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Sample records for maximal recommended dose

  1. Pharmacokinetic Dashboard-Recommended Dosing Is Different than Standard of Care Dosing in Infliximab-Treated Pediatric IBD Patients.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Marla C; Phan, Becky L; Singh, Namita; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Mould, Diane R

    2017-01-01

    Standard of care (SOC; combination of 5-10 mg/kg and an interval every 6-8 weeks) dosing of infliximab (IFX) is associated with significant loss of response. Dashboards using covariates that influence IFX pharmacokinetics (PK) may be a more precise way of optimizing anti-TNF dosing. We tested a prototype dashboard to compare forecasted dosing regimens with actual administered regimens and SOC. Fifty IBD patients completing IFX induction were monitored during maintenance (weeks 14-54). Clinical and laboratory data were collected at each infusion; serum was analyzed for IFX concentrations and anti-drug antibodies (ADA) at weeks 14 and 54 (Prometheus Labs, San Diego). Dosing was blinded to PK data. Dashboard-based assessments were conducted on de-identified clinical, laboratory, and PK data. Bayesian algorithms were used to forecast individualized troughs and determine optimal dosing to maintain target trough concentrations (3 μg/mL). Dashboard forecasted dosing post-week 14 was compared to actual administered dose and frequency and SOC. Using week 14 clinical data only, the dashboard recommended either a dose or an interval change (<0.5 mg/kg or <1 week difference) in 43/50 patients; only 44% recommended to have SOC dosing. When IFX14 concentration and ADA status were added to clinical data, dose and/or interval changes based on actual dosing were recommended in 48/50 (96%) patients; SOC dosing was recommended in only 11/50 (22%). Dashboard recommended SOC IFX dosing in a minority of patients. Dashboards will be an important tool to individualize IFX dosing to improve treatment durability.

  2. Maximizing the success of bile duct cannulation studies in rats: recommendations for best practice.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Kendrick, John; Knight, Lindsay; McGregor, Victoria; Murphy, Helen; Punler, Malcolm; van Wijk, Hans

    2017-10-01

    Bile duct cannulation (BDC) studies are usually carried out in the rat to support the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion profiling of novel agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. The different aspects of these studies (e.g. surgical preparation, dosing and collection of bile) can be intricate and/or technically complex. The animals are often kept singly housed for the duration of the studies following surgical implantation of the cannulas. The generation of insufficient data to meet the study objectives, for example due to failure in cannula patency, can result in the need to repeat these studies. A working group of contract research organizations that routinely carry out BDC studies was brought together by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) to share their experiences, and to establish the key factors necessary to ensure routinely high success rates. Through these discussions the group has identified opportunities for best practice across various aspects of the studies. The aim of these recommendations is to support all staff involved in conducting BDC studies to maximize the amount of useful data generated using the fewest animals possible, while ensuring the highest possible standards of animal welfare.

  3. SU-C-16A-05: OAR Dose Tolerance Recommendations for Prostate and Cervical HDR Brachytherapy: Dose Versus Volume Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Geneser, S; Cunha, J; Pouliot, J

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy consensus dose tolerance recommendations for organs at risk (OARs) remain widely debated. Prospective trials reporting metrics must be sufficiently data-dense to assess adverse affects and identify optimally predictive tolerances. We explore the tradeoffs between reporting dose-metrics versus volume-metrics and the potential impact on trial outcome analysis and tolerance recommendations. Methods: We analyzed 26 prostate patients receiving 15 Gy HDR single-fraction brachytherapy boost to 45 Gy external beam radiation therapy and 28 cervical patients receiving 28 Gy HDR brachytherapy monotherapy in 4 fractions using 2 implants. For each OAR structure, a robust linear regression fit was performed formore » the dose-metrics as a function of the volume-metrics. The plan quality information provided by recommended dose-metric and volume-metric values were compared. Results: For prostate rectal dose, D2cc and V75 lie close to the regression line, indicating they are similarly informative. Two outliers for prostate urethral dose are substantially different from the remaining cohort in terms of D0.1cc and V75, but not D1cc, suggesting the choice of reporting dose metric is essential. For prostate bladder and cervical bladder, rectum, and bowel, dose outliers are more apparent via V75 than recommended dose-metrics. This suggests that for prostate bladder dose and all cervical OAR doses, the recommended volume-metrics may be better predictors of clinical outcome than dose-metrics. Conclusion: For plan acceptance criteria, dose and volume-metrics are reciprocally equivalent. However, reporting dosemetrics or volume-metrics alone provides substantially different information. Our results suggest that volume-metrics may be more sensitive to differences in planned dose, and if one metric must be chosen, volumemetrics are preferable. However, reporting discrete DVH points severely limits the ability to identify planning tolerances most predictive of

  4. The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

    2014-10-01

    The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar

  5. A Methodology to Compare Insulin Dosing Recommendations in Real-Life Settings.

    PubMed

    Groat, Danielle; Grando, Maria A; Thompson, Bithika; Neto, Pedro; Soni, Hiral; Boyle, Mary E; Bailey, Marilyn; Cook, Curtiss B

    2017-11-01

    We propose a methodology to analyze complex real-life glucose data in insulin pump users. Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on insulin pumps were recruited from an academic endocrinology practice. Glucose data, insulin bolus (IB) amounts, and self-reported alcohol consumption and exercise events were collected for 30 days. Rules were developed to retrospectively compare IB recommendations from the insulin pump bolus calculator (IPBC) against recommendations from a proposed decision aid (PDA) and for assessing the PDA's recommendation for exercise and alcohol. Data from 15 participants were analyzed. When considering instances where glucose was below target, the PDA recommended a smaller dose in 14%, but a larger dose in 13% and an equivalent IB in 73%. For glucose levels at target, the PDA suggested an equivalent IB in 58% compared to the subject's IPBC, but higher doses in 20% and lower in 22%. In events where postprandial glucose was higher than target, the PDA suggested higher doses in 25%, lower doses in 13%, and equivalent doses in 62%. In 64% of all alcohol events the PDA would have provided appropriate advice. In 75% of exercise events, the PDA appropriately advised an IB, a carbohydrate snack, or neither. This study provides a methodology to systematically analyze real-life data generated by insulin pumps and allowed a preliminary analysis of the performance of the PDA for insulin dosing. Further testing of the methodological approach in a broader diabetes population and prospective testing of the PDA are needed.

  6. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generatedmore » based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.« less

  7. Adherence with renal dosing recommendations in outpatients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, G J; Je, N K; Kim, D-S; Lee, S

    2016-02-01

    Adjustment of drug dosage in patients with end-stage renal disease prevents serious adverse effects, which occur due to the accumulation of drugs or other toxic metabolites. Nevertheless, dosing errors occur most commonly among patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for end-stage renal disease outpatients using their renal dosing adjustment status. A cross-sectional study was performed using the data collected from 43 South Korean medical institutions via questionnaires. A total of 2428 patients on haemodialysis, who were at least 18 years of age, were included. Among these patients, the study population was confined to patients who were taking medications and required renal dosing adjustments from three therapeutic classes: antihypertensives, antihyperglycaemics and lipid-modifying agents. The study population (n = 828) was prescribed a total of 1097 drug orders for the target drugs. Determination of appropriate dosage adjustment was based on GFR (glomerular filtration rate) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease revised 4-variable equation. The primary outcome was non-adherence to drug dosing requirements for end-stage renal disease patients with consideration to their renal function. Among the study population (n = 828), 469 haemodialysis patients were identified as having drug orders that were adherent to renal dosing recommendations. There were significant differences between the patient groups who received recommendation-adherent and non-adherent drug orders in the characteristics of the medical institutions they visited, causes of chronic renal failure and prevalence of concurrent diabetes mellitus. The primary factor of non-adherence to renal dosing adjustment recommendations was characteristics of medical institutions. Compared to tertiary hospitals, secondary hospitals and primary care clinics were 1·16 and 1·22 times, respectively, more non-adherent in accordance with the multivariate

  8. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  9. Dietary 2-oxoglutarate prevents bone loss caused by neonatal treatment with maximal dexamethasone dose

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Muszyński, Siemowit; Blicharski, Tomasz; Pierzynowski, Stefan G

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in the variety of dosages for treatment of premature infants with chronic lung disease, respiratory distress syndrome, allergies, asthma, and other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Yet, adverse effects such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and growth retardation are recognized. Conversely, 2-oxoglutarate (2-Ox), a precursor of glutamine, glutamate, and collagen amino acids, exerts protective effects on bone development. Our aim was to elucidate the effect of dietary administered 2-Ox on bone loss caused by neonatal treatment with clinically relevant maximal therapeutic dexamethasone (Dex) dose. Long bones of neonatal female piglets receiving Dex, Dex+2-Ox, or untreated were examined through measurements of mechanical properties, density, mineralization, geometry, histomorphometry, and histology. Selected hormones, bone turnover, and growth markers were also analyzed. Neonatal administration of clinically relevant maximal dose of Dex alone led to over 30% decrease in bone mass and the ultimate strength (P < 0.001 for all). The length (13 and 7% for femur and humerus, respectively) and other geometrical parameters (13–45%) decreased compared to the control (P < 0.001 for all). Dex impaired bone growth and caused hormonal imbalance. Dietary 2-Ox prevented Dex influence and vast majority of assessed bone parameters were restored almost to the control level. Piglets receiving 2-Ox had heavier, denser, and stronger bones; higher levels of growth hormone and osteocalcin concentration; and preserved microarchitecture of trabecular bone compared to the Dex group. 2-Ox administered postnatally had a potential to maintain bone structure of animals simultaneously treated with maximal therapeutic doses of Dex, which, in our opinion, may open up a new opportunity in developing combined treatment for children treated with GCs. Impact statement The present study has showed, for the first time, that dietary 2

  10. 76 FR 53847 - New International Commission on Radiological Protection; Recommendations on the Annual Dose Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Radiological Protection; Recommendations on the Annual Dose Limit to the Lens of the Eye AGENCY: Nuclear... Protection (ICRP) recommendations for the limitation of annual dose to the lens of the eye. This significant... might be lower than previously considered. For the lens of the eye, the threshold in absorbed dose for...

  11. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  12. The incidence of phlebitis with intravenous amiodarone at guideline dose recommendations.

    PubMed

    Slim, Ahmad M; Roth, Jason E; Duffy, Benjamin; Boyd, Sheri Y N; Rubal, Bernard J

    2007-12-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation following cardiothoracic surgery is common and frequently managed with intravenous (IV) amiodarone. Phlebitis is the most common complication with peripheral infusion of this agent. Current practice guidelines for peripheral IV administration of <2 mg/mL amiodarone were established to reduce the risk of phlebitis. The present study examines the incidence of phlebitis in a postoperative patient population given current dose recommendations. A total of 273 patient charts were reviewed. The incidence of phlebitis in patients given IV amiodarone (n = 36) was 13.9% (95% confidence interval, 2.6-25.2%; p = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis with backward elimination of other therapeutic risk factors suggests that the odds ratio for phlebitis using current dose regimens without IV filters is 19-fold greater than baseline risk in this population. Phlebitis remains a significant complication associated with peripheral infusion of amiodarone within recommended dosing limits.

  13. Comparison of the effects of maximal dose atorvastatin and rosuvastatin therapy on cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We measured plasma markers of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) and absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol) in order to compare the effects of maximal doses of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin and investigate the basis for the significant individual variation in lipid lowering response...

  14. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-09-09

    : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX(®), UpToDate(®), Medscape(®) and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211-0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292-0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  16. Decrease in varicella incidence after implementation of the 2-dose recommendation for varicella vaccine in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Daly, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Ludmila; Dreisig, John; Dionne-Odom, Jodie

    2013-09-01

    Varicella is a common infectious disease, for which 2-dose vaccination was recommended in 2006. Varicella case and vaccination data in New Hampshire were analyzed to assess impact of this recommendation on disease incidence and clinical characteristics. Varicella incidence decreased after the 2-dose recommendation, with greatest reductions in ages 5-19 years. Continued vaccination efforts should further reduce disease.

  17. Optimizing fluorescently tethered Hsp90 inhibitor dose for maximal specific uptake by breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Brian T.; Duer, Joy; Wang, Roujia; Gallagher, Jennifer; Hall, Allison; Soo, Mary Scott; Hughes, Philip; Haystead, Timothy A. J.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2018-03-01

    Despite improvements in surgical resection, 20-40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery require at least one additional re-excision. Leveraging the unique surface expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone protein involved in several key hallmarks of cancer, in breast cancer provides an exciting opportunity to identify residual disease during surgery. We developed a completely non-destructive strategy using HS-27, a fluorescently-tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, to assay surface Hsp90 expression on intact tissue specimens using a fluorescence microendoscope with a field of view of 750 μm and subcellular resolution of 4 μm. HS-27 consists of an FDA approved Hsp90 inhibitor tethered to fluorescein isothiocyanate (EX 488nm, EM 525nm). Here, we optimized ex vivo HS-27 administration in pre-clinical breast cancer models and validated our approach on 21 patients undergoing standard of care ultrasound guided core needle biopsy. HS-27 administration time was fixed at 1- minute to minimize imaging impact on clinical workflow. HS-27 and HS-217 (non-specific control) doses were modulated from 1 μM up to 100 μM to identify the dose maximizing the ratio of specific uptake (HS-27 fluorescence) to non-specific uptake (HS-217 fluorescence). The specificity ratio was maximized at 100 μM and was significantly greater than all other doses (p<0.05). We applied our optimized imaging protocol to clinical samples and demonstrated significantly greater uptake of HS-27 by tumor than non-tumor tissue (p<0.05). The ubiquitous nature of HS-27 binding to all subtypes of breast cancer makes this technology attractive for assessing tumor margins, as one agent can be used for all subtypes.

  18. Use of gastroprotective agents in recommended doses in hospitalized patients receiving NSAIDs: a drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Erdeljic, Viktorija; Francetic, Igor; Macolic Sarinic, Viola; Bilusic, Marinko; Makar Ausperger, Ksenija; Huic, Mirjana; Mercep, Iveta

    2006-10-01

    In recent years, studies investigated to what extend recommendations for co-prescribing gastroprotective agents in prevention of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications are followed in clinical practice. However, only a few studies have also taken into consideration the recommended dose of gastroprotectives prescribed in NSAID-induced ulcer prophylaxis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of concomitant use of gastroprotectives with NSAIDs in hospitalized patients, with emphasis on the recommended dose of gastroprotectives for ulcer prophylaxis. This observational, cross-sectional, drug utilization study included all adult patients receiving NSAIDs hospitalized in the Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb on the day of the study. Data on age, sex, comorbidities, indications for NSAID use, type/dose of NSAIDs and gastroprotectives, history of gastrointestinal events, active gastrointestinal symptoms and risk factors were evaluated. Study outcomes were: (1) prevalence of prescription of gastroprotectives among NSAID-users at risk; (2) prevalence of prescription of gastroprotective in recommended dose; (3) association between risk factors and prescription of GPAs. The rates of gastroprotectives prescription were significantly higher in NSAID-users with concomitant risk factors as compared to patients without risk factors [47/70 (67.1%) and 8/22 (36.4%), respectively; p=0.01072]. However, gastroprotection in recommended ulcer-preventive dose was low in both groups [8/70 (11.4%) and 9/92 (9.8%), respectively]. The number of concomitant risk factors did not increase the odds of receiving anti-ulcer therapy (odds ratio 0.7279). Thirty-three percent of patients with concomitant risk factors were not prescribed gastroprotectives. Ibuprofen, NSAID with the lowest risk of inducing gastrointestinal complications, was prescribed in only two patients. The results indicate high awareness among hospital physicians about possible NSAID-induced gastrointestinal

  19. The new World Health Organization recommendation on the 2-dose measles vaccine schedule and the way forward in African Region

    PubMed Central

    Biellik, Robin Julian; Davis, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The new W.H.O. recommendation, which drops the coverage criterion for adoption of the 2-dose measles vaccine schedule, makes some African countries eligible for the 2-dose schedule which were previously ineligible. We look at the implications of the new recommendation for Ethiopia and Nigeria, the two largest African countries which are eligible under the new recommendation. PMID:29296149

  20. Minimal and maximal incidence rates of skin cancer in Caucasians estimated by use of sigmoidal UV dose-incidence curves.

    PubMed

    Juzeniene, Asta; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Baturaite, Zivile; Moan, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Sigmoidal (S-shaped) dose-cancer incidence relationships are often observed in animal bioassays for carcinogenicity. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established skin carcinogen. The aim of this study is to examine if S-shaped curves describe the relationship between solar UV doses and skin cancer incidences, and if such relationships can be used to estimate threshold levels of non-carcinogenic UV exposure, as well as maximal incidence rates. We studied the incidence rate-annual erythema-effective UV dose relationship for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous melanoma (CM) among different Caucasian populations in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis indicates that S-shaped associations describe the data well (P < 0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence rates for cases expected to be due to other causes than solar UV exposure (at zero UV dose) were found to be around 0.6, 9.7 and 4.0 per 100,000 for women in 1997-2007 for SCC, BCC and CM, respectively, and around 1.2, 14.3 and 2.6 per 100,000 for men. The analysis indicates that SCC, BCC and CM have maximal incidence of 361 ± 24, 1544 ± 49 and 36 ± 4 per 100,000 for women, and 592 ± 35, 2204 ± 109 and 50 ± 4 per 100,000 for men. Between 89 and 95% of the annual CM cases, around 99.8% SCC and 99.4% BCC cases are caused by solar UV exposure. The analysis did not identify any "safe" UV dose below which the risk for skin cancer was absent. Avoidance of UV radiation has a potential to reduce the incidence of skin cancer in fair-skinned population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of <1,500 g were enrolled in the study. Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  2. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    PubMed

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Healthcare provider compliance with the 2013 ACC/AHA Adult Cholesterol Guideline recommendation for high-intensity dose statins for patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Housholder-Hughes, Susan D; Martin, Melanie M; McFarland, Marilyn R; Creech, Constance J; Shea, Michael J

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the foremost cause of death for U.S. adults. The 2013 ACC/AHA Adult Cholesterol Guidelines recommend high-intensity dose statins for individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD). To determine healthcare provider compliance with the Cholesterol Guideline recommendation specific to high-intensity dose statins for patients with CAD. A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine compliance rate. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate healthcare provider beliefs, attitudes, and self-confidence toward this recommendation. Of the 473 patients with CAD, 67% were prescribed a high-intensity dose statin. Patients with non-ST segment myocardial infarction and ST segment myocardial infarction were more likely to be prescribed a high-intensity dose statin versus a moderate or low-intensity dose. Healthcare providers strongly agreed with this guideline recommendation. There exists a dichotomy between intention to prescribe and actual prescribing behaviors of high-intensity dose statin for patients with CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Staci R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for best practices for basketball coaches to maximize the instructional effectiveness of a timeout during competition. Practical applications are derived from research findings linking emotional intelligence to effective coaching behaviors. Additionally, recommendations are based on the implications of the…

  5. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  6. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  7. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  8. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  9. Results with OECD recommended positive control sensitizers in the maximization, Buehler and local lymph node assays.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Selbie, E; Scholes, E W; Lees, D; Kimber, I; Botham, P A

    1993-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test and the Buehler occluded patch test are used widely to identify the sensitization potential of new chemicals. This information enables toxicologists and/or regulatory authorities to determine whether a chemical should be classified formally as a skin sensitizer. Both to improve and to harmonize these assessments internationally, the OECD has recommended recently that moderate rather than strong contact sensitizers are used as positive control substances. The purpose is to ensure an adequate level of sensitivity in sensitization assays performed at specific testing establishments. Results from two laboratories reported here show that the minimum acceptable standard laid down by the OECD can be achieved and indeed commonly exceeded by a substantial margin. Furthermore, results with these positive controls in a new method, the local lymph node assay, also appear to satisfy similar criteria, suggesting results from this assay, including negative data, should be acceptable for classification purposes. However, a review of the way in which results with new chemicals will be interpreted for regulatory purposes, in the context of positive control data, reveals that considerable inadequacies still exist. It is recommended that ultimately, sensitization data can only be interpreted meaningfully (i.e. to protect humans from sensitization hazards) by considering the potency of the contact allergen in the context of the sensitivity of the assay performed at the particular testing institution.

  10. Real-World Dosing Patterns of Atomoxetine in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kabul, Samaneh; Alatorre, Carlos; Montejano, Leslie B; Farr, Amanda M; Clemow, David B

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a retrospective analysis. Adult (≥ 18 years) patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine with ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for atomoxetine between January 2006 and December 2011 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial database. After a 30-day titration period, dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy were analyzed in the 12 months following initiation. In addition, patient demographic and clinical characteristics were compared to identify characteristics associated with suboptimal versus recommended dosing. Of the 12,412 adult patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine, 4548 (36.6%) were suboptimally dosed, whereas 3323 (26.7%) were treated at recommended dose. Overall, study patients were treated at a mean (standard deviation [SD]) dose of 68.5 (44.9) mg/day. The suboptimal dosing cohort included significantly more females (54% vs. 44%, P < 0.001) and had fewer patients with pre-index use of other ADHD medications (17% vs. 20%, P < 0.001) compared with the recommended dosing cohort. Adult patients with ADHD receiving atomoxetine therapy in a real-world setting are often dosed suboptimally. Increasing the awareness on optimal dosing strategy among clinicians and patients is warranted to maximize the therapeutic benefits of atomoxetine among adult patients with ADHD. © 2015 Eli Lilly and Company. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. FDA-sunlamp recommended Maximum Timer Interval And Exposure Schedule: consensus ISO/CIE dose equivalence.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Czako, Eugene A; Stepp, Michael E; Schlitt, Steven C; Bender, Gregory R; Khan, Lateef U; Shinneman, Kenneth D; Karos, Manuel G; Shepherd, James G; Sayre, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    The authors compared calculations of sunlamp maximum exposure times following current USFDA Guidance Policy on the Maximum Timer Interval and Exposure Schedule, with USFDA/CDRH proposals revising these to equivalent erythemal exposures of ISO/CIE Standard Erythema Dose (SED). In 2003, [USFDA/CDRH proposed replacing their unique CDRH/Lytle] erythema action spectrum with the ISO/CIE erythema action spectrum and revising the sunlamp maximum exposure timer to 600 J m(-2) ISO/CIE effective dose, presented as being biologically equivalent. Preliminary analysis failed to confirm said equivalence, indicating instead ∼38% increased exposure when applying these proposed revisions. To confirm and refine this finding, a collaboration of tanning bed and UV lamp manufacturers compiled 89 UV spectra representing a broad sampling of U.S. indoor tanning equipment. USFDA maximum recommended exposure time (Te) per current sunlamp guidance and CIE erythemal effectiveness per ISO/CIE standard were calculated. The CIE effective dose delivered per Te averaged 456 J(CIE) m(-2) (SD = 0.17) or ∼4.5 SED. The authors found that CDRH's proposed 600 J(CIE) m(-2) recommended maximum sunlamp exposure exceeds current Te erythemal dose by ∼33%. The current USFDA 0.75 MED initial exposure was ∼0.9 SED, consistent with 1.0 SED initial dose in existing international sunlamp standards. As no sunlamps analyzed exceeded 5 SED, a revised maximum exposure of 500 J(CIE) m(-2) (∼80% of CDRH's proposal) should be compatible with existing tanning equipment. A tanning acclimatization schedule is proposed beginning at 1 SED thrice-weekly, increasing uniformly stepwise over 4 wk to a 5 SED maximum exposure in conjunction with a tan maintenance schedule of twice-weekly 5 SED sessions, as biologically equivalent to current USFDA sunlamp policy.

  12. Absorbed organ and effective doses from digital intra-oral and panoramic radiography applying the ICRP 103 recommendations for effective dose estimations

    PubMed Central

    Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ylhan, Betȕl; Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Ekestubbe, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: During dental radiography, the salivary and thyroid glands are at radiation risk. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) updated the methodology for determining the effective dose, and the salivary glands were assigned tissue-specific weighting factors for the first time. The aims of this study were to determine the absorbed dose to the organs and to calculate, applying the ICRP publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, the effective doses delivered during digital intraoral and panoramic radiography. Methods: Thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements were performed on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. The organ-absorbed doses were measured at 30 locations, representing different radiosensitive organs in the head and neck, and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP recommendations. Results: The salivary glands and the oral mucosa received the highest absorbed doses from both intraoral and panoramic radiography. The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination was 15 μSv and for panoramic radiography, the effective dose was in the range of 19–75 μSv, depending on the panoramic equipment used. Conclusion: The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination is lower and that from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported. Clinicians should be aware of the higher effective dose delivered during panoramic radiography and the risk–benefit profile of this technique must be assessed for the individual patient. Advances in knowledge: The effective dose of radiation from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported and there is large variability in the delivered radiation dosage among the different types of equipment used. PMID:27452261

  13. Does intravenous induction dosing among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgical procedures follow current recommendations: a study of contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Shamsuddin; Liu, Jia; Heng, Joseph; Dai, Feng; Schonberger, Robert B; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    It is recommended to correct intravenous induction doses by up to 50% for patients older than 65 years. The objectives were to determine (a) the degree to which anesthesia providers correct induction doses for age and (b) additionally adjust for American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) class (severity of illness) and (c) whether postinduction hypotension is more common among patients aged >65. Retrospective chart review. Academic medical center. A total of 1869 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for GI surgical procedures from February 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided into 3 age groups (age <65, 65-79, ≥80 years) and then further stratified into ASA-PS class (I/II vs III/IV). Multiple pairwise comparisons were conducted using Welch t tests for continuous variables to determine whether dosing was different for the older groups vs the younger group; separate analyses were performed within and across ASA-PS class. This approach was also used to determine differences in mean arterial pressure change in the older groups vs the younger group, whereas the rates of hypotension among different age groups were compared by Cochran-Armitage trend test. No significant decrease in dosing between age groups was observed for fentanyl and midazolam. For propofol, there was a significantly lower dosing for older patients: 17% for patients aged 65-79 and 29% for those aged >80, which was still in less than the recommendations. An inverse relationship was observed between propofol dosing and ASA-PS class, but no consistent relationship was noted for fentanyl and midazolam. There were a significantly larger drop in mean arterial pressure and a greater likelihood of hypotension following induction in patients aged 65-79 years and >80 years as compared with those aged <65 years. This study shows that the administered dose of anesthetic induction agents is significantly higher than that recommended for patients older than 65 years. This failure

  14. Dose escalation can maximize therapeutic potential of sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maráz, Anikó; Cserháti, Adrienn; Uhercsák, Gabriella; Szilágyi, Éva; Varga, Zoltán; Révész, János; Kószó, Renáta; Varga, Linda; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2018-03-15

    safe and improves outcome. Dose escalation in 12.5 mg steps may be recommended for properly educated patients.

  15. Mumps Outbreak at a University and Recommendation for a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine - Illinois, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Justin P; Clegg, Whitney J; Reid, Heather D; Arbise, Benjamin S; Pryde, Julie; Vaid, Awais; Thompson-Brown, Rachella; Echols, Fredrick

    2016-07-29

    Mumps is an acute viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid or other salivary glands. On May 1, 2015, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) confirmed a mumps outbreak at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IDPH and the Champaign-Urbana Public Health District (C-UPHD) conducted an investigation and identified 317 cases of mumps during April 2015-May 2016. Because of sustained transmission in a population with high 2-dose coverage with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, a third MMR dose was recommended by IDPH, C-UPHD, and the university's McKinley Health Center. No formal recommendation for or against the use of a third MMR dose has been issued by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). However, CDC has provided guidelines for use of a third dose as a control measure during mumps outbreaks in settings in which persons are in close contact with one another, where transmission is sustained despite high 2-dose MMR coverage, and when traditional control measures fail to slow transmission (2).

  16. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Compliance with Recommendation for Sulfonylurea Dose Co-Administered with DPP-4 Inhibitors in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomomi; Shiosakai, Kazuhito; Takeda, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Shinji; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Motonobu

    2012-01-01

    After the launch of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a new oral hypoglycemic drug (OHD), in December 2009, severe hypoglycemia cases were reported in Japan. Although the definite cause was unknown, co-administration with sulfonylureas (SU) was suspected as one of the potential risk factors. The Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care (JADEC) released a recommendation in April 2010 to lower the dose of three major SUs (glimepiride, glibenclamide, and gliclazide) when adding a DPP-4 inhibitor. To evaluate the effectiveness of this risk minimization action along with labeling changes, dispensing records for 114,263 patients prescribed OHDs between December 2008 and December 2010 were identified in the Nihon-Chouzai pharmacy claims database. The adherence to the recommended dosing of SU co-prescribed with DPP-4 inhibitors increased from 46.3% before to 63.8% after the JADEC recommendation (p < 0.01 by time-series analysis), while no change was found in those for SU monotherapy and SU with other OHD co-prescriptions. The adherence was significantly worse for those receiving a glibenclamide prescription. The JADEC recommendation, along with labeling changes, appeared to have a favorable effect on the risk minimization action in Japan. In these instances, a pharmacy claims database can be a useful tool to evaluate risk minimization actions. PMID:24300302

  18. Are Recommended Doses of Acetaminophen Effective for Children Aged 2 to 3 Years? A Pharmacokinetic Modeling Answer.

    PubMed

    Abourbih, Daniel Asher; Gosselin, Sophie; Villeneuve, Eric; Kazim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) elixir is a widely used pediatric antipyretic medication. It has been shown that up to 30% of febrile children presenting to a large urban pediatric emergency department received inadequate APAP dosages at home with errors primarily due to age-based dosing. Parental education material in the form of weight-based dosing guides has been proposed; however, validation of current recommended APAP dosages using pharmacokinetic models is needed. This study used a mathematical model of APAP absorption to predict plasma concentrations and to compare them with the range required to reach and achieve antipyresis (10-20 μg/mL). A common APAP preparation (Children's Tylenol Elixir) was tested (children aged 2-3 years, 10.9-15.9 kg). The manufacturer's suggested dose of 160 mg was compared with the standard 10 to 15 mg/kg dose range. The model predicts a peak plasma concentration between 6.38 and 8.55 μg/mL for 10 mg/kg dose and 9.57 and 12.8 μg/mL for 15 mg/kg dose. The manufacturer's suggested dose of 160 mg was tested across the limits of the weight range (10.9-15.9 kg). A peak plasma concentration between 9.36 and 12.6 μg/mL was found for the lower weight limit (10.9 kg child) and 6.42 to 8.61 μg/mL for the upper weight limit (15.9 kg child). With the use of this model, the 10 mg/kg dose does not reach the plasma concentration value for antipyresis (10-20 μg/mL), whereas 15 mg/kg is adequate only if assuming a greater absorption constant. The 160 mg dose is effective only for children weighing 10.9 kg. Individual differences in drug bioavailability, volume of distribution, and absorption/elimination constants undoubtedly exist, and future studies directly measuring plasma APAP concentration and pharmacokinetics are needed. However, these results indicate that dosages for APAP in children should be weight based and manufacturers should review their dosing recommendations.

  19. The effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine supplementation on upper and lower body maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle force.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; Yavuz, Harley C M

    2018-03-01

    Despite the growing quantity of literature exploring the effect of caffeine on muscular strength, there is a dearth of data that directly explores differences in erogenicity between upper and lower body musculature and the dose-response effect. The present study sought to investigate the effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine on the maximal voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Ten nonspecifically strength-trained, recreationally active participants (aged 21 ± 0.3 years) completed the study. Using a randomised, counterbalanced, and double-blind approach, isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength was measured at 60 and 180°/s following administration of a placebo, 3 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine, and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine. There was no effect of caffeine on the maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric strength of the elbow flexors, or the eccentric strength of the knee extensors. Both 3 and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine caused a significant increase in peak concentric force of the knee extensors at 180°/s. No difference was apparent between the 2 concentrations. Only 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caused an increase in peak concentric force during repeated contractions. The results infer that the effective caffeine concentration to evoke improved muscle performance may be related to muscle mass and contraction type. The present work indicates that a relatively low dose of caffeine treatment may be effective for improving lower body muscular strength, but may have little benefit for the strength of major muscular groups of the upper body.

