preston

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hip and leg strengthening exercise programs on knee pain, function, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Patients with KOA. Male and female subjects were recruited from patients referred to the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center and from newspaper advertisements. Thirty-seven and 35 patients with KOA were randomly assigned to either a 12-week hip or leg strengthening exercise program, respectively. Both exercise programs consisted of strengthening and flexibility exercises, which were completed 3 to 5 days a week. The first 3 weeks of exercise were supervised and the remaining 9 weeks consisted of at-home exercise. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS) and Western Ontario McMaster Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaires, 6-minute walk test, hip and knee range of motion (ROM), and hip and leg muscle strength. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC pain subscale scores were observed in both the hip and leg strengthening programs. There was no statistical difference in the change in scores observed between the 2 groups. Equal improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC function and QOL subscales were observed for both programs. There was no change in hip and knee ROM or hip and leg strength in either group. Isolated hip and leg strengthening exercise programs seem to similarly improve knee pain, function, and QOL in patients with KOA. The results of this study show that both hip and leg strengthening exercises improve pain and QOL in patients with KOA and should be incorporated into the exercise prescription of patients with KOA.

  16. Prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Raquel E F; Campos, Tania F; Macêdo, Thalita M F; Borja, Raíssa O; Parreira, Verônica F; Mendonça, Karla M P P

    2013-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the need for studies to provide reference values and equations able to predict respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian subjects at different ages and from different regions of Brazil. To develop prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures (MRP) of Brazilian adolescents. In total, 182 healthy adolescents (98 boys and 84 girls) aged between 12 and 18 years, enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Natal-RN, were evaluated using an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed®) according to a standardized protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics 17.0 software, with a significance level of 5%. Data normality was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and descriptive analysis results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. To verify the correlation between the MRP and the independent variables (age, weight, height and sex), the Pearson correlation test was used. To obtain the prediction equations, stepwise multiple linear regression was used. The variables height, weight and sex were correlated to MRP. However, weight and sex explained part of the variability of MRP, and the regression analysis in this study indicated that these variables contributed significantly in predicting maximal inspiratory pressure, and only sex contributed significantly to maximal expiratory pressure. This study provides reference values and two models of prediction equations for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and sets the necessary normal lower limits for the assessment of the respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents.

  17. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  18. Beta-alanine supplementation improves isometric, but not isotonic or isokinetic strength endurance in recreationally strength-trained young men.

    PubMed

    Bassinello, Diogo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Dolan, Eimear; Lixandrão, Manoel; Cajueiro, Monique; de Capitani, Mariana; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Artioli, Guilherme G; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2018-06-15

    β-Alanine (BA) supplementation may be ergogenic during high-intensity exercise, primarily due to the buffering of hydrogen cations, although the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on strength endurance are equivocal. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle endurance using a battery of performance tests. This study employed a parallel group, repeated measures, randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Twenty recreationally strength-trained healthy males completed tests of isotonic strength endurance (repeated bench and leg press), along with tests of isometric and isokinetic endurance conducted using an isokinetic dynamometer. Tests were performed before and after a 4 week intervention, comprising an intake of 6.4 g day -1 of BA (n = 9) or placebo (maltodextrin, n = 11). Time-to-exhaustion during the isometric endurance test improved by ~ 17% in the BA group (p < 0.01), while PL remained unchanged. No significant within-group differences (p > 0.1) were shown for any of the performance variables in the isokinetic test (peak torque, fatigue index, total work) nor for the total number of repetitions performed in the isotonic endurance tests (leg or bench press). Four weeks of BA supplementation (6.4 g day -1 ) improved isometric, but not isokinetic or isotonic endurance performance.

  19. Application of acute maximal exercise to protect orthostatic tolerance after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Crandall, C. G.; Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed at the conclusion of prolonged simulated microgravity would improve blood pressure stability during an orthostatic challenge. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), arginine vasopressin (AVP), plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cardiac output (Q), forearm vascular resistance (FVR), and changes in leg volume were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope in seven subjects immediately prior to reambulation from 16 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) under two experimental conditions: 1) after maximal supine cycle ergometry performed 24 h before returning to the upright posture (exercise) and 2) without exercise (control). After HDT, the reduction of LBNP tolerance time from pre-HDT levels was greater (P = 0.041) in the control condition (-2.0 +/- 0.2 min) compared with the exercise condition (-0.4 +/- 0.2 min). At presyncope after HDT, FVR and NE were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with control, whereas MAP, HR, E, AVP, PRA, ANP, and leg volume were similar in both conditions. Plasma volume (PV) and carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity were reduced after control HDT, but were restored by the exercise treatment. Maintenance of orthostatic tolerance by application of acute intense exercise after 16 days of simulated microgravity was associated with greater circulating levels of NE, vasoconstriction, Q, baroreflex sensitivity, and PV.

  20. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Effects of long term supplementation of anabolic androgen steroids on human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  2. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  3. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  4. Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Krueger, Malte; Focke, Tim; Reed, Jennifer; Mester, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2) to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3) to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis) frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89). The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52–0.70). Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53–0.66). Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players. PMID:25964818

  5. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  6. Hamstring strength and flexibility after hamstring strain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A

    2016-08-01

    To systematically review the evidence base related to hamstring strength and flexibility in previously injured hamstrings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE from inception to August 2015. Full-text English articles which included studies which assessed at least one measure of hamstring strength or flexibility in men and women with prior hamstring strain injury within 24 months of the testing date. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Previously injured legs demonstrated deficits across several variables. Lower isometric strength was found <7 days postinjury (d=-1.72), but this did not persist beyond 7 days after injury. The passive straight leg raise was restricted at multiple time points after injury (<10 days, d=-1.12; 10-20 days, d=-0.74; 20-30 days, d=-0.40), but not after 40-50 days postinjury. Deficits remained after return to play in isokinetically measured concentric (60°/s, d=-0.33) and Nordic eccentric knee flexor strength (d=-0.39). The conventional hamstring to quadricep strength ratios were also reduced well after return to play (60:60°/s, d=-0.32; 240:240°/s, d=-0.43) and functional (30:240°/s, d=-0.88), but these effects were inconsistent across measurement methods. After hamstring strain, acute isometric and passive straight leg raise deficits resolve within 20-50 days. Deficits in eccentric and concentric strength and strength ratios persist after return to play, but this effect was inconsistent across measurement methods. Flexibility and isometric strength should be monitored throughout rehabilitation, but dynamic strength should be assessed at and following return to play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of strength training on human patella tendon mechanical properties of older individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, N D; Maganaris, C N; Narici, M V

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of strength training on the mechanical properties of the human patella tendon of older individuals. Subjects were assigned to training (n = 9; age 74.3 ± 3.5 years, body mass 69.7 ± 14.8 kg and height 163.4 ± 9.1 cm, mean ±s.d.) and control (n = 9; age 67.1 ± 2 years, body mass 73.5 ± 14.9 kg and height 168.3 ± 11.5 cm) groups. Strength training (two series of 10 repetitions at 80 % of five-repetition maximum) was performed three times per week for 14 weeks using leg extension and leg press exercises. Measurements of tendon elongation during a ramp isometric knee extension were performed before and after training and control periods in vivo using ultrasonography. Training caused a decreased tendon elongation and strain at all levels of force and stress (P < 0.01). Baseline tendon elongation and strain at maximal tendon load were 4.7 ± 1.1 mm and 9.9 ± 2.2 %, respectively (maximum force: 3346 ± 1168 N; maximum stress: 40 ± 11 MPa). After training, these values decreased to 2.9 ± 1.2 mm and 5.9 ± 2.4 % (P < 0.01), respectively (maximum force: 3555 ± 1257 N; maximum stress: 42 ± 11 MPa). Tendon stiffness increased by 65 % (2187 ± 713 to 3609 ± 1220 N mm−1; P < 0.05) and Young's modulus increased by 69 % (1.3 ± 0.3 to 2.2 ± 0.8 GPa; P < 0.01). As a result of these changes, the rate of torque development increased by 27 % (482.8 ± 302.5 to 612.6 ± 401 N m s−1; P < 0.01) following training. No significant changes occurred in any measured variables in the control group (P > 0.05). This study shows for the first time that strength training in old age increases the stiffness and Young's modulus of human tendons. This may reduce the risk of tendon injury in old age and has implications for contractile force production and the rapid execution of motor tasks. PMID:12626673

  9. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During 4 Weeks of Training Leads to Improved Anaerobic Endurance Capacity, but not Maximal Strength, Speed, or Power in Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Leyre; Brown, Frankie F; Alexander, Lee; Dick, James; Bell, Gordon; Witard, Oliver C; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2017-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p < .05). Yo-Yo test distance improved with training in the n-3 FA group only (p < .01). The mean difference (95% CI) in Yo-Yo test distance completed from PRE to POST was 203 (66-340) m for n-3 FA, and 62 (-94-217) m for placebo, with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d of 0.52). We conclude that 4 weeks of n-3 FA supplementation does not improve strength, power or speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

  10. Effects of High vs. Low Protein Intake on Body Composition and Maximal Strength in Aspiring Female Physique Athletes Engaging in an 8-Week Resistance Training Program.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bill I; Aguilar, Danielle; Conlin, Laurin; Vargas, Andres; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Corson, Amey; Gai, Chris; Best, Shiva; Galvan, Elfego; Couvillion, Kaylee

    2018-02-06

    Aspiring female physique athletes are often encouraged to ingest relatively high levels of dietary protein in conjunction with their resistance-training programs. However, there is little to no research investigating higher vs. lower protein intakes in this population. This study examined the influence of a high vs. low protein diet in conjunction with an 8-week resistance training program in this population. Seventeen females (21.2±2.1 years; 165.1±5.1 cm; 61±6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a high protein diet (HP: 2.5g/kg/day; n=8) or a low protein diet (LP: 0.9g/kg/day, n=9) and were assessed for body composition and maximal strength prior to and after the 8-week protein intake and exercise intervention. Fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly more in the HP group as compared to the LP group (p=0.009), going from 47.1 ± 4.5kg to 49.2 ± 5.4kg (+2.1kg) and from 48.1 ± 2.7kg to 48.7 ± 2 (+0.6kg) in the HP and LP groups, respectively. Fat mass significantly decreased over time in the HP group (14.1 ± 3.6kg to 13.0 ± 3.3kg; p<0.01) but no change was observed in the LP group (13.2 ± 3.7kg to 12.5 ± 3.0kg). While maximal strength significantly increased in both groups, there were no differences in strength improvements between the two groups. In aspiring female physique athletes, a higher protein diet is superior to a lower protein diet in terms of increasing FFM in conjunction with a resistance training program.

  11. The relationship of hip muscle performance to leg, ankle and foot injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Dar, Gali; Dunlop, Martin; Gaida, James Edmund

    2017-02-01

    Hip control affects movement and muscle firing patterns in the leg, ankle and foot, and may contribute to overuse injuries. Muscle performance can be measured as strength, endurance or muscle activation patterns. Our objective was to systematically review whether hip muscle performance is associated with leg, ankle and foot injuries. A structured and comprehensive search of six medical literature databases was combined with forward and backward citation tracking (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and SportDiscus). Eligible studies measured hip muscle performance in individuals with musculoskeletal injuries below the tibial tuberosity, using dynamometry or electromyography (EMG). All studies compared an injured group with a control group or compared the injured and non-injured limb in the same individual. Data was extracted from each study independently by two authors. Twenty case-control and four prospective studies (n = 24) met the inclusion criteria. Injury classifications included chronic ankle instability (n = 18), Achilles tendinopathy (n = 2), medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fracture (n = 1), posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (n = 1), and exertional medial tibial pain (n = 2). Eleven of the studies revealed differences in hip muscle performance indicating less strength, delayed onset activation and decreased duration of activation in the injured groups. Two studies found evidence for differences between groups only in some of their measurements. Three out of the four prospective studies revealed that hip muscle performance was not a risk factor for leg, ankle and foot injuries. This review provides limited evidence that hip muscle performance variables are related to leg, ankle and foot injuries. Emerging evidence indicates this might be a result of the injury rather than a contributor to the injury.

  12. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.

  13. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  14. Ten-week Whole-body Vibration Training Improves Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Milanese, Chiara; Piscitelli, Francesco; Zenti, Maria Grazia; Moghetti, Paolo; Sandri, Marco; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This work explored the short-term effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on anthropometry, body composition and muscular strength in obese women. Fifty obese women (age=46.8±7.81[SD]y; BMI=35.1±3.55kg/m2) were assigned to a ten-week WBV training period, two times a week (in each session, 14min vibration training, 5min rest; vibration amplitude 2.0-5.0mm, frequency 40-60Hz), with (n=18) or without (n=17) radiofrequency, or to a non-exercise control group (n=15). Subjects were instructed not to change their habitual lifestyle. Before and after the ten-week experimental period, anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the leg press, leg curl and leg extension strength tests were carried out. All changes in the two groups of WBV training, with or without radiofrequency, were similar and these groups were combined in a single WBV intervention group. As compared to controls, subjects submitted to WBV training had significantly lower BMI, total body and trunk fat, sum of skinfolds and body circumferences. On the other hand, lower limb strength tests were increased in the WBV group. These preliminary results suggest that WBV training may improve body composition and muscular strength in obese women and may be a useful adjuvant to lifestyle prescriptions. PMID:23423629

  15. Leg Stiffness in Female Soccer Players: Intersession Reliability and the Fatiguing Effects of Soccer-Specific Exercise.