  20. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  1. Dose constraints for moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: The French genito-urinary group (GETUG) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Langrand-Escure, J; de Crevoisier, R; Llagostera, C; Créhange, G; Delaroche, G; Lafond, C; Bonin, C; Bideault, F; Sargos, P; Belhomme, S; Pasquier, D; Latorzeff, I; Supiot, S; Hennequin, C

    2018-04-01

    Considering recent phase III trials results, moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy can be considered as a standard treatment for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer management. This assessment call for a framework allowing homogeneous and reproducible practices in the different centers using this radiotherapy schedule. The French Genito-Urinary Group (GETUG) provides here recommendations for daily practice of moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, with indications, dose, fractionation, pre-treatment planning, volume of interest delineation (target volume and organs at risk) and margins, dose constraints and radiotherapy techniques. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Sorafenib Dose Recommendation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Based on Exposure-FLT3 Relationship.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Ivaturi, Vijay; Sabato, Philip; Gobburu, Jogarao V S; Greer, Jacqueline M; Wright, John J; Smith, B Douglas; Pratz, Keith W; Rudek, Michelle A

    2018-04-27

    Sorafenib administered at the approved dose continuously is not tolerated long-term in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to optimize the dosing regimen by characterizing the sorafenib exposure-response relationship in patients with AML. A one-compartment model with a transit absorption compartment and enterohepatic recirculation described the exposure. The relationship between sorafenib exposure and target modulation of kinase targets (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-ITD and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)) were described by an inhibitory maximum effect (E max ) model. Sorafenib could inhibit FLT3-ITD activity by 100% with an IC 50 of 69.3 ng/mL and ERK activity by 84% with an IC 50 of 85.7 ng/mL (both adjusted for metabolite potency). Different dosing regimens utilizing 200 or 400 mg at varying frequencies were simulated based on the exposure-response relationship. Simulations demonstrate that a 200 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) dosing regimen showed similar FLT3-ITD and ERK inhibitory activity compared with 400 mg b.i.d. and is recommended in further clinical trials in patients with AML. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in Future Studies.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2015-07-01

    High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  4. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    PubMed

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  5. Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-led study.

    PubMed

    Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Collette, Laurence; Paoletti, Xavier; Rizzo, Elisa; Massard, Christophe; Olmos, David; Fowst, Camilla; Levy, Bernard; Mancini, Pierre; Lacombe, Denis; Ivy, Percy; Seymour, Lesley; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Siu, Lillian L; Kaye, Stan B; Verweij, Jaap; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2014-08-01

    Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention. In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and academia, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led initiative, Dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies (DLT-TARGETT), collected data from completed phase 1 trials evaluating MTAs as monotherapy. All toxicities at least possibly related to the study drugs that occurred during C1-6, their type, grade (CTCAEv3.0), and duration as well as patients' relative dose-intensity (RDI), were recorded. The 54 eligible trials enrolled 2084 evaluable adult patients with solid tumours between 1999 and 2013, and evaluated small molecules (40), antibodies (seven), recombinant peptides (five) and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (two). A maximum tolerated dose was set in 43 trials. Fifteen percent of the patients received <75% of the intended RDI in C1, but only 9.1% of them presented protocol-defined DLTs. After C1, 16-19% of patients received <75% of the intended RDI. A similar proportion of G ⩾ 3 toxicities was recorded in C1 and after C1 (936 and 1087 toxicities, respectively), with the first G⩾3 toxicity occurring after C1 in 18.6% of patients. Although protocol-defined DLT period is traditionally limited to C1, almost 20% of patients present significant reductions in RDI at any time in phase 1 trials of MTAs. Recommended phase 2 dose assessment should incorporate all available information from any cycle (notably lower grade toxicities leading to such RDI decrease), and be based on achieving >75% RDI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye: overview of the recommendations in NCRP Commentary No. 26.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Dynlacht, Joseph; Hoel, David; Klein, Barbara E K; Mayer, Donald; Prescott, Christina R; Thornton, Raymond H; Vano, Eliseo; Woloschak, Gayle E; Flannery, Cynthia M; Goldstein, Lee E; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tran, Phung K; Grissom, Michael P; Blakely, Eleanor A

    2017-10-01

    This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP addressed radiation protection principles in respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices. Radiation-induced damage to the lens of the eye can include the loss of clarity resulting in opacification or clouding several years after exposure. The impact is highly dependent on the type of radiation, how the exposure of the lens was delivered, the genetic susceptibilities of the individual exposed, and the location of the opacity relative to the visual axis of the individual. The preponderance of epidemiological evidence suggests that lens damage could occur at lower doses than previously considered and the NCRP has determined that it is prudent to reduce the recommended annual lens of the eye occupational dose limit from an equivalent dose of 150 mSv to an absorbed dose of 50 mGy. Significant additional research is still needed in the following areas: comprehensive evaluation of the overall effects of ionizing radiation on the eye, dosimetry methodology and dose-sparing optimization techniques, additional high quality epidemiology studies, and a basic understanding of the mechanisms of cataract development.

  7. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-07-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (microg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r=0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r=0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA.

  8. Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

  9. Hemodialysis patients receiving a greater Kt dose than recommended have reduced mortality and hospitalization risk.

    PubMed

    Maduell, Francisco; Ramos, Rosa; Varas, Javier; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Molina, Manuel; Pérez-Garcia, Rafael; Marcelli, Daniele; Moreso, Francesc; Aljama, Pedro; Merello, Jose Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Achieving an adequate dialysis dose is one of the key goals for dialysis treatments. Here we assessed whether patients receiving the current cleared plasma volume (Kt), individualized for body surface area per recommendations, had improved survival and reduced hospitalizations at 2 years of follow-up. Additionally, we assessed whether patients receiving a greater dose gained more benefit. This prospective, observational, multicenter study included 6129 patients in 65 Fresenius Medical Care Spanish facilities. Patients were classified monthly into 1 of 10 risk groups based on the difference between achieved and target Kt. Patient groups with a more negative relationship were significantly older with a higher percentage of diabetes mellitus and catheter access. Treatment dialysis time, effective blood flow, and percentage of on-line hemodiafiltration were significantly higher in groups with a higher dose. The mortality risk profile showed a progressive increase when achieved minus target Kt became more negative but was significantly lower in the group with 1 to 3 L clearance above target Kt and in groups with greater increases above target Kt. Additionally, hospitalization risk appeared significantly reduced in groups receiving 9 L or more above the minimum target. Thus, prescribing an additional 3 L or more above the minimum Kt dose could potentially reduce mortality risk, and 9 L or more reduce hospitalization risk. As such, future prospective studies are required to confirm these dose effect findings. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (<10.0 μmol/L) and optimal prevention of birth defects. Because the closure of the neural tube occurs in the first 8 weeks after conception, women with low prepregnancy folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as <20% of young women (i.e., in Germany) supplement with the vitamin. Recommending adequate food folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of current recommended regimens of atropinization in organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Connors, Nicholas J; Harnett, Zachary H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.'s work, texts of Internal and Emergency Medicine, and electronic resources were reviewed for atropine dosing recommendations. For comparison, recommendations were assessed using the same mean dose (23.4 mg) and the highest dose (75 mg) of atropine as used in the original paper. Recommendations were also compared with the dosing regimen from the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirteen of the original recommendations were updated and 15 additional references were added giving a convenience sample of 28. Sufficient information to calculate time to targeted dose was provided by 24 of these samples. Compared to 2004, current recommendations have greatly increased the speed of atropinization with 13/24 able to reach the mean and high atropine dose within 30 min compared to 1/36 in 2004. In 2004, there were 13 regimens where the maximum time to reach 75 mg was over 18 h, whereas now, there are 2. While only one recommendation called for doubling the dose for faster escalation in 2004, 15 of the 24 current works include dose doubling. In 2004, Eddleston et al. called for an evidence-based guideline for the treatment of OP poisoning that could be disseminated worldwide. Many current recommendations can adequately treat patients within 1 h. While the WHO recommendations remain slow to treat patients with OP poisoning, other authorities are close to a consensus on rapid atropinization.

  12. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposedmore » lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate

  13. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  14. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor control probability

  15. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Yucca mountain radiation standards, dose/risk assessments, thinking outside the box, evaluations, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2009-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository is designed to contain spent nuclear fuel and vitrified fission products. Due to the fact that it will be the first such facility constructed anywhere in the world, it has proved to be one in which multiple organizations, most prominently the U.S. Congress, are exercising a role. In addition to selecting a site for the facility, Congress specified that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) promulgate the associated Standards, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission establish applicable Regulations to implement the Standards, and the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) design, construct, and operate the repository. Congress also specified that U.S. EPA request that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) provide them guidance on the form and nature of the Standards. In so doing, Congress also stipulated that the Standards be expressed in terms of an "equivalent dose rate." As will be noted, this subsequently introduced serious complications. Due to the inputs of so many groups, and the fact that the NAS recommendations conflicted with the Congressional stipulation that the limits be expressed in terms of a dose rate, the outcome is a set of Standards that not only does not comply with the NAS recommendations, but also is neither integrated, nor consistent. The initial goals of this paper are to provide an independent risk/dose analysis for each of the eight radionuclides that are to be regulated, and to evaluate them in terms of the Standards. These efforts reveal that the Standards are neither workable nor capable of being implemented. The concluding portions of the paper provide guidance that, if successfully implemented, would enable U.S. DOE to complete the construction of the repository and operate it in accordance with the recommendations of NAS while, at the same time, provide a better, more accurate, understanding of its potential risks to the public. This facility is too important to

  16. Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third Dose of Mumps Virus-Containing Vaccine in Persons at Increased Risk for Mumps During an Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Marlow, Mariel; Moore, Kelly L; Patel, Manisha

    2018-01-12

    A substantial increase in the number of mumps outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases has occurred in the United States since late 2015 (1,2). To address this public health problem, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed the available evidence and determined that a third dose of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and effective at preventing mumps. During its October 2017 meeting, ACIP recommended a third dose of a mumps virus-containing vaccine* for persons previously vaccinated with 2 doses who are identified by public health authorities as being part of a group or population at increased risk for acquiring mumps because of an outbreak. The purpose of the recommendation is to improve protection of persons in outbreak settings against mumps disease and mumps-related complications. This recommendation supplements the existing ACIP recommendations for mumps vaccination (3).

  17. Dose Effect of Rhenium (I)-diselenoether as Anticancer Drug in Resistant Breast Tumor-bearing Mice After Repeated Administrations.

    PubMed

    Collery, Philippe; Santoni, François; Ciccolini, Joseph; Tran, Thi Ngoc Nga; Mohsen, Ahmed; Desmaele, Didier

    2016-11-01

    Rhenium (I)-diselenoether has shown promising antiproliferative efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo models. However, the maximal tolerated dose and dose-effect relationships have not been fully addressed for this compound. Here, we evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of three dose-levels (namely 10, 40 and 100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally administered daily over 28 days in mice bearing the resistant MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line. The upper dose was found to be toxic and was reduced to 60 mg/kg. The 10 mg/kg dose well tolerated, whereas 40 mg/kg was associated with 10% mortality (LD 10 ). Both 10 and 40 mg/kg dosing achieved a significantly similar regression of tumor growth compared with untreated animals. This study suggests that 10 mg/kg daily is the recommended dose for rhenium (I) diselenoether. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Rationale for recommending a lower dose of primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide in populations where G6PD deficiency is common.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J; Qiao, Li Guo; Qi, Gao; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2012-12-14

    In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose) be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg) would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated.

  19. Optimal dose selection accounting for patient subpopulations in a randomized Phase II trial to maximize the success probability of a subsequent Phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumihiro; Morita, Satoshi

    2018-02-08

    Phase II clinical trials are conducted to determine the optimal dose of the study drug for use in Phase III clinical trials while also balancing efficacy and safety. In conducting these trials, it may be important to consider subpopulations of patients grouped by background factors such as drug metabolism and kidney and liver function. Determining the optimal dose, as well as maximizing the effectiveness of the study drug by analyzing patient subpopulations, requires a complex decision-making process. In extreme cases, drug development has to be terminated due to inadequate efficacy or severe toxicity. Such a decision may be based on a particular subpopulation. We propose a Bayesian utility approach (BUART) to randomized Phase II clinical trials which uses a first-order bivariate normal dynamic linear model for efficacy and safety in order to determine the optimal dose and study population in a subsequent Phase III clinical trial. We carried out a simulation study under a wide range of clinical scenarios to evaluate the performance of the proposed method in comparison with a conventional method separately analyzing efficacy and safety in each patient population. The proposed method showed more favorable operating characteristics in determining the optimal population and dose.

  20. Suboptimal Antituberculosis Drug Concentrations and Outcomes in Small and HIV-Coinfected Children in India: Recommendations for Dose Modifications.

    PubMed

    Guiastrennec, Benjamin; Ramachandran, Geetha; Karlsson, Mats O; Kumar, A K Hemanth; Bhavani, Perumal Kannabiran; Gangadevi, N Poorana; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gupta, Amita; Dooley, Kelly E; Savic, Radojka M

    2017-12-16

    This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily antituberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing thrice-weekly dosing as per previous Indian pediatric guidelines. The exposure-response relationships were established using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach. Rifampin exposure was identified as the unique predictor of treatment outcome. Consequently, children with low body weight (4-7 kg) and/or HIV infection, who displayed the lowest rifampin exposure, were associated with the highest probability of unfavorable treatment (therapy failure, death) outcome (P unfavorable ). Model-based simulation of optimized (P unfavorable ≤ 5%) rifampin once-daily doses were suggested per treatment weight band and HIV coinfection status (33% and 190% dose increase, respectively, from the new Indian guidelines). The established dose-exposure-response relationship could be pivotal in the development of future pediatric tuberculosis treatment guidelines. © 2017, The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  1. Rationale for recommending a lower dose of primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide in populations where G6PD deficiency is common

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose) be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg) would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated. PMID:23237606

  2. The maximal amount of dietary alpha-tocopherol intake in U.S. adults (NHANES 2001-2002).

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Bermudez, Odilia I; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-04-01

    The current study was designed to determine the maximal amount of alpha-tocopherol intake obtained from food in the U.S. diet, and to examine the effect of different food group intakes on this amount. Data from 2138 men and 2213 women aged >18 y were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002. Linear programming was used to generate diets with maximal alpha-tocopherol intake, with the conditions of meeting the recommended daily allowances or adequate intakes for a set of nutrients, sodium and fat recommendations, and energy limits, and that were compatible with the observed dietary patterns in the population. With food use and energy constraints in models, diets formulated by linear programming provided 19.3-24.9 mg alpha-tocopherol for men and women aged 19-50 or >50 y. These amounts decreased to 15.4-19.9 mg with the addition of the sodium, dietary reference intake, and fat constraints. The relations between maximal alpha-tocopherol intake and food group intakes were influenced by total fat restrictions. Although meeting current recommendations (15 mg/d) appears feasible for individuals, dramatic dietary changes that include greater intakes of nuts and seeds, and fruit and vegetables, are needed. Careful selection of the highest vitamin E source foods within these groups could further increase the likelihood of meeting the current recommended daily allowance.

  3. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Peña-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ɛ≡1-2 sin2 θex and quantify the present experimental status for \\|ɛ\\|<0.3. We show that both probabilities and observables depend on ɛ quadratically when effects are due to vacuum oscillations and they depend on ɛ linearly if matter effects dominate. The most important information on νe mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10-8 eV2<~Δm2<~2×10-7 eV2. In the mass ranges Δm2>~1.5×10-5 eV2 and 4×10-10 eV2<~Δm2<~2×10-7 eV2 the full interval \\|ɛ\\|<0.3 is allowed within ~4σ (99.995% CL) We suggest ways to measure ɛ in future experiments. The observable that is most sensitive to ɛ is the rate [NC]/[CC] in combination with the day-night asymmetry in the SNO detector. With theoretical and statistical uncertainties, the expected accuracy after 5 years is Δɛ~0.07. We also discuss the effects of maximal and near-maximal νe mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of detomidine administered to horses at rest and after maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, J A E; Sams, R A; Schmall, L M; Robertson, J T; Hinchcliff, K W; Muir, W W

    2009-05-01

    Increased doses of detomidine are required to produce sedation in horses after maximal exercise compared to calm or resting horses. To determine if the pharmacokinetics of detomidine in Thoroughbred horses are different when the drug is given during recuperation from a brief period of maximal exercise compared to administration at rest. Six Thoroughbred horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill. Each horse ran a simulated race at a treadmill speed that caused it to exercise at 120% of its maximal oxygen consumption. One minute after the end of exercise, horses were treated with detomidine. Each horse was treated with the same dose of detomidine on a second occasion a minimum of 14 days later while standing in a stocks. Samples of heparinised blood were obtained at various time points on both occasions. Plasma detomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration vs. time data were analysed by nonlinear regression analysis. Median back-extrapolated time zero plasma concentration was significantly lower and median plasma half-life and median mean residence time were significantly longer when detomidine was administered after exercise compared to administration at rest. Median volume of distribution was significantly higher after exercise but median plasma clearance was not different between the 2 administrations. Detomidine i.v. is more widely distributed when administered to horses immediately after exercise compared to administration at rest resulting in lower peak plasma concentrations and a slower rate of elimination. The dose requirement to produce an equivalent effect may be higher in horses after exercise than in resting horses and less frequent subsequent doses may be required to produce a sustained effect.

  5. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage using two-dose or three-dose schedule criteria.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Rodgers, Loren; Zhu, Liping; Stokley, Shannon; Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2017-10-13

    In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendation to include a 2-dose schedule for U.S. adolescents initiating the vaccine series before their 15th birthday. We analyzed records for >4million persons aged 9-17years receiving any HPV vaccine by the end of each quarter during January 1, 2014-September 30, 2016 from six Immunization Information Systems Sentinel Sites, and reclassified HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage according to the updated recommendations. Compared with HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage by the 3-dose schedule only, including criteria for either a 2-dose or 3-dose schedule increased up-to-date coverage in 11-12, 13-14, and 15-17 year-olds by 4.5-8.5 percentage points. The difference between 3-dose up-to-date coverage and 2- or 3-dose up-to-date coverage was greatest in late 2016. These data provide baseline HPV vaccination coverage using current ACIP recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Recommendations for open data science.

    PubMed

    Gymrek, Melissa; Farjoun, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Life science research increasingly relies on large-scale computational analyses. However, the code and data used for these analyses are often lacking in publications. To maximize scientific impact, reproducibility, and reuse, it is crucial that these resources are made publicly available and are fully transparent. We provide recommendations for improving the openness of data-driven studies in life sciences.

  7. The ciprofloxacin target AUC : MIC ratio is not reached in hospitalized patients with the recommended dosing regimens.

    PubMed

    Haeseker, Michiel; Stolk, Leo; Nieman, Fred; Hoebe, Christian; Neef, Cees; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Verbon, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ciprofloxacin serum concentrations in hospitalized patients and to determine which percentage reached the efficacy target of AUC : MIC > 125. Additionally, the influence of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin were investigated. In serum of 80 hospitalized patients ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured with reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The ciprofloxacin dose was 400-1200 mg day(-1) i.v. in two or three doses depending on renal function and causative bacteria. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation (MW\\PHARM 3.60). A two compartment open model was used. Mean (± SD) age was 66 (± 17) years, the mean clearance corrected for bodyweight was 0.24 l h(-1) kg(-1) and the mean AUC was 49 mg l(-1) h. Ciprofloxacin clearance and thus AUC were associated with both age and serum creatinine. Of all patients, 21% and 75% of the patients, did not reach the proposed ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC > 125 target with MICs of 0.25 and 0.5 mg l(-1), respectively. A computer simulated increase in the daily dose from 800 mg to 1200 mg, decreased these percentages to 1% and 37%, respectively. A substantial proportion of the hospitalized patients did not reach the target ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC and are suboptimally dosed with recommended doses. Taking into account the increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin worldwide, a ciprofloxacin dose of 1200 mg i.v. daily in patients with normal renal function is necessary to reach the targeted AUC : MIC > 125. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Maximal Oxygen Intake and Maximal Work Performance of Active College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Susanne L.

    Maximal oxygen intake and associated physiological variables were measured during strenuous exercise on women subjects (N=20 physical education majors). Following assessment of maximal oxygen intake, all subjects underwent a performance test at the work level which had elicited their maximal oxygen intake. Mean maximal oxygen intake was 41.32…

  9. Report of Task Group on the implications of the implementation of the ICRP recommendations for a revised dose limit to the lens of the eye.

    PubMed

    Broughton, J; Cantone, M C; Ginjaume, M; Shah, B

    2013-12-01

    This report was commissioned by the IRPA President to provide an assessment of the impact on members of IRPA Associate Societies of the introduction of ICRP recommendations for a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The report summarises current practice and considers possible changes that may be required. Recommendations for further collaboration, clarification and changes to working practices are suggested.

  10. Using higher doses to compensate for tubing residuals in extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wendy J; Bhowmick, Tanaya; Gross, Alan; Vanschooneveld, Trevor C; Weinstein, Melvin P

    2013-06-01

    To mathematically assess drug losses due to infusion line residuals and evaluate methods to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in intravenous pump tubing. Literature was accessed through Ovid MEDLINE (1996-February 2013), using combinations of the search terms tubing residuals, residual volume, residual medication, intravenous infusions, intravenous injections, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, β-lactams, equipment design, infusion pumps, extended infusion, extended administration, and prolonged infusion. In addition, select reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles that involved extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam implementation strategies were included in the review. Infusion pump characteristics and tubing residuals can affect extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam dosing strategies. Two studies addressing tubing residuals were identified. Both studies recommended increasing infusion volumes to compensate for tubing residuals. One study also recommended decreasing infusion-line dead space by using alternative infusion pump systems. Study calculations suggest that higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be used to account for medication left in tubing residuals if alternative infusion pump systems cannot be obtained, and increased infusion volumes are not an option. Extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam has been used as a method of maximizing pharmacodynamic target attainment. Use of higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be a reasonable method to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in large-bore intravenous pump tubing.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses.

    PubMed

    Zvada, Simbarashe P; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R; Schaaf, H Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A; Seifart, Heiner I; Smith, Peter J; McIlleron, Helen M; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2014-05-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing.

  12. EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-12-21

    This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office ofmore » Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.« less

  13. Fusing corn nitrogen recommendation tools for an improved canopy reflectance sensor performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help producers maximize corn grain yield production. Many of these tools provide recommendations at field scales but often fail when corn N requirements are variable across the field. Canopy reflectance sensors are capable of capturing within-fi...

  14. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings.

  15. Cryoradiolytic reduction of heme proteins: Maximizing dose-dependent yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Victoria, Doreen C.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2007-04-01

    Radiolytic reduction in frozen solutions and crystals is a useful method for generation of trapped intermediates in protein-based radical reactions. In this communication we define the conditions which provide the maximum yield of one electron-reduced myoglobin at 77 K using 60Co γ-irradiation in aqueous glycerol glass. The yield reached 50% after 20 kGy, was almost complete at ˜160 kGy total dose, and does not depend on the protein concentration in the range 0.01-5 mM.

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses

    PubMed Central

    Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A.; Seifart, Heiner I.; Smith, Peter J.; McIlleron, Helen M.; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. Patients and methods We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. Results The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Conclusions Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing. PMID:24486870

  17. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  18. Dose specification for radiation therapy: dose to water or dose to medium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.-M.; Li, Jinsheng

    2011-05-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables accurate dose calculation for radiation therapy treatment planning and has been implemented in some commercial treatment planning systems. Unlike conventional dose calculation algorithms that provide patient dose information in terms of dose to water with variable electron density, the Monte Carlo method calculates the energy deposition in different media and expresses dose to a medium. This paper discusses the differences in dose calculated using water with different electron densities and that calculated for different biological media and the clinical issues on dose specification including dose prescription and plan evaluation using dose to water and dose to medium. We will demonstrate that conventional photon dose calculation algorithms compute doses similar to those simulated by Monte Carlo using water with different electron densities, which are close (<4% differences) to doses to media but significantly different (up to 11%) from doses to water converted from doses to media following American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 105 recommendations. Our results suggest that for consistency with previous radiation therapy experience Monte Carlo photon algorithms report dose to medium for radiotherapy dose prescription, treatment plan evaluation and treatment outcome analysis.

  19. A Single 30-s Stretch Is Sufficient to Inhibit Maximal Voluntary Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Jason B.; Nelson, Arnold G.; Kokkonen, Joke

    2009-01-01

    While it has been well established that an acute stretching program can inhibit maximal muscle performance, the amount of stretching needed to produce the deleterious response is unknown. Therefore this study examined the dose-response relationship between acute stretching and strength inhibition. Eighteen college students performed a one…

  20. 198 AAAAI Survey on Immunotherapy Practice Patterns Concerning Dosing, Dose-Adjustment after Missed Doses and Duration of Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Désirée Larenas; Gupta, Payel; Mithani, Sima; Ponda, Punita

    2012-01-01

    Background Several practical issues dealing with the exact application of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among European and US allergists are not well known. Guidelines on AIT give recommendations and suggestions for only some of them. We present this unique survey with worldwide response. Methods The AAAAI immunotherapy committee conducted a web-based practice patterns survey (program: Survey Monkey) among all members in&outside US on dosing, dose-adjustment after missed doses and duration of AIT. Results 1201 Returned questionnaires (almost 25% response rate). 21% were non-US-Canada members. Maintenance doses in USCan are (mean/median): Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) combined with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt): 2155/1000AU; Df solo 2484/1000AU. Dpt when combined with Df 1937/1000AU; Dpt solo: 2183/1000AU.Cat 3224/2000BAU. Grass 11,410/4000BAU. 57-65% of the dosing falls within the recommended Practice Parameters recommended ranges. Non-USCan allergists expressed maintenance doses in many different units making analysis impossible. Dose-adjustment after missed doses is based on ‘time elapsed since the last applied dose’ by 77% of USCan and 58% of non-USCan allergists and on ‘time since missed scheduled dose’ by the rest. Doses are adjusted when a patient comes in more than 14 d/5 wk after the last administration at build-up/maintenance by both USCan and non-USCan colleagues. The mostly followed dose-adjustment schedules after 1, 2, 3 missed doses are: Build-up: repeat last dose, reduce by one dose, reduce by 2 doses; maintenance: reduce by one dose, reduce by 2 doses, reduce by 3 doses. 26% uses a different approach reducing doses by a certain percentage or volume. AIT is restarted after a gap in build-up of >30 days and of >12 weeks during maintenance in both groups (median). Outside USCan AIT is prescribed for 3 years (Median). However, 75% of USCan allergists prescribes AIT for 5 years. Main reasons why to continue AIT beyond 5 years:

  1. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  2. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant.

  3. Intermittent Drug Dosing Intervals Guided by the Operational Multiple Dosing Half Lives for Predictable Plasma Accumulation and Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Anita; Benet, Leslie Z.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent drug dosing intervals are usually initially guided by the terminal pharmacokinetic half life and are dependent on drug formulation. For chronic multiple dosing and for extended release dosage forms, the terminal half life often does not predict the plasma drug accumulation or fluctuation observed. We define and advance applications for the operational multiple dosing half lives for drug accumulation and fluctuation after multiple oral dosing at steady-state. Using Monte Carlo simulation, our results predict a way to maximize the operational multiple dosing half lives relative to the terminal half life by using a first-order absorption rate constant close to the terminal elimination rate constant in the design of extended release dosage forms. In this way, drugs that may be eliminated early in the development pipeline due to a relatively short half life can be formulated to be dosed at intervals three times the terminal half life, maximizing compliance, while maintaining tight plasma concentration accumulation and fluctuation ranges. We also present situations in which the operational multiple dosing half lives will be especially relevant in the determination of dosing intervals, including for drugs that follow a direct PKPD model and have a narrow therapeutic index, as the rate of concentration decrease after chronic multiple dosing (that is not the terminal half life) can be determined via simulation. These principles are illustrated with case studies on valproic acid, diazepam, and anti-hypertensives. PMID:21499748

  4. Recommended de minimis radiation dose rates for Canada. Report No. INFO-0355

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A de minimis dose or dose rate as used in this report represents a level of risk which is generally accepted as being of no significance to an individual, or in the case of a population, of no significance to society. The report describes the risk of biological effects from radiation; radiation from natural and man-made sources; normal incidences of cancer and genetic defects; initiatives by other agencies in the U.S., the U.K. and internationally; the importance of collective dose and dose rate; assigning values to the de minimis dose rates; and application of the de minimis dose rates.

  5. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kathleen; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina; Holmes, Charles; Resch, Stephen; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2014-05-02

    Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0-13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments.

  6. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. Methods We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0–13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. Results The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. Conclusions The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments. PMID:24885453

  7. Subtle changes in brain functions produced by single doses of mevinphos (Phosdrin).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-02-01

    Mevinphos (Phosdrin) was found to inhibit the amplitude of hippocampal evoked potentials in unanesthetized squirrel monkeys with chronically indwelling electrodes. The threshold dose was 0.050 mg/kg and the maximal dose studied was 0.200 mg/kg. Doses...

  8. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora M S H; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro P M; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.

  9. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Garcés Sánchez, María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Méndez Hernández, María; Merino Moína, Manuel; Montesdeoca Melián, Abián; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). MMRV vaccine could be applied as the second dose if available. Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendation for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. The new 9 genotypes vaccine is now available, expanding the coverage for both gender. Regarding non-funded immunisations, Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics recommends meningococcal B vaccination, with a 3+1 schedule, and requests to be included in the National Immunisation Program. Tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended to adolescents (14-18 years) who are going to live in countries with systematic vaccination against ACWY serogroups, and people >6 weeks of age with risk factors or travellers to countries with very high incidence. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Dose to the Bladder Trigone on Long-Term Urinary Function After High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Spratt, Daniel E.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dose–volume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dose–volume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ≥10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analysesmore » were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ≥10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ≥10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically

  11. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  12. Prospective Clinical Trial of Bladder Filling and Three-Dimensional Dosimetry in High-Dose-Rate Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Alexandra J.; Cormack, Robert A.; Lee, Hang

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of bladder filling on dosimetry and to determine the best bladder dosimetric parameter for vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective clinical trial, a total of 20 women underwent vaginal cylinder high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The bladder was full for Fraction 2 and empty for Fraction 3. Dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram values were generated for the bladder, rectum, and urethra. The midline maximal bladder point (MBP) and the midline maximal rectal point were recorded. Paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and regression analyses were performed. Results: The volume and surface area of the irradiated bladdermore » were significantly smaller when the bladder was empty than when full. Of the several dose-volume histogram and dose-surface histogram parameters evaluated, the bladder maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue, volume of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose, volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose, and surface area of bladder receiving {>=}50% of the dose significantly predicted for the difference between the empty vs. full filling state. The volume of bladder receiving {>=}70% of the dose and the maximal dose received by 2 cm{sup 3} of tissue correlated significantly with the MBP. Bladder filling did not alter the volume or surface area of the rectum irradiated. However, an empty bladder did result in the nearest point of bowel being significantly closer to the vaginal cylinder than when the bladder was full. Conclusions: Patients undergoing vaginal cuff brachytherapy treated with an empty bladder have a lower bladder dose than those treated with a full bladder. The MBP correlated well with the volumetric assessments of bladder dose and provided a noninvasive method for reporting the MBP dose using three-dimensional imaging. The MBP can therefore be used as a surrogate for complex dosimetry in the clinic.« less

  13. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sonia; Ismael, Zareen; Murray, Macey L; Barker, Charlotte; Wong, Ian CK; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Background The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) recommends dosing oral penicillins according to age-bands, weight-bands, or weight-based calculations. Because of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, age-band-based prescribing could lead to subtherapeutic dosing. Aim To investigate actual oral penicillin prescribing by GPs in the UK with reference to the current BNFC age-band recommendations. Design and setting Descriptive analysis of UK prescriptions in the 2010 IMS Disease-Analyzer database (IMS-DA). Method A detailed database analysis was undertaken of oral penicillin prescriptions for 0–18 year olds from the 2010 IMS-DA. The prescription analysis included all available data on formulation, strength (mg), prescription quantity unit, package size, prescribed quantity, and volume. Results Considering amoxicillin alone, no infants (aged <1 year) were prescribed the BNFC 2011 edition recommended unit dose (62.5 mg), while the majority received double the dose (125 mg); among children aged 1–5 years, 96% were prescribed the recommended unit dose (125 mg), but 40% of 6–12 year olds and 70% of 12–18 year olds were prescribed unit doses below the BNFC recommendations. For otitis media, only those children aged <1 year received the recommended dose of amoxicillin (40–90 mg/kg/day). Similar variations in dosing across age-bands were observed for phenoxymethylpenicillin and flucloxacillin. Conclusion There is wide variation in the dosing of penicillins for children in UK primary care, with very few children being prescribed the current national recommended doses. There is an urgent need to review dosing guidelines, in relation to the weights of children today. PMID:24686886

  14. Recommended treatment for urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vercaigne, L M; Zhanel, G G

    1994-02-01

    To establish and recommend a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy based on the published studies. An English-language literature search employing MEDLINE, Index Medicus, and bibliographic reviews of the references obtained were searched (key terms: urinary tract infection, UTI, pregnancy, bacteriuria). All identified human studies dealing with bacteriuria or UTI in pregnancy were analyzed. Limited data are available regarding the appropriate antibiotic management of UTI in pregnancy. Single-dose cure rates with amoxicillin are approximately 80 percent. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provides cure rates of greater than 80 percent. Cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin produce variable results. We recommend separating pregnant subjects with UTI into two groups. Those with asymptomatic bacteriuria can be treated with a single dose of an antimicrobial to which the organism is susceptible. For those with symptomatic UTI, we recommend amoxicillin 500 mg tid for three days. Urine cultures should be repeated seven days following therapy to assess cure or failure. Well-designed studies need to be performed, comparing single-dose and three-day therapy for UTI in pregnancy.

  15. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4-8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals.

  16. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Bechini, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4–8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals. PMID:27929751

  17. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2017 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Arístegui Fernández, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Corretger Rauet, José María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, Teresa; Merino Moína, Manuel; Ortigosa Del Castillo, Luis; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV- AEP) annually publishes the immunisation schedule which, in our opinion, is considered optimal for children resident in Spain, taking into account the evidence available on current vaccines. Pneumococcal and varicella immunisation in early childhood is already included in all funded vaccines present in the regional immunisation programmes. Furthermore, this committee establishes recommendations on vaccines not included in official calendars (non-funded immunisations), such as rotavirus, meningococcal B, and meningococcal ACWY. As regards funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTaP-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines is recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTaP is recommended, as well as a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, with the Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women between 27 and 32 weeks gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two-dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendations for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of the tetravalent HPV vaccine should also be provided. ACWY meningococcal vaccine is the optimal choice in adolescents. For recommended unfunded immunisations, the CAV-AEP recommends the administration of meningococcal B vaccine, due to the current availability in Spanish community pharmacies, with a 3+1 scheme. CAV-AEP requests the incorporation of this vaccine in the funded unified schedule. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act's marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool--plan recommendations--in improving marketplace decisions. Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended. Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire. Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made. As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers' decisions.

  19. Ibrutinib Dosing Strategies Based on Interaction Potential of CYP3A4 Perpetrators Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, L; Snoeys, J; De Jong, J; Sukbuntherng, J; Mannaert, E; Monshouwer, M

    2016-11-01

    Based on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics and potential sensitivity towards CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a physiologically based pharmacokinetic approach was developed to mechanistically describe DDI with various CYP3A4 perpetrators in healthy men under fasting conditions. These models were verified using clinical data for ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) and used to prospectively predict and confirm the inducing effect of rifampin (strong CYP3A4 inducer); DDIs with mild (fluvoxamine, azithromycin) and moderate inhibitors (diltiazem, voriconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, erythromycin), and moderate (efavirenz) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (carbamazepine), were also predicted. Ketoconazole increased ibrutinib area under the curve (AUC) by 24-fold, while rifampin decreased ibrutinib AUC by 10-fold; coadministration of ibrutinib with strong inhibitors or inducers should be avoided. The ibrutinib dose should be reduced to 140 mg (quarter of maximal prescribed dose) when coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors so that exposures remain within observed ranges at therapeutic doses. Thus, dose recommendations for CYP3A4 perpetrator use during ibrutinib treatment were developed and approved for labeling. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  1. From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2014-12-01

    The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.

  2. Development and Prospective Federal State-Wide Evaluation of a Device for Height-Based Dose Recommendations in Prehospital Pediatric Emergencies: A Simple Tool to Prevent Most Severe Drug Errors.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Jost; Roth, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Thomas; Lechleuthner, Alex; Laschat, Michael; Hadamitzky, Christoph; Wappler, Frank; Hellmich, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER. Post-interventional data were collected prospectively over a six-year period in a federal state-wide open trial. The administered doses of either intravenous or intraosseous fentanyl, midazolam, ketamine or epinephrine were recorded. Primary outcome measure was the number and severity of drug dose deviation from recommended dose (DRD) based on the patient's weight. Fifty-nine pre-interventional and 91 post-interventional prehospital drug administrations in children were analyzed. The rate of DRD > 300% overall medications were 22.0% in the pre- and 2.2% in the post-interventional group (p < 0.001). All administrations of epinephrine occurred excessive (DRD > 300%) in pre-interventional and none in post-interventional patients (p < 0.001). The use of the PaedER resulted in a 90% reduction of medication errors (95% CI: 57% to 98%; p < 0.001) and prevented all potentially life-threatening errors associated with epinephrine administration. There is an urgent need to increase the safety of emergency drug dosing in children during emergencies. A simple height-based system can support health care providers and helps to avoid life-threatening medication errors.

  3. Dose/Exposure‐Response Modeling to Support Dosing Recommendation for Phase III Development of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Laiyi; Ernest, Charles; Macias, William; Rooney, Terence; Tham, Lai San

    2017-01-01

    Baricitinib is an oral inhibitor of Janus kinases (JAKs), selective for JAK1 and 2. It demonstrated dose‐dependent efficacy in patients with moderate‐to‐severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a phase IIb study up to 24 weeks. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PopPK/PD) models were developed to characterize concentration‐time profiles and dose/exposure‐response (D/E‐R) relationships for the key efficacy (proportion of patients achieving American College of Rheumatology 20%, 50%, or 70% response rate) and safety endpoints (incidence of anemia) for the phase IIb study. The modeling suggested that 4 mg q.d. was likely to offer the optimum risk/benefit balance, whereas 2 mg q.d. had the potential for adequate efficacy. In addition, at the same total daily dose, a twice‐daily regimen is not expected to provide an advantage over q.d. dosing for the efficacy or safety endpoints. The model‐based simulations formed the rationale for key aspects of dosing, such as dose levels and dosing frequency for phase III development. PMID:28891251

  4. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    PubMed

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  5. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning

    PubMed Central

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J.; Peterson, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree. PMID:27227721

  6. Generalized Tumor Dose for Treatment Planning Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuniga, Areli A.

    Modern radiation therapy techniques allow for improved target conformity and normal tissue sparing. These highly conformal treatment plans have allowed dose escalation techniques increasing the probability of tumor control. At the same time this conformation has introduced inhomogeneous dose distributions, making delivered dose characterizations more difficult. The concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) characterizes a heterogeneous dose distribution within irradiated structures as a single value and has been used in biologically based treatment planning (BBTP); however, there are no substantial validation studies on clinical outcome data supporting EUD's use and therefore has not been widely adopted as decision-making support. These highly conformal treatment plans have also introduced the need for safety margins around the target volume. These margins are designed to minimize geometrical misses, and to compensate for dosimetric and treatment delivery uncertainties. The margin's purpose is to reduce the chance of tumor recurrence. This dissertation introduces a new EUD formulation designed especially for tumor volumes, called generalized Tumor Dose (gTD). It also investigates, as a second objective, margins extensions for potential improvements in local control while maintaining or minimizing toxicity. The suitability of gTD to rank LC was assessed by means of retrospective studies in a head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohorts. The formulation was optimized based on two datasets (one of each type) and then, model validation was assessed on independent cohorts. The second objective of this dissertation was investigated by ranking the probability of LC of the primary disease adding different margin sizes. In order to do so, an already published EUD formula was used retrospectively in a HN and a NSCLC datasets. Finally, recommendations for the viability to implement this new formulation into a routine treatment

  7. Update on pediatric resuscitation drugs: high dose, low dose, or no dose at all.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Annalise

    2005-04-01

    Pediatric resuscitation has been a topic of discussion for years. It is difficult to keep abreast of changing recommendations, especially for busy pediatricians who do not regularly use these skills. This review will focus on the most recent guidelines for resuscitation drugs. Three specific questions will be discussed: standard dose versus high-dose epinephrine, amiodarone use, and the future of vasopressin in pediatric resuscitation. The issue of using high-dose epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation refractory to standard dose epinephrine has been a topic of debate for many years. Recently, a prospective, double-blinded study was performed to help settle the debate. These results will be reviewed and compared with previous studies. Amiodarone is a medication that was added to the pediatric resuscitation algorithms with the most recent recommendations from the American Heart Association in 2000. Its use and safety will also be discussed. Another topic that is resurfacing in resuscitation is the use of vasopressin. Its mechanism and comparisons to other agents will be highlighted, although its use in the pediatric patient has not been thoroughly studied. Pediatric resuscitation is a constantly evolving subject that is on the mind of anyone taking care of sick children. Clinicians are continually searching for the most effective methods to resuscitate children in terms of short- and long-term outcomes. It is important to be familiar with not only the agents being used but also the optimal way to use them.

  8. Drug dosing in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Abramson, Stuart

    2005-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions. Drug dosing in these patients often proves to be a difficult task. Renal dysfunction-induced changes in human pathophysiology regularly results may alter medication pharmacodynamics and handling. Several pharmacokinetic parameters are adversely affected by CKD, secondary to a reduced oral absorption and glomerular filtration; altered tubular secretion; and reabsorption and changes in intestinal, hepatic, and renal metabolism. In general, drug dosing can be accomplished by multiple methods; however, the most common recommendations are often to reduce the dose or expand the dosing interval, or use both methods simultaneously. Some medications need to be avoided all together in CKD either because of lack of efficacy or increased risk of toxicity. Nevertheless, specific recommendations are available for dosing of certain medications and are an important resource, because most are based on clinical or pharmacokinetic trials.

  9. Pharmacokinetic studies in children: recommendations for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Barker, Charlotte I S; Standing, Joseph F; Kelly, Lauren E; Hanly Faught, Lauren; Needham, Allison C; Rieder, Michael J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Offringa, Martin

    2018-04-19

    Optimising the dosing of medicines for neonates and children remains a challenge. The importance of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) research is recognised both in medicines regulation and paediatric clinical pharmacology, yet there remain barriers to undertaking high-quality PK and PD studies. While these studies are essential in understanding the dose-concentration-effect relationship and should underpin dosing recommendations, this review examines how challenges affecting the design and conduct of paediatric pharmacological studies can be overcome using targeted pharmacometric strategies. Model-based approaches confer benefits at all stages of the drug life-cycle, from identifying the first dose to be used in children, to clinical trial design, and optimising the dosing regimens of older, off-patent medications. To benefit patients, strategies to ensure that new PK, PD and trial data are incorporated into evidence-based dosing recommendations are needed. This review summarises practical strategies to address current challenges, particularly the use of model-based (pharmacometric) approaches in study design and analysis. Recommendations for practice and directions for future paediatric pharmacological research are given, based on current literature and our joint international experience. Success of PK research in children requires a robust infrastructure, with sustainable funding mechanisms at its core, supported by political and regulatory initiatives, and international collaborations. There is a unique opportunity to advance paediatric medicines research at an unprecedented pace, bringing the age of evidence-based paediatric pharmacotherapy into sight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Patient doses from chest radiography in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, I; Boal, T J; Einsiedel, P F

    1997-06-01

    This survey examines doses from PA chest radiography at radiology practices, private hospitals and public hospitals throughout metropolitan and country Victoria. Data were collected from 111 individual X-ray units at 86 different practices. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for exposure factors used by the centre for a 23 cm thick male chest. A CDRH LucA1 chest phantom was used when making these measurements. About half of the centres used grid technique and half used non-grid technique. There was a factor of greater than 10 difference in the entrance dose delivered between the highest dose centre and the lowest dose centre for non-grid centres; and a factor of about 5 for centres using grids. Factors contributing to the high doses recorded at some centres were identified. Guidance levels for chest radiography based on the third quartile value of the entrance doses from this survey have been recommended and compared with guidance levels recommended in other countries.

  11. Evaluation of the sterility of single-dose medications used in a multiple-dose fashion

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth P.; Mukherjee, Jean; Sharp, Claire R.; Sinnott-Stutzman, Virginia B.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial proliferation was evaluated in single-dose medications used in a multi-dose fashion and when medications were intentionally inoculated with bacteria. Of 5 experimentally punctured medications, 1 of 75 vials (50% dextrose) became contaminated. When intentionally inoculated, hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline supported microbial growth. Based on these findings, it is recommended that hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline not be used in a multi-dose fashion. PMID:29089656

  12. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. Y.; Tung, C. J.; Yu, C. C.

    2007-04-15

    The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinationsmore » was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CT examinations.« less

  13. Tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate to severe pain

    PubMed Central

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; van de Laar, Mart; Langford, Richard; Mellinghoff, Hans-Ulrich; Merchante, Ignacio Morón; Nalamachu, Srinivas; O’Brien, Joanne; Perrot, Serge; Raffa, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason patients seek medical attention and pain relief has been put forward as an ethical obligation of clinicians and a fundamental human right. However, pain management is challenging because the pathophysiology of pain is complex and not completely understood. Widely used analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) have been associated with adverse events. Adverse event rates are of concern, especially in long-term treatment or at high doses. Paracetamol and NSAIDs are available by prescription, over the counter, and in combination preparations. Patients may be unaware of the risk associated with high dosages or long-term use of paracetamol and NSAIDs. Clinicians should encourage patients to disclose all medications they take in a “do ask, do tell” approach that includes patient education about the risks and benefits of common pain relievers. The ideal pain reliever would have few risks and enhanced analgesic efficacy. Fixed-dose combination analgesics with two or more agents may offer additive or synergistic benefits to treat the multiple mechanisms of pain. Therefore, pain may be effectively treated while toxicity is reduced due to lower doses. One recent fixed-dose combination analgesic product combines tramadol, a centrally acting weak opioid analgesic, with low-dose paracetamol. Evidence-based guidelines recognize the potential value of combination analgesics in specific situations. The current guideline-based paradigm for pain treatment recommends NSAIDs for ongoing use with analgesics such as opioids to manage flares. However, the treatment model should evolve how to use low-dose combination products to manage pain with occasional use of NSAIDs for flares to avoid long-term and high-dose treatment with these analgesics. A next step in pain management guidelines should be targeted therapy when possible, or low-dose combination therapy or both, to achieve maximal efficacy with

  14. On the Relationship between Maximal Reliability and Maximal Validity of Linear Composites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko

    2006-01-01

    A linear combination of a set of measures is often sought as an overall score summarizing subject performance. The weights in this composite can be selected to maximize its reliability or to maximize its validity, and the optimal choice of weights is in general not the same for these two optimality criteria. We explore several relationships…

  15. Persistence of rubella and mumps antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR vaccine in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, G; Frade, J; Nascimento, M S J; Mesquita, J R; Nunes, C

    2016-11-01

    In Portugal, the recommended age for the second dose of MMR (MMR2) was changed from 10-13 years to 5-6 years for those born in 1994 and afterwards. This study aimed to assess if MMR schedule and time elapsed from the last dose are associated with the concentration of rubella and mumps IgG antibodies. Three Portuguese birth cohorts (convenience samples) were selected for this study (66, 59 and 41 participants born respectively in 1990-1993, 1994-1995 and 2001-2003). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for mumps IgG were respectively 36, 30 and 38 RU/ml (P = 0·236) and for rubella IgG were 18, 20 and 17 IU/ml (P = 0·641). For both specific antibodies, no differences were observed with time since MMR2. Receiving MMR2 at 5-6 or 10-13 years was not associated with concentration of both antibodies. The GMC of rubella IgG was lower in males (P = 0·029). Taking into account previous evidence and the logistics needed to change vaccination schedules, it seems reasonable that sustaining very high coverage with two doses of MMR is currently the most pragmatic way to control mumps and rubella rather than any changes to the schedule.

  16. Dose Transition Pathways: The Missing Link Between Complex Dose-Finding Designs and Simple Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Yap, Christina; Billingham, Lucinda J; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Craddock, Charlie; O'Quigley, John

    2017-12-15

    The ever-increasing pace of development of novel therapies mandates efficient methodologies for assessment of their tolerability and activity. Evidence increasingly support the merits of model-based dose-finding designs in identifying the recommended phase II dose compared with conventional rule-based designs such as the 3 + 3 but despite this, their use remains limited. Here, we propose a useful tool, dose transition pathways (DTP), which helps overcome several commonly faced practical and methodologic challenges in the implementation of model-based designs. DTP projects in advance the doses recommended by a model-based design for subsequent patients (stay, escalate, de-escalate, or stop early), using all the accumulated information. After specifying a model with favorable statistical properties, we utilize the DTP to fine-tune the model to tailor it to the trial's specific requirements that reflect important clinical judgments. In particular, it can help to determine how stringent the stopping rules should be if the investigated therapy is too toxic. Its use to design and implement a modified continual reassessment method is illustrated in an acute myeloid leukemia trial. DTP removes the fears of model-based designs as unknown, complex systems and can serve as a handbook, guiding decision-making for each dose update. In the illustrated trial, the seamless, clear transition for each dose recommendation aided the investigators' understanding of the design and facilitated decision-making to enable finer calibration of a tailored model. We advocate the use of the DTP as an integral procedure in the co-development and successful implementation of practical model-based designs by statisticians and investigators. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7440-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Comparison of therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen between LDX and commonly prescribed long-acting stimulants for the treatment of ADHD in youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Setyawan, Juliana; Hodgkins, Paul; Guérin, Annie; Gauthier, Geneviève; Cloutier, Martin; Wu, Eric; Erder, M Haim

    2013-10-01

    To compare therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients initiated on lisdexamfetamine (LDX) vs other once-daily Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved stimulants. ADHD patients initiated on a long-acting ADHD stimulant medication (index medication) in/after 2007 were selected from a large U.S. administrative claims database. Patients were required to be persistent for ≥90 days and continuously enrolled in their healthcare plan for ≥12 months following treatment initiation date. Based on age and previous treatment status, patients were classified into treatment-naïve children and adolescents (6-17 years old), previously treated children and adolescents, treatment-naïve adults (≥18 years old), and previously treated adults. Furthermore, patients were classified into four mutually exclusive treatment groups, based on index medication: lisdexamfetamine (LDX), osmotic release methylphenidate hydrochloride long-acting (OROS MPH), other methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate long-acting (MPH LA), and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine long-acting (AMPH LA). The average daily consumption was measured as the quantity of index medication supplied in the 12-month study period divided by the total number of days of supply. Therapy augmentation was defined as the use of another ADHD medication concomitantly with the index medication for ≥28 consecutive days. Therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen were compared between treatment groups using multivariate logistic regression models. Compared to the other treatment groups, LDX patients were less likely to augment with another ADHD medication (range odds ratios [OR]; 1.28-3.30) and to deviate from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen (range OR; 1.73-4.55), except for previously treated adult patients, where therapy augmentation differences were not statistically

  18. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  19. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew J.; Hanoch, Yaniv; Rice, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Affordable Care Act’s marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool—plan recommendations—in improving marketplace decisions. Study Setting Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Study Design We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended. Data Collection Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire. Principal Findings Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made. Conclusions As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers’ decisions. PMID:27028008

  20. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2015 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of current vaccines, including levels of recommendation. In our opinion, this is the optimal vaccination calendar for all children resident in Spain. Regarding the vaccines included in the official unified immunization schedule, the Committee emphasizes the administration of the first dose of hepatitis B either at birth or at 2 months of life; the recommendation of the first dose of MMR and varicella vaccine at the age of 12 months, with the second dose at the age of 2-3 years; DTaP or Tdap vaccine at the age of 6 years, followed by another Tdap booster dose at 11-12 years old; Tdap strategies for pregnant women and household contacts of the newborn, and immunization against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-12 years old with a 2 dose scheme (0, 6 months). The Committee reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule, the same as it is being conducted in Western European countries. The recently authorised meningococcal B vaccine, currently blocked in Spain, exhibits the profile of a universal vaccine. The Committe insists on the need of having the vaccine available in communitary pharmacies. It has also proposed the free availability of varicella vaccines. Their efectiveness and safety have been confirmed when they are administred from the second year of life. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  2. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  3. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    PubMed

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  4. The rationale for recommending fixed-dose combination tablets for treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, B.; Spinaci, S.; Fourie, B.; Laing, R.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable exigency to take all necessary steps to cure tuberculosis cases and prevent further emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The most important of these steps is to ensure that the treatment, particularly of sputum smear-positive cases, is adequate and that patients adhere to their treatment by supervised, direct observation of drug-taking according to the standardized regimens. Use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of tablets against tuberculosis is now being recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) as an additional step to ensuring proper treatment. FDCs simplify the prescription of drugs and the management of drug supply, and may also limit the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis arising as a result of inappropriate drug selection and monotherapy. Only FDCs of proven quality and proven rifampicin bioavailability should be purchased and used. In most situations, blood levels of the drugs are inadequate because of poor drug quality rather than poor absorption. This is true irrespective of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status of the tuberculosis patients (other than those with overt acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3). Currently, WHO, IUATLD and their partners are developing strategies for ensuring that only quality FDCs are used in tuberculosis programmes. A simplified and effective protocol for assessment of rifampicin bioavailability has been developed, and laboratories are being recruited to form a supranational network for quality assurance of FDCs. Standardization of FDC drug formulations has been proposed, which limits rifampicin-containing preparations to nine (including a four-drug FDC and three paediatric FDCs). PMID:11217670

  5. Development of a biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for arsenic induced cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing a biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for arsenic carcinogenicity in order to reduce uncertainty in estimates of low dose risk by maximizing the use of relevant data on the mode of action. Expert consultation and literature review are being conducted t...

  6. Meeting physical activity recommendations: self-regulatory efficacy characterizes differential adherence during arthritis flares.

    PubMed

    Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Brawley, Lawrence R; Spink, Kevin S; Sessford, James D

    2013-02-01

    Using social-cognitive theory, we examined whether adults who experienced an arthritis flare and met/did not meet the disease-specific public health recommended dose for physical activity differed in their self-regulatory efficacy beliefs, overall pain, and flare-related factors. Adults with arthritis (N = 56; M(age) = 49.41 ± 11.56 years) participated in this prospective study. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing groups who met or did not meet the recommended dose (n(met) = 24, ≥ 150 minutes/week vs. n(not met) = 32, < 150 min/week) on efficacy, overall pain, and flare-related factors was significant (p < .01; η(partial)² = .28). People meeting the dose had significantly greater self-regulatory efficacy to overcome arthritis barriers (M(met dose) = 7.33 ± 1.95 vs. M(did not meet dose) = 5.74 ± 2.08, η(partial)² = .14) and to schedule/plan (M(met dose) = 7.27 ± 1.80 vs. M(did not meet dose) = 5.72 ± 1.90, η(partial)² = .15). Overall pain and flare-related factors did not differ (ps > .05). During flares, individuals with greater self-regulatory efficacy to manage disease barriers and plan their physical activity were more adherent to disease-specific public health activity recommendations. This study was the first to demonstrate differences in social cognitions that characterize adherence to recommended activity among people challenged by arthritis flares. Findings support the theoretical position that self-regulatory efficacy is related to better adherence in the face of challenging disease-related circumstances. The importance of studying individual characteristics of people who succeed in being active despite such obstacles is stressed.

  7. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2004].

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    The Vaccine Assessment Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics discusses vaccine developments in 2003 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule. The recommendation of substituting the oral polio vaccine for the inactivated polio vaccine, suppressing the fifth dose, is maintained. The introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and the varicella vaccine is stressed. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, the improvement introduced by being able to immunize with just two doses is discussed. In agreement with the information received from the European Medicines Agency, there appear to be no well-founded reasons to abandon hexavalent preparations.

  8. Multi-mode evaluation of power-maximizing cross-flow turbine controllers

    DOE PAGES

    Forbush, Dominic; Cavagnaro, Robert J.; Donegan, James; ...

    2017-09-21

    A general method for predicting and evaluating the performance of three candidate cross-flow turbine power-maximizing controllers is presented in this paper using low-order dynamic simulation, scaled laboratory experiments, and full-scale field testing. For each testing mode and candidate controller, performance metrics quantifying energy capture (ability of a controller to maximize power), variation in torque and rotation rate (related to drive train fatigue), and variation in thrust loads (related to structural fatigue) are quantified for two purposes. First, for metrics that could be evaluated across all testing modes, we considered the accuracy with which simulation or laboratory experiments could predict performancemore » at full scale. Second, we explored the utility of these metrics to contrast candidate controller performance. For these turbines and set of candidate controllers, energy capture was found to only differentiate controller performance in simulation, while the other explored metrics were able to predict performance of the full-scale turbine in the field with various degrees of success. Finally, effects of scale between laboratory and full-scale testing are considered, along with recommendations for future improvements to dynamic simulations and controller evaluation.« less

  9. Multi-mode evaluation of power-maximizing cross-flow turbine controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Forbush, Dominic; Cavagnaro, Robert J.; Donegan, James

    A general method for predicting and evaluating the performance of three candidate cross-flow turbine power-maximizing controllers is presented in this paper using low-order dynamic simulation, scaled laboratory experiments, and full-scale field testing. For each testing mode and candidate controller, performance metrics quantifying energy capture (ability of a controller to maximize power), variation in torque and rotation rate (related to drive train fatigue), and variation in thrust loads (related to structural fatigue) are quantified for two purposes. First, for metrics that could be evaluated across all testing modes, we considered the accuracy with which simulation or laboratory experiments could predict performancemore » at full scale. Second, we explored the utility of these metrics to contrast candidate controller performance. For these turbines and set of candidate controllers, energy capture was found to only differentiate controller performance in simulation, while the other explored metrics were able to predict performance of the full-scale turbine in the field with various degrees of success. Finally, effects of scale between laboratory and full-scale testing are considered, along with recommendations for future improvements to dynamic simulations and controller evaluation.« less

  10. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer Gordon; Quinn, Conrad P; Shadomy, Sean; Messonnier, Nancy

    2010-07-23

    These recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2000;49:1-20; CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2002;51:1024-6) and reflect the status of anthrax vaccine supplies in the United States. This statement 1) provides updated information on anthrax epidemiology; 2) summarizes the evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of AVA; 3) provides recommendations for pre-event and preexposure use of AVA; and 4) provides recommendations for postexposure use of AVA. In certain instances, recommendations that did not change were clarified. No new licensed anthrax vaccines are presented. Substantial changes to these recommendations include the following: 1) reducing the number of doses required to complete the pre-event and preexposure primary series from 6 doses to 5 doses, 2) recommending intramuscular rather than subcutaneous AVA administration for preexposure use, 3) recommending AVA as a component of postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women exposed to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores, 4) providing guidance regarding preexposure vaccination of emergency and other responder organizations under the direction of an occupational health program, and 5) recommending 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis in conjunction with 3 doses of AVA for optimal protection of previously unvaccinated persons after exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis spores.

  11. Aesthetic Surgery of the Buttocks Using Implants: Practice-Based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Senderoff, Douglas M

    2016-05-01

    The demand for gluteal enhancement has increased rapidly in the past few years. In this Continuing Medical Education (CME) article, the evaluation, surgical planning, operative technique, and management of potential complications of gluteal augmentation using solid silicone implants are discussed. Practice-based recommendations are presented along with a review of the scientific literature. The intramuscular and subfascial technique is described along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Guidelines for implant selection, placement, and revisional procedures are presented along with recommendations for maximizing successful outcomes. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. High-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy inverse planning on dose-volume criteria by simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Deist, T M; Gorissen, B L

    2016-02-07

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy is a tumor treatment method where a highly radioactive source is brought in close proximity to the tumor. In this paper we develop a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize the dwell times at preselected dwell positions to maximize tumor coverage under dose-volume constraints on the organs at risk. Compared to existing algorithms, our algorithm has advantages in terms of speed and objective value and does not require an expensive general purpose solver. Its success mainly depends on exploiting the efficiency of matrix multiplication and a careful selection of the neighboring states. In this paper we outline its details and make an in-depth comparison with existing methods using real patient data.

  13. Maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gloviczki, Peter; Duncan, Audra A; Kalra, Manju; Oderich, Gustavo S; Fleming, Mark D; Harmsen, William S; Bower, Thomas C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maximal aortic diameter affects outcome after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical data of patients undergoing EVAR between 1997 and 2011 for nonruptured asymptomatic AAAs in a tertiary center were reviewed. Patients were classified according to diameter of AAA: group 1, <5.0 cm; group 2, 5.0 to 5.4 cm; group 3, 5.5 to 5.9 cm; and group 4, ≥6.0 cm. The primary end point was all-cause mortality; secondary end points were complications, reinterventions, and ruptures. There were 874 patients studied (female, 108 [12%]; group 1, 119; group 2, 246; group 3, 243; group 4, 266); mean age was 76 ± 7.2 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.0%, not significantly different between groups (P = .22); complication and reintervention rates were 13% and 4.1%, respectively, similar between groups (P < .05). Five-year survival was 68%; freedom from complications and reinterventions was 65% and 74%, respectively; rupture rate was 0.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors associated with all-cause mortality included maximal aortic diameter, age, gender, surgical risk, cancer history, and endograft type (P < .05). Group 4 had increased risks of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.85; P = .002) and complications (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .009) relative to group 1. Reinterventions were more frequent for aneurysms ≥6.0 cm (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.3; P = .01). Late rupture rate after EVAR was not different between groups. Maximal aortic diameter is associated with long-term outcomes after elective EVAR. Patients with large AAAs (≥6.0 cm) have higher all-cause mortality, complication, and reintervention rates after EVAR than those with smaller aneurysms. We continue to recommend that AAAs be repaired when they reach 5.5 cm as recommended by the guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. On the basis of our data, EVAR

  14. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a dose-escalation planning study.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Yolande; Nulens, An; Gaber, Mousa Amr; Defraene, Gilles; De Wever, Walter; Stroobants, Sigrid; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the potential for dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in positron emission tomography-based radiotherapy planning for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). For 35 LA-NSCLC patients, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and IMRT plans were made to a prescription dose (PD) of 66 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Dose escalation was performed toward the maximal PD using secondary endpoint constraints for the lung, spinal cord, and heart, with de-escalation according to defined esophageal tolerance. Dose calculation was performed using the Eclipse pencil beam algorithm, and all plans were recalculated using a collapsed cone algorithm. The normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for the lung (Grade 2 pneumonitis) and esophagus (acute toxicity, grade 2 or greater, and late toxicity). IMRT resulted in statistically significant decreases in the mean lung (p <.0001) and maximal spinal cord (p = .002 and 0005) doses, allowing an average increase in the PD of 8.6-14.2 Gy (p ≤.0001). This advantage was lost after de-escalation within the defined esophageal dose limits. The lung normal tissue complication probabilities were significantly lower for IMRT (p <.0001), even after dose escalation. For esophageal toxicity, IMRT significantly decreased the acute NTCP values at the low dose levels (p = .0009 and p <.0001). After maximal dose escalation, late esophageal tolerance became critical (p <.0001), especially when using IMRT, owing to the parallel increases in the esophageal dose and PD. In LA-NSCLC, IMRT offers the potential to significantly escalate the PD, dependent on the lung and spinal cord tolerance. However, parallel increases in the esophageal dose abolished the advantage, even when using collapsed cone algorithms. This is important to consider in the context of concomitant chemoradiotherapy schedules using IMRT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2006].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the evidence available, the Vaccines Advisory Committee (VAC) of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics reports and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2005 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule for 2006. In agreement with changes in the product monographs for the meningococcal C vaccine, the VAC recommends two doses for the three commercially available preparations with a booster dose in the second year of life. The European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) has temporarily suspended the sale of the Hexavac vaccine due to doubts about its long-term protection against hepatitis B. The VAC continues to support the use of these combined vaccines. Currently only Infranrix Hexa is available in Spain. The recommendation of vaccinating adolescents with a booster dose of pertussis vaccine via the administration of an acellular preparation of low antigenic load together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine remains valid. Vaccination against chickenpox in susceptible children aged more than 12 months old continues to be recommended. There is wide coverage for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in many areas of Spain. In view of the studies published, the VAC reiterates the need for universal immunization by introducing this vaccine in the official vaccination schedule. Finally, other vaccines not included in this schedule are discussed, with special mention of the advisability of influenza vaccination in children, according to the recommendations of the VAC available at the beginning of each season on the web site of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics www.aeped.es; www. vacunasaep.org.