    PubMed

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Hughes, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Read, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    De Ste Croix, MBA, Hughes, JD, Lloyd, RS, Oliver, JL, and Read, PJ. Leg stiffness in female soccer players: intersession reliability and the fatiguing effects of soccer-specific exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3052-3058, 2016-Low levels of leg stiffness and reduced leg stiffness when fatigue is present compromise physical performance and increase injury risk. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the reliability of leg stiffness measures obtained from contact mat data and (b) explore age-related differences in leg stiffness after exposure to a soccer-specific fatigue protocol in young female soccer players. Thirty-seven uninjured female youth soccer players divided into 3 subgroups based on chronological age (under 13 [U13], under 15 [U15], and under 17 [U17] year-olds) volunteered to participate in the study. After baseline data collection, during which relative leg stiffness, contact time, and flight time were collected, participants completed an age-appropriate soccer-specific fatigue protocol (SAFT). Upon completion of the fatigue protocol, subjects were immediately retested. Intersession reliability was acceptable and could be considered capable of detecting worthwhile changes in performance. Results showed that leg stiffness decreased in the U13 year-olds, was maintained in the U15 age group, and increased in the U17 players. Contact times and flight times did not change in the U13 and U15 year-olds, but significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the U17 age group. The data suggest that age-related changes in the neuromuscular control of leg stiffness are present in youth female soccer players. Practitioners should be aware of these discrepancies in neuromuscular responses to soccer-specific fatigue, and should tailor training programs to meet the needs of individuals, which may subsequently enhance performance and reduce injury risk.

  16. Effects of underwater treadmill training on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Sandra L.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the effects of underwater treadmill training (UTT) on leg strength, balance, and walking performance in adults with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Design Pre-test and post-test design. Setting Exercise physiology laboratory. Participants Adult volunteers with iSCI (n = 11). Intervention Participants completed 8 weeks (3 × /week) of UTT. Each training session consisted of three walks performed at a personalized speed, with adequate rest between walks. Body weight support remained constant for each participant and ranged from 29 to 47% of land body weight. Increases in walking speed and duration were staggered and imposed in a gradual and systematic fashion. Outcome measures Lower-extremity strength (LS), balance (BL), preferred and rapid walking speeds (PWS and RWS), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and daily step activity (DSA). Results Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in LS (13.1 ± 3.1 to 20.6 ± 5.1 N·kg−1), BL (23 ± 11 to 32 ± 13), PWS (0.41 ± 0.27 to 0.55 ± 0.28 m·s−1), RWS (0.44 ± 0.31 to 0.71 ± 0.40 m·s−1), 6MWD (97 ± 80 to 177 ± 122 m), and DSA (593 ± 782 to 1310 ± 1258 steps) following UTT. Conclusion Physical function and walking ability were improved in adults with iSCI following a structured program of UTT featuring individualized levels of body weight support and carefully staged increases in speed and duration. From a clinical perspective, these findings highlight the potential of UTT in persons with physical disabilities and diseases that would benefit from weight-supported exercise. PMID:24969269

  17. Strength and power predictors of sports speed.

    PubMed

    Cronin, John B; Hansen, Keir T

    2005-05-01

    For many sporting activities, initial speed rather than maximal speed would be considered of greater importance to successful performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between strength and power and measures of first-step quickness (5-m time), acceleration (10-m time), and maximal speed (30-m time). The maximal strength (3 repetition maximum [3RM]), power (30-kg jump squat, countermovement, and drop jumps), isokinetic strength measures (hamstring and quadriceps peak torques and ratios at 60 degrees .s(-1) and 300 degrees .s(-1)) and 5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint times of 26 part-time and full-time professional rugby league players (age 23.2 +/- 3.3 years) were measured. To examine the importance of the strength and power measures on sprint performance, a correlational approach and a comparison between means of the fastest and slowest players was used. The correlations between the 3RM, drop jump, isokinetic strength measures, and the 3 measures of sport speed were nonsignificant. Correlations between the jump squat (height and relative power output) and countermovement jump height and the 3 speed measures were significant (r = -0.43 to -0.66, p < 0.05). The squat and countermovement jump heights as well as squat jump relative power output were the only variables found to be significantly greater in the fast players. It was suggested that improving the power to weight ratio as well as plyometric training involving countermovement and loaded jump-squat training may be more effective for enhancing sport speed in elite players.

  18. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Karl; Ulfberg, J

    2009-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by intense restlessness and unpleasant creeping sensations deep inside the lower legs. Symptoms appear when the legs are at rest and are worst in the evening and at night. They force patients to keep moving their legs, and often to get out of bed and wander about. Periodic limb movements (PLMS) are also common during sleep amongst those suffering from RLS, and sleep efficiency is severely reduced. There are idiopathic as well as symptomatic forms of RLS, the latter being associated with e.g. pregnancy, iron deficiency and chronic renal failure. A family history of RLS is very common and pedigrees in these cases suggest an autosomal-dominant transmission with high penetrance. Genetic investigations have been performed in order to identify genes associated with RLS. Several loci have been found (on chromosomes 12q, 14q, 9p, 2q, 20p and 16p). Pathophysiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. However, advanced brain imaging studies and positive results of dopaminergic treatment suggest that RLS may be generated by dopamine dysfunction locally within the central nervous system. At present, there is a wide range of treatment options including levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and iron supplements.

  19. Effect of a 10-week strength training program and recovery drink on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity.

    PubMed

    Chromiak, Joseph A; Smedley, Brianne; Carpenter, William; Brown, Robert; Koh, Yun S; Lamberth, John G; Joe, Lee Ann; Abadie, Ben R; Altorfer, Greg

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether postexercise consumption of a supplement containing whey protein, amino acids, creatine, and carbohydrate combined with a strength training program promotes greater gains in fat-free mass (FFM), muscle strength and endurance, and anaerobic performance compared with an isocaloric, carbohydrate-only control drink combined with strength training. The study was double blind and randomized, and the experimental supplement was compared with a carbohydrate-only control. Forty-one males (n = 20 in control group, n = 21 in the supplement group; mean age, 22.2 y) participated in a 4 d/wk, 10-wk periodized strength training program. Subjects had to complete at least 70% of the workouts. Before and after 10 wk of strength training, subjects were tested for body composition by using hydrostatic weighing and skinfold thicknesses, one repetition maximum strength and muscular endurance for the bench press and 45-degree leg press, and anaerobic performance using a 30-s Wingate test. Thirty-three subjects (80.5%) completed the training program (n = 15 in control group, n = 18 in the supplement); these 33 subjects also completed all post-training test procedures. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on time. P <== 0.05 was set as statistically significant. All statistical analyses, including calculation of effect size and power, were completed with SPSS 11.0. Across groups, FFM increased during 10 wk of strength training. Although there was no statistically significant time x group interaction for FFM, there was a trend toward a greater increase in FFM for the supplement group (+3.4 kg) compared with the control group (+1.5 kg; P = 0.077). The effect size (eta(2) = 0.100) was moderately large. Percentage of body fat declined and fat mass was unchanged; there were no differences between groups. One repetition maximum strength for the bench press and 45-degree leg press increased, but there were no differences between

  20. Muscle strength and golf performance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  1. Muscle Strength And Golf Performance: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  2. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  3. Muscle sympathetic nerve responses to passive and active one-legged cycling: insights into the contributions of central command.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Connor J; Incognito, Anthony V; Notay, Karambir; Burns, Matthew J; Slysz, Joshua T; Seed, Jeremy D; Nardone, Massimo; Burr, Jamie F; Millar, Philip J