  16. Design of Phase I Combination Trials: Recommendations of the Clinical Trial Design Task Force of the NCI Investigational Drug Steering Committee

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Channing J.; Bradbury, Penelope A.; Ivy, S. Percy; Seymour, Lesley; LoRusso, Patricia M.; Baker, Laurence; Rubinstein, Larry; Huang, Erich; Collyar, Deborah; Groshen, Susan; Reeves, Steven; Ellis, Lee M.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Rosner, Gary L.; LeBlanc, Michael L.; Ratain, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are combined in an effort to treat a heterogeneous tumor or to maximize the pharmacodynamic effect. The development of combination regimens, while desirable, poses unique challenges. These include the selection of agents for combination therapy that may lead to improved efficacy while maintaining acceptable toxicity, the design of clinical trials that provide informative results for individual agents and combinations, and logistical and regulatory challenges. The phase 1 trial is often the initial step in the clinical evaluation of a combination regimen. In view of the importance of combination regimens and the challenges associated with developing them, the Clinical Trial Design (CTD) Task Force of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Investigational Drug Steering Committee developed a set of recommendations for the phase 1 development of a combination regimen. The first two recommendations focus on the scientific rationale and development plans for the combination regimen; subsequent recommendations encompass clinical design aspects. The CTD Task Force recommends that selection of the proposed regimens be based on a biological or pharmacological rationale supported by clinical and/or robust and validated preclinical evidence, and accompanied by a plan for subsequent development of the combination. The design of the phase 1 clinical trial should take into consideration the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as overlapping toxicity. Depending on the specific hypothesized interaction, the primary endpoint may be dose optimization, pharmacokinetics, and/or pharmacodynamic (i.e., biomarker). PMID:25125258

  17. Optimization of dose and image quality in adult and pediatric computed tomography scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kwo-Ping; Hsu, Tzu-Kun; Lin, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Wen-Lin

    2017-11-01

    Exploration to maximize CT image and reduce radiation dose was conducted while controlling for multiple factors. The kVp, mAs, and iteration reconstruction (IR), affect the CT image quality and radiation dose absorbed. The optimal protocols (kVp, mAs, IR) are derived by figure of merit (FOM) based on CT image quality (CNR) and CT dose index (CTDIvol). CT image quality metrics such as CT number accuracy, SNR, low contrast materials' CNR and line pair resolution were also analyzed as auxiliary assessments. CT protocols were carried out with an ACR accreditation phantom and a five-year-old pediatric head phantom. The threshold values of the adult CT scan parameters, 100 kVp and 150 mAs, were determined from the CT number test and line pairs in ACR phantom module 1and module 4 respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the optimal scanning parameters for adults be set at 100 kVp and 150-250 mAs. However, for improved low- contrast resolution, 120 kVp and 150-250 mAs are optimal. Optimal settings for pediatric head CT scan were 80 kVp/50 mAs, for maxillary sinus and brain stem, while 80 kVp /300 mAs for temporal bone. SNR is not reliable as the independent image parameter nor the metric for determining optimal CT scan parameters. The iteration reconstruction (IR) approach is strongly recommended for both adult and pediatric CT scanning as it markedly improves image quality without affecting radiation dose.

  18. Defining unnecessary disinfection procedures for single-dose and multiple-dose vials.

    PubMed

    Buckley, T; Dudley, S M; Donowitz, L G

    1994-11-01

    Recommendations in the literature conflict on the necessity of disinfecting single-use vials prior to aspiration of fluid. Interventions to disinfect the stopper surface on multiple-dose vials vary considerably. To determine the necessity of alcohol disinfection of the stopper on single-dose vials and to compare povidone-iodine and alcohol versus alcohol-only disinfection of the stopper prior to each needle penetration on multiple-dose vials. The rubber stopper surfaces of 100 single-dose vials were cultured for the presence of bacteria. To determine the efficacy of two procedures for disinfection of multiple-dose vials, 87 stopper surfaces routinely disinfected with both povidone-iodine and alcohol were cultured for bacteria. After a change in practice, 100 multiple-dose vials routinely disinfected with alcohol only were cultured for the presence of bacteria. Of the cultures done on single-dose vial stoppers, 99% were sterile. A comparison of the two disinfection techniques for multiple-dose vials revealed that 83 (95%) of the 87 vials prepped with both povidone-iodine and alcohol were sterile, compared with all stoppers disinfected with alcohol only. This study shows the lack of necessity of any disinfection procedure on the rubber stopper of single-dose vials and the efficacy of alcohol only for disinfecting the stopper of multiple-dose vials.

  19. Estimated ultraviolet radiation doses in wetlands in six national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamond, S.A.; Trenham, P.C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hossack, B.R.; Knapp, R.A.; Stark, L.; Bradford, D.; Corn, P.S.; Czarnowski, K.; Brooks, P.D.; Fagre, D.B.; Breen, B.; Dentenbeck, N.E.; Tonnessen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–320-nm wavelengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands in six national parks: Acadia (Acadia), Glacier (Glacier), Great Smoky Mountains (Smoky), Olympic (Olympic), Rocky Mountain (Rocky), and Sequoia/Kings Canyon (Sequoia). Estimates were made using ground-based UV-B data (Brewer spectrophotometers), solar radiation models, GIS tools, field characterization of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates were made for the summer solstice, at a depth of 1 cm in each wetland. The mean dose across all wetlands and parks was 19.3 W-h m−2 (range of 3.4–32.1 W-h m−2). The mean dose was lowest in Acadia (13.7 W-h m−2) and highest in Rocky (24.4 W-h m−2). Doses were significantly different among all parks. These wetland doses correspond to UV-B flux of 125.0 μW cm−2 (range 21.4–194.7 μW cm−2) based on a day length, averaged among all parks, of 15.5 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a key determinant of water-column UV-B flux, ranged from 0.6 (analytical detection limit) to 36.7 mg C L−1 over all wetlands and parks, and reduced potential maximal UV-B doses at 1-cm depth by 1%–87 %. DOC concentration, as well as its effect on dose, was lowest in Sequoia and highest in Acadia (DOC was equivalent in Acadia, Glacier, and Rocky). Landscape reduction of potential maximal UV-B doses ranged from zero to 77% and was lowest in Sequoia. These regional differences in UV-B wetland dose illustrate the importance of considering all aspects of exposure in evaluating the potential impact of UV-B on aquatic organisms.

  20. Low-Active Male Adolescents: A Dose Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.

  1. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designed to recover high grades of office paper at the source of generation, i.e., the desk, are the... recommended system is the desk-top system because it is designed to maximize recovery of high value material... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and...

  2. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designed to recover high grades of office paper at the source of generation, i.e., the desk, are the... recommended system is the desk-top system because it is designed to maximize recovery of high value material... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and...

  3. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designed to recover high grades of office paper at the source of generation, i.e., the desk, are the... recommended system is the desk-top system because it is designed to maximize recovery of high value material... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and...

  4. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designed to recover high grades of office paper at the source of generation, i.e., the desk, are the... recommended system is the desk-top system because it is designed to maximize recovery of high value material... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and...

  5. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designed to recover high grades of office paper at the source of generation, i.e., the desk, are the... recommended system is the desk-top system because it is designed to maximize recovery of high value material... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and...

  6. SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT

    PubMed Central

    Halliburton, Sandra S.; Abbara, Suhny; Chen, Marcus Y.; Gentry, Ralph; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, computed tomography (CT) has developed into a standard clinical test for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. The emergence of cardiovascular CT during a period of dramatic increase in radiation exposure to the population from medical procedures and heightened concern about the subsequent potential cancer risk has led to intense scrutiny of the radiation burden of this new technique. This has hastened the development and implementation of dose reduction tools and prompted closer monitoring of patient dose. In an effort to aid the cardiovascular CT community in incorporating patient-centered radiation dose optimization and monitoring strategies into standard practice, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography has produced a guideline document to review available data and provide recommendations regarding interpretation of radiation dose indices and predictors of risk, appropriate use of scanner acquisition modes and settings, development of algorithms for dose optimization, and establishment of procedures for dose monitoring. PMID:21723512

  7. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2005].

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides information and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2004 and recommends a few modifications to the Immunization Schedule for 2005. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, no change is made to the possibility of administering two doses for the first vaccination with one of the available formulations. The existence of immunization failure in children who have received a first vaccination with three vaccine doses before the age of 12 months is discussed, and the health authorities will probably include a booster dose in the second year of life throughout 2005. The recommendations of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) on hexavalent vaccines continue to be valid and consequently the use of these vaccines should not be stopped. This year the need for adolescents to receive a booster dose of the pertussis vaccine, with administration of an acellular, low antigenic load preparation together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine is stressed.

  8. Prehospital Care for the Adult and Pediatric Seizure Patient: Current Evidence-based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Eric C; Sporer, Karl A; Lemieux, Justin M; Brown, John F; Koenig, Kristi L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Rudnick, Eric M; Salvucci, Angelo A; Gilbert, Greg H

    2017-04-01

    We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in California. We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. We analyzed the type and route of medication administered, number of additional rescue doses permitted, and requirements for glucose testing prior to medication. The treatment for eclampsia and seizures in pediatric patients were analyzed separately. Protocols across EMS Agencies in California varied widely. We identified multiple drugs, dosages, routes of administration, re-dosing instructions, and requirement for blood glucose testing prior to medication delivery. Blood glucose testing prior to benzodiazepine administration is required by 61% (20/33) of agencies for adult patients and 76% (25/33) for pediatric patients. All agencies have protocols for giving intramuscular benzodiazepines and 76% (25/33) have protocols for intranasal benzodiazepines. Intramuscular midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult dose, 2 to 8 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intranasal midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult or pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intravenous/intrasosseous midazolam dosages ranged from 1 to 6 mg per single adult dose, 1 to 5 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Eclampsia is specifically addressed by 85% (28/33) of agencies. Forty-two percent (14/33) have a protocol for administering magnesium sulfate, with intravenous dosages ranging from 2 to 6 mg, and 58% (19/33) allow benzodiazepines to be administered. Protocols for a patient

  9. Are Vancomycin Trough Concentrations Adequate for Optimal Dosing?

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Gilmer; Jones, Brenda; Jelliffe, Roger W.; Drusano, George L.; Rodvold, Keith A.; Lodise, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend the use of only trough concentrations to manage the dosing of adults with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Both vancomycin efficacy and toxicity are likely to be related to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). We assembled richly sampled vancomycin pharmacokinetic data from three studies comprising 47 adults with various levels of renal function. With Pmetrics, the nonparametric population modeling package for R, we compared AUCs estimated from models derived from trough-only and peak-trough depleted versions of the full data set and characterized the relationship between the vancomycin trough concentration and AUC. The trough-only and peak-trough depleted data sets underestimated the true AUCs compared to the full model by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 23% (11 to 33%; P = 0.0001) and 14% (7 to 19%; P < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, using the full model as a Bayesian prior with trough-only data allowed 97% (93 to 102%; P = 0.23) accurate AUC estimation. On the basis of 5,000 profiles simulated from the full model, among adults with normal renal function and a therapeutic AUC of ≥400 mg · h/liter for an organism for which the vancomycin MIC is 1 mg/liter, approximately 60% are expected to have a trough concentration below the suggested minimum target of 15 mg/liter for serious infections, which could result in needlessly increased doses and a risk of toxicity. Our data indicate that adjustment of vancomycin doses on the basis of trough concentrations without a Bayesian tool results in poor achievement of maximally safe and effective drug exposures in plasma and that many adults can have an adequate vancomycin AUC with a trough concentration of <15 mg/liter. PMID:24165176

  10. Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Australasian Pancreatic Club recommendations.

    PubMed

    Toouli, James; Biankin, Andrew V; Oliver, Mark R; Pearce, Callum B; Wilson, Jeremy S; Wray, Nicholas H

    2010-10-18

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when the amounts of enzymes secreted into the duodenum in response to a meal are insufficient to maintain normal digestive processes. The main clinical consequence of PEI is fat maldigestion and malabsorption, resulting in steatorrhoea. Pancreatic exocrine function is commonly assessed by conducting a 3-day faecal fat test and by measuring levels of faecal elastase-1 and serum trypsinogen. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for PEI. In adults, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 25,000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 80,000 units of lipase per meal. In infants and children, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 500 units of lipase per gram of dietary fat; the maximum daily dose should not exceed 10,000 units of lipase per kilogram of bodyweight. Oral pancreatic enzymes should be taken with meals to ensure adequate mixing with the chyme. Adjunct therapy with acid-suppressing agents may be useful in patients who continue to experience symptoms of PEI despite high-dose enzyme therapy. A dietitian experienced in treating PEI should be involved in patient management. Dietary fat restriction is not recommended for patients with PEI. Patients with PEI should be encouraged to consume small, frequent meals and to abstain from alcohol. Medium-chain triglycerides do not provide any clear nutritional advantage over long-chain triglycerides, but can be trialled in patients who fail to gain or to maintain adequate bodyweight in order to increase energy intake.

  11. Anxiety responses to maximal exercise testing.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, P J; Petruzzello, S J; Kubitz, K A; Robinson, T L

    1995-01-01

    The influence of maximal exercise testing on state anxiety was examined in three separate studies. Highly trained male distance runners (Study 1, n = 12) as well as college students with average (Study 2, n = 16) and below average (Study 3, n = 32) physical fitness levels completed graded maximal exercise tests. This last group was also randomly assigned to either a control or an 8 week training programme in order to determine the effect of increased fitness on the psychological responses to maximal exercise testing. Physical fitness was determined by the measurement of maximal oxygen uptake. State anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was assessed before and from 2-15 min following exercise. It was found that the state anxiety responses to maximal exercise testing were not influenced by re-testing or by 8 weeks of endurance training. Across the three study groups, the anxiety response was variable during the first 5 min following exercise testing; increases, decreases and no changes in anxiety were observed when compared to pre-exercise levels. The anxiety response to maximal exercise appeared to be dependent on the pre-exercise anxiety levels as well as the timing of the post-exercise assessments. It is concluded that maximal exercise testing can be associated with negative mood shifts during the first 5 min after exercise; however, this response is transitory and followed by positive mood shifts 10-15 min following such tests. PMID:7551769

  12. Radiation Exposure from CT Scans: How to Close Our Knowledge Gaps, Monitor and Safeguard Exposure—Proceedings and Recommendations of the Radiation Dose Summit, Sponsored by NIBIB, February 24–25, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Boone, John M.; Hendee, William R.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a portion of the Radiation Dose Summit, which was organized by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering and held in Bethesda, Maryland, in February 2011. The current understandings of ways to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of computed tomography (CT) examinations are summarized and recommendations are made for priority areas of research to close existing gaps in our knowledge. The prospects of achieving a submillisievert effective dose CT examination routinely are assessed. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22966066

  13. YouTube Video Educational Package Increased Acceptance of Antibiotic Clinical Decision Support System Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Shi Thong; Tan, Michelle; Young, Barnaby; Lye, David; Ng, Tat Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotic clinical decision support systems (CDSS) were implemented to provide stewardship at the point of ordering of broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems). We postulated that a YouTube based educational video package (EP) with quizzes can help to improve CDSS acceptance. Methods A before-after study was conducted in general wards at Tan Tock Seng Hospital from April 2016 to March 2017. Baseline data were collected for 6 months before EP was implemented and during the next 6 months with EP dissemination to all doctors. Acceptance of CDSS recommendations between both phases were compared. Independent factors associated with acceptance of specific CDSS recommendations were identified by logistic regression. Results Patients recruited before and after EP was 1642 and 1313 respectively. Overall CDSS acceptance rate was similar before and after EP. There was improved acceptance for recommendations for dose optimizaton, antibiotic optimization and set duration (Figures 1 and 2). Independent factors of CDSS acceptance for dose optimizaton, antibiotic optimization and set duration are shown in Table 1. EP implementation was independently associated with acceptance of recommendations to set duration and optimize antibiotics. Conclusion EP was independently associated with increased CDSS acceptance on antibiotic duration and antibiotic optimization. Although acceptance of dose optimization was improved, EP was not associated independently with acceptance of the recommendations. Figure 2 Acceptance of CDSS recommendations by classifications of recommendations Table 1 3 multivariate models of acceptance of CDSS recommendations on antibiotic optimization, dose optimization and duration setting Set duration Antibiotic optimization Dose optimization Factor Odds ratio [95% CI] Lung infection 2.71[2.13–3.45] 2.08[1.71–2.52] 2.79[2.19-3.55] Unknown sepsis source 1.73[1.27–2.35] – 1.44[1.05-1.96] Piperacillin

  14. Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Edward J; Kim, Chul-Ho; Muller, Matthew D; Bellar, David M; Barkley, Jacob E; Bliss, Matthew V; Jankowski-Wilkinson, Andrea; Russell, Morgan; Otterstetter, Ronald; Macander, Daniela; Glickman, Ellen L; Kamimori, Gary H

    2012-03-01

    Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of low-dose caffeine (CAF) administered in chewing gum at 3 different time points during submaximal cycling exercise to exhaustion. Eight college-aged (26 ± 4 years), physically active (45.5 ± 5.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) volunteers participated in 4 experimental trials. Two pieces of caffeinated chewing gum (100 mg per piece, total quantity of 200 mg) were administered in a double-blind manner at 1 of 3 time points (-35, -5, and +15 minutes) with placebo at the other 2 points and at all 3 points in the control trial. The participants cycled at 85% of maximal oxygen consumption until volitional fatigue and time to exhaustion (TTE) were recorded in minutes. Venous blood samples were obtained at -40, -10, and immediately postexercise and analyzed for serum-free fatty acid and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, glucose, lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, and perceived leg pain measures were obtained at baseline and every 10 minutes during cycling. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the trials for any of the parameters measured including TTE. These findings suggest that low-dose CAF administered in chewing gum has no effect on TTE during cycling in recreational athletes and is, therefore, not recommended.

  15. Quality and Dose Optimized CT Trauma Protocol - Recommendation from a University Level-I Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Johannes; Kaul, David; Böning, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Schwabe, Philipp; Maurer, Martin H; Renz, Diane Miriam; Streitparth, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Purpose  As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods  61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50 %). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85 s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. Results  The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40 % (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGyxcm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. Conclusion  A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR

  16. Maximal oxygen uptake and cardiorespiratory response to maximal 400-m free swimming, running and cycling tests in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A

    2000-06-01

    This study compared the cardiorespiratory response of trained swimmers to 400-m unimpeded front crawl swimming (SW), treadmill running (TR) and ergometer cycling (EC) maximal exercise tests, and evaluated the validity and specificity of a method to measure maximal aerobic power in swimming. Two series of experiments were conducted. In series A (n=15), comparisons were made between VO2peak and other cardiorespiratory variables in three maximal tests: after 400-m SW, and during incremental TR and EC. In series B, VO2 peak and related variables were measured after SW and during EC (n=33). No significant differences were observed between VO2peak and VE in the three modes of exercise, although SW values tended to be higher. After SW, maximal ventilatory response was characterized by higher tidal volumes (VT) and lower respiratory rates (fR) as compared with TR and EC. The highest heart rate values (fH) were also observed in TR, followed by EC and SW. In series B, no significant differences were observed either in peak VO2 or VE, but fH was also lower in SW. A maximal 400-m unimpeded freestyle SW test yields essentially equal or nonsignificantly higher peak VO2 and VE values than during maximal TR or EC tests in trained swimmers. The specific maximal cardiorespiratory response to the SW test is characterized by higher VT, lower fR, and lower fH. Breath-by-breath measurements during the immediate recovery after a 400-m voluntary maximal swim is proposed as a valid and specific test for directly measuring maximal metabolic parameters and evaluating specific maximal aerobic power in swimming.

  17. The effect of lifelong exercise dose on cardiovascular function during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Bhella, Paul S.; Fujimoto, Naoki; Shibata, Shigeki; Palmer, M. Dean; Boyd, Kara; Livingston, Sheryl; Dijk, Erika

    2014-01-01

    An increased “dose” of endurance exercise training is associated with a greater maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max), a larger left ventricular (LV) mass, and improved heart rate and blood pressure control. However, the effect of lifelong exercise dose on metabolic and hemodynamic response during exercise has not been previously examined. We performed a cross-sectional study on 101 (69 men) seniors (60 yr and older) focusing on lifelong exercise frequency as an index of exercise dose. These included 27 who had performed ≤2 exercise sessions/wk (sedentary), 25 who performed 2–3 sessions/wk (casual), 24 who performed 4–5 sessions/wk (committed) and 25 who performed ≥6 sessions/wk plus regular competitions (Masters athletes) over at least the last 25 yr. Oxygen uptake and hemodynamics [cardiac output, stroke volume (SV)] were collected at rest, two levels of steady-state submaximal exercise, and maximal exercise. Doppler ultrasound measures of LV diastolic filling were assessed at rest and during LV loading (saline infusion) to simulate increased LV filling. Body composition, total blood volume, and heart rate recovery after maximal exercise were also examined. V̇o2max increased in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). At maximal exercise, cardiac output and SV were largest in committed exercisers and Masters athletes (P < 0.05), while arteriovenous oxygen difference was greater in all trained groups (P < 0.05). At maximal exercise, effective arterial elastance, an index of ventricular-arterial coupling, was lower in committed exercisers and Masters athletes (P < 0.05). Doppler measures of LV filling were not enhanced at any condition, irrespective of lifelong exercise frequency. These data suggest that performing four or more weekly endurance exercise sessions over a lifetime results in significant gains in V̇o2max, SV, and heart rate regulation during exercise; however, improved SV regulation during exercise is not coupled with favorable effects on LV

  18. Comparison of Maximal Wall Thickness in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Differs Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bois, John P; Geske, Jeffrey B; Foley, Thomas A; Ommen, Steve R; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-02-15

    Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is a prognostic marker in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV wall thickness ≥30 mm (massive hypertrophy) is independently associated with sudden cardiac death. Presence of massive hypertrophy is used to guide decision making for cardiac defibrillator implantation. We sought to determine whether measurements of maximal LV wall thickness differ between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Consecutive patients were studied who had HC without previous septal ablation or myectomy and underwent both cardiac MRI and TTE at a single tertiary referral center. Reported maximal LV wall thickness was compared between the imaging techniques. Patients with ≥1 technique reporting massive hypertrophy received subset analysis. In total, 618 patients were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 21, 2012 (mean [SD] age, 53 [15] years; 381 men [62%]). In 75 patients (12%), reported maximal LV wall thickness was identical between MRI and TTE. Median difference in reported maximal LV wall thickness between the techniques was 3 mm (maximum difference, 17 mm). Of the 63 patients with ≥1 technique measuring maximal LV wall thickness ≥30 mm, 44 patients (70%) had discrepant classification regarding massive hypertrophy. MRI identified 52 patients (83%) with massive hypertrophy; TTE, 30 patients (48%). Although guidelines recommend MRI or TTE imaging to assess cardiac anatomy in HC, this study shows discrepancy between the techniques for maximal reported LV wall thickness assessment. In conclusion, because this measure clinically affects prognosis and therapeutic decision making, efforts to resolve these discrepancies are critical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  20. A rule-based, dose-finding design for use in stroke rehabilitation research: methodological development.

    PubMed

    Colucci, E; Clark, A; Lang, C E; Pomeroy, V M

    2017-12-01

    Dose-optimisation studies as precursors to clinical trials are rare in stroke rehabilitation. To develop a rule-based, dose-finding design for stroke rehabilitation research. 3+3 rule-based, dose-finding study. Dose escalation/de-escalation was undertaken according to preset rules and a mathematical sequence (modified Fibonacci sequence). The target starting daily dose was 50 repetitions for the first cohort. Adherence was recorded by an electronic counter. At the end of the 2-week training period, the adherence record indicated dose tolerability (adherence to target dose) and the outcome measure indicated dose benefit (10% increase in motor function). The preset increment/decrease and checking rules were then applied to set the dose for the subsequent cohort. The process was repeated until preset stopping rules were met. Participants had a mean age of 68 (range 48 to 81) years, and were a mean of 70 (range 9 to 289) months post stroke with moderate upper limb paresis. A custom-built model of exercise-based training to enhance ability to open the paretic hand. Repetitions per minute of extension/flexion of paretic digits against resistance. Usability of the preset rules and whether the maximally tolerated dose was identifiable. Five cohorts of three participants were involved. Discernibly different doses were set for each subsequent cohort (i.e. 50, 100, 167, 251 and 209 repetitions/day). The maximally tolerated dose for the model training task was 209 repetitions/day. This dose-finding design is a feasible method for use in stroke rehabilitation research. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventing postmarketing changes in recommended doses and marketing withdrawals.

    PubMed

    Peck, C

    2007-01-01

    Recent market withdrawals of prescription drug products have brought attention to premarketing safety research. Less known but related to some drug withdrawals are postmarketing dosage changes of newly marketed drugs, including both dosage reductions and increases. These events have serious effects on patients, manufacturers, and regulatory authorities. Most of these harmful events could be avoided by intensive employment of targeted clinical pharmacology investigations to optimize dosage prior to phase III testing and regulatory approval. In this paper, the frequency and implications of postmarketing dosing changes and market withdrawals are considered in light of approaches to preventing them.

  2. Prolonged head-down tilt exposure reduces maximal cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Levine, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous vasodilation and sweat rate are reduced during a thermal challenge after simulated and actual microgravity exposure. The effects of microgravity exposure on cutaneous vasodilator capacity and on sweat gland function are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that simulated microgravity exposure, using the 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest model, reduces maximal forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (FVC) and sweat gland function and that exercise during HDT preserves these responses. To test these hypotheses, 20 subjects were exposed to 14 days of strict HDT bed rest. Twelve of those subjects exercised (supine cycle ergometry) at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum for 90 min/day throughout HDT bed rest. Before and after HDT bed rest, maximal FVC was measured, via plethysmography, by heating the entire forearm to 42 degrees C for 45 min. Sweat gland function was assessed by administering 1 x 10(-6) to 2 M acetylcholine (9 doses) via intradermal microdialysis while simultaneously monitoring sweat rate over the microdialysis membranes. In the nonexercise group, maximal FVC and maximal stimulated sweat rate were significantly reduced after HDT bed rest. In contrast, these responses were unchanged in the exercise group. These data suggest that 14 days of simulated microgravity exposure, using the HDT bed rest model, reduces cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity, whereas aerobic exercise training during HDT bed rest preserves these responses.

  3. Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Tejpratap; Moro, Pedro; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Reingold, Arthur; Sawyer, Mark; Clark, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Infants and young children are recommended to receive a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines, with one adolescent booster dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Adults who have never received Tdap also are recommended to receive a booster dose of Tdap. Women are recommended to receive a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, which should be administered from 27 through 36 weeks’ gestation, regardless of previous receipt of Tdap. After receipt of Tdap, adolescents and adults are recommended to receive a booster tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine every 10 years to assure ongoing protection against tetanus and diphtheria. PMID:29702631

  4. A phase I dose escalation and bioavailability study of oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with refractory solid tumor malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Baker, S D; Bowling, M K; Grochow, L; Figg, W D; Zabelina, Y; Donehower, R C; Carducci, M A

    2001-08-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) is an aromatic fatty acid with multiple mechanisms of action including histone deacetylase inhibition. Preclinically, PB demonstrates both cytotoxic and differentiating effects at a concentration of 0.5 mM. We conducted a Phase I trial of p.o. PB patients with refractory solid tumor malignancies to evaluate toxicity, pharmacokinetic parameters, and feasibility of p.o. administration. Twenty-eight patients with refractory solid tumor malignancies were enrolled on this dose-escalation to maximally tolerated dose trial. Five dose levels of PB were studied: 9 g/day (n = 4), 18 g/day (n = 4), 27 g/day (n = 4), 36 g/day (n = 12), and 45 g/day (n = 4). Pharmacokinetic studies were performed and included an p.o. bioavailability determination. Compliance data were also collected. The recommended Phase II dose is 27 g/day. Overall the drug was well tolerated with the most common toxicities being grade 1-2 dyspepsia and fatigue. Nonoverlapping dose-limiting toxicities of nausea/vomiting and hypocalcemia were seen at 36 g/day. The p.o. bioavailability of PB was 78% for all dose levels, and the biologically active concentration of 0.5 mM was achieved at all dose levels. Compliance was excellent with 93.5% of all possible doses taken. No partial remission or complete remission was seen, but 7 patients had stable disease for more than 6 months while on the drug. PB (p.o.) is well tolerated and achieves the concentration in vivo that has been shown to have biological activity in vitro. PB may have a role as a cytostatic agent and should be additionally explored in combination with cytotoxics and other novel drugs.

  5. Impacts of Maximizing Tendencies on Experience-Based Decisions.

    PubMed

    Rim, Hye Bin

    2017-06-01

    Previous research on risky decisions has suggested that people tend to make different choices depending on whether they acquire the information from personally repeated experiences or from statistical summary descriptions. This phenomenon, called as a description-experience gap, was expected to be moderated by the individual difference in maximizing tendencies, a desire towards maximizing decisional outcome. Specifically, it was hypothesized that maximizers' willingness to engage in extensive information searching would lead maximizers to make experience-based decisions as payoff distributions were given explicitly. A total of 262 participants completed four decision problems. Results showed that maximizers, compared to non-maximizers, drew more samples before making a choice but reported lower confidence levels on both the accuracy of knowledge gained from experiences and the likelihood of satisfactory outcomes. Additionally, maximizers exhibited smaller description-experience gaps than non-maximizers as expected. The implications of the findings and unanswered questions for future research were discussed.

  6. Feasibility of TCP-based dose painting by numbers applied to a prostate case with (18)F-choline PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Dirscherl, Thomas; Rickhey, Mark; Bogner, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    A biologically adaptive radiation treatment method to maximize the TCP is shown. Functional imaging is used to acquire a heterogeneous dose prescription in terms of Dose Painting by Numbers and to create a patient-specific IMRT plan. Adapted from a method for selective dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution, a model, which translates heterogeneously distributed radiobiological parameters into voxelwise dose prescriptions, was developed. At the example of a prostate case with (18)F-choline PET imaging, different sets of reported values for the parameters were examined concerning their resulting range of dose values. Furthermore, the influence of each parameter of the linear-quadratic model was investigated. A correlation between PET signal and proliferation as well as cell density was assumed. Using our in-house treatment planning software Direct Monte Carlo Optimization (DMCO), a treatment plan based on the obtained dose prescription was generated. Gafchromic EBT films were irradiated for evaluation. When a TCP of 95% was aimed at, the maximal dose in a voxel of the prescription exceeded 100Gy for most considered parameter sets. One of the parameter sets resulted in a dose range of 87.1Gy to 99.3Gy, yielding a TCP of 94.7%, and was investigated more closely. The TCP of the plan decreased to 73.5% after optimization based on that prescription. The dose difference histogram of optimized and prescribed dose revealed a mean of -1.64Gy and a standard deviation of 4.02Gy. Film verification showed a reasonable agreement of planned and delivered dose. If the distribution of radiobiological parameters within a tumor is known, this model can be used to create a dose-painting by numbers plan which maximizes the TCP. It could be shown, that such a heterogeneous dose distribution is technically feasible. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Prediction of Vancomycin Dose for Recommended Trough Concentrations in Pediatric Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Raid W; Guttmann, Rodney P; Harris, Quianna R; Thomas, Janesha W

    2018-05-01

    Vancomycin is a key antibiotic used in the treatment of multiple conditions including infections associated with cystic fibrosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study sought to develop a model based on empirical evidence of optimal vancomycin dose as judged by clinical observations that could accelerate the achievement of desired trough level in children with cystic fibrosis. Transformations of dose and trough were used to arrive at regression models with excellent fit for dose based on weight or age for a target trough. Results of this study indicate that the 2 proposed regression models are robust to changes in age or weight, suggesting that the daily dose on a per-kilogram basis is determined primarily by the desired trough level. The results show that to obtain a vancomycin trough level of 20 μg/mL, a dose of 80 mg/kg/day is needed. This analysis should improve the efficiency of vancomycin usage by reducing the number of titration steps, resulting in improved patient outcome and experience. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    This report presents new recommendations adopted in June 2009 by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.). MMRV vaccine was licensed in the United States in September 2005 and may be used instead of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR, M-M-RII, Merck & Co., Inc.) and varicella vaccine (VARIVAX, Merck & Co., Inc.) to implement the recommended 2-dose vaccine schedule for prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella among children aged 12 months-12 years. At the time of its licensure, use of MMRV vaccine was preferred for both the first and second doses over separate injections of equivalent component vaccines (MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine), which was consistent with ACIP's 2006 general recommendations on use of combination vaccines (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55;[No. RR-15]). Since July 2007, supplies of MMRV vaccine have been temporarily unavailable as a result of manufacturing constraints unrelated to efficacy or safety. MMRV vaccine is expected to be available again in the United States in May 2010. In February 2008, on the basis of preliminary data from two studies conducted postlicensure that suggested an increased risk for febrile seizures 5-12 days after vaccination among children aged 12-23 months who had received the first dose of MMRV vaccine compared with children the same age who had received the first dose of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit, ACIP issued updated recommendations regarding MMRV vaccine use (CDC. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR 2008;57:258-60). These updated recommendations expressed no preference for use of MMRV vaccine over

  9. Implications of current recommendations for third-generation cephalosporin use in the WHO Western Pacific Region following the emergence of multiresistant gonococci.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W

    2009-08-01

    To ascertain recommendations for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) following the emergence of "cephalosporin-resistant" Neisseria gonorrhoeae and to relate these to clinical and laboratory measures directed towards disease and antibiotic resistance control. WHO WPR Gonococcal Antimicrobial Resistance Programme members provided data on the type, dose and source of third-generation cephalosporins recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Ceftriaxone was recommended more widely (11/15 respondents) than cefixime (five centres). No cephalosporins were recommended in three jurisdictions. One other oral (ceftibuten) and injectable (cefodizime) agent was recommended. Uniform (400 mg) doses of cefixime were recommended but ceftriaxone regimens ranged between 125 mg and 1 g, with nine of 11 respondents using a 250 mg dose. Both generic and proprietary preparations were widely used. Third-generation cephalosporins are widely recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WPR, with injectable ceftriaxone more extensively so than oral cefixime and in an expanded dose range. Few other cephalosporins were recommended. Current knowledge suggests that the trend towards ceftriaxone treatment in higher doses may decrease the impact of the circulation of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci in the WPR. These recommendations represent public sector practice only and of themselves are unlikely to contain the further spread of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci because of the general clinical use of cephalosporins. Optimisation of strategies for laboratory detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance can be simplified in the WPR because of the restricted spectrum of cephalosporins recommended. Additional efforts are urgently required for both disease and antibiotic resistance control in gonorrhoea.