    2018-01-01

    The contribution of central command to the peripheral vasoconstrictor response during exercise has been investigated using primarily handgrip exercise. The purpose of the present study was to compare muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses during passive (involuntary) and active (voluntary) zero-load cycling to gain insights into the effects of central command on sympathetic outflow during dynamic exercise. Hemodynamic measurements and contralateral leg MSNA (microneurography) data were collected in 18 young healthy participants at rest and during 2 min of passive and active zero-load one-legged cycling. Arterial baroreflex control of MSNA burst occurrence and burst area were calculated separately in the time domain. Blood pressure and stroke volume increased during exercise ( P < 0.0001) but were not different between passive and active cycling ( P > 0.05). In contrast, heart rate, cardiac output, and total vascular conductance were greater during the first and second minute of active cycling ( P < 0.001). MSNA burst frequency and incidence decreased during passive and active cycling ( P < 0.0001), but no differences were detected between exercise modes ( P > 0.05). Reductions in total MSNA were attenuated during the first ( P < 0.0001) and second ( P = 0.0004) minute of active compared with passive cycling, in concert with increased MSNA burst amplitude ( P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). The sensitivity of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA burst occurrence was lower during active than passive cycling ( P = 0.01), while control of MSNA burst strength was unchanged ( P > 0.05). These results suggest that central feedforward mechanisms are involved primarily in modulating the strength, but not the occurrence, of a sympathetic burst during low-intensity dynamic leg exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst frequency decreased equally during passive and active cycling, but reductions in total muscle sympathetic nerve

  4. Measures of functional performance and their association with hip and thigh strength.

    PubMed

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Ringleb, Stacie I; Oñate, James A

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r (2). We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r(2) = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r(2) = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r(2) = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r(2) = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r(2) = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r(2) = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Hop tests alone did not provide clinicians with enough information to make evidence-based decisions about lower extremity strength in isolated

  5. The relation between knee muscle strength and performance tests in orienteering athletes.

    PubMed

    Çinar-Medeni, Özge; Colakoglu, Fatma F; Yüce, Koray; Ipekoğlu, Gökhan; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of knee muscle strength on performance tests in orienteers. Thirty-seven orienteers were voluntarily included in this study. Isokinetic knee flexor and extensor muscles' strength was assessed at 120°/s velocity for both "dominant leg" (DL) and "non-dominant leg" (NDL). "Single-legged hop test" (SLHT), "flamingo balance test" (FBT), "star excursion balance test" (SEBT), vertical jump-and-reach test (for anaerobic power), T-drill test and 20-meter shuttle run test (for aerobic power) were carried out. Correlation and regression analyses were performed on the data. VO2max levels showed moderate correlations with DL's "flexor peak torque" (FPT) and NDL's "extensor peak torque" (EPT) and FPT values respectively (r=0.49, r=0.38, r=0.58). FPT of NDL was a predictor of VO2max level (R2=0.33). Anaerobic power has a relationship with EPT of NDL (r=0.43) and T-drill test with EPT and FPT values of both DL and NDL respectively (r=-0.35, r=-0.63, r=-0.53, r=-0.58). EPT of NDL was a predictor for anaerobic power (R2=0.19) and FPT of DL for agility (R2=0.40). Nonparametric linear regression results showed that EPT is a predictor in DL (median slope=-0.71, P=0.01), and FPT in NDL (median slope=-0.90, P=0.006) for FBT. FPT was a predictor of SEBT scores for both legs (0.13strength are of importance to improve orienteering performance.

  6. Maximal venous outflow velocity: an index for iliac vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Matthew; Cassada, David C; Heidel, R Eric; Grandas, Oscar G; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Edmondson, James D; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2012-11-01

    Leg swelling is a common cause for vascular surgical evaluation, and iliocaval obstruction due to May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) can be difficult to diagnose. Physical examination and planar radiographic imaging give anatomic information but may miss the fundamental pathophysiology of MTS. Similarly, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the legs gives little information about central impedance of venous return above the inguinal ligament. We have modified the technique of duplex ultrasonography to evaluate the flow characteristics of the leg after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement, with the objective of revealing iliocaval obstruction characteristic of MTS. Twelve patients with signs and symptoms of MTS were compared with healthy control subjects for duplex-derived maximal venous outflow velocity (MVOV) after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement of the leg. The data for healthy control subjects were obtained from a previous study of asymptomatic volunteers using the same MVOV maneuvers. The tourniquet-induced venous engorgement mimics that caused during vigorous exercise. A right-to-left ratio of MVOV was generated for patient comparisons. Patients with clinical evidence of MTS had a mean right-to-left MVOV ratio of 2.0, asymptomatic control subjects had a mean ratio of 1.3, and MTS patients who had undergone endovascular treatment had a poststent mean ratio of 1.2 (P = 0.011). Interestingly, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging results, when available, were interpreted as positive in only 53% of the patients with MTS according to both our MVOV criteria and confirmatory venography. After intervention, the right-to-left MVOV ratio in the MTS patients was found to be reduced similar to asymptomatic control subjects, indicating a relief of central venous obstruction by stenting the compressive MTS anatomy. Duplex-derived MVOV measurements are helpful for detection of iliocaval venous obstruction, such as MTS. Right-to-left MVOV ratios and

  7. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p < 0.001). This difference was not present after executing the 6 weeks exercise sessions (p > 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.001) and from 3.10 +/- 2.16 to 2.19 +/- 0.98 degrees for 20 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.05) following the isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p < 0.001). Following the isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p < 0.01 for OLHD and CSMHT, p < 0.001 for SLHC, TLHD, and SMHT). These results substantiate the deficits of strength, proprioception, balance and functionality in recreational athletes with FAI. The

  8. Muscle quality, aerobic fitness and fat mass predict lower-extremity physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Misic, Mark M; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2007-01-01

    Muscle mass, strength and fitness play a role in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older adults; however, the relationships remain inadequately characterized. This study aimed to examine the relationships between leg mineral free lean mass (MFLM(LEG)), leg muscle quality (leg strength normalized for MFLM(LEG)), adiposity, aerobic fitness and LEPF in community-dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Fifty-five older adults (69.3 +/- 5.5 years, 36 females, 19 males) were assessed for leg strength using an isokinetic dynamometer, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic fitness via a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption test. LEPF was assessed using computerized dynamic posturography and stair ascent/descent, a timed up-and-go task and a 7-meter walk with and without an obstacle. Muscle strength, muscle quality and aerobic fitness were similarly correlated with static LEPF tests (r range 0.27-0.40, p < 0.05); however, the strength of the independent predictors was not robust with explained variance ranging from 9 to 16%. Muscle quality was the strongest correlate of all dynamic LEPF tests (r range 0.54-0.65, p < 0.001). Using stepwise linear regression analysis, muscle quality was the strongest independent predictor of dynamic physical function explaining 29-42% of the variance (p < 0.001), whereas aerobic fitness or body fat mass explained 5-6% of the variance (p < 0.05) depending on performance measure. Muscle quality is the most important predictor, and aerobic fitness and fat mass are secondary predictors of LEPF in community-dwelling older adults. These findings support the importance of exercise, especially strength training, for optimal body composition, and maintenance of strength and physical function in older adults.