  10. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2016 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) annually publishes the immunisation schedule which, in our opinion, estimates optimal for children resident in Spain, considering available evidence on current vaccines. We acknowledge the effort of the Ministry of Health during the last year in order to optimize the funded unified Spanish vaccination schedule, with the recent inclusion of pneumococcal and varicella vaccination in early infancy. Regarding the funded vaccines included in the official unified immunization schedule, taking into account available data, CAV-AEP recommends 2+1 strategy (2, 4 and 12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) vaccines and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Administration of Tdap and poliomyelitis booster dose at the age of 6 is recommended, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women, between 27-36 weeks gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 11-12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. Regarding recommended unfunded immunisations, CAV-AEP recommends the administration of meningococcal B vaccine, due to the current availability in Spanish communitary pharmacies, with a 3+1 scheme (3, 5, 7 and 13-15 months). CAV-AEP requests the incorporation of this vaccine in the funded unified schedule. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Annual influenza immunisation and vaccination against hepatitis A are indicated in population groups considered at risk. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The best and worst of corn nitrogen rate recommendation tools used in the Midwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. The p...

  12. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wasfy, Meagan; Baggish, Aaron L.

    2016-01-01

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice. PMID:27267537

  13. [Recommendations for the use of methotrexate in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Antón, J; López Robledillo, J C; de Inocencio, J; Gamir, M L; Merino, R; Lacruz, L; Camacho, M; Rua, M J; Bustabad, S; Díaz Cordovés-Rego, G

    2016-03-01

    To develop a consensus document of recommendations for the use of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A group of eleven experts proposed several clinical questions on the use of MTX in patients with JIA. A systematic review was conducted and the evidence and recommendations for each question were extracted. The results were discussed and validated by the experts in a work session to establish the final recommendations. MTX is recommended as the first drug for inducing remission in JIA, and its indication should be made according to the clinical category of the patient. Prior to treatment, it is recommended to perform a complete blood count, including white cells, levels of liver enzymes, serum creatinine, and other analytical parameters according to specific risk factors. Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10-15 mg/m(2)/week. In cases of uveitis or polyarthritis, an initial dose of 15 mg/m(2)/week should be considered. For a better bioavailability and tolerability, it is preferable to administer MTX parenterally if the dose is ≥15 mg/m(2)/week. It is necessary to periodically perform an analytical monitoring of the patient and to assess possible alterations in liver enzymes to make changes if necessary. Combinations with biological agents may be necessary, as well as the concomitant addition of folic or folinic acid. This document describes the main recommendations for the appropriate use of MTX in JIA patients, according to scientific evidence and clinical experience. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A Framework for "Fit for Purpose" Dose Response Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NRC report Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment made several recommendations to improve chemical risk assessment, with a focus on in-depth chronic dose-response assessments conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The recommendations addressed two ...

  15. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  16. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  17. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  18. Safe use of epidural corticosteroid injections: recommendations of the WIP Benelux workgroup.

    PubMed

    Van Boxem, Koen; Rijsdijk, Mienke; Hans, Guy; de Jong, Jasper; Kallewaard, Jan Willem; Vissers, Kris; van Kleef, Maarten; Rathmell, James P; Van Zundert, Jan

    2018-05-14

    Epidural corticosteroid injections are used frequently worldwide in the treatment of radicular pain. Concerns have risen involving rare major neurologic injuries after this treatment. Recommendations to prevent these complications have been published, but local implementation is not always feasible due to local circumstances and necessitating local recommendations based on literature review. A workgroup of 4 stakeholder pain societies in Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg (Benelux) has reviewed the literature involving neurological complications after epidural corticosteroid injections and possible safety measures to prevent these major neurologic injuries. Twenty-six considerations and recommendations were selected by the workgroup. These involve the use of imaging, injection equipment particulate and non-particulate corticosteroids, epidural approach and maximal volume to be injected. Raising awareness about possible neurological complications and adoption of safety measures recommended by the work group aim at reducing the risks of these devastating events. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of a pre-exercise hydrocortisone dose on short-term physical performance in female patients with primary adrenal failure.

    PubMed

    Simunkova, Katerina; Jovanovic, Nevena; Rostrup, Espen; Methlie, Paal; Øksnes, Marianne; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Hennø, Hanne; Tilseth, Mira; Godang, Kristin; Kovac, Ana; Løvås, Kristian; Husebye, Eystein S

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) take extra doses of glucocorticoids during stressful events, but a benefit has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Here, we investigated the effects of a pre-exercise hydrocortisone dose on cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic parameters in response to short-term strenuous physical activity. This was a randomized placebo-controlled, two-week cross-over clinical trial. Ten women with Addison's disease and 10 age-matched healthy females participated in the study. All women in the study underwent maximal incremental exercise testing. A stress dose of 10 mg hydrocortisone or placebo was given 1 h prior to exercise on two occasions. Blood samples were drawn before, and 0, 15 and 30 min post exercise. Oxygen uptake, maximal aerobic capacity, endocrine and metabolic responses to physical activity, as well as health status by questionnaires were evaluated. Maximal aerobic capacity and duration of exercise were significantly lower in patients than in healthy subjects and did not improve with the treatment. After an extra hydrocortisone dose serum cortisol was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects (P<0.001). Post-exercise glucose and adrenaline levels were significantly lower and free fatty acids insignificantly higher in patients irrespective of stress dose. Stress dosing did not alter other metabolic or hormonal parameters or quality of life after the exercise. The patients did not benefit from an extra dose of hydrocortisone in short strenuous exercise. Stress dosing may not be justified in this setting. Whether stress dosing is beneficial in other types of physical activity will have to be examined further. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. A Phase I Study of Light Dose for Photodynamic Therapy Using 2-[1-Hexyloxyethyl]-2 Devinyl Pyropheophorbide-a for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma In Situ or Non-Small Cell Microinvasive Bronchogenic Carcinoma: A Dose Ranging Study.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Demmy, Todd L; Yendamuri, Sai; Loewen, Gregory; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Cooper, Michele; Henderson, Barbara W

    2016-02-01

    We report a phase I trial of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and microinvasive cancer (MIC) of the central airways with the photosensitizer (PS) 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). HPPH has the advantage of minimal general phototoxicity over the commonly used photosensitizer porfimer sodium (Photofrin; Pinnacle Biologics, Chicago, IL). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the maximally tolerated light dose at a fixed photosensitizer dose and (2) to gain initial insight into the effectiveness of this treatment approach. Seventeen patients with 21 CIS/MIC lesions were treated with HPPH with light dose escalation starting from 75 J/cm2 and increasing to 85, 95,125, and 150 J/cm2 respectively. Follow-up bronchoscopy for response assessment was performed at 1 and 6 months, respectively. The rate of pathological complete response (CR) was 82.4% (14 of 17 evaluable lesions; 14 patients) at 1 month and 72.7% (8/11 evaluable lesions; 8 patients) at 6 months. Only four patients developed mild skin erythema. One of the three patients in the 150 J/cm2 light dose group experienced a serious adverse event. This patient had respiratory distress caused by mucus plugging, which precipitated cardiac ischemia. Two additional patients treated subsequently at this light dose had no adverse events. The sixth patient in this dose group was not recruited and the study was terminated because of delays in HPPH supply. However, given the observed serious adverse event, it is recommended that the light dose does not exceed 125 J/cm2. PDT with HPPH can be safely used for the treatment of CIS/MIC of the airways, with potential effectiveness comparable to that reported for porfimer sodium in earlier studies. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-06-07

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A Phase I Study of Light Dose for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Using 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2 devinyl Pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) for Treatment of Non-small Cell Carcinoma in situ or Non-small Cell Microinvasive Bronchogenic Carcinoma. A Dose Ranging Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Demmy, Todd L.; Yendamuri, Sai; Loewen, Gregory; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Cooper, Michele; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report a phase I trial of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of carcinoma-insitu (CIS) and microinvasive cancer (MIC) of the central airways with the photosensitizer (PS) 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). HPPH has the advantage of minimal general phototoxicity over the commonly used PS porfimer sodium (Photofrin®). Methods The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the maximally tolerated light dose at a fixed PS dose and 2) to gain initial insight into the effectiveness of this treatment approach. Seventeen patients with 21 CIS/MIC lesions were treated with HPPH with light dose escalation starting from 75 J/cm2 to 85, 95,125, and 150 J/cm2 respectively. Follow-up bronchoscopy for response assessment was done at one and six months, respectively. Results The rate of pathological complete response (CR) was 82.4% (14/17 evaluable lesions; 14 patients) at one-month and 72.7% (8/11 lesions; 8 patients) at 6 months. Only 4 patients developed mild skin erythema. One of the three patients in 150 J/cm2 light dose group experienced a serious adverse event. This patient had respiratory distress due to mucus plugging, which precipitated cardiac ischemia. Two additional patients treated subsequently at this light dose had no adverse events. The third sixth patient in this dose group was not recruited and the study was terminated because of delays in HPPH supply. However, given the observed serious adverse event, it is recommended that the light dose not exceed 125J/cm2. Conclusions PDT with HPPH can be safely used for the treatment of CIS/MIC of the airways, with potential effectiveness comparable to that reported for porfimer sodium in earlier studies. PMID:26718878

  4. No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Amparo; Cui, Xuewei; Geiser, Jeanne; Loghin, Corina

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated. In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated. Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C max ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C max (t max ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR max ); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC INR ) was observed. Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide. NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.

  5. Black disk, maximal Odderon and unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoze, V. A.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.

    2018-05-01

    We argue that the so-called maximal Odderon contribution breaks the 'black disk' behavior of the asymptotic amplitude, since the cross section of the events with Large Rapidity Gaps grows faster than the total cross section. That is the 'maximal Odderon' is not consistent with unitarity.

  6. Dose estimation of eye lens for interventional procedures in diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Huang, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Ching-Han; Hsu, Fang-Yuh

    2017-11-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye be decreased from 150 mSv/y (ICRP, 2007) to 20 mSv/y averaged over five years (ICRP, 2011). How to accurately measure the eye-lens dose has, therefore, been an issue of interest recently. Interventional radiologists are at a higher risk of radiation-induced eye injury, such as cataracts, than all other occupational radiation workers. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the doses to the eye lenses of interventional radiologists measured by different commercial eye-lens dosimeters. This study measured a reference eye-lens dose, which involved placing thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips at the surface of the eye of the Rando Phantom, and the TLD chips were covered by a 3-mm-thick tissue-equivalent bolus. Commercial eye-lens dosimeters, such as a headband dosimeter and standard personnel dose badges, were placed at the positions recommended by the manufacturers. The results show that the personnel dose badge is not an appropriate dosimeter for evaluating eye-lens dose. Dose deviations for different dosimeters are discussed and presented in this study.

  7. Medical and occupational dose reduction in pediatric barium meal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Legnani, A.; Bunick, A. P.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Vosiak, P.

    2017-11-01

    Doses received in pediatric Barium Meal procedure can be rather high. It is possible to reduce dose values following the recommendations of the European Communities (EC) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In the present work, the modifications of radiographic techniques made in a Brazilian hospital according to the EC and the ICRP recommendations and their influence on medical and occupational exposure are reported. The procedures of 49 patients before and 44 after the optimization were studied and air kerma-area product (PK,A) values and the effective doses were evaluated. The occupational equivalent doses were measured next to the eyes, under the thyroid shield and on each hand of both professionals who remained inside the examination room. The implemented modifications reduced by 70% and 60% the PK,A and the patient effective dose, respectively. The obtained dose values are lower than approximately 75% of the results from similar studies. The occupational annual equivalent doses for all studied organs became lower than the limits set by the ICRP. The equivalent doses in one examination were on average below than 75% of similar studies.

  8. Weight-based dosing in medication use: what should we know?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng-dong; Zhu, Ling-ling; Chen, Meng; Xia, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight-based dosing strategy is still challenging due to poor awareness and adherence. It is necessary to let clinicians know of the latest developments in this respect and the correct circumstances in which weight-based dosing is of clinical relevance. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed. Results Clinical indications, physiological factors, and types of medication may determine the applicability of weight-based dosing. In some cases, the weight effect may be minimal or the proper dosage can only be determined when weight is combined with other factors. Medications within similar therapeutic or structural class (eg, anticoagulants, antitumor necrosis factor medications, P2Y12-receptor antagonists, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies) may exhibit differences in requirements on weight-based dosing. In some cases, weight-based dosing is superior to currently recommended fixed-dose regimen in adult patients (eg, hydrocortisone, vancomycin, linezolid, and aprotinin). On the contrary, fixed dosing is noninferior to or even better than currently recommended weight-based regimen in adult patients in some cases (eg, cyclosporine microemulsion, recombinant activated Factor VII, and epoetin α). Ideal body-weight-based dosing may be superior to the currently recommended total body-weight-based regimen (eg, atracurium and rocuronium). For dosing in pediatrics, whether weight-based dosing is better than body surface-area-based dosing is dependent on the particular medication (eg, methotrexate, prednisone, prednisolone, zidovudine, didanosine, growth hormone, and 13-cis-retinoic acid). Age-based dosing strategy is better than weight-based dosing in some cases (eg, intravenous busulfan and dalteparin). Dosing guided by pharmacogenetic testing did not show pharmacoeconomic advantage over weight-adjusted dosing of 6-mercaptopurine. The common viewpoint (ie, pediatric patients should be dosed on the basis of body weight) is not always

  9. Analysis of the track- and dose-averaged LET and LET spectra in proton therapy using the geant4 Monte Carlo code

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher; Bronk, Lawrence; Geng, Changran; Taleei, Reza; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Ge, Shuaiping; Mirkovic, Dragan; Grosshans, David; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The motivation of this study was to find and eliminate the cause of errors in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) calculations from therapeutic protons in small targets, such as biological cell layers, calculated using the geant 4 Monte Carlo code. Furthermore, the purpose was also to provide a recommendation to select an appropriate LET quantity from geant 4 simulations to correlate with biological effectiveness of therapeutic protons. Methods: The authors developed a particle tracking step based strategy to calculate the average LET quantities (track-averaged LET, LETt and dose-averaged LET, LETd) using geant 4 for different tracking step size limits. A step size limit refers to the maximally allowable tracking step length. The authors investigated how the tracking step size limit influenced the calculated LETt and LETd of protons with six different step limits ranging from 1 to 500 μm in a water phantom irradiated by a 79.7-MeV clinical proton beam. In addition, the authors analyzed the detailed stochastic energy deposition information including fluence spectra and dose spectra of the energy-deposition-per-step of protons. As a reference, the authors also calculated the averaged LET and analyzed the LET spectra combining the Monte Carlo method and the deterministic method. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations were performed to illustrate the impact of different LET calculation methods on the RBE-weighted dose. Results: Simulation results showed that the step limit effect was small for LETt but significant for LETd. This resulted from differences in the energy-deposition-per-step between the fluence spectra and dose spectra at different depths in the phantom. Using the Monte Carlo particle tracking method in geant 4 can result in incorrect LETd calculation results in the dose plateau region for small step limits. The erroneous LETd results can be attributed to the algorithm to determine fluctuations in energy deposition along the

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Ixekizumab vs Etanercept and Their Manufacturer-Recommended Dosing Regimens in Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-10-01

    Biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis; however, their use is limited by costs. Ixekizumab was more effective than etanercept in the UNCOVER trials, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ixekizumab for treating psoriasis. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of these therapies is crucial for medical decision making and our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of various ixekizumab dosing frequencies compared with etanercept. We utilized published data from the UNCOVER comparative efficacy trials, including transitional probabilities and treatment response rates, to create a Markov model simulating the clinical course and cost-effectiveness of three treatment algorithms for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis over 60-weeks: (1) ixekizumab every 2 weeks for 12 weeks then every 4 weeks, (2) ixekizumab every 4 weeks throughout the treatment period, (3) biweekly etanercept for 12 weeks then once weekly. We utilized a standard willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and Medicaid drug acquisition costs for our calculations. Ixekizumab every 4 weeks was $28,681 (USD) less expensive than biweekly etanercept, and $21,375 less expensive, and 0.006 QALY less effective, than ixekizumab every 2 weeks-- a savings of $28.7 and $21.4 million, respectively, per 1,000 patients. A 95.6% cost reduction to $197.83 per dose is required for ixekizumab every 2 weeks to be more cost-effective than every 4 weeks. Biweekly etanercept requires a 29.5% cost reduction ($743.82 per dose) to be competitive with ixekizumab every 4 weeks. This cost-effectiveness model utilizes strong input data but is a limited approximation of real-life scenarios. Treatment with ixekizumab every 2 weeks is unlikely to be cost-effective compared with ixekizumab every 4 weeks at current U.S. market prices. Yet, the U.S. FDA approval and manufacturer's recommendation are for ixekizumab every 2 weeks

  11. Integration of drug dosing data with physiological data streams using a cloud computing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Nadja; James, Andrew; McGregor, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs are used during the provision of intensive care for the preterm newborn infant. Recommendations for drug dosing in newborns depend upon data from population based pharmacokinetic research. There is a need to be able to modify drug dosing in response to the preterm infant's response to the standard dosing recommendations. The real-time integration of physiological data with drug dosing data would facilitate individualised drug dosing for these immature infants. This paper proposes the use of a novel computational framework that employs real-time, temporal data analysis for this task. Deployment of the framework within the cloud computing paradigm will enable widespread distribution of individualized drug dosing for newborn infants.

  12. Maximal coherence and the resource theory of purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Kampermann, Hermann; Wölk, Sabine; Gessner, Manuel; Bruß, Dagmar

    2018-05-01

    The resource theory of quantum coherence studies the off-diagonal elements of a density matrix in a distinguished basis, whereas the resource theory of purity studies all deviations from the maximally mixed state. We establish a direct connection between the two resource theories, by identifying purity as the maximal coherence which is achievable by unitary operations. The states that saturate this maximum identify a universal family of maximally coherent mixed states. These states are optimal resources under maximally incoherent operations, and thus independent of the way coherence is quantified. For all distance-based coherence quantifiers the maximal coherence can be evaluated exactly, and is shown to coincide with the corresponding distance-based purity quantifier. We further show that purity bounds the maximal amount of entanglement and discord that can be generated by unitary operations, thus demonstrating that purity is the most elementary resource for quantum information processing.

  13. Dose-Dependent Suppression of Gonadotropins and Ovarian Hormones by Elagolix in Healthy Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Ng, Juki; Chwalisz, Kristof; Carter, David C; Klein, Cheri E

    2017-05-01

    Elagolix is a nonpeptide, oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist being developed for sex-hormone-dependent diseases in women. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elagolix. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending dose study in 45 healthy premenopausal women at a research unit. Elagolix [150 mg once daily or 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg twice daily (BID)] or placebo was administered for 21 days. Main outcome measures were elagolix pharmacokinetics, suppression of gonadotropics [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)] and ovarian hormones [estradiol (E2), progesterone (P)], and adverse events. Elagolix was rapidly absorbed after oral dosing, reaching maximum concentrations at 1.0 to 1.5 hours, with a half-life of 4 to 6 hours. FSH, LH, and E2 were suppressed within hours of elagolix administration on day 1. Dose-dependent suppression of E2 was observed, with maximum suppression achieved with elagolix 200 mg BID. Dose-dependent suppression of FSH and LH was also observed, with maximal or near-maximal suppression achieved at 300 mg BID and 200 mg BID, respectively. At elagolix doses ≥100 mg BID, P concentrations remained at anovulatory levels throughout 21 days of dosing. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and hot flush. Elagolix administration allows for modulation of gonadotropin and ovarian hormone concentrations, from partial suppression at lower doses to nearly full suppression at higher doses. The results of this study provide a rationale for elagolix dose selection for treatment of sex hormone-dependent diseases in women. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Diurnal Variations in Maximal Oxygen Uptake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Powell D.

    A study attempted to determine if diurnal (daily cyclical) variations were present during maximal exercise. The subjects' (30 female undergraduate physical education majors) oxygen consumption and heart rates were monitored while they walked on a treadmill on which the grade was raised every minute. Each subject was tested for maximal oxygen…

  15. When Does Reward Maximization Lead to Matching Law?

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yutaka; Fukai, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    What kind of strategies subjects follow in various behavioral circumstances has been a central issue in decision making. In particular, which behavioral strategy, maximizing or matching, is more fundamental to animal's decision behavior has been a matter of debate. Here, we prove that any algorithm to achieve the stationary condition for maximizing the average reward should lead to matching when it ignores the dependence of the expected outcome on subject's past choices. We may term this strategy of partial reward maximization “matching strategy”. Then, this strategy is applied to the case where the subject's decision system updates the information for making a decision. Such information includes subject's past actions or sensory stimuli, and the internal storage of this information is often called “state variables”. We demonstrate that the matching strategy provides an easy way to maximize reward when combined with the exploration of the state variables that correctly represent the crucial information for reward maximization. Our results reveal for the first time how a strategy to achieve matching behavior is beneficial to reward maximization, achieving a novel insight into the relationship between maximizing and matching. PMID:19030101

  16. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Baardwijk, Angela van; Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissuemore » dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.« less

  17. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-02-05

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures.

  18. Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Acid-base Balance Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Mandzuka, Mensur; Begic, Edin; Boskovic, Dusanka; Begic, Zijo; Masic, Izet

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents mobile application implementing a decision support system for acid-base disorder diagnosis and treatment recommendation. The application was developed using the official integrated development environment for the Android platform (to maximize availability and minimize investments in specialized hardware) called Android Studio. The application identifies disorder, based on the blood gas analysis, evaluates whether the disorder has been compensated, and based on additional input related to electrolyte imbalance, provides recommendations for treatment. The application is a tool in the hands of the user, which provides assistance during acid-base disorders treatment. The application will assist the physician in clinical practice and is focused on the treatment in intensive care.

  19. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  20. Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads

    Treesearch

    Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac

    2017-01-01

    In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...

  1. Maximizing in vivo target clearance by design of pH-dependent target binding antibodies with altered affinity to FcRn.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danlin; Giragossian, Craig; Castellano, Steven; Lasaro, Marcio; Xiao, Haiguang; Saraf, Himanshu; Hess Kenny, Cynthia; Rybina, Irina; Huang, Zhong-Fu; Ahlberg, Jennifer; Bigwarfe, Tammy; Myzithras, Maria; Waltz, Erica; Roberts, Simon; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel; Singh, Sanjaya

    2017-10-01

    Antibodies with pH-dependent binding to both target antigens and neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) provide an alternative tool to conventional neutralizing antibodies, particularly for therapies where reduction in antigen level is challenging due to high target burden. However, the requirements for optimal binding kinetic framework and extent of pH dependence for these antibodies to maximize target clearance from circulation are not well understood. We have identified a series of naturally-occurring high affinity antibodies with pH-dependent target binding properties. By in vivo studies in cynomolgus monkeys, we show that pH-dependent binding to the target alone is not sufficient for effective target removal from circulation, but requires Fc mutations that increase antibody binding to FcRn. Affinity-enhanced pH-dependent FcRn binding that is double-digit nM at pH 7.4 and single-digit nM at pH 6 achieved maximal target reduction when combined with similar target binding affinities in reverse pH directions. Sustained target clearance below the baseline level was achieved 3 weeks after single-dose administration at 1.5 mg/kg. Using the experimentally derived mechanistic model, we demonstrate the essential kinetic interplay between target turnover and antibody pH-dependent binding during the FcRn recycling, and identify the key components for achieving maximal target clearance. These results bridge the demand for improved patient dosing convenience with the "know-how" of therapeutic modality by design.

  2. Ultra-low dose naltrexone enhances cannabinoid-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Jay; Olmstead, Mary C; Olmstead, Mary

    2005-12-01

    Both opioids and cannabinoids have inhibitory effects at micromolar doses, which are mediated by activated receptors coupling to Gi/o-proteins. Surprisingly, the analgesic effects of opioids are enhanced by ultra-low doses (nanomolar to picomolar) of the opioid antagonist, naltrexone. As opioid and cannabinoid systems interact, this study investigated whether ultra-low dose naltrexone also influences cannabinoid-induced antinociception. Separate groups of Long-Evans rats were tested for antinociception following an injection of vehicle, a sub-maximal dose of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2, naltrexone (an ultra-low or a high dose) or a combination of WIN 55 212-2 and naltrexone doses. Tail-flick latencies were recorded for 3 h, at 10-min intervals for the first hour, and at 15-min intervals thereafter. Ultra-low dose naltrexone elevated WIN 55 212-2-induced tail flick thresholds without extending its duration of action. This enhancement was replicated in animals receiving intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. A high dose of naltrexone had no effect on WIN 55 212-2-induced tail flick latencies, but a high dose of the cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist SR 141716 blocked the elevated tail-flick thresholds produced by WIN 55 212-2+ultra-low dose naltrexone. These data suggest a mechanism of cannabinoid-opioid interaction whereby activated opioid receptors that couple to Gs-proteins may attenuate cannabinoid-induced antinociception and/or motor functioning.

  3. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Shanahan, Danielle F; Hudson, Hannah L; Fuller, Richard A; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  4. Maximally slicing a black hole.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F.; Wahlquist, H.; Christensen, S.; Dewitt, B.; Smarr, L.; Tsiang, E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytic and computer-derived solutions are presented of the problem of slicing the Schwarzschild geometry into asymptotically flat, asymptotically static, maximal spacelike hypersurfaces. The sequence of hypersurfaces advances forward in time in both halves (u greater than or equal to 0, u less than or equal to 0) of the Kruskal diagram, tending asymptotically to the hypersurface r = 3/2 M and avoiding the singularity at r = 0. Maximality is therefore a potentially useful condition to impose in obtaining computer solutions of Einstein's equations.

  5. Comparison of the anticonvulsant potency of various diuretic drugs in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure threshold test in mice.

    PubMed

    Załuska, Katarzyna; Kondrat-Wróbel, Maria W; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J

    2018-05-01

    The coexistence of seizures and arterial hypertension requires an adequate and efficacious treatment involving both protection from seizures and reduction of high arterial blood pressure. Accumulating evidence indicates that some diuretic drugs (with a well-established position in the treatment of arterial hypertension) also possess anticonvulsant properties in various experimental models of epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess the anticonvulsant potency of 6 commonly used diuretic drugs (i.e., amiloride, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, and spironolactone) in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure threshold (MEST) test in mice. Doses of the studied diuretics and their corresponding threshold increases were linearly related, allowing for the determination of doses which increase the threshold for electroconvulsions in drug-treated animals by 20% (TID20 values) over the threshold in control animals. Amiloride, hydrochlorothiazide and indapamide administered systemically (intraperitoneally - i.p.) increased the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice, and the experimentally-derived TID20 values in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test were 30.2 mg/kg for amiloride, 68.2 mg/kg for hydrochlorothiazide and 3.9 mg/kg for indapamide. In contrast, ethacrynic acid (up to 100 mg/kg), furosemide (up to 100 mg/kg) and spironolactone (up to 50 mg/kg) administered i.p. had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. The studied diuretics can be arranged with respect to their anticonvulsant potency in the MEST test as follows: indapamide > amiloride > hydrochlorothiazide. No anticonvulsant effects were observed for ethacrynic acid, furosemide or spironolactone in the MEST test in mice.

  6. Tolerance limits and methodologies for IMRT measurement-based verification QA: Recommendations of AAPM Task Group No. 218.

    PubMed

    Miften, Moyed; Olch, Arthur; Mihailidis, Dimitris; Moran, Jean; Pawlicki, Todd; Molineu, Andrea; Li, Harold; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Shi, Jie; Xia, Ping; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Low, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Patient-specific IMRT QA measurements are important components of processes designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered radiation doses. Discrepancy tolerance limits are neither well defined nor consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report provides a comprehensive review aimed at improving the understanding and consistency of these processes as well as recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. The performance of the dose difference/distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ dose distribution comparison metrics are investigated. Measurement methods are reviewed and followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Methodologies for absolute dose verification are discussed and new IMRT QA verification tools are presented. Literature on the expected or achievable agreement between measurements and calculations for different types of planning and delivery systems are reviewed and analyzed. Tests of vendor implementations of the γ verification algorithm employing benchmark cases are presented. Operational shortcomings that can reduce the γ tool accuracy and subsequent effectiveness for IMRT QA are described. Practical considerations including spatial resolution, normalization, dose threshold, and data interpretation are discussed. Published data on IMRT QA and the clinical experience of the group members are used to develop guidelines and recommendations on tolerance and action limits for IMRT QA. Steps to check failed IMRT QA plans are outlined. Recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, dose normalization, the use of γ analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA are made with focus on detecting differences between calculated and measured doses via the use of robust analysis methods and an in-depth understanding of IMRT verification metrics. The recommendations are intended to improve the IMRT QA process and establish consistent, and comparable IMRT QA

  7. Ceftazidime dosing in the elderly: economic implications.

    PubMed

    Vlasses, P H; Bastion, W A; Behal, R; Sirgo, M A

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and resulting costs of ceftazidime dosing in excess of product labeling recommendations in elderly hospitalized patients. Ceftazidime is a beta-lactam antibiotic excreted via glomerular filtration. According to product labeling, ceftazidime dosing can frequently be decreased in the elderly because glomerular filtration declines with age. A multicenter, retrospective utilization audit involving 11 US academic medical centers examined 221 medical records of patients 65 years of age or older receiving ceftazidime (any brand, any indication). The creatinine clearance of each patient was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Renal insufficiency, defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of less than 50 mL/min, was present in 111 of the patients (50 percent). Ceftazidime dosing in excess of product labeling recommendations was noted in 75 of those 111 (68 percent). The cost of excess ceftazidime dosing for those 75 patients (i.e., extra drug acquisition, preparation, administration) was $13,822.50. Although the dosage of ceftazidime required in a specific patient is based on many factors, ceftazidime is frequently overdosed in the elderly because renal function is not considered. Ceftazidime dose-adjustment in the elderly, based on the estimated creatinine clearance, can lead to cost savings. In the US, where hospital reimbursement by Medicare is based on diagnosis, institutions can realize direct cost savings.

  8. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Embracing model-based designs for dose-finding trials

    PubMed Central

    Love, Sharon B; Brown, Sarah; Weir, Christopher J; Harbron, Chris; Yap, Christina; Gaschler-Markefski, Birgit; Matcham, James; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher; Clive, Sally; Craddock, Charlie; Spicer, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of model-based designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). Methods: We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. Results: We describe the benefits of model-based designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a model-based design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators’ preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. Conclusions: There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement model-based designs. Our analysis identified barriers for academic statisticians and clinical academics in mirroring the progress industry has made in trial design. Unified support from funders, regulators, and journal editors could result in more accurate doses for later-phase testing, and increase the efficiency and success of clinical drug development. We give recommendations for increasing the uptake of model-based designs for dose-finding trials in academia. PMID:28664918

  10. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) and colistin in rats following single intravenous CMS doses.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) dose on CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in rats. Three rats per group received an intravenous bolus of CMS at a dose of 5, 15, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg. Arterial blood samples were drawn at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. CMS and colistin plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of CMS and colistin were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Linear relationships were observed between CMS and colistin AUCs to infinity and CMS doses, as well as between CMS and colistin C(max) and CMS doses. CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics were linear for a range of colistin concentrations covering the range of values encountered and recommended in patients even during treatment with higher doses.

  11. Pediatric patient and staff dose measurements in barium meal fluoroscopic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Porto, L. E.; Ledesma, J. A.; Nascimento, E. X.; Legnani, A.; Andrade, M. E. A.; Khoury, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates patient and staff dose measurements in pediatric barium meal series fluoroscopic procedures. It aims to analyze radiographic techniques, measure the air kerma-area product (PKA), and estimate the staff's eye lens, thyroid and hands equivalent doses. The procedures of 41 patients were studied, and PKA values were calculated using LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) positioned at the center of the patient's upper chest. Furthermore, LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs were used to estimate the equivalent doses. The results showed a discrepancy in the radiographic techniques when compared to the European Commission recommendations. Half of the results of the analyzed literature presented lower PKA and dose reference level values than the present study. The staff's equivalent doses strongly depends on the distance from the beam. A 55-cm distance can be considered satisfactory. However, a distance decrease of ~20% leads to, at least, two times higher equivalent doses. For eye lenses this dose is significantly greater than the annual limit set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In addition, the occupational doses were found to be much higher than in the literature. Changing the used radiographic techniques to the ones recommended by the European Communities, it is expected to achieve lower PKA values ​​and occupational doses.

  12. A number of factors explain why WHO guideline developers make strong recommendations inconsistent with GRADE guidance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Paul E; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Li, Shelly-Anne; Bero, Lisa; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Neumann, Ignacio; Brito, Juan P; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Montori, Victor M; Norris, Susan L; Schünemann, Holger J; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2016-02-01

    Many strong recommendations issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) are based on low- or very low-quality (low certainty) evidence (discordant recommendations). Many such discordant recommendations are inconsistent with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidance. We sought to understand why WHO makes discordant recommendations inconsistent with GRADE guidance. We interviewed panel members involved in guidelines approved by WHO (2007-2012) that included discordant recommendations. Interviews, recorded and transcribed, focused on use of GRADE including the reasoning underlying, and factors contributing to, discordant recommendations. Four themes emerged: strengths of GRADE, challenges and barriers to GRADE, strategies to improve GRADE application, and explanations for discordant recommendations. Reasons for discordant recommendations included skepticism about the value of making conditional recommendations; political considerations; high certainty in benefits (sometimes warranted, sometimes not) despite assessing evidence as low certainty; and concerns that conditional recommendations will be ignored. WHO panelists make discordant recommendations inconsistent with GRADE guidance for reasons that include limitations in their understanding of GRADE. Ensuring optimal application of GRADE at WHO and elsewhere likely requires selecting panelists who have a commitment to GRADE principles, additional training of panelists, and formal processes to maximize adherence to GRADE principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  14. Dose assessment of aircraft crew in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, J W E

    2003-01-01

    As the operator of the National Dose Registration and Information System, NRG has implemented a system for radiation exposure monitoring for the Dutch airlines. The system is based on the use of computer generated flight plans together with dose calculations using the CARI-6M program. Before installing the system a study was performed to estimate the uncertainty in the assessment of the annual dose of the crew members. It was concluded that the proposed system complies with international recommendations on the uncertainty in dose assessments in individual monitoring and that the operational costs of the system are low.

  15. Consensus guidelines for dosing of amoxicillin-clavulanate in melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Chaowagul, Wipada; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Dance, David A B; Peacock, Sharon J; Currie, Bart J

    2008-02-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. In response to clinical confusion regarding the appropriate dose of amoxicillin-clavulanate, we have developed guidelines for the appropriate dosing of this second-line agent. For eradication therapy for melioidosis, we recommend 20/5 mg/kg orally, three times daily.

  16. A multiple scales approach to maximal superintegrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Latini, D.

    2018-07-01

    In this paper we present a simple, algorithmic test to establish if a Hamiltonian system is maximally superintegrable or not. This test is based on a very simple corollary of a theorem due to Nekhoroshev and on a perturbative technique called the multiple scales method. If the outcome is positive, this test can be used to suggest maximal superintegrability, whereas when the outcome is negative it can be used to disprove it. This method can be regarded as a finite dimensional analog of the multiple scales method as a way to produce soliton equations. We use this technique to show that the real counterpart of a mechanical system found by Jules Drach in 1935 is, in general, not maximally superintegrable. We give some hints on how this approach could be applied to classify maximally superintegrable systems by presenting a direct proof of the well-known Bertrand’s theorem.

  17. [Absorbed dose and the effective dose of panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ayae; Okano, Tsuneichi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Yokoi, Midori; Hirukawa, Akiko; Okumura, Shinji; Koyama, Syuji

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the radiation doses absorbed by the patient during Panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography (Panoramic TMJ), Schüllers method and Orbitoramus projection. The dose of the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Orbitoramus projection and the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Schüllers method. We measured the doses received by various organs and calculated the effective doses using the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 103. Organ absorbed doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom, loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), located at 160 sensitive sites. The dose shows the sum value of irradiation on both the right and left sides. In addition, we set a few different exposure field sizes. The effective dose for a frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was 11 µSv, and that for the lateral view was 14 µSv. The lens of the Orbitoramus projection was 40 times higher than the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ. Although the effective dose of the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was 3 times higher than that of the small exposure field (10×10 cm on film) in Schüller's method, it was the same as that of a mid-sized exposure field. When the exposure field in the inferior 1/3 was reduced during panoramic TMJ, the effective doses could be decreased. Therefore we recommend that the size of the exposure field in Panoramic TMJ be decreased.

  18. Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Acid-base Balance Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Mandzuka, Mensur; Begic, Edin; Boskovic, Dusanka; Begic, Zijo; Masic, Izet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents mobile application implementing a decision support system for acid-base disorder diagnosis and treatment recommendation. Material and methods: The application was developed using the official integrated development environment for the Android platform (to maximize availability and minimize investments in specialized hardware) called Android Studio. Results: The application identifies disorder, based on the blood gas analysis, evaluates whether the disorder has been compensated, and based on additional input related to electrolyte imbalance, provides recommendations for treatment. Conclusion: The application is a tool in the hands of the user, which provides assistance during acid-base disorders treatment. The application will assist the physician in clinical practice and is focused on the treatment in intensive care. PMID:28883678

  19. Human rabies prevention--United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

    PubMed

    Manning, Susan E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fishbein, Daniel; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Guerra, Marta; Meltzer, Martin I; Dhankhar, Praveen; Vaidya, Sagar A; Jenkins, Suzanne R; Sun, Benjamin; Hull, Harry F

    2008-05-23

    These recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations on human rabies prevention (CDC. Human rabies prevention--United States, 1999: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1999;48 [No. RR-1]) and reflect the status of rabies and antirabies biologics in the United States. This statement 1) provides updated information on human and animal rabies epidemiology; 2) summarizes the evidence regarding the effectiveness/efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of rabies biologics; 3) presents new information on the cost-effectiveness of rabies postexposure prophylaxis; 4) presents recommendations for rabies postexposure and pre-exposure prophylaxis; and 5) presents information regarding treatment considerations for human rabies patients. These recommendations involve no substantial changes to the recommended approach for rabies postexposure or pre-exposure prophylaxis. ACIP recommends that prophylaxis for the prevention of rabies in humans exposed to rabies virus should include prompt and thorough wound cleansing followed by passive rabies immunization with human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and vaccination with a cell culture rabies vaccine. For persons who have never been vaccinated against rabies, postexposure antirabies vaccination should always include administration of both passive antibody (HRIG) and vaccine (human diploid cell vaccine [HDCV] or purified chick embryo cell vaccine [PCECV]). Persons who have ever previously received complete vaccination regimens (pre-exposure or postexposure) with a cell culture vaccine or persons who have been vaccinated with other types of vaccines and have previously had a documented rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer should receive only 2 doses of vaccine: one on day 0 (as soon as the exposure is recognized and administration of vaccine can be arranged) and the second on day 3. HRIG is administered only once (i.e., at the beginning

  20. [Development of a perforated peptic ulcer in a child during high dose prednisolone treatment].

    PubMed

    Moll Harboe, Kirstine; Midtgaard, Helle; Wewer, Vibeke; Cortes, Dina

    2012-09-24

    Since perforated peptic ulcer is uncommon in children proton pump inhibitor prophylaxis is not routinely recommended when children are treated with high dose steroids. We describe a case of perforated ulcer in a six-year-old patient with nephrotic syndrome treated with high dose prednisolone. Initially, ulcer was not suspected due to uncharacteristic symptoms. The child developed peritoneal signs and surgery revealed a perforated peptic ulcer in the stomach. We recommend treatment with proton pump inhibitors if children, who are treated with high dose steroids develop abdominal symptoms, which can be caused by an ulcus.

  1. Determination of the efficiency of commercially available dose calibrators for beta-emitters.

    PubMed

    Valley, Jean-François; Bulling, Shelley; Leresche, Michel; Wastiel, Claude

    2003-03-01

    The goals of this investigation are to determine whether commercially available dose calibrators can be used to measure the activity of beta-emitting radionuclides used in pain palliation and to establish whether manufacturer-supplied calibration factors are appropriate for this purpose. Six types of commercially available dose calibrators were studied. Dose calibrator response was controlled for 5 gamma-emitters used for calibration or typically encountered in routine use. For the 4 most commonly used beta-emitters ((32)P, (90)Sr, (90)Y, and (169)Er) dose calibrator efficiency was determined in the syringe geometry used for clinical applications. Efficiency of the calibrators was also measured for (153)Sm and (186)Re, 2 beta-emitters with significant gamma-contributions. Source activities were traceable to national standards. All calibrators measured gamma-emitters with a precision of +/-10%, in compliance with Swiss regulatory requirements. For beta-emitters, dose calibrator intrinsic efficiency depends strongly on the maximal energy of the beta-spectrum and is notably low for (169)Er. Manufacturer-supplied calibration factors give accurate results for beta-emitters with maximal beta-energy in the middle-energy range (1 MeV) but are not appropriate for use with low-energy ((169)Er) or high-energy ((90)Y) beta-emitters. beta-emitters with significant gamma-contributions behave like gamma-emitters. Commercially available dose calibrators have an intrinsic efficiency that is sufficient for the measurement of beta-emitters, including beta-emitters with a low maximum beta-energy. Manufacturer-supplied calibration factors are reliable for gamma-emitters and beta-emitters in the middle-energy range. For low- and high-energy beta-emitters, the use of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors introduces significant measurement inaccuracy.

  2. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  3. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Daniel T. C.; Shanahan, Danielle F.; Hudson, Hannah L.; Fuller, Richard A.; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare. PMID:28208789

  4. Recommendations of the Spanish brachytherapy group (GEB) of Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) and the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) for high-dose rate (HDR) non melanoma skin cancer brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S; Arenas, M; Gutierrez, C; Richart, J; Perez-Calatayud, J; Celada, F; Santos, M; Rovirosa, A

    2018-04-01

    Clinical indications of brachytherapy in non-melanoma skin cancers, description of applicators and dosimetry recommendations are described based on the literature review, clinical practice and experience of Spanish Group of Brachytherapy and Spanish Society of Medical Physics reported in the XIV Annual Consensus Meeting on Non Melanoma Skin Cancer Brachytherapy held in Benidorm, Alicante (Spain) on October 21st, 2016. All the recommendations for which consensus was achieved are highlighted in blue. Regular and small surfaces may be treated with Leipzig, Valencia, flap applicators or electronic brachytherapy (EBT). For irregular surfaces, customized molds or interstitial implants should be employed. The dose is prescribed at a maximum depth of 3-4 mm of the clinical target volume/planning target volume (CTV/PTV) in all cases except in flaps or molds in which 5 mm is appropriate. Interstitial brachytherapy should be used for CTV/PTV >5 mm. Different total doses and fraction sizes are used with very similar clinical and toxicity results. Hypofractionation is very useful twice or 3 times a week, being comfortable for patients and practical for Radiotherapy Departments. In interstitial brachytherapy 2 fractions twice a day are applied.

  5. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  6. Analysis of the track- and dose-averaged LET and LET spectra in proton therapy using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher; Taleei, Reza

    Purpose: The motivation of this study was to find and eliminate the cause of errors in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) calculations from therapeutic protons in small targets, such as biological cell layers, calculated using the GEANT 4 Monte Carlo code. Furthermore, the purpose was also to provide a recommendation to select an appropriate LET quantity from GEANT 4 simulations to correlate with biological effectiveness of therapeutic protons. Methods: The authors developed a particle tracking step based strategy to calculate the average LET quantities (track-averaged LET, LET{sub t} and dose-averaged LET, LET{sub d}) using GEANT 4 for different tracking stepmore » size limits. A step size limit refers to the maximally allowable tracking step length. The authors investigated how the tracking step size limit influenced the calculated LET{sub t} and LET{sub d} of protons with six different step limits ranging from 1 to 500 μm in a water phantom irradiated by a 79.7-MeV clinical proton beam. In addition, the authors analyzed the detailed stochastic energy deposition information including fluence spectra and dose spectra of the energy-deposition-per-step of protons. As a reference, the authors also calculated the averaged LET and analyzed the LET spectra combining the Monte Carlo method and the deterministic method. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations were performed to illustrate the impact of different LET calculation methods on the RBE-weighted dose. Results: Simulation results showed that the step limit effect was small for LET{sub t} but significant for LET{sub d}. This resulted from differences in the energy-deposition-per-step between the fluence spectra and dose spectra at different depths in the phantom. Using the Monte Carlo particle tracking method in GEANT 4 can result in incorrect LET{sub d} calculation results in the dose plateau region for small step limits. The erroneous LET{sub d} results can be attributed to the algorithm

  7. [Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Recommendations in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Costa, Célia; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2016-11-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a complex disorder, of unclear etiology, easily diagnosed although often difficult to treat. It has a significant impact on the patients' quality of life and results in high direct and indirect costs. The diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria is mainly clinical and a limited number of tests is recommended for differential diagnosis and/or for the investigation/exclusion of possible causes. In addition to the complete blood count and C-reactive protein, and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, additional tests must be selected according to clinical criteria. The aim of therapy is the complete clinical control of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Evolution should be documented by weekly symptom scoring - Weekly Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7) -, as well as the assessment of quality of life. The therapeutic approach is based on second-generation H1 antihistamines (anti-H1) administered continuously in the approved doses (first line), and, in the absence of a clinical response, up to four times the daily-approved dose (second line). First generation H1 antihistamines are not recommended. Approximately 30% of patients are not controlled with second line therapy, and it is recommended to add a third line therapy. Of the two options, omalizumab and cyclosporine, only omalizumab is approved for chronic spontaneous urticaria and has a better safety profile, thus being preferably recommended. In Portugal there are no national-based recommendations applicable to clinical practice. The elaboration of these recommendations is justified by the need to standardize both the diagnosis and the treatment approach of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in Portugal, and for the referral of patients to specialized centers, in the most severe cases.

  8. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2014 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Alvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2014-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on safety, effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. The present schedule includes levels of recommendation. We have graded, as routine vaccinations, those that the CAV-AEP consider all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunisation and would ideally be given to all children, but that can be prioritised according to the resources available for their public funding; and as risk group vaccinations those that specifically target individuals in special situations. Immunisation schedules tend to be dynamic and adaptable to ongoing epidemiological changes. Based on the latest epidemiological trends, CAV-AEP recommends the administration of the first dose of MMR and varicella vaccines at age 12 months, with the second dose at age 2-3 years; the administration of DTaP or Tdap vaccine at age 4-6 years, always followed by another Tdap dose at 11-12 years; and the three meningococcal C scheme at 2 months, 12 months and 12 years of age. It reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule. The CAV-AEP believes that the coverage of vaccination against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-12 years must be increased. Universal vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy, and the immediate public availability of the vaccine is requested in order to guarantee the right of healthy children to be vaccinated. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants due to the morbidity and elevated healthcare burden of the virus. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. The recently authorised meningococcal B vaccine has opened a chapter of hope in the

  9. Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Resource-Stratified Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Arrossi, Silvina; Temin, Sarah; Garland, Suzanne; Eckert, Linda O’Neal; Bhatla, Neerja; Castellsagué, Xavier; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Felder, Tamika; Hammouda, Doudja; Konno, Ryo; Lopes, Gilberto; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Murillo, Rául; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Stanley, Margaret; Tsu, Vivien; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Adewole, Isaac Folorunso; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings. Results Existing sets of guidelines from five guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations formed the evidence base. Five systematic reviews, along with cost-effectiveness analyses, provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of ≥ 75%. Recommendations In all resource settings, two doses of human papillomavirus vaccine are recommended for girls age 9 to 14 years, with an interval of at least 6 months and possibly up to 12 to 15 months. Individuals with HIV positivity should receive three doses. Maximal and enhanced settings: if girls are age ≥ 15 years and received their first dose before age 15 years, they may complete the series; if no doses were received before age 15 years, three doses should be administered; in both scenarios, vaccination may be through age 26 years. Limited and basic settings: if sufficient resources remain after vaccinating girls age 9 to 14 years, girls who received one dose may receive additional doses between age 15 and 26 years. Maximal, enhanced, and limited settings: if ≥ 50% coverage in the priority female target population, sufficient resources, and cost effectiveness, boys may be vaccinated to prevent other noncervical human papillomavirus–related cancers and diseases. Basic settings: vaccinating boys is not recommended. It is the view of the

  10. Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) recommended immunization schedule for children aged 0 through 18 years--India, 2014 and updates on immunization.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Choudhury, Panna; Kalra, Ajay; Bose, Anuradha; Thacker, Naveen; Yewale, Vijay N; Bansal, C P; Mehta, Pravin J

    2014-10-01

    There is a need to review/revise recommendations about existing vaccines in light of recent developments in the field of vaccinology. Following an IAP ACVIP meeting on April 19 and 20, 2014, a draft of revised recommendations for the year 2014 and updates on certain vaccine formulations was prepared and circulated among the meeting participants to arrive at a consensus. To review and revise recommendations for 2014 Immunization timetable for pediatricians in office practice and issue statements on certain new and existing vaccine formulations. The major changes in the 2014 Immunization Timetable include two doses of MMR vaccine at 9 and 15 months of age, single dose recommendation for administration of live attenuated H2 strain hepatitis A vaccine, inclusion of two new situations in high-risk category of children in context with pre-exposure prophylaxis of rabies, creation of a new slot at 9-12 months of age for typhoid conjugate vaccine for primary immunization, and recommendation of two doses of human papilloma virus vaccines with a minimum interval of 6 months between doses for primary schedule of adolescent/preadolescent girls aged 9-14 years. There would not be any change to the committee's last year's (2013) recommendations on pertussis vaccination and administration schedule of monovalent human rotavirus vaccine. There is no need of providing additional doses of whole-cell pertussis vaccine to children who have earlier completed their primary schedule with acellular pertussis vaccine-containing products. A brief update on the new Indian Rotavirus vaccine, 116E is also provided. The committee has reviewed and offered its recommendations on the currently available pentavalent vaccine (DTwP+Hib+Hepatitis-B) combinations in Indian market. The comments and footnotes for several vaccines are also updated and revised.

  11. Measuring pacemaker dose: A clinical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Studenski, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.studenski@jeffersonhospital.org; Xiao Ying; Harrison, Amy S.

    2012-07-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. Amore » simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired.« less

  12. The Affinity of D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Determines the Time to Maximal Effect on Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Michael R.; Norman, Mantana K.; Fey, Brittney K.; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L.; Millard, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the time to maximal effect (Tmax) of a series of dopamine receptor antagonists on the self-administration of cocaine are not consistent with their lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficients at pH 7.4) and expected rapid entry into the brain after intravenous injection. It was hypothesized that the Tmax reflects the time required for maximal occupancy of receptors, which would occur as equilibrium was approached. If so, the Tmax should be related to the affinity for the relevant receptor population. This hypothesis was tested using a series of nine antagonists having a 2500-fold range of Ki or Kd values for D2-like dopamine receptors. Rats self-administered cocaine at regular intervals and then were injected intravenously with a dose of antagonist, and the self-administration of cocaine was continued for 6 to 10 h. The level of cocaine at the time of every self-administration (satiety threshold) was calculated throughout the session. The satiety threshold was stable before the injection of antagonist and then increased approximately 3-fold over the baseline value at doses of antagonists selected to produce this approximately equivalent maximal magnitude of effect (maximum increase in the equiactive cocaine concentration, satiety threshold; Cmax). Despite the similar Cmax, the mean Tmax varied between 5 and 157 min across this series of antagonists. Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation between the in vivo Tmax values for each antagonist and the affinity for D2-like dopamine receptors measured in vitro. It is concluded that the cocaine self-administration paradigm offers a reliable and predictive bioassay for measuring the affinity of a competitive antagonist for D2-like dopamine receptors. PMID:21606176

  13. Equivalence of Gyn GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image guided cervical brachytherapy with EUD-based dose prescription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) -based prescription method for Image Guided Brachytherapy (IGBT) that reproduces the Gyn GEC-ESTRO WG (GGE) prescription for cervix carcinoma patients on CT images with limited soft tissue resolution. Methods The equivalence of two IGBT planning approaches was investigated in 20 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and 5 concomitant high dose rate IGBT treatments. The GGE planning strategy based on dose to the most exposed 2 cm3 (D2cc) was used to derive criteria for the gEUD-based planning of the bladder and rectum. The safety of gEUD constraints in terms of GGE criteria was tested by maximizing dose to the gEUD constraints for individual fractions. Results The gEUD constraints of 3.55 Gy for the rectum and 5.19 Gy for the bladder were derived. Rectum and bladder gEUD-maximized plans resulted in D2cc averages very similar to the initial GGE criteria. Average D2ccs and EUDs from the full treatment course were comparable for the two techniques within both sets of normal tissue constraints. The same was found for the tumor doses. Conclusions The derived gEUD criteria for normal organs result in GGE-equivalent IGBT treatment plans. The gEUD-based planning considers the entire dose distribution of organs in contrast to a single dose-volume-histogram point. PMID:24225184

  14. Cancer radiotherapy based on femtosecond IR laser-beam filamentation yielding ultra-high dose rates and zero entrance dose.

    PubMed

    Meesat, Ridthee; Belmouaddine, Hakim; Allard, Jean-François; Tanguay-Renaud, Catherine; Lemay, Rosalie; Brastaviceanu, Tiberius; Tremblay, Luc; Paquette, Benoit; Wagner, J Richard; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Lepage, Martin; Huels, Michael A; Houde, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    Since the invention of cancer radiotherapy, its primary goal has been to maximize lethal radiation doses to the tumor volume while keeping the dose to surrounding healthy tissues at zero. Sadly, conventional radiation sources (γ or X rays, electrons) used for decades, including multiple or modulated beams, inevitably deposit the majority of their dose in front or behind the tumor, thus damaging healthy tissue and causing secondary cancers years after treatment. Even the most recent pioneering advances in costly proton or carbon ion therapies can not completely avoid dose buildup in front of the tumor volume. Here we show that this ultimate goal of radiotherapy is yet within our reach: Using intense ultra-short infrared laser pulses we can now deposit a very large energy dose at unprecedented microscopic dose rates (up to 10(11) Gy/s) deep inside an adjustable, well-controlled macroscopic volume, without any dose deposit in front or behind the target volume. Our infrared laser pulses produce high density avalanches of low energy electrons via laser filamentation, a phenomenon that results in a spatial energy density and temporal dose rate that both exceed by orders of magnitude any values previously reported even for the most intense clinical radiotherapy systems. Moreover, we show that (i) the type of final damage and its mechanisms in aqueous media, at the molecular and biomolecular level, is comparable to that of conventional ionizing radiation, and (ii) at the tumor tissue level in an animal cancer model, the laser irradiation method shows clear therapeutic benefits.

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle; Ghannoum, Marc; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Hoffman, Robert S; Nolin, Thomas D

    2014-09-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met the search inclusion criteria. Data for 538 patients were abstracted and evaluated. Only case reports, case series, and nonrandomized observational studies were identified, yielding a low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Using established criteria, the workgroup deemed that long-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory depression necessitating mechanical ventilation, shock, persistent toxicity, or increasing or persistently elevated serum barbiturate concentrations despite treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal. (3) Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred mode of ECTR, and multiple-dose activated charcoal treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least one of the specific criteria in the first recommendation is present. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Full-dose Perindopril/Indapamide in the Treatment of Difficult-to-Control Hypertension: The FORTISSIMO Study.

    PubMed

    Karpov, Yuri Aleksandrovich

    2017-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients remains poor worldwide, particularly in high-risk patients with hypertension and diabetes. Guidelines recommend that such patients receive prompt pharmacological therapy at maximal doses to rapidly control BP. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of single-pill combination (SPC) perindopril/indapamide (PER/IND) at full dose (10/2.5 mg) in hypertensive patients, including diabetics, with BP uncontrolled by previous medication. Twelve-week prospective, observational study in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (≥160-200 mmHg systolic BP [SBP] and <110 mmHg diastolic BP [DBP]) on a previous SPC or free-dose combination of renin-angiotensin system blocker plus thiazide diuretic, substituted with PER/IND 10/2.5 mg. Office BP, quality of life, and blood parameters were evaluated in the whole cohort and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2120 ambulatory hypertensive patients were enrolled, including 307 with type 2 diabetes. Two weeks after substitution, SBP significantly decreased from 171.0 ± 13.3 to 148.6 ± 13.4 mmHg, and DBP from 98.6 ± 8.3 to 88.8 ± 7.9 mmHg (both p < 0.00001). A similar rapid decrease was noted in the diabetes subgroup. After 12 weeks, BP had reduced by 42/19 mmHg in the whole cohort (diabetes subgroup: 41/18 mmHg). Most (84%; diabetes subgroup: 77%) patients reached BP target (<140/90 mmHg). Laboratory tests and quality of life improved in the whole cohort and the diabetic subgroup. Switching to PER/IND at full dose (10/2.5 mg) was well tolerated, leading to fast BP reduction and control in the majority of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, including difficult-to-treat patients with diabetes.

  17. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    PubMed Central

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61–80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision

  18. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    PubMed

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  19. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  20. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  1. Population pharmacokinetics and dosing simulations of imipenem in serious bacteraemia in immunocompromised patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Jaruratanasirikul, Sutep; Wongpoowarak, Wibul; Jullangkoon, Monchana; Samaeng, Maseetoh

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to i) reveal the population pharmacokinetics; and ii) assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) (defined as the expected population PTA for a specific drug dose and a specific population of microorganisms) of imipenem in febrile neutropenic patients with bacteraemia. Ten patients were randomised into two groups: Group I received a 0.5-h infusion of 0.5 g of imipenem every 6 h (q6h) for 8 doses; and Group II received a 4-h infusion of 0.5 g q6h for 8 doses. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the PTA. The volume of distribution and total clearance of imipenem were 20.78 ± 1.35 l and 23.19 ± 1.34 l/h, respectively. Only a 4-h infusion of 1 g q6h regimen achieved a PTA >93% for 80% T>MIC for a MIC of 2 μg/ml. A 4-h infusion of all simulated regimens and a 0.5-h infusion of 0.5 g q6h and 1 g q6h achieved targets (CFR ≥ 90%) against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., no regimens achieved their targets. In conclusion, the results indicate that a higher than manufacturer's dosage recommendation is required to maximize the activity of imipenem. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Current international recommendations for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the European guidelines].

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Maconochie, Ian; Van de Voorde, Patric; Biarent, Dominique; Eich, Christof; Bingham, Robert; Rajka, Thomas; Zideman, David; Carrillo, Ángel; de Lucas, Nieves; Calvo, Custodio; Manrique, Ignacio

    2017-07-01

    This summary of the European guidelines for pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasizes the main changes and encourages health care professionals to keep their pediatric CPR knowledge and skills up to date. Basic and advanced pediatric CPR follow the same algorithm in the 2015 guidelines. The main changes affect the prevention of cardiac arrest and the use of fluids. Fluid expansion should not be used routinely in children with fever in the abuse of signs of shock because too high a volume can worsen prognosis. Rescue breaths should last around 1 second in basic CPR, making pediatric recommendations consistent with those for adults. Chest compressions should be at least as deep as one-third the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax. Most children in cardiac arrest lack a shockable rhythm, and in such cases a coordinated sequence of breaths, chest compressions, and administration of adrenalin is essential. An intraosseous canula may be the first choice for introducing fluids and medications, especially in young infants. In treating supraventricular tachycardia with cardioversion, an initial dose of 1 J/kg is currently recommended (vs the dose of 0.5 J/kg previously recommended). After spontaneous circulation is recovered, measures to control fever should be taken. The goal is to reach a normal temperature even before arrival to the hospital.

  3. International service learning programs: ethical issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Reisch, Rebecca A

    2011-08-01

    Inequities in global health are increasingly of interest to health care providers in developed countries. In response, many academic healthcare programs have begun to offer international service learning programs. Participants in these programs are motivated by ethical principles, but this type of work presents significant ethical challenges, and no formalized ethical guidelines for these activities exist. In this paper the ethical issues presented by international service learning programs are described and recommendations are made for how academic healthcare programs can carry out international service learning programs in a way that minimizes ethical conflicts and maximizes benefits for all stakeholders. Issues related to project sustainability and community involvement are emphasized. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Safety and Immunogenicity of Full-Dose Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (TIV) Compared With Half-Dose TIV Administered to Children 6 Through 35 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Natasha B; Gerber, Michael A; Berry, Andrea A; Anderson, Edwin L; Winokur, Patricia; Keyserling, Harry; Eckard, Allison Ross; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark C; McNeal, Monica M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Bernstein, David I

    2015-09-01

    Children 6 through 35 months of age are recommended to receive half the dose of influenza vaccine compared with older children and adults. This was a 6-site, randomized 2:1, double-blind study comparing full-dose (0.5 mL) trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) with half-dose (0.25 mL) TIV in children 6 through 35 months of age. Children previously immunized with influenza vaccine (primed cohort) received 1 dose, and those with no previous influenza immunizations (naive cohort) received 2 doses of TIV. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded. Sera were collected before immunization and 1 month after last dose of TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody testing was performed. Of the 243 subjects enrolled (32 primed, 211 naive), data for 232 were available for complete analysis. No significant differences in local or systemic reactions were observed. Few significant differences in immunogenicity to the 3 vaccine antigens were noted. The immune response to H1N1 was significantly higher in the full-dose group among primed subjects. In the naive cohort, the geometric mean titer for all 3 antigens after 2 doses of TIV were significantly higher in the 12 through 35 months compared with the 6 through 11 months age group. Our study confirms the safety of full-dose TIV given to children 6 through 35 months of age. An increase in antibody responses after full- versus half-dose TIV was not observed, except for H1N1 in the primed group. Larger studies are needed to clarify the potential for improved immunogenicity with higher vaccine doses. Recommending the same dose could simplify the production, storage, and administration of influenza vaccines.

  5. Optimizing bevacizumab dosing in glioblastoma: less is more.

    PubMed

    Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Thomas, Piia; Albakr, Abdulrahman; Nagpal, Seema; Recht, Lawrence

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional chemotherapies, where dose limiting toxicities represent the maximum possible dose, monoclonal antibody therapies are used at doses well below maximum tolerated dose. However, there has been little effort to ascertain whether there is a submaximal dose at which the efficacy/complication ratio is maximized. Thus, despite the general practice of using Bevacizumab (BEV) at dosages of 10 mg/kg every other week for glioma patients, there has not been much prior work examining whether the relatively high complication rates reported with this agent can be decreased by lowering the dose without impairing efficacy. We assessed charts from 80 patients who received BEV for glioblastoma to survey the incidence of complications relative to BEV dose. All patients were treated with standard upfront chemoradiation. The toxicity was graded based on the NCI CTCAE, version 4.03. The rate of BEV serious related adverse events was 12.5% (n = 10/80). There were no serious adverse events (≥grade 3) when the administered dose was (<3 mg/kg/week), compared to a 21% incidence in those who received higher doses (≥3 mg/kg/week) (P < 0.01). Importantly, the three patient deaths attributable to BEV administration occurred in patients receiving higher doses. Patients who received lower doses also had a better survival rate, although this did not reach statistical significance [median OS 39 for low dose group vs. 17.3 for high dose group (P = 0.07)]. Lower rates of serious BEV related toxicities are noted when lower dosages are used without diminishing positive clinical impact. Further work aimed at optimizing BEV dosage is justified.

  6. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Infants Dosed According to Revised WHO-Recommended Treatment Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, H. S.; Draper, H. R.; van der Laan, L.; Murray, S.; Wiesner, L.; Donald, P. R.; McIlleron, H. M.; Hesseling, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    There are limited pharmacokinetic data for use of the first-line antituberculosis drugs during infancy (<12 months of age), when drug disposition may differ. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in infants routinely receiving antituberculosis treatment, including rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, using World Health Organization-recommended doses. Regulatory-approved single-drug formulations, including two rifampin suspensions, were used on the sampling day. Assays were conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic parameters were generated using noncompartmental analysis. Thirty-nine infants were studied; 14 (36%) had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Fifteen (38%) were premature (<37 weeks gestation); 5 (13%) were HIV infected. The mean corrected age and weight were 6.6 months and 6.45 kg, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) for rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol were 2.9, 7.9, 41.9, and 1.3 μg/ml, respectively (current recommended adult target concentrations: 8 to 24, 3 to 6, 20 to 50, and 2 to 6 μg/ml, respectively), and the mean areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 8 h (AUC0–8) were 12.1, 24.7, 239.4, and 5.1 μg · h/ml, respectively. After adjusting for age and weight, rifampin exposures for the two formulations used differed in Cmax (geometric mean ratio [GMR], 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47 to 4.41; P = 0.001) and AUC0–8 (GMR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.73; P = 0.005). HIV status was associated with lower pyrazinamide Cmax (GMR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.96; P = 0.013) and AUC0–8 (GMR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.90; P < 0.001) values. No other important differences were observed due to age, weight, prematurity, ethnicity, or gender. In summary, isoniazid and pyrazinamide concentrations in infants compared well with proposed adult target concentrations; ethambutol concentrations were lower but similar to previously reported pediatric studies

  8. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  9. Can Monkeys Make Investments Based on Maximized Pay-off?