  9. Acute Effects of Stretching on Leg and Vertical Stiffness During Treadmill Running.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Panagiotis T; Paradisis, Giorgos P; Exell, Timothy A; Smirniotou, Athanasia S; Tsolakis, Charilaos K; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2017-12-01

    Pappas, PT, Paradisis, GP, Exell, TA, Smirniotou, AS, Tsolakis, CK, and Arampatzis, A. Acute effects of stretching on leg and vertical stiffness during treadmill running. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3417-3424, 2017-The implementation of static (SS) and dynamic (DS) stretching during warm-up routines produces significant changes in biological and functional properties of the human musculoskeletal system. These properties could affect the leg and vertical stiffness characteristics that are considered important factors for the success of athletic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SS and DS on selected kinematic variables, and leg and vertical stiffness during treadmill running. Fourteen men (age: 22.58 ± 1.05 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 72.74 ± 10.04 kg) performed 30-second running bouts at 4.44 m·s, under 3 different stretching conditions (SS, DS, and no stretching). The total duration in each stretching condition was 6 minutes, and each of the 4 muscle groups was stretched for 40 seconds. Leg and vertical stiffness values were calculated using the "sine wave" method, with no significant differences in stiffness found between stretching conditions. After DS, vertical ground reaction force increased by 1.7% (p < 0.05), which resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in flight time (5.8%), step length (2.2%), and vertical displacement of the center of mass (4.5%) and a decrease in step rate (2.2%). Practical durations of SS and DS stretching did not influence leg or vertical stiffness during treadmill running. However, DS seems to result in a small increase in lower-limb force production which may influence running mechanics.

  10. Optimal load for the peak power and maximal strength of the upper body in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Victor C; Simim, Mário A de Moura; Marocolo, Moacir; Franchini, Emerson; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2015-06-01

    We determined the optimal load for the peak power output (PPO) during the bench press throw (BPT) in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) athletes and compared the PPO and maximal strength between advanced (AD) and nonadvanced (NA) athletes. Twenty-eight BJJ athletes (24.8 ± 5.7 years) performed the BPT at loads of 30, 40, 50, and 60% of their 1 repetition maximum (RM) in a randomized order (5-minute rest between BPTs). The PPO was determined by measuring the barbell displacement by an accelerometer (Myotest). The absolute (F = 7.25; p < 0.001; effect size [ES] = 0.21) and relative intensities were different (F = 7.11; p < 0.001; ES = 0.21) between the AD and NA. There was also a group and intensity interaction effect (F = 2.79; p = 0.046; ES = 0.10), but the differences were centered around the AD group, which achieved higher values using 40% (p = 0.001) and 50% of the 1RM (p < 0.001) than the PPO with 60% of 1RM. The AD athletes presented with higher 1RM than NA (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.0), but there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the PPO (30-60% 1RM). A polynomial adjustment indicated that the optimal load was ∼42% of 1RM for all groups and subgroups (R from 0.82 to 0.99). Our results suggest that there can be (1RM) differences between AD and NA BJJ athletes; however, there is no difference in the muscle power between the AD and NA groups. Additionally, ∼42% of 1RM seems to be the optimal load for developing maximal power using the BPT for the BJJ athletes.

  11. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  12. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups < 0.08). All three modes of strength training used concurrently with endurance training were effective in improving treadmill running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance

  13. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 31. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88( ...

  14. Motor unit number estimates correlate with strength in polio survivors.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Eric J; Daube, Jasper R; Windebank, Anthony J

    2006-11-01

    Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) has been proposed as an outcome measure in clinical trials for the motor neuron diseases. One major criticism of MUNE is that it may not represent a clinically meaningful endpoint. We prospectively studied a cohort of polio survivors over a period of 15 years with respect to MUNE and strength. We identified a significant association between thenar MUNE and arm strength, extensor digitorum brevis MUNE and leg strength, and the summated MUNE and global strength of the polio survivors. These findings confirm the clinical relevance of MUNE as an outcome measure in the motor neuron diseases and provide further validation for its use in clinical trial research.

  15. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  16. Effects of egg white protein supplementation on muscle strength and serum free amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-10-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.

  17. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  18. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  19. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  20. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawlmore » through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.« less

  1. Effects of Strength Training on Postpubertal Adolescent Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howe, Louis P; Cushion, Emily J; Spence, Adam; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-06-01

    Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent (<18 yr) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. Participants (n = 25, 13 female, 17.2 ± 1.2 yr) were paired according to their sex and RE and randomly assigned to a 10-wk strength training group (STG) or a control group who continued their regular training. The STG performed twice weekly sessions of plyometric, sprint, and resistance training in addition to their normal running. Outcome measures included body mass, maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), speed at V˙O2max, RE (quantified as energy cost), speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations, 20-m sprint, and maximal voluntary contraction during an isometric quarter-squat. Eighteen participants (STG: n = 9, 16.1 ± 1.1 yr; control group: n = 9, 17.6 ± 1.2 yr) completed the study. The STG displayed small improvements (3.2%-3.7%; effect size (ES), 0.31-0.51) in RE that were inferred as "possibly beneficial" for an average of three submaximal speeds. Trivial or small changes were observed for body composition variables, V˙O2max and speed at V˙O2max; however, the training period provided likely benefits to speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations in both groups. Strength training elicited a very likely benefit and a possible benefit to sprint time (ES, 0.32) and maximal voluntary contraction (ES, 0.86), respectively. Ten weeks of strength training added to the program of a postpubertal distance runner was highly likely to improve maximal speed and enhances RE by a small extent, without deleterious effects on body composition or other aerobic parameters.

  2. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  3. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

    PubMed

    Peake, Jonathan M; Nosaka, Kazunori; Muthalib, Makii; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flexors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10% maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maximal trial (10 sets of three lengthening contractions at 100% maximum isometric strength, 3 min rest between sets). Lengthening contractions were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. Opposite arms were used for the submaximal and maximal trials, and the trials were separated by a minimum of two weeks. Blood was sampled before, immediately after, 1 h, 3 h, and 1-4 d after each trial. Total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, and the serum concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 were elevated after both trials (P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the trials. Serum IL-6 concentration was elevated 3 h after the submaximal contractions (P < 0.01). The concentrations of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and plasma C-reactive protein remained unchanged following both trials. Maximum isometric strength and range of motion decreased significantly (P < 0.001) after both trials, and were lower from 1-4 days after the maximal contractions compared to the submaximal contractions. Plasma myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness and upper arm circumference all increased after both trials (P < 0.01), but were not significantly different between the trials. Therefore, there were no differences in markers of systemic inflammation, despite evidence of greater muscle damage following maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

  4. The Effect of Commonly Performed Exercises on the Levator Hiatus Area and the Length and Strength of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Siff, Lauren N; Hill, Audra J; Walters, Samantha J; Walters, Ginny; Walters, Mark D

    2018-05-02

    The aim oft his study was to compare the effects of 10 common exercises to traditional pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions (Kegel) on levator hiatus (LH) area and PFM length and strength. This is a cross-sectional study of 15 healthy postpartum women. Ten exercises were studied. These were common variations of leg, core, and back exercises used in yoga, Pilates, strength training, and physical therapy. Each participant performed all 10 exercises at a single visit in 2 examination settings: transperineal ultrasound and perineometry. Ultrasound measured the LH area and PFM length, and perineometry measured the muscle strength (peak squeeze pressure). Kegel generates an increase in squeeze pressure (24.3 cm H2O), shortens the muscles (-0.46 cm) and narrows the LH (-0.13 cm). The bird-dog and plank exercises were not different from Kegel in any measurement. While the leg-lift ultrasound dimensions are similar to Kegel, leg lifts generated peak squeeze pressures stronger than any other exercise (including Kegel). Whereas ultrasound dimensions were similar to Kegel, tucked and untucked squats and thigh adductions generated weaker contractions than Kegel. While crunch generated a squeeze pressure similar to Kegel, the ultrasound dimensions showed a significantly wider LH and longer muscle than Kegel. Bridge, clam, and plié exercises affected the PFMs differently than Kegel in all measures. Bird-dog, plank, and leg-lift exercises should be evaluated as alternative exercises to Kegel as they affect PFM strength and length and LH area similarly to Kegel, and leg lifts generate a stronger contraction than Kegel.