    PubMed Central

    Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible. PMID:21423777

  10. Exercise in the Heat. II. Critical Concepts in Rehydration, Exertional Heat Illnesses, and Maximizing Athletic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To acquaint athletic trainers with the numerous interrelated components that must be considered when assisting athletes who exercise in hot environments. Useful guidelines to maximize performance and minimize detrimental health consequences are presented. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1980 to 1999, with the terms. “body cooling,” “dehydration,” “exercise,” “heat illnesses,” “heat,” “fluid replacement,” “acclimatization,” “hydration,” “rehydration,” “performance,” and “intravenous,” among others. Data Synthesis: This paper provides an in-depth look at issues regarding physiologic and performance considerations related to rehydration, strategies to maximize rehydration, modes of rehydration, health consequences of exercise in the heat, heat acclimatization, body cooling techniques, and practice and competition modifications. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers have a responsibility to ensure that athletes who exercise in hot environments are prepared to do so in an optimal manner and to act properly to avoid the potentially harmful heat illnesses that can result from exercise in the heat. PMID:16558573

  11. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  12. Prescriptions for chronic high-dose cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are often inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

    PubMed

    Roumie, Christianne L; Arbogast, Patrick G; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2005-10-01

    To describe the use of coxibs outside of licensed indications and recommended dosing ranges including rofecoxib 50 mg, valdecoxib 20 to 40 mg, and celecoxib 400 mg. Cross-sectional study of coxib utilization in 2002 and 2003 and retrospective cohort analysis of new users. Patients with known age and sex enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program. The prevalence of coxib use by dose and duration, and the proportion of persons initially prescribed a high-dose coxib and indications for such use. The estimated daily prevalence of nonaspirin prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was 8.7% in 2002 to 2003 (45.7% coxibs). NSAID use peaked at age 65 to 74 with a prevalence of 19.8% (56.3% coxibs). Doses above the recommended daily dose for osteoarthritis accounted for 33.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 32.4%, 33.9%) of celecoxib use, 14.9% (95% CI 14.4%, 15.5%) of rofecoxib use, and 52.2% (95% CI 50.6%, 53.8%) of valdecoxib use. Most of these prescriptions were for a month's supply. For new coxib users, 13.5% were given a month's supply for the highest dose category, and 28% refilled their prescriptions within 7 days of the end of the original prescription. Of these new chronic high-dose users, 17.2% had ischemic heart disease and 7.1% had heart failure. A substantial portion of coxib prescriptions were for a month's supply at doses above those recommended for most chronic indications. New users were also prescribed high doses despite evidence for cardiovascular comorbidity. These prescribing patterns at doses outside licensed indications are both inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

  13. Prescriptions for Chronic High-Dose Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors are Often Inappropriate and Potentially Dangerous

    PubMed Central

    Roumie, Christianne L; Arbogast, Patrick G; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of coxibs outside of licensed indications and recommended dosing ranges including rofecoxib 50 mg, valdecoxib 20 to 40 mg, and celecoxib 400 mg. Design Cross-sectional study of coxib utilization in 2002 and 2003 and retrospective cohort analysis of new users. Participants Patients with known age and sex enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program. Measurements The prevalence of coxib use by dose and duration, and the proportion of persons initially prescribed a high-dose coxib and indications for such use. Results The estimated daily prevalence of nonaspirin prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was 8.7% in 2002 to 2003 (45.7% coxibs). NSAID use peaked at age 65 to 74 with a prevalence of 19.8% (56.3% coxibs). Doses above the recommended daily dose for osteoarthritis accounted for 33.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 32.4%, 33.9%) of celecoxib use, 14.9% (95% CI 14.4%, 15.5%) of rofecoxib use, and 52.2% (95% CI 50.6%, 53.8%) of valdecoxib use. Most of these prescriptions were for a month's supply. For new coxib users, 13.5% were given a month's supply for the highest dose category, and 28% refilled their prescriptions within 7 days of the end of the original prescription. Of these new chronic high-dose users, 17.2% had ischemic heart disease and 7.1% had heart failure. Conclusions A substantial portion of coxib prescriptions were for a month's supply at doses above those recommended for most chronic indications. New users were also prescribed high doses despite evidence for cardiovascular comorbidity. These prescribing patterns at doses outside licensed indications are both inappropriate and potentially dangerous. PMID:16191131

  14. Research staff training in a multisite randomized clinical trial: Methods and recommendations from the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. In order to address the absence of information on how research staff are trained for multisite clinical studies, the current manuscript describes the conceptual process of training and certifying research assistants for STRIDE. Training was conducted using a three-stage process to allow staff sufficient time for distributive learning, practice, and calibration leading up to implementation of this complex study. Training was successfully implemented with staff across nine sites. Staff demonstrated evidence of study and procedural knowledge via quizzes and skill demonstration on six measures requiring certification. Overall, while the majority of staff had little to no experience in the six measures, all research assistants demonstrated ability to correctly and reliably administer the measures throughout the study. Practical recommendations are provided for training research staff and are particularly applicable to the challenges encountered with large, multisite trials.

  15. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing

    PubMed Central

    Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Rushdi, Ahmad A.; Awad, Muhammad A.; Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A.; Owens, John D.; Bajaj, Chandrajit L.; Mitchell, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations. PMID:27563162

  16. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    PubMed

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  17. Improving birth dose coverage of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Hipgrave, David B.; Maynard, James E.; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Administration of a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB vaccine) to neonates is recommended to prevent mother-to-infant transmission and chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Although manufacturers recommend HepB vaccine distribution and storage at 2-8 degrees C, recognition of the heat stability of hepatitis B surface antigen stimulated research into its use after storage at, or exposure to, ambient or high temperatures. Storage of HepB vaccine at ambient temperatures would enable birth dosing for neonates delivered at home in remote areas or at health posts lacking refrigeration. This article reviews the current evidence on the thermostability of HepB vaccine when stored outside the cold chain (OCC). The reports reviewed show that the vaccines studied were safe and effective whether stored cold or OCC. Field and laboratory data also verifies the retained potency of the vaccine after exposure to heat. The attachment of a highly stable variety of a vaccine vial monitor (measuring cumulative exposure to heat) on many HepB vaccines strongly supports policies allowing their storage OCC, when this will benefit birth dose coverage. We recommend that this strategy be introduced to improve birth dose coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. Concurrent monitoring and evaluation should be undertaken to affirm the safe implementation of this strategy, and assess its cost, feasibility and effect on reducing HBV infection rates. Meanwhile, release of manufacturer data verifying the potency of currently available HepB vaccines after exposure to heat will increase confidence in the use of vaccine vial monitors as a managerial tool during storage of HepB vaccine OCC. PMID:16501717

  18. Use of the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity in guinea pigs: dose response, partitioned glucose metabolism, and species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Horton, Dane M; Saint, David A; Owens, Julie A; Gatford, Kathryn L; Kind, Karen L

    2017-07-01

    The guinea pig is an alternate small animal model for the study of metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. However, only one study to date has reported the use of the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in anesthetized animals in this species, and the dose response has not been reported. We therefore characterized the dose-response curve for whole body glucose uptake using recombinant human insulin in the adult guinea pig. Interspecies comparisons with published data showed species differences in maximal whole body responses (guinea pig ≈ human < rat < mouse) and the insulin concentrations at which half-maximal insulin responses occurred (guinea pig > human ≈ rat > mouse). In subsequent studies, we used concomitant d-[3- 3 H]glucose infusion to characterize insulin sensitivities of whole body glucose uptake, utilization, production, storage, and glycolysis in young adult guinea pigs at human insulin doses that produced approximately half-maximal (7.5 mU·min -1 ·kg -1 ) and near-maximal whole body responses (30 mU·min -1 ·kg -1 ). Although human insulin infusion increased rates of glucose utilization (up to 68%) and storage and, at high concentrations, increased rates of glycolysis in females, glucose production was only partially suppressed (~23%), even at high insulin doses. Fasting glucose, metabolic clearance of insulin, and rates of glucose utilization, storage, and production during insulin stimulation were higher in female than in male guinea pigs ( P < 0.05), but insulin sensitivity of these and whole body glucose uptake did not differ between sexes. This study establishes a method for measuring partitioned glucose metabolism in chronically catheterized conscious guinea pigs, allowing studies of regulation of insulin sensitivity in this species. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. [Adequate anti-infective treatment : Importance of individual dosing and application].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, A; Röhr, A C; Köberer, A; Fuchs, T; Krüger, W A; König, C; Richter, D; Weigand, M A; Frey, O R

    2018-05-15

    Sepsis-induced changes in pharmacokinetic parameters are a well-known problem in intensive care medicine. Dosing of antibiotics in this setting is therefore challenging. Alterations to the substance-specific kinetics of anti-infective substances have an effect on the distribution and excretion processes in the body. Increased clearance and an increased distribution volume (V d ) and particularly compromized organ function with reduced antibiotic elimination are often encountered in patients with sepsis. Renal replacement treatment, which is frequently used in intensive care medicine, represents a substantial intervention in this system. Current international guidelines recommend individualized dosing strategies and adaptation of doses according to measured serum levels and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters as concepts to optimize anti-infective therapy in the critically ill. Likewise, the recommendation to adjust the administration form of beat-lactam antibiotics to prolonged or continuous infusion can be found increasingly more often in the literature. This article reviews the background of the individual dosing in intensive care patients and their applicability to the clinical routine.

  20. An information maximization model of eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  1. Guided medication dosing for elderly emergency patients using real-time, computerized decision support.

    PubMed

    Griffey, Richard T; Lo, Helen G; Burdick, Elisabeth; Keohane, Carol; Bates, David W

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a real-time computerized decision support tool in the emergency department that guides medication dosing for the elderly on physician ordering behavior and on adverse drug events (ADEs). A prospective controlled trial was conducted over 26 weeks. The status of the decision support tool alternated OFF (7/17/06-8/29/06), ON (8/29/06-10/10/06), OFF (10/10/06-11/28/06), and ON (11/28/06-1/16/07) in consecutive blocks during the study period. In patients ≥65 who were ordered certain benzodiazepines, opiates, non-steroidals, or sedative-hypnotics, the computer application either adjusted the dosing or suggested a different medication. Physicians could accept or reject recommendations. The primary outcome compared medication ordering consistent with recommendations during ON versus OFF periods. Secondary outcomes included the admission rate, emergency department length of stay for discharged patients, 10-fold dosing orders, use of a second drug to reverse the original medication, and rate of ADEs using previously validated explicit chart review. 2398 orders were placed for 1407 patients over 1548 visits. The majority (49/53; 92.5%) of recommendations for alternate medications were declined. More orders were consistent with dosing recommendations during ON (403/1283; 31.4%) than OFF (256/1115; 23%) periods (p≤0.0001). 673 (43%) visits were reviewed for ADEs. The rate of ADEs was lower during ON (8/237; 3.4%) compared with OFF (31/436; 7.1%) periods (p=0.02). The remaining secondary outcomes showed no difference. Single institution study, retrospective chart review for ADEs. Though overall agreement with recommendations was low, real-time computerized decision support resulted in greater acceptance of medication recommendations. Fewer ADEs were observed when computerized decision support was active.

  2. Dose Comparisons for a Site-specific Representative Person Using the Age-dependent Dose Coefficients in CAP88-PC Version 4.

    PubMed

    Stagich, Brooke H; Moore, Kelsey R; Newton, Joseph R; Dixon, Kenneth L; Jannik, G Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities with radiological airborne releases use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) environmental dosimetry code CAP88-PC to demonstrate compliance with regulations in 40CFR61, subpart H [National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Radiological (NESHAP)]. In 2015, EPA released Version 4 of CAP88-PC, which included significant modifications that improved usability and age-dependent dose coefficients and usage factors for six age groups (infant, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adult). However, EPA has not yet provided specific guidance on how to use these age-dependent factors. For demonstrating compliance with DOE public dose regulations, the Savannah River Site (SRS) recently changed from using the maximally exposed individual (MEI) concept (adult male) to the representative person concept (age- and gender-averaged reference person). In this study, dose comparisons are provided between the MEI and a SRS-specific representative person using the age-specific dose coefficients and usage factors in CAP88-PC V.4. Dose comparisons also are provided for each of the six age groups using five radionuclides of interest at SRS (tritium oxide, Cs, Sr, Pu, and I). In general, the total effective dose increases about 11% for the representative person as compared to the current NESHAP MEI because of the inclusion of the more radiosensitive age groups.

  3. Recommendations for dose calculations of lung cancer treatment plans treated with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, S.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chen, D.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Kumar, S.; Gordon, J.; Ajlouni, M.; Movsas, B.; Chetty, I. J.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate dose distributions computed with 5 different dose algorithms for patients with lung cancers treated using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). Treatment plans for 133 lung cancer patients, initially computed with a 1D-pencil beam (equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm, were recalculated with 4 other algorithms commissioned for treatment planning, including 3-D pencil-beam (EPL-3D), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCC), and Monte Carlo (MC). The plan prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions normalized to the 95% isodose line. Tumors were classified according to location: peripheral tumors surrounded by lung (lung-island, N=39), peripheral tumors attached to the rib-cage or chest wall (lung-wall, N=44), and centrally-located tumors (lung-central, N=50). Relative to the EPL-1D algorithm, PTV D95 and mean dose values computed with the other 4 algorithms were lowest for "lung-island" tumors with smallest field sizes (3-5 cm). On the other hand, the smallest differences were noted for lung-central tumors treated with largest field widths (7-10 cm). Amongst all locations, dose distribution differences were most strongly correlated with tumor size for lung-island tumors. For most cases, convolution/superposition and MC algorithms were in good agreement. Mean lung dose (MLD) values computed with the EPL-1D algorithm were highly correlated with that of the other algorithms (correlation coefficient =0.99). The MLD values were found to be ~10% lower for small lung-island tumors with the model-based (conv/superposition and MC) vs. the correction-based (pencil-beam) algorithms with the model-based algorithms predicting greater low dose spread within the lungs. This study suggests that pencil beam algorithms should be avoided for lung SABR planning. For the most challenging cases, small tumors surrounded entirely by lung tissue (lung-island type), a Monte

  4. Does evolution lead to maximizing behavior?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen

    2015-07-01

    A long-standing question in biology and economics is whether individual organisms evolve to behave as if they were striving to maximize some goal function. We here formalize this "as if" question in a patch-structured population in which individuals obtain material payoffs from (perhaps very complex multimove) social interactions. These material payoffs determine personal fitness and, ultimately, invasion fitness. We ask whether individuals in uninvadable population states will appear to be maximizing conventional goal functions (with population-structure coefficients exogenous to the individual's behavior), when what is really being maximized is invasion fitness at the genetic level. We reach two broad conclusions. First, no simple and general individual-centered goal function emerges from the analysis. This stems from the fact that invasion fitness is a gene-centered multigenerational measure of evolutionary success. Second, when selection is weak, all multigenerational effects of selection can be summarized in a neutral type-distribution quantifying identity-by-descent between individuals within patches. Individuals then behave as if they were striving to maximize a weighted sum of material payoffs (own and others). At an uninvadable state it is as if individuals would freely choose their actions and play a Nash equilibrium of a game with a goal function that combines self-interest (own material payoff), group interest (group material payoff if everyone does the same), and local rivalry (material payoff differences). © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Formation Control for the Maxim Mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the spacebased scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today's technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. The Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the same order of those for MAXIM. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; (2) the formation control architecture devised for such missions; (3) the design of the formation control laws to maintain very high precision relative positions; and (4) the levels of fuel usage required in the duration of these missions. Specific preliminary results are presented for two spacecraft within the MAXIM mission.

  6. Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy: Swedish recommendations 2013.

    PubMed

    Navér, Lars; Albert, Jan; Böttiger, Ylva; Carlander, Christina; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Josephson, Filip; Karlström, Olof; Lindborg, Lena; Svedhem-Johansson, Veronica; Svennerholm, Bo; Sönnerborg, Anders; Yilmaz, Aylin; Pettersson, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs and elective caesarean section delivery have resulted in very low mother-to-child transmission of HIV during recent years. Updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge about mother-to-child transmission have necessitated regular revisions of the recommendations for the prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy. The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) updated the recommendations from 2010 at an expert meeting on 11 September 2013. The most important revisions are the following: (1) ongoing efficient treatment at confirmed pregnancy may, with a few exceptions, be continued; (2) if treatment is initiated during pregnancy, the recommended first-line therapy is essentially the same as for non-pregnant women; (3) raltegravir may be added to achieve rapid reduction in HIV RNA; (4) vaginal delivery is recommended if at > 34 gestational weeks and HIV RNA is < 50 copies/ml and no obstetric contraindications exist; (5) if HIV RNA is < 50 copies/ml and delivery is at > 34 gestational weeks, intravenous zidovudine is not recommended regardless of the delivery mode; (6) if HIV RNA is > 50 copies/ml close to delivery, it is recommended that the mother should undergo a planned caesarean section, intravenous zidovudine, and oral nevirapine, and the infant should receive single-dose nevirapine at 48-72 h of age and post-exposure prophylaxis with 2 drugs; (7) if delivery is preterm at < 34 gestational weeks, a caesarean section delivery should if possible be performed, with intravenous zidovudine and oral nevirapine given to the mother, and single-dose nevirapine given to the infant at 48-72 h of age, as well as post-exposure prophylaxis with 2 additional drugs.

  7. Phase I dose-escalation study of vinflunine hard capsules administered twice a day for 2 consecutive days every week in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Calvo, E; Vermorken, J B; Hiret, S; Rodon, J; Cortes, J; Senellart, H; Van den Brande, J; Dyck, J; Pétain, A; Ferre, P; Bennouna, J

    2012-06-01

    Vinflunine is a new microtubule inhibitor of the vinca-alkaloid family. It is marketed in transitional cell carcinoma of urothelial tract as a 20 min infusion given every 3 weeks in Europe. In this phase I study, vinflunine was administered to patients with advanced malignancies as hard capsules given twice a day on days 1-2 every week, with 3 weeks cycles. Serial blood samples were collected during the first cycle for pharmacokinetic investigations. Thirty-six patients (pts) were treated at 6 dose levels 150 (3 pts), 190 (3 pts), 230 (8 pts), 300 mg/day (6 pts) and then 250 (3 pts) and 270 mg/day (13 pts). The Maximal Tolerated Dose (MTD) was reached at 300 mg/day where 2 patients out of 6 experienced a dose limiting toxicity (febrile neutropenia with diarrhea). The lower dose level of 270 mg/day was the recommended dose (RD), the toxicity profile being mainly anaemia, neutropenia, fatigue and constipation. The pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated the adequacy of the flat-fixed dosing regimen, as no correlation between clearance of vinflunine and body surface area was evidenced. Blood concentrations and exposure increased with dose, and a pharmacokinetic accumulation was observed, which is consistent with the terminal half-life of the compounds. The inter-individual exposure variability at the RD was 35%. Repeated weekly administration of oral vinflunine is feasible and exhibits a moderate inter-individual PK variability. The MTD was achieved at 300 mg/day given for 2 consecutive days. According to the protocol rules, the RD was established at 270 mg/day.

  8. Caffeine dosing strategies to optimize alertness during sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G; Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Doty, Tracy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-05-28

    Sleep loss, which affects about one-third of the US population, can severely impair physical and neurobehavioural performance. Although caffeine, the most widely used stimulant in the world, can mitigate these effects, currently there are no tools to guide the timing and amount of caffeine consumption to optimize its benefits. In this work, we provide an optimization algorithm, suited for mobile computing platforms, to determine when and how much caffeine to consume, so as to safely maximize neurobehavioural performance at the desired time of the day, under any sleep-loss condition. The algorithm is based on our previously validated Unified Model of Performance, which predicts the effect of caffeine consumption on a psychomotor vigilance task. We assessed the algorithm by comparing the caffeine-dosing strategies (timing and amount) it identified with the dosing strategies used in four experimental studies, involving total and partial sleep loss. Through computer simulations, we showed that the algorithm yielded caffeine-dosing strategies that enhanced performance of the predicted psychomotor vigilance task by up to 64% while using the same total amount of caffeine as in the original studies. In addition, the algorithm identified strategies that resulted in equivalent performance to that in the experimental studies while reducing caffeine consumption by up to 65%. Our work provides the first quantitative caffeine optimization tool for designing effective strategies to maximize neurobehavioural performance and to avoid excessive caffeine consumption during any arbitrary sleep-loss condition. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Additive interactions between 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and clobazam in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced tonic seizure model--an isobolographic analysis for parallel dose-response relationship curves.

    PubMed

    Andres-Mach, Marta; Haratym-Maj, Agnieszka; Zagaja, Mirosław; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effect of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-MeTHIQ) in combination with clobazam (CLB) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. The anticonvulsant interaction profile between 1-MeTHIQ and CLB in the mouse MES model was determined using an isobolographic analysis for parallel dose-response relationship curves. Electroconvulsions were produced in albino Swiss mice by a current (sine wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2-second stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes by a Hugo Sachs generator. There was an additive effect of the combination of 1-MeTHIQ with CLB (at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) in the mouse MES-induced tonic seizure model. The additive interaction of the combination of 1-MeTHIQ with CLB (at fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) in the mouse MES model seems to be pharmacodynamic in nature and worth of considering in further clinical practice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  11. Updated recommendations on the use of hydroxychloroquine in dermatologic practice.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Anthony P

    2017-06-01

    Hydroxychloroquine has unique immunomodulatory properties and an attractive adverse effect profile. Over the past 10 years, research has led to significant updates in clinical recommendations concerning the optimal use of hydroxychloroquine and monitoring of patients taking it. We discuss updated recommendations concerning hydroxychloroquine daily dosing, retinopathy screening, serologic monitoring, use in smokers, use in pregnant women, and adverse effect risk and monitoring. This review can hopefully serve as an aid to dermatologists and help ensure they continue using hydroxychloroquine safely and effectively. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size

    PubMed Central

    McNab, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Some dinosaurs reached masses that were ≈8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are ≈22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was ≈8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass. PMID:19581600

  13. Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size.

    PubMed

    McNab, Brian K

    2009-07-21

    Some dinosaurs reached masses that were approximately 8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are approximately 22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was approximately 8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass.

  14. Pharmacometrics-based dose selection of levofloxacin as a treatment for postexposure inhalational anthrax in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Nandy, Partha; Chien, Shuchean; Noel, Gary J; Tornoe, Christoffer W

    2010-01-01

    Levofloxacin was recently (May 2008) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children following inhalational exposure to anthrax. Given that no clinical trials to assess the efficacy of a chosen dose was conducted, the basis for the dose recommendation was based upon pharmacometric analyses. The objective of this paper is to describe the basis of the chosen pediatric dose recommended for the label. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 90 pediatric patients receiving 7 mg/kg of body weight levofloxacin and two studies of 47 healthy adults receiving 500 and 750 mg/kg levofloxacin were used for the pharmacometric analyses. Body weight was found to be a significant covariate for levofloxacin clearance and the volume of distribution. Consistently with developmental physiology, clearance also was found to be reduced in pediatric patients under 2 years of age due to immature renal function. Different dosing regimens were simulated to match adult exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state, maximum concentration of drug in serum at steady state, and minimum concentration of drug in serum at steady state) following the approved adult dose of 500 mg once a day. The recommended dose of 8 mg/kg twice a day was found to match the exposure of the dose approved for adults in a manner that permitted confidence that this dose in children would achieve efficacy comparable to that of adults.

  15. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications.

    PubMed

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate.

  16. Science Concierge: A Fast Content-Based Recommendation System for Scientific Publications

    PubMed Central

    Achakulvisut, Titipat; Acuna, Daniel E.; Ruangrong, Tulakan; Kording, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant publications is important for scientists who have to cope with exponentially increasing numbers of scholarly material. Algorithms can help with this task as they help for music, movie, and product recommendations. However, we know little about the performance of these algorithms with scholarly material. Here, we develop an algorithm, and an accompanying Python library, that implements a recommendation system based on the content of articles. Design principles are to adapt to new content, provide near-real time suggestions, and be open source. We tested the library on 15K posters from the Society of Neuroscience Conference 2015. Human curated topics are used to cross validate parameters in the algorithm and produce a similarity metric that maximally correlates with human judgments. We show that our algorithm significantly outperformed suggestions based on keywords. The work presented here promises to make the exploration of scholarly material faster and more accurate. PMID:27383424

  17. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L.; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  18. SeeDB: Efficient Data-Driven Visualization Recommendations to Support Visual Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Manasi; Rahman, Sajjadur; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Polyzotis, Neoklis

    2015-01-01

    Data analysts often build visualizations as the first step in their analytical workflow. However, when working with high-dimensional datasets, identifying visualizations that show relevant or desired trends in data can be laborious. We propose SeeDB, a visualization recommendation engine to facilitate fast visual analysis: given a subset of data to be studied, SeeDB intelligently explores the space of visualizations, evaluates promising visualizations for trends, and recommends those it deems most “useful” or “interesting”. The two major obstacles in recommending interesting visualizations are (a) scale: evaluating a large number of candidate visualizations while responding within interactive time scales, and (b) utility: identifying an appropriate metric for assessing interestingness of visualizations. For the former, SeeDB introduces pruning optimizations to quickly identify high-utility visualizations and sharing optimizations to maximize sharing of computation across visualizations. For the latter, as a first step, we adopt a deviation-based metric for visualization utility, while indicating how we may be able to generalize it to other factors influencing utility. We implement SeeDB as a middleware layer that can run on top of any DBMS. Our experiments show that our framework can identify interesting visualizations with high accuracy. Our optimizations lead to multiple orders of magnitude speedup on relational row and column stores and provide recommendations at interactive time scales. Finally, we demonstrate via a user study the effectiveness of our deviation-based utility metric and the value of recommendations in supporting visual analytics. PMID:26779379

  19. SeeDB: Efficient Data-Driven Visualization Recommendations to Support Visual Analytics.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Manasi; Rahman, Sajjadur; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Polyzotis, Neoklis

    2015-09-01

    Data analysts often build visualizations as the first step in their analytical workflow. However, when working with high-dimensional datasets, identifying visualizations that show relevant or desired trends in data can be laborious. We propose SeeDB, a visualization recommendation engine to facilitate fast visual analysis: given a subset of data to be studied, SeeDB intelligently explores the space of visualizations, evaluates promising visualizations for trends, and recommends those it deems most "useful" or "interesting". The two major obstacles in recommending interesting visualizations are (a) scale : evaluating a large number of candidate visualizations while responding within interactive time scales, and (b) utility : identifying an appropriate metric for assessing interestingness of visualizations. For the former, SeeDB introduces pruning optimizations to quickly identify high-utility visualizations and sharing optimizations to maximize sharing of computation across visualizations. For the latter, as a first step, we adopt a deviation-based metric for visualization utility, while indicating how we may be able to generalize it to other factors influencing utility. We implement SeeDB as a middleware layer that can run on top of any DBMS. Our experiments show that our framework can identify interesting visualizations with high accuracy. Our optimizations lead to multiple orders of magnitude speedup on relational row and column stores and provide recommendations at interactive time scales. Finally, we demonstrate via a user study the effectiveness of our deviation-based utility metric and the value of recommendations in supporting visual analytics.

  20. Defined daily doses (DDD) do not accurately reflect opioid doses used in contemporary chronic pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Gisev, Natasa; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Cohen, Milton; Larance, Briony; Campbell, Gabrielle; Shanahan, Marian; Blyth, Fiona; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Pearson, Sallie; Mattick, Richard; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-05-01

    To assess how well the defined daily dose (DDD) metric reflects opioid utilisation among chronic non-cancer pain patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilising a 7-day medication diary. Community-based treatment settings, Australia. A sample of 1101 people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Opioid dose data was collected via a self-completed 7-day medication diary capturing names, strengths and doses of each medication taken in the past week. Median daily dose was calculated for each opioid. Comparisons were made to the World Health Organization's (WHO) DDD metric. WHO DDDs ranged from 0.6 to 7.1 times the median opioid doses used by the sample. For transdermal fentanyl and oral hydromorphone, the median dose was comparable with the DDD. The DDD for methadone was 0.6 times lower than the median doses used by this sample of chronic pain patients. In contrast, the DDD for oxycodone and transdermal buprenorphine, the most commonly used strong opioids for chronic pain in Australia, was two to seven times higher than actual doses used. For many opioids, there are key differences between the actual doses used in clinical practice and the WHO's DDDs. The interpretation of opioid utilisation studies using population-level DDDs may be limited, and a recalibration of the DDD for many opioids or the reporting of opioid utilisation in oral morphine equivalent doses is recommended. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2014-03-04

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for lung cancer. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the efficacy of low-dose computed tomography, chest radiography, and sputum cytologic evaluation for lung cancer screening in asymptomatic persons who are at average or high risk for lung cancer (current or former smokers) and the benefits and harms of these screening tests and of surgical resection of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. The USPSTF also commissioned modeling studies to provide information about the optimum age at which to begin and end screening, the optimum screening interval, and the relative benefits and harms of different screening strategies. This recommendation applies to asymptomatic adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. (B recommendation).

  2. Dosing antibiotics in neonates: review of the pharmacokinetic data.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chaparro, Nazario D; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Greenberg, Rachel G

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics are often used in neonates despite the absence of relevant dosing information in drug labels. For neonatal dosing, clinicians must extrapolate data from studies for adults and older children, who have strikingly different physiologies. As a result, dosing extrapolation can lead to increased toxicity or efficacy failures in neonates. Driven by these differences and recent legislation mandating the study of drugs in children and neonates, an increasing number of pharmacokinetic studies of antibiotics are being performed in neonates. These studies have led to new dosing recommendations with particular consideration for neonate body size and maturation. Herein, we highlight the available pharmacokinetic data for commonly used systemic antibiotics in neonates.

  3. Maximal clique enumeration with data-parallel primitives

    SciTech Connect

    Lessley, Brenton; Perciano, Talita; Mathai, Manish

    The enumeration of all maximal cliques in an undirected graph is a fundamental problem arising in several research areas. We consider maximal clique enumeration on shared-memory, multi-core architectures and introduce an approach consisting entirely of data-parallel operations, in an effort to achieve efficient and portable performance across different architectures. We study the performance of the algorithm via experiments varying over benchmark graphs and architectures. Overall, we observe that our algorithm achieves up to a 33-time speedup and 9-time speedup over state-of-the-art distributed and serial algorithms, respectively, for graphs with higher ratios of maximal cliques to total cliques. Further, we attainmore » additional speedups on a GPU architecture, demonstrating the portable performance of our data-parallel design.« less

  4. Provider Recommendations in the Face of Scientific Uncertainty: An Analysis of Audio-Recorded Discussions about Vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Derjung M; Paterniti, Debora A; Wenger, Neil S

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how providers communicate recommendations when scientific uncertainty exists. To compare provider recommendations to those in the scientific literature, with a focus on whether uncertainty was communicated. Qualitative (inductive systematic content analysis) and quantitative analysis of previously collected audio-recorded provider-patient office visits. Sixty-one providers and a socio-economically diverse convenience sample of 603 of their patients from outpatient community- and academic-based primary care, integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine provider offices in Southern California. Comparison of provider information-giving about vitamin D to professional guidelines and scientific information for which conflicting recommendations or insufficient scientific evidence exists; certainty with which information was conveyed. Ninety-two (15.3 %) of 603 visit discussions touched upon issues related to vitamin D testing, management and benefits. Vitamin D deficiency screening was discussed with 23 (25 %) patients, the definition of vitamin D deficiency with 21 (22.8 %), the optimal range for vitamin D levels with 26 (28.3 %), vitamin D supplementation dosing with 50 (54.3 %), and benefits of supplementation with 46 (50 %). For each of the professional guidelines/scientific information examined, providers conveyed information that deviated from professional guidelines and the existing scientific evidence. Of 166 statements made about vitamin D in this study, providers conveyed 160 (96.4 %) with certainty, without mention of any equivocal or contradictory evidence in the scientific literature. No uncertainty was mentioned when vitamin D dosing was discussed, even when recommended dosing was higher than guideline recommendations. Providers convey the vast majority of information and recommendations about vitamin D with certainty, even though the scientific literature contains inconsistent recommendations and

  5. A practical approach to determine dose metrics for nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Oomen, Agnes G; Chen, Jingwen; de Jong, Wim H; Sips, Adriënne J A M; Wang, Zhuang; Park, Margriet V D Z

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, administered mass is used to describe doses of conventional chemical substances in toxicity studies. For deriving toxic doses of nanomaterials, mass and chemical composition alone may not adequately describe the dose, because particles with the same chemical composition can have completely different toxic mass doses depending on properties such as particle size. Other dose metrics such as particle number, volume, or surface area have been suggested, but consensus is lacking. The discussion regarding the most adequate dose metric for nanomaterials clearly needs a systematic, unbiased approach to determine the most appropriate dose metric for nanomaterials. In the present study, the authors propose such an approach and apply it to results from in vitro and in vivo experiments with silver and silica nanomaterials. The proposed approach is shown to provide a convenient tool to systematically investigate and interpret dose metrics of nanomaterials. Recommendations for study designs aimed at investigating dose metrics are provided. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Resource-Stratified Guideline.