  5. The Benslimane's Artistic Model for Leg Beauty.

    PubMed

    Benslimane, Fahd

    2012-08-01

    In 2000, the author started observing legs considered to be attractive. The goal was to have an ideal aesthetic model and compare the disparity between this model and a patient's reality. This could prove helpful during leg sculpturing to get closer to this ideal. Postoperatively, the result could then be compared to the ideal curves of the model legs and any remaining deviations from the ideal curves could be pointed out and eventually corrected in a second session. The lack of anthropometric studies of legs from the knee to the ankle led the author to select and study attractive legs to find out the common denominators of their beauty. The study consisted in analyzing the features that make legs look attractive. The legs of models in magazines were scanned and inserted into a PowerPoint program. The legs of live models, Barbie dolls, and athletes were photographed. Artistic drawings by Leonardo da Vinci were reviewed and Greek sculptures studied. Sculptures from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens were photographed and included in the PowerPoint program. This study shows that the first criterion for beautiful legs is the straightness of the leg column. Not a single attractive leg was found to deviate from the vertical, and each was in absolute continuity with the thigh. The second criterion is the similarity of curve distribution and progression from knee to ankle. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  6. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  7. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  8. Free-form reticulated shell structures searched for maximum buckling strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiuchi, Yuji; Kato, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shoji

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a scheme of shape optimization is proposed for maximum buckling strength of free-form steel reticulated shells. In order to discuss the effectiveness of objective functions with respect to maximizing buckling strength, several different optimizations are applied to shallow steel single layer reticulated shells targeting rigidly jointed tubular members. The objective functions to be compared are linear buckling load, strain energy, initial yield load, and elasto-plastic buckling strength evaluated based on Modified Dunkerley Formula. With respect to obtained free-forms based on the four optimization schemes, both of their elastic buckling and elasto-plastic buckling behaviour are investigated and compared considering geometrical imperfections. As a result, it is concluded that the first and fourth optimization methods are effective from a viewpoint of buckling strength. And the relation between generalized slenderness ratio and appropriate objective function applied in buckling strength maximization is made clear.

  9. Compatibility between Co-Metallized PbTe Thermoelectric Legs and an Ag-Cu-In Brazing Alloy.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ayoun, Dana; Sadia, Yatir; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2018-01-10

    In thermoelectric (TE) generators, maximizing the efficiency of conversion of direct heat to electricity requires the reduction of any thermal and electrical contact resistances between the TE legs and the metallic contacts. This requirement is especially challenging in the development of intermediate to high-temperature TE generators. PbTe-based TE materials are known to be highly efficient up to temperatures of around 500 °C; however, only a few practical TE generators based on these materials are currently commercially available. One reason for that is the insufficient bonding techniques between the TE legs and the hot-side metallic contacts. The current research is focused on the interaction between cobalt-metallized n -type 9.104 × 10 -3 mol % PbI₂-doped PbTe TE legs and the Ag 0.32 Cu 0.43 In 0.25 brazing alloy, which is free of volatile species. Clear and fine interfaces without any noticeable formation of adverse brittle intermetallic compounds were observed following prolonged thermal treatment testing. Moreover, a reasonable electrical contact resistance of ~2.25 mΩmm² was observed upon brazing at 600 °C, highlighting the potential of such contacts while developing practical PbTe-based TE generators.

  10. Compatibility between Co-Metallized PbTe Thermoelectric Legs and an Ag–Cu–In Brazing Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ayoun, Dana; Sadia, Yatir; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2018-01-01

    In thermoelectric (TE) generators, maximizing the efficiency of conversion of direct heat to electricity requires the reduction of any thermal and electrical contact resistances between the TE legs and the metallic contacts. This requirement is especially challenging in the development of intermediate to high-temperature TE generators. PbTe-based TE materials are known to be highly efficient up to temperatures of around 500 °C; however, only a few practical TE generators based on these materials are currently commercially available. One reason for that is the insufficient bonding techniques between the TE legs and the hot-side metallic contacts. The current research is focused on the interaction between cobalt-metallized n-type 9.104 × 10−3 mol % PbI2-doped PbTe TE legs and the Ag0.32Cu0.43In0.25 brazing alloy, which is free of volatile species. Clear and fine interfaces without any noticeable formation of adverse brittle intermetallic compounds were observed following prolonged thermal treatment testing. Moreover, a reasonable electrical contact resistance of ~2.25 mΩmm2 was observed upon brazing at 600 °C, highlighting the potential of such contacts while developing practical PbTe-based TE generators. PMID:29320430

  11. High-intensity interval training combined with resistance training improves physiological capacities, strength and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zaenker, Pierre; Favret, Fabrice; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Muff, Guillaume; de Seze, Jérôme; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that mild-to-moderate intensity or resistance exercise training improves physical capacities such as, peak oxygen consumption, maximal tolerated power and strength in multiple sclerosis patients. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated to with resistance training. Only few studies have analyzed difference between men and women before and after combined training. Moreover, the evaluation of exercise between ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients without disability (Expanded Disability Status Score [EDSS] 0-3) and patients with disabilities (EDSS 3.5-5) was not largely published. The main objective of our study was to determine if HIIT combined with resistance training improved aerobic and strength capacities as well as quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients and if gender and disabilities play a role in these changes. This study was an open-label uncontrolled study. The study was performed outside from conventional care facilities and including homebased training. Twenty-six multiple sclerosis patients have completed the program (19 women, 7 men; mean age 44.6±7.9 years, EDSS 2 [0-5]). We conducted a 12-week program of high-intensity interval training combined with resistance training at body weight. Peak oxygen consumption, maximal tolerated power, lactates, isokinetic strength of quadriceps and hamstrings (at 90°/s, 180°/s, and 240°/s) and quality of life were evaluated before and after the program. Peak oxygen consumption and maximum tolerated power improved by 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Isokinetic muscle strength increased in both quadriceps and hamstrings at each speed, with a rebalancing of strength between the two legs in quadriceps. Quality of life was also enhanced in three domains. Women showed better improvements than men in V̇O2peak, maximal tolerated power, lactates at the end of test, and heart rate peak, strength in both quadriceps and hamstrings

  12. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p < 0.001), also when normalized to body mass (4.1%) (p = 0.012), but not for weight-adjusted hamstring muscle strength. The H:Q ratio was higher on the dominant compared with the nondominant leg for handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p < 0.02). These normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion torques of healthy, elite, female handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be

  13. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P < 0.05), whereas dynamic leg strength (5.1 ± 1.0 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg for the EX and control groups, respectively) and isometric handgrip strength (2.8 ± 0.7 vs -0.6 ± 1.2 kg) increased (P < 0.05) in the EX group but not in the control group. Our findings indicate that a 12-week moderate-intensity combined circuit RE and EE training improves arterial stiffness, hemodynamics, and muscle strength in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence that combined training may have important health implications for the prevention of hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  14. Side-alternating vibration training for balance and ankle muscle strength in untrained women.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91-16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater in the mediolateral (P < .001) than anteroposterior (P = .02) direction. The electromyographic activity of the peroneus

  15. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  16. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain: An Assessor-Blinded Comparison.

    PubMed

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2014-02-01

    Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P < .001). No other hip strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer players

  17. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players

    PubMed Central

    Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players. PMID:28090144

  19. Cardiorespiratory deconditioning with static and dynamic leg exercise during bed rest.

    PubMed

    Stremel, R W; Convertino, V A; Bernauer, E M; Greenleaf, J E

    1976-12-01

    Bed rest deconditioning was assessed in seven healthy men (19-22 yr) following three 14-day periods of controlled activity during recumbency by measuring submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), heart rate, and plasma volume. Exercise regimens were performed in the supine position and included a) two 30-min periods daily of intermittent static exercise at 21% of maximal leg extension force, and b) two 30-min periods of dynamic bicycle ergometer exercise daily at 68% of VO2max. No prescribed exercise was performed during the third bed rest period. Compared with their respective pre-bed rest control values, VO2max decreased (P less than 0.05) under all exercise conditions; -12.3% with no exercise, -9.2% with dynamic exercise, but only -4.8% with static exercise. Maximal heart rate was increased by 3.3% to 4.9% (P less than 0.05) under the three exercise conditions, while plasma volume decreased (P less than 0.05) -15.1% with no exercise and -10.1% with static, but only -7.8% (NS) with dynamic exercise. Since neither the static nor dynamic exercise training regimes minimized the changes in all the variables studied, some combination of these two types of exercise may be necessary for maximum protection from the effects of the bed deconditioning.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament injury about 20 years post-treatment: A kinematic analysis of one-leg hop.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Grip, H; Stensdotter, Ak; Häger, C K

    2015-12-01

    Reduced dynamic knee stability, often evaluated with one-leg hops (OLHs), is reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This may lead to long-standing altered movement patterns, which are less investigated. 3D kinematics during OLH were explored in 70 persons 23 ± 2 years after ACL injury; 33 were treated with physiotherapy in combination with ACL reconstruction (ACL(R)) and 37 with physiotherapy alone (ACL(PT)). Comparisons were made to 33 matched controls. We analyzed (a) maximal knee joint angles and range of motion (flexion, abduction, rotation); (b) medio-lateral position of the center of mass (COM) in relation to knee and ankle joint centers, during take-off and landing phases. Unlike controls, ACL-injured displayed leg asymmetries: less knee flexion and less internal rotation at take-off and landing and more lateral COM related to knee and ankle joint of the injured leg at landing. Compared to controls, ACL(R) had larger external rotation of the injured leg at landing. ACL(PT) showed less knee flexion and larger external rotation at take-off and landing, and larger knee abduction at Landing. COM was more medial in relation to the knee at take-off and less laterally placed relative to the ankle at landing. ACL injury results in long-term kinematic alterations during OLH, which are less evident for ACL(R). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gait, Balance, Leg Strength, and Sprint Speed After Bedrest with LBNP Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.

  2. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Sekendiz, Betül; Cuğ, Mutlu; Korkusuz, Feza

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on trunk extensor (abdominal)/flexor (lower back) and lower limb extensor (quadriceps)/flexor (hamstring) muscular strength, abdominal, lower back and leg endurance, flexibility and dynamic balance in sedentary women (n = 21; age = 34 ± 8.09; height = 1.63 ± 6.91 cm; weight = 64 ± 8.69 kg) trained for 45 minutes, 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Results of multivariate analysis revealed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between pre and postmeasures of 60 and 90° s trunk flexion/extension, 60 and 240° s-1 lower limb flexion/extension (Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer), abdominal endurance (curl-up test), lower back muscular endurance (modified Sorensen test), lower limb endurance (repetitive squat test), lower back flexibility (sit and reach test), and dynamic balance (functional reach test). The results support the fact that Swiss-ball core strength training exercises can be used to provide improvement in the aforementioned measures in sedentary women. In conclusion, this study provides practical implications for sedentary individuals, physiotherapists, strength and conditioning specialists who can benefit from core strength training with Swiss balls.

  3. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1991-04-02

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing. between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair laying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is widemore » and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.« less

  4. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  5. Differential Responses of Post-Exercise Recovery of Leg Blood Flow and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in HFpEF versus HFrEF.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard B; Pagano, Joseph J; Mathewson, Kory W; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Haykowsky, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations.

  6. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different…

  7. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of

  9. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  11. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  13. Superior mitochondrial adaptations in human skeletal muscle after interval compared to continuous single‐leg cycling matched for total work

    PubMed Central

    MacInnis, Martin J.; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Martin, Brian J.; Haikalis, Maria E.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Murphy, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points A classic unresolved issue in human integrative physiology involves the role of exercise intensity, duration and volume in regulating skeletal muscle adaptations to training.We employed counterweighted single‐leg cycling as a unique within‐subject model to investigate the role of exercise intensity in promoting training‐induced increases in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content.Six sessions of high‐intensity interval training performed over 2 weeks elicited greater increases in citrate synthase maximal activity and mitochondrial respiration compared to moderate‐intensity continuous training matched for total work and session duration.These data suggest that exercise intensity, and/or the pattern of contraction, is an important determinant of exercise‐induced skeletal muscle remodelling in humans. Abstract We employed counterweighted single‐leg cycling as a unique model to investigate the role of exercise intensity in human skeletal muscle remodelling. Ten young active men performed unilateral graded‐exercise tests to measure single‐leg V˙O2, peak and peak power (W peak). Each leg was randomly assigned to complete six sessions of high‐intensity interval training (HIIT) [4 × (5 min at 65% W peak and 2.5 min at 20% W peak)] or moderate‐intensity continuous training (MICT) (30 min at 50% W peak), which were performed 10 min apart on each day, in an alternating order. The work performed per session was matched for MICT (143 ± 8.4 kJ) and HIIT (144 ± 8.5 kJ, P > 0.05). Post‐training, citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity (10.2 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9 mmol kg protein−1 min−1) and mass‐specific [pmol O2•(s•mg wet weight)−1] oxidative phosphorylation capacities (complex I: 23.4 ± 3.2 vs. 17.1 ± 2.8; complexes I and II: 58.2 ± 7.5 vs. 42.2 ± 5.3) were greater in HIIT relative to MICT (interaction effects, P < 0.05); however, mitochondrial function [i.e. pmol O2•(s•CS maximal

  14. Effects of myofascial release leg pull and sagittal plane isometric contract-relax techniques on passive straight-leg raise angle.