    PubMed

    Arrossi, Silvina; Temin, Sarah; Garland, Suzanne; Eckert, Linda O'Neal; Bhatla, Neerja; Castellsagué, Xavier; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Felder, Tamika; Hammouda, Doudja; Konno, Ryo; Lopes, Gilberto; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Murillo, Rául; Scarinci, Isabel C; Stanley, Margaret; Tsu, Vivien; Wheeler, Cosette M; Adewole, Isaac Folorunso; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings. Existing sets of guidelines from five guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations formed the evidence base. Five systematic reviews, along with cost-effectiveness analyses, provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of ≥ 75%. In all resource settings, two doses of human papillomavirus vaccine are recommended for girls age 9 to 14 years, with an interval of at least 6 months and possibly up to 12 to 15 months. Individuals with HIV positivity should receive three doses. Maximal and enhanced settings: if girls are age ≥ 15 years and received their first dose before age 15 years, they may complete the series; if no doses were received before age 15 years, three doses should be administered; in both scenarios, vaccination may be through age 26 years. Limited and basic settings: if sufficient resources remain after vaccinating girls age 9 to 14 years, girls who received one dose may receive additional doses between age 15 and 26 years. Maximal, enhanced, and limited settings: if ≥ 50% coverage in the priority female target population, sufficient resources, and cost effectiveness, boys may be vaccinated to prevent other noncervical human papillomavirus-related cancers and diseases. Basic settings: vaccinating boys is not recommended. It is the view of the American Society of Clinical Oncology that

  7. Epinephrine Dosing Period and Survival after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Sam A.; Huszti, Ella; Bradley, Steven M.; Chan, Paul S.; Bryson, Chris L.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Nichol, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Expert guidelines for treatment of cardiac arrest recommend administration of epinephrine every three to five minutes. However, different dosing periods of epinephrine have not been systematically assessed. Objective We evaluated the association between epinephrine dosing frequency and survival to hospital discharge in adults with an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). Methods Using data from 2000–2009 in the Get With the Guidelines(GWTG)-Resuscitation IHCA registry (formerly the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation [NRCPR]), we examined the association between epinephrine dosing period and survival to hospital discharge. Epinephrine dosing period was defined as the time between the first epinephrine dose and the resuscitation endpoint, divided by the total number of epinephrine doses received subsequent to the first epinephrine dose. Generalized estimating equations were used to construct multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for patient and arrest characteristics. Results Included were 20,909 eligible IHCA events from 505 GWTG-Resuscitation participating hospitals. Compared to an epinephrine dosing period of 4 to <5 minutes per dose, survival to hospital discharge was significantly higher in patients with an epinephrine dosing period of 6 to <10 minutes per dose: for 6 to <7 min/dose, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.78); for 7 to <8 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.30 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.65); for 8 to <9 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.79 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.32); for 9 to <10 min/dose, adjusted OR, 2.17 (95%CI: 1.62, 2.92). This pattern was consistent for both shockable and non-shockable cardiac arrest rhythms. Moreover, for the majority (87%) of cardiac arrests due to non-shockable rhythms, an epinephrine dosing period of 1 to <3 minutes/dose was associated with lower rates of survival. Conclusion In this large, observational, national registry of in-hospital cardiac arrest, we found that epinephrine dosing at a less frequent

  8. Dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics of apigenin trimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Elhennawy, Mai Gamal; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2018-06-15

    Apigenin trimethyl ether (5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, ATE), one of the key polymethoxyflavones present in black ginger (rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora) possesses various health-promoting activities. To optimize its medicinal application, the pharmacokinetics of ATE was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with emphases to identify the impacts from dose and repeated dosing on its major pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma ATE levels were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Upon single intravenous administration (2 mg/kg), plasma levels of ATE declined through an apparent first-order process while dose-escalation to 4 and 8 mg/kg led to its non-linear disposition, which could be described by the Michaelis-Menten model. Similarly, dose-dependent oral pharmacokinetics was confirmed and when the dose was escalated from 5 to 15 and 45 mg/kg, much longer mean residence time (MRT 0→last ), higher dose-normalized maximal plasma concentration (C max /Dose) and exposure (AUC/Dose) were observed at 15 and/or 45 mg/kg. One-week daily oral administration of ATE at 15 mg/kg caused its accelerated elimination and the plasma exposure (AUC) after intravenous (2 mg/kg) and oral administration (15 mg/kg) dropped ~40 and 60%, respectively. As ATE displayed both dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics, caution is needed in the medicinal applications of ATE and/or black ginger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TU-E-BRB-03: Overview of Proposed TG-132 Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K.

    2015-06-15

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is developing rapidly and is poised to substantially improve dose fusion accuracy for adaptive and retreatment planning and motion management and PET fusion to enhance contour delineation for treatment planning. However, DIR dose warping accuracy is difficult to quantify, in general, and particularly difficult to do so on a patient-specific basis. As clinical DIR options become more widely available, there is an increased need to understand the implications of incorporating DIR into clinical workflow. Several groups have assessed DIR accuracy in clinically relevant scenarios, but no comprehensive review material is yet available. This session will alsomore » discuss aspects of the AAPM Task Group 132 on the Use of Image Registration and Data Fusion Algorithms and Techniques in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning official report, which provides recommendations for DIR clinical use. We will summarize and compare various commercial DIR software options, outline successful clinical techniques, show specific examples with discussion of appropriate and inappropriate applications of DIR, discuss the clinical implications of DIR, provide an overview of current DIR error analysis research, review QA options and research phantom development and present TG-132 recommendations. Learning Objectives: Compare/contrast commercial DIR software and QA options Overview clinical DIR workflow for retreatment To understand uncertainties introduced by DIR Review TG-132 proposed recommendations.« less

  10. Assessment of the anticonvulsant potency of various benzylamide derivatives in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure threshold model.

    PubMed

    Świąder, Mariusz J; Paruszewski, Ryszard; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anticonvulsant potency of 6 various benzylamide derivatives [i.e., nicotinic acid benzylamide (Nic-BZA), picolinic acid 2-fluoro-benzylamide (2F-Pic-BZA), picolinic acid benzylamide (Pic-BZA), (RS)-methyl-alanine-benzylamide (Me-Ala-BZA), isonicotinic acid benzylamide (Iso-Nic-BZA), and (R)-N-methyl-proline-benzylamide (Me-Pro-BZA)] in the threshold for maximal electroshock (MEST)-induced seizures in mice. Electroconvulsions (seizure activity) were produced in mice by means of a current (sine-wave, 50Hz, 500V, strength from 4 to 18mA, ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Nic-BZA, 2F-Pic-BZA, Pic-BZA, Me-Ala-BZA, Iso-Nic-BZA, and Me-Pro-BZA administered systemically (ip) in a dose-dependent manner increase the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice. Linear regression analysis of Nic-BZA, 2F-Pic-BZA, Pic-BZA, MeAla-BZA, IsoNic-BZA, and Me-Pro-BZA doses and their corresponding threshold increases allowed determining threshold increasing doses by 20% (TID20 values) that elevate the threshold in drug-treated animals over the threshold in control animals. The experimentally derived TID20 values in the MEST test for Nic-BZA, 2F-Pic-BZA, Pic-BZA, Me-Ala-BZA, Iso-Nic-BZA, and Me-Pro-BZA were 7.45mg/kg, 7.72mg/kg, 8.74mg/kg, 15.11mg/kg, 21.95mg/kg and 28.06mg/kg, respectively. The studied benzylamide derivatives can be arranged with respect to their anticonvulsant potency in the MEST test as follows: Nic-BZA>2F-Pic-BZA>Pic-BZA>Me-Ala-BZA>Iso-Nic-BZA>Me-Pro-BZA. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. How To: Maximize Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Google is shaking out to be the leading Web search engine, with recent research from Nielsen NetRatings reporting about 40 percent of all U.S. households using the tool at least once in January 2004. This brief article discusses how teachers and students can maximize their use of Google.

  12. Assessment of the Combined Treatment with Umbelliferone and Four Classical Antiepileptic Drugs Against Maximal Electroshock-Induced Seizures in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zagaja, Mirosław; Andres-Mach, Marta; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Rękas, Anna R; Kondrat-Wróbel, Maria W; Gleńsk, Michał; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin; UMB) on the anticonvulsant potency of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB) and valproate (VPA)) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. UMB administered systemically intraperitoneally (ip) in a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions (p < 0.05) in mice. Moreover, UMB (150 mg/kg) co-administered with PB and VPA significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant potency of these drugs by reducing their median effective doses (ED50 values) from 35.39 to 21.78 mg/kg (p < 0.01) for PB, and from 281.4 to 215.5 mg/kg (p < 0.01) for VPA. In contrast, UMB (150 mg/kg, ip) had no significant effect on the antiseizure activity of CBZ and PHT in the mouse MES model. Neither total brain PB, nor total brain VPA concentrations were altered after ip administration of UMB, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of interactions between the tested drugs. The selective potentiation of the anticonvulsant potency of PB and VPA by UMB, and lack of any pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs, make the combinations of UMB with PB or VPA worthy of consideration for epileptic patients who are refractory to standard antiepileptic treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Methodological Challenges in Describing Medication Dosing Errors in Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    recommendations. As an example, amoxicillin is the most commonly used medication in children. This one drug accounts for approximately 10 percent of...and a team intervention on prevention of serious medication errors. JAMA 1998;280(15):1311–6. 13. Bates DW, Teich JM, Lee J, et al. The impact of...barriers include prescribing medication that is not labeled for use in children, discrepancies in published dosing recommendations for many

  14. In vivo dose verification method in catheter based high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Jaselskė, Evelina; Adlienė, Diana; Rudžianskas, Viktoras; Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis; Inčiūra, Arturas

    2017-12-01

    In vivo dosimetry is a powerful tool for dose verification in radiotherapy. Its application in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is usually limited to the estimation of gross errors, due to inability of the dosimetry system/ method to record non-uniform dose distribution in steep dose gradient fields close to the radioactive source. In vivo dose verification in interstitial catheter based HDR brachytherapy is crucial since the treatment is performed inserting radioactive source at the certain positions within the catheters that are pre-implanted into the tumour. We propose in vivo dose verification method for this type of brachytherapy treatment which is based on the comparison between experimentally measured and theoretical dose values calculated at well-defined locations corresponding dosemeter positions in the catheter. Dose measurements were performed using TLD 100-H rods (6 mm long, 1 mm diameter) inserted in a certain sequences into additionally pre-implanted dosimetry catheter. The adjustment of dosemeter positioning in the catheter was performed using reconstructed CT scans of patient with pre-implanted catheters. Doses to three Head&Neck and one Breast cancer patient have been measured during several randomly selected treatment fractions. It was found that the average experimental dose error varied from 4.02% to 12.93% during independent in vivo dosimetry control measurements for selected Head&Neck cancer patients and from 7.17% to 8.63% - for Breast cancer patient. Average experimental dose error was below the AAPM recommended margin of 20% and did not exceed the measurement uncertainty of 17.87% estimated for this type of dosemeters. Tendency of slightly increasing average dose error was observed in every following treatment fraction of the same patient. It was linked to the changes of theoretically estimated dosemeter positions due to the possible patient's organ movement between different treatment fractions, since catheter reconstruction was

  15. Measuring pacemaker dose: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Studenski, Matthew T; Xiao, Ying; Harrison, Amy S

    2012-01-01

    Recently in our clinic, we have seen an increased number of patients presenting with pacemakers and defibrillators. Precautions are taken to develop a treatment plan that minimizes the dose to the pacemaker because of the adverse effects of radiation on the electronics. Here we analyze different dosimeters to determine which is the most accurate in measuring pacemaker or defibrillator dose while at the same time not requiring a significant investment in time to maintain an efficient workflow in the clinic. The dosimeters analyzed here were ion chambers, diodes, metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. A simple phantom was used to quantify the angular and energy dependence of each dosimeter. Next, 8 patients plans were delivered to a Rando phantom with all the dosimeters located where the pacemaker would be, and the measurements were compared with the predicted dose. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image was obtained to determine the dosimeter response in the kilovoltage energy range. In terms of the angular and energy dependence of the dosimeters, the ion chamber and diode were the most stable. For the clinical cases, all the dosimeters match relatively well with the predicted dose, although the ideal dosimeter to use is case dependent. The dosimeters, especially the MOSFETS, tend to be less accurate for the plans, with many lateral beams. Because of their efficiency, we recommend using a MOSFET or a diode to measure the dose. If a discrepancy is observed between the measured and expected dose (especially when the pacemaker to field edge is <10 cm), we recommend analyzing the treatment plan to see whether there are many lateral beams. Follow-up with another dosimeter rather than repeating multiple times with the same type of dosimeter. All dosimeters should be placed after the CBCT has been acquired. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by

  16. On the impact of ICRU report 90 recommendations on kQ factors for high-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Muir, Bryan R

    2018-06-03

    To assess the impact of the ICRU report 90 recommendations on the beam-quality conversion factor, k Q , used for clinical reference dosimetry of megavoltage linac photon beams. The absorbed dose to water and the absorbed dose to the air in ionization chambers representative of those typically used for linac photon reference dosimetry are calculated at the reference depth in a water phantom using Monte Carlo simulations. Depth-dose calculations in water are also performed to investigate changes in beam quality specifiers. The calculations are performed in a cobalt-60 beam and MV photon beams with nominal energy between 6 MV and 25 MV using the EGSnrc simulation toolkit. Inputs to the calculations use stopping-power data for graphite and water from the original ICRU-37 report and the new proposed values from the recently published ICRU-90 report. Calculated k Q factors are compared using the two different recommendations for key dosimetry data and measured k Q factors. Less than about 0.1% effects from ICRU-90 recommendations on the beam quality specifiers, the photon component of the percentage depth-dose at 10 cm, %dd(10) x , and the tissue-phantom ratio at 20 cm and 10 cm, TPR1020, are observed. Although using different recommendations for key dosimetric data impact water-to-air stopping-power ratios and ion chamber perturbation corrections by up to 0.54% and 0.40%, respectively, we observe little difference (≤0.14%) in calculated k Q factors. This is contradictory to the predictions in ICRU-90 that suggest differences up to 0.5% in high-energy photon beams. A slightly better agreement with experimental values is obtained when using ICRU-90 recommendations. Users of the addendum to the TG-51 protocol for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams, which recommends Monte Carlo calculated k Q factors, can rest assured that the recommendations of ICRU report 90 on basic data have little impact on this central dosimetric parameter. © Her Majesty the Queen

  17. Anticonvulsant effects of Senna spectabilis on seizures induced by chemicals and maximal electroshock.

    PubMed

    Nkamguie Nkantchoua, Gisele Claudine; Kameni Njapdounke, Jacqueline Stephanie; Jules Fifen, Jean; Sotoing Taiwe, Germain; Josiane Ojong, Lucie; Kavaye Kandeda, Antoine; Ngo Bum, Elisabeth

    2018-02-15

    Senna spectabilis (Fabaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Cameroon by traditional healers to treat epilepsy, constipation, insomnia, anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of Senna spectabilis decoction on seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine (PC) and its possible action mechanisms in animal models using flumazenil (FLU), methyl-ß-carboline-3-carboxylate (BC) and bicuculline (BIC). Senna spectabilis decoction (106.5 and 213.0mg/kg) antagonized completely tonic-clonic hind limbs of mice induced by MES. The lowest plant dose (42.6mg/kg) provided 100% of protection against seizures induced by PTZ (70mg/kg). Administration of different doses of the plant decoction antagonized seizures induced by PC up to 75%, causing a dose dependent protection and reduced significantly the mortality rate induced by this convulsant. Both FLU and BC antagonize strongly the anticonvulsant effects of this plant and are unable to reverse totally diazepam or the plant decoction effects on inhibiting seizures. The animals did not present any sign of acute toxicity even at higher doses of the plant decoction. In conclusion, Senna spectabilis possesses an anticonvulsant activity. We showed that its decoction protects significantly mice against seizures induced by chemicals and MES, delays the onset time and reduces mortality rate in seizures-induced. It also appears that the oral administration of the decoction of S. spectabilis is more active than the intraperitoneal administration of the ethanolic extract on inhibiting seizures induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the plant decoction could interact with GABA A complex receptor probably on the GABA and benzodiazepines sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…

  19. Growth, yield and tuber quality of Solanum tuberosum L. under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation at different NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Kumari, R; Agrawal, M; Agrawal, S B

    2011-05-01

    In many areas, decreases in the stratospheric ozone layer have resulted in an increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. The present study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) and mineral nutrients on a tuber crop, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var Kufri Badshah), under natural field conditions in a dry tropical environment. The nutrient treatments were the recommended dose of NPK (F(o)), 1.5 times the recommended dose of NPK (F(1)), 1.5 times the recommended dose of N (F(2)) and 1.5 times the recommended dose of K (F(3)). The response of potato plants to sUV-B varied with nutrient treatment and concentration. sUV-B adversely affected growth, yield and quality of tubers, causing an increase in reducing sugars in the tubers and thus reducing the economic value. Growth and fresh weight of tubers was maximal with sUV-B at 1.5 times recommended NPK, but the dry weight of tubers were highest with the recommended NPK dose. Reducing sugar content was lower in potato plants treated with sUV-B and the recommended NPK than with sUV-B and 1.5 times the recommended NPK. This study thus clearly shows that growing potato with 1.5 times the recommended NPK or 1.5 times the recommended dose of N/K does not alleviate the sUV-B induced changes in yield and quality of tubers compared to the recommended NPK dose. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Kodak EDR2 film for patient skin dose assessment in cardiac catheterization procedures.

    PubMed

    Morrell, R E; Rogers, A T

    2006-07-01

    Patient skin doses were measured using Kodak EDR2 film for 20 coronary angiography (CA) and 32 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures. For CA, all skin doses were well below 1 Gy. However, 23% of PTCA patients received skin doses of 1 Gy or more. Dose-area product (DAP) was also recorded and was found to be an inadequate indicator of maximum skin dose. Practical compliance with ICRP recommendations requires a robust method for skin dosimetry that is more accurate than DAP and is applicable over a wider dose range than EDR2 film.

  1. Low-Dose versus Standard-Dose Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig S; Robinson, Thompson; Lindley, Richard I; Arima, Hisatomi; Lavados, Pablo M; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Broderick, Joseph P; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Guofang; Sharma, Vijay K; Kim, Jong S; Thang, Nguyen H; Cao, Yongjun; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher; Huang, Yining; Olavarría, Verónica V; Demchuk, Andrew M; Bath, Philip M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Martins, Sheila; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Silva, Federico; Ricci, Stefano; Roffe, Christine; Pandian, Jeyaraj; Billot, Laurent; Woodward, Mark; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John

    2016-06-16

    Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke with a lower-than-standard dose of intravenous alteplase may improve recovery along with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Using a 2-by-2 quasi-factorial open-label design, we randomly assigned 3310 patients who were eligible for thrombolytic therapy (median age, 67 years; 63% Asian) to low-dose intravenous alteplase (0.6 mg per kilogram of body weight) or the standard dose (0.9 mg per kilogram); patients underwent randomization within 4.5 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary objective was to determine whether the low dose would be noninferior to the standard dose with respect to the primary outcome of death or disability at 90 days, which was defined by scores of 2 to 6 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). Secondary objectives were to determine whether the low dose would be superior to the standard dose with respect to centrally adjudicated symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and whether the low dose would be noninferior in an ordinal analysis of modified Rankin scale scores (testing for an improvement in the distribution of scores). The trial included 935 patients who were also randomly assigned to intensive or guideline-recommended blood-pressure control. The primary outcome occurred in 855 of 1607 participants (53.2%) in the low-dose group and in 817 of 1599 participants (51.1%) in the standard-dose group (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.25; the upper boundary exceeded the noninferiority margin of 1.14; P=0.51 for noninferiority). Low-dose alteplase was noninferior in the ordinal analysis of modified Rankin scale scores (unadjusted common odds ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.13; P=0.04 for noninferiority). Major symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1.0% of the participants in the low-dose group and in 2.1% of the participants in the standard-dose group (P=0.01); fatal events occurred within 7 days in 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively

  2. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  3. Identifying the most successful dose (MSD) in dose-finding studies in cancer.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Sarah; O'Quigley, John

    2006-01-01

    For a dose finding study in cancer, the most successful dose (MSD), among a group of available doses, is that dose at which the overall success rate is the highest. This rate is the product of the rate of seeing non-toxicities together with the rate of tumor response. A successful dose finding trial in this context is one where we manage to identify the MSD in an efficient manner. In practice we may also need to consider algorithms for identifying the MSD which can incorporate certain restrictions, the most common restriction maintaining the estimated toxicity rate alone below some maximum rate. In this case the MSD may correspond to a different level than that for the unconstrained MSD and, in providing a final recommendation, it is important to underline that it is subject to the given constraint. We work with the approach described in O'Quigley et al. [Biometrics 2001; 57(4):1018-1029]. The focus of that work was dose finding in HIV where both information on toxicity and efficacy were almost immediately available. Recent cancer studies are beginning to fall under this same heading where, as before, toxicity can be quickly evaluated and, in addition, we can rely on biological markers or other measures of tumor response. Mindful of the particular context of cancer, our purpose here is to consider the methodology developed by O'Quigley et al. and its practical implementation. We also carry out a study on the doubly under-parameterized model, developed by O'Quigley et al. but not

  4. Short Report: Consensus Guidelines for Dosing of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate in Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Allen C.; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Chaowagul, Wipada; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Dance, David A. B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Currie, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. In response to clinical confusion regarding the appropriate dose of amoxicillin-clavulanate, we have developed guidelines for the appropriate dosing of this second-line agent. For eradication therapy for melioidosis, we recommend 20/5 mg/kg orally, three times daily. PMID:18256414

  5. Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Han, Eun Young; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-01

    The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, wT. ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by the radiological protection community. In its 5 June 2006 draft recommendations, new organs and tissues have been introduced in the effective dose which do not exist within the 1987 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom series (e.g., salivary glands). Recently, the investigators at University of Florida have updated the series of ORNL phantoms by implementing new organ models and adopting organ-specific elemental composition and densities. In this study, the effective dose changes caused by the transition from the current recommendation of ICRP Publication 60 to the 2006 draft recommendations were investigated for external photon irradiation across the range of ICRP reference ages (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year and adult) and for six idealized irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). Organ-absorbed doses were calculated by implementing the revised ORNL phantoms in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.5, after which effective doses were calculated under the 1990 and draft 2006 evaluation schemes of the ICRP. Effective doses calculated under the 2006 draft scheme were slightly higher than estimated under ICRP Publication 60 methods for all irradiation geometries exclusive of the AP geometry where an opposite trend was observed. The effective doses of the adult phantom were more greatly affected by the change in tissue weighting factors than that seen within the paediatric members of the phantom series. Additionally, dose conversion

  6. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1977-11-01

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it ismore » advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups.« less

  7. [Dialysis dose quantification in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.

  8. Maximal Outboxes of Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    An outbox of a quadrilateral is a rectangle such that each vertex of the given quadrilateral lies on one side of the rectangle and different vertices lie on different sides. We first investigate those quadrilaterals whose every outbox is a square. Next, we consider the maximal outboxes of rectangles and those quadrilaterals with perpendicular…

  9. Does Maximizing Information at the Cut Score Always Maximize Classification Accuracy and Consistency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben

    2016-01-01

    A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…

  10. Local control of brain metastases by stereotactic radiosurgery in relation to dose to the tumor margin.

    PubMed

    Vogelbaum, Michael A; Angelov, Lilyana; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Li, Liang; Barnett, Gene H; Suh, John H

    2006-06-01

    The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain tumors was established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) in protocol 90-05, which defined three dose groups based on the maximal tumor diameter. The goal in this retrospective study was to determine whether differences in doses to the margins of brain metastases affect the ability of SRS to achieve local control. Between 1997 and 2003, 202 patients harboring 375 tumors that met study entry criteria underwent SRS for treatment of one or multiple brain metastases. The median overall follow-up duration was 10.7 months (range 3-83 months). A dose of 24 Gy to the tumor margin had a significantly lower risk of local failure than 15 or 18 Gy (p = 0.0005; hazard ratio 0.277, confidence interval [CI] 0.134-0.573), whereas the 15- and 18-Gy groups were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.82) in this regard. The 1-year local control rate was 85% (95% CI 78-92%) in tumors treated with 24 Gy, compared with 49% (CI 30-68%) in tumors treated with 18 Gy and 45% (CI 23-67%) in tumors treated with 15 Gy. Overall patient survival was independent of dose to the tumor margin. Use of the RTOG 90-05 dosing scheme for brain metastases is associated with a variable local control rate. Tumors larger than 2 cm are less effectively controlled than smaller lesions, which can be safely treated with 24 Gy. Prospective evaluations of the relationship between dose to the tumor margin and local control should be performed to confirm these observations.

  11. A quality assurance device for measuring afterloader performance and transit dose for nasobiliary high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Deufel, Christopher L; Mullins, John P; Zakhary, Mark J

    2018-05-17

    Nasobiliary high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has emerged as an effective tool to boost the radiation dose for patients with unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. This work describes a quality assurance (QA) tool for measuring the HDR afterloader's performance, including the transit dose, when the source wire travels through a tortuous nasobiliary catheter path. The nasobiliary QA device was designed to mimic the anatomical path of a nasobiliary catheter, including the nasal, stomach, duodenum, and bile duct loops. Two of these loops, the duodenum and bile duct loops, have adjustable radii of curvature, resulting in the ability to maximize stress on the source wire in transit. The device was used to measure the performance over time for the HDR afterloader and the differences between intraluminal catheter lots. An upper limit on the transit dose was also measured using radiochromic film and compared with a simple theoretical model. The QA device was capable of detecting performance variations among nasobiliary catheter lots and following radioactive source replacement. The transit dose from a nasobiliary treatment increased by up to one order of magnitude when the source wire encountered higher than normal friction. Three distinct travel speeds of the source wire were observed: 5.2, 17.4, and 54.7 cm/s. The maximum transit dose was 0.3 Gy at a radial distance of 5 mm from a 40.3 kU 192 Ir source. The source wire encounters substantially greater friction when it navigates through the nasobiliary brachytherapy catheter. A QA tool that mimics the nasal, stomach, duodenum, and bile duct loops may be used to evaluate transit dose and the afterloader's performance over time. Copyright © 2018 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximal and submaximal endurance performance in adults with severe haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Herbsleb, M; Hilberg, T

    2009-01-01

    Maximal exercise testing, including the determination of maximal performance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), is considered the gold standard for assessing maximal endurance performance. The effectiveness of such testing is often reduced in haemophilic adults owing to musculoskeletal impairments or pain rather than because of cardiac exertion. The measurement of submaximal performance parameters overcomes many limitations of maximal exercise testing but a testing standard is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate maximal and particularly submaximal endurance performance of adult patients with severe haemophilia A and B. Eleven patients and 11 matched healthy controls were tested by spiroergometry with a specific treadmill test and the power was calculated in Watts. The haemophilic group achieved lower absolute (210 +/- 63 W) and weight-related (2.94 +/- 0.98 W kg(-1)) maximal endurance performance compared with the control group (287 +/- 50 W resp. 3.82 +/- 0.53 W kg(-1); P maximal and submaximal endurance performance, which can be easily measured by the described test procedure.

  13. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS... elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on relevant new research findings and...

  14. Quantities for assessing high photon doses to the body: a calculational approach.

    PubMed

    Eakins, Jonathan S; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A

    2018-06-01

    Tissue reactions are the most clinically significant consequences of high-dose exposures to ionising radiation. However, currently there is no universally recognized dose quantity that can be used to assess and report generalised risks to individuals following whole body exposures in the high-dose range. In this work, a number of potential dose quantities are presented and discussed, with mathematical modelling techniques employed to compare them and explore when their differences are most or least manifest. The results are interpreted to propose the average (D GRB ) of the absorbed doses to the stomach, small intestine, red bone marrow, and brain as the optimum quantity for informing assessments of risk. A second, maximally conservative dose quantity (D Max ) is also suggested, which places limits on any under-estimates resulting from the adoption of D GRB . The primary aim of this work is to spark debate, with further work required to refine the final choice of quantity or quantities most appropriate for the full range of different potential exposure scenarios.

  15. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2013 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Barrio Corrales, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; González-Hachero, J; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2013-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. The present schedule includes levels of recommendation. We have graded as routine vaccinations those that the CAV-AEP consider all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunisation and would ideally be given to all children, but that can be prioritised according to the resources available for their public funding; and as risk group vaccinations those that specifically target individuals in situations of risk. Immunisation schedules tend to be dynamic and adaptable to ongoing epidemiological changes. Nevertheless, the achievement of a unified immunisation schedule in all regions of Spain is a top priority for the CAV-AEP. Based on the latest epidemiological trends, CAV-AEP follows the innovations proposed in the last year's schedule, such as the administration of the first dose of the MMR and the varicella vaccines at age 12 months and the second dose at age 2-3 years, as well as the administration of the Tdap vaccine at age 4-6 years, always followed by another dose at 11-14 years of age, preferably at 11-12 years. The CAV-AEP believes that the coverage of vaccination against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-14 years, preferably at 11-12 years, must increase. It reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule. Universal vaccination against varicella in the second year of life is an effective strategy and therefore a desirable objective. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants due to the morbidity and elevated healthcare burden of the virus. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. Finally, it

  16. Maximally-localized position, Euclidean path-integral, and thermodynamics in GUP quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2018-04-01

    In dealing with quantum mechanics at very high energies, it is essential to adapt to a quasiposition representation using the maximally-localized states because of the generalized uncertainty principle. In this paper, we look at maximally-localized states as eigenstates of the operator ξ = X + iβP that we refer to as the maximally-localized position. We calculate the overlap between maximally-localized states and show that the identity operator can be expressed in terms of the maximally-localized states. Furthermore, we show that the maximally-localized position is diagonal in momentum-space and that the maximally-localized position and its adjoint satisfy commutation and anti-commutation relations reminiscent of the harmonic oscillator commutation and anti-commutation relations. As application, we use the maximally-localized position in developing the Euclidean path-integral and introduce the compact form of the propagator for maximal localization. The free particle momentum-space propagator and the propagator for maximal localization are analytically evaluated up to quadratic-order in β. Finally, we obtain a path-integral expression for the partition function of a thermodynamic system using the maximally-localized states. The partition function of a gas of noninteracting particles is evaluated. At temperatures exceeding the Planck energy, we obtain the gas' maximum internal energy N / 2 β and recover the zero heat capacity of an ideal gas.

  17. Evaluation of dose reduction versus standard dosing for maintenance of remission in patients with spondyloarthritis and clinical remission with anti-TNF (REDES-TNF): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Caridad; Gratacós, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Avendaño, Cristina; Sanz, Jesús; Vallano, Antoni; Juanola, Xavier; de Miguel, Eugenio; Sanmartí, Raimon; Calvo, Gonzalo

    2015-08-20

    Dose reduction schedules of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) as maintenance therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis are used empirically in clinical practice, despite the lack of clinical trials providing evidence for this practice. To address this issue the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) and Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology (SEFC) designed a 3-year multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial (2 years for inclusion and 1 year of follow-up). The study is expected to include 190 patients with axial spondyloarthritis on stable maintenance treatment (≥4 months) with any anti-TNF agent at doses recommended in the summary of product characteristics. Patients will be randomized to either a dose reduction arm or maintenance of the dosing regimen as per the official labelling recommendations. Randomization will be stratified according to the anti-TNF agent received before study inclusion. Patient follow-up, visit schedule, and examinations will be maintained as per normal clinical practice recommendations according to SER guidelines. The study aims to test the hypothesis of noninferiority of the dose reduction strategy compared with standard treatment. The first patients were recruited in July 2012, and study completion is scheduled for the end of April 2015. The REDES-TNF study is a pragmatic clinical trial that aims to provide evidence to support a medical decision now made empirically. The study results may help inform clinical decisions relevant to both patients and healthcare decision makers. EudraCT 2011-005871-18 (21 December 2011).

  18. European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases consensus recommendations for rotavirus vaccination in Europe: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Van Damme, Pierre; Giaquinto, Carlo; Dagan, Ron; Guarino, Alfredo; Szajewska, Hania; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-06-01

    The first evidence-based recommendations for rotavirus (RV) vaccination in Europe were prepared at the time of licensure of 2 live oral RV vaccines (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, and RotaTeq, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) in 2006 and published in 2008. Since then several countries in Europe and more globally have adopted universal RV vaccination of all healthy infants as part of their national immunization programs (NIPs). The experience from these NIPs has produced a wealth of post-introduction effectiveness data that, together with the evidence from prelicensure efficacy trials presented in the 2008 Recommendations, support the case of RV vaccination in Europe. The prelicensure safety trials of Rotarix and RotaTeq, each in populations of more than 60,000 infants, did not reveal risk of intussusception (IS), but postvaccination surveillance in several countries, particularly Australia and Mexico, has established that the risk of IS