    PubMed

    Hanten, W P; Chandler, S D

    1994-09-01

    Experimental evidence does not currently exist to support the claims of clinical effectiveness for myofascial release techniques. This presents an obvious need to document the effects of myofascial release. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two techniques, sagittal plane isometric contract-relax and myofascial release leg pull for increasing hip flexion range of motion (ROM) as measured by the angle of passive straight-leg raise. Seventy-five nondisabled, female subjects 18-29 years of age were randomly assigned to contract-relax, leg pull, or control groups. Pretest hip flexion ROM was measured for each subject's right hip with a passive straight-leg raise test using a fluid-filled goniometer. Subjects in the treatment groups received either contract-relax or leg pull treatment applied to the right lower extremity; subjects in the control group remained supine quietly for 5 minutes. Following treatment, posttest straight-leg raise measurements were performed. A one-way analysis of variance followed by a Newman-Keuls post hoc comparison of mean gain scores showed that subjects receiving contract-relax treatment increased their ROM significantly more than those who received leg pull treatment, and the increase in ROM of subjects in both treatment groups was significantly higher than those of the control group. The results suggest that while both contract-relax and leg pull techniques can significantly increase hip flexion ROM in normal subjects, contract-relax treatment may be more effective and efficient than leg pull treatment.

  15. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  16. Intratester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, David; Milner, Clare E

    2018-06-06

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a "break" test, the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intrarater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intrarater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 [6] y; 1.66 [0.06] m; 62.2 [8.0] kg) made 2 visits to the laboratory at least 1 week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a handheld dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force, and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intrarater reliability was determined using intraclass correlation, SEM, and minimal detectable difference. Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a 1-sample t test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation (3,3)  = .88; 95% confidence interval, .65-.95), SEM of 0.9 %BWh, and a minimal detectable difference of 2.5 %BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1 (0.6) seconds (range: 0.7-3.7 s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (P ≤ .001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  17. [Replantation at lower leg level].

    PubMed

    Daigeler, A; Fansa, H; Westphal, T; Schneider, W

    2003-11-01

    Replantation in reconstructive surgery is an established procedure due to microsurgical techniques. It can be routinely performed in unilateral lower leg amputation. In some cases of bilateral amputation, in which orthotopic replantation is not possible due to the complex trauma, heterotopic replantation is a therapeutic option. This avoids prosthetic fitting. We report five cases of orthotopic and two of heterotopic lower limb replantations. Functional outcome concerning sensibility, mobility, pain, and aesthetic result were assessed clinically and using a questionnaire. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were good. The psychological situation of the patients as well as mobility and stability of the replanted limbs were satisfying. Heterotopically replanted patients found the replanted legs superior to the prostheses. We conclude that, in lower leg amputation, attempts should be made to replant the extremity. In bilateral lower leg amputations, at least one limb should be reconstructed, even if "only" a heterotopic replantation can be performed.

  18. The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis.

    PubMed

    Ainegren, M; Carlsson, P; Laaksonen, M S; Tinnsten, M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μS) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼ 14%), heart rate (∼ 7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼ 30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μS. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μS, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μS. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Leg stiffness and expertise in men jumping.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Bardy, Benoît G; Durey, Alain

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate: a) the leg spring behavior in the one-leg vertical jump, b) the contribution of impulse parameters to this behavior, and c) the effect of jumping expertise on leg stiffness. Four categories of experts (handball, basketball, volleyball players, and Fosbury athletes), as well as novice subjects performed a run-and-jump test to touch a ball with the head. Five experimental conditions were tested from 55 to 95% of the maximum jump height. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using six cameras and a force plate. The mechanical behavior of the musculoskeleton component of the human body can be modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which leg stiffness values can be extracted to better understand energy transfer during running or jumping. The results indicate that leg stiffness (mean value of 11.5 kN.m) decreased with jumping height. Leg shortening at takeoff also increased with jumping height, whereas contact time decreased (-18%). No difference was found between experts and novices for leg stiffness. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) indicated the contribution of two main factors to the performance. The first factor emerged out of vertical force, stiffness, and duration of impulse. The second factor included leg shortening and jumping height. Differences between experts and novices were observed in terms of the contribution of leg stiffness to jump height, and more importantly, clear differences existed between experts in jumping parameters. The analysis performed on the sport categories indeed revealed different jumping profiles, characterized by specific, sport-related impulse parameters.

  20. Associations Between Measures of Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength/Power in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    It has frequently been reported that balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power are associated with sports-related and everyday activities. Knowledge about the relationship between balance, strength, and power are important for the identification of at-risk individuals because deficits in these neuromuscular components are associated with an increased risk of sustaining injuries and falls. In addition, this knowledge is of high relevance for the development of specifically tailored health and skill-related exercise programs. The objectives of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis were to characterize and, if possible, quantify associations between variables of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2015 to capture all relevant articles. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 996 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included only if they investigated healthy individuals aged ≥6 years and tested at least one measure of static steady-state balance (e.g., center of pressure [CoP] displacement during one-legged stance), dynamic steady-state balance (e.g., gait speed), proactive balance (e.g., distance in the functional-reach-test), or reactive balance (e.g., CoP displacement during perturbed one-legged stance), and one measure of maximal strength (e.g., maximum voluntary contraction), explosive force (e.g., rate of force development), or muscle power (e.g., jump height). In total, 37 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age (i.e., children: 6-12 years, adolescents: 13-18 years, young adults: 19-44 years, middle-aged adults: 45-64 years, old adults: ≥65 years), sex (i.e., female, male), and test modality/outcome (i.e., test for the assessment of balance

  1. Anatomic and functional leg-length inequality: A review and recommendation for clinical decision-making. Part II, the functional or unloaded leg-length asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A

    2005-01-01

    Background Part II of this review examines the functional "short leg" or unloaded leg length alignment asymmetry, including the relationship between an anatomic and functional leg-length inequality. Based on the reviewed evidence, an outline for clinical decision making regarding functional and anatomic leg-length inequality will be provided. Methods Online databases: Medline, CINAHL and Mantis. Plus library searches for the time frame of 1970–2005 were done using the term "leg-length inequality". Results and Discussion The evidence suggests that an unloaded leg-length asymmetry is a different phenomenon than an anatomic leg-length inequality, and may be due to suprapelvic muscle hypertonicity. Anatomic leg-length inequality and unloaded functional or leg-length alignment asymmetry may interact in a loaded (standing) posture, but not in an unloaded (prone/supine) posture. Conclusion The unloaded, functional leg-length alignment asymmetry is a likely phenomenon, although more research regarding reliability of the measurement procedure and validity relative to spinal dysfunction is needed. Functional leg-length alignment asymmetry should be eliminated before any necessary treatment of anatomic LLI. PMID:16080787

  2. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    PubMed Central

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  3. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P < 0.001) and 22% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P < 0.001) and 6.5% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (V wave /M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max /M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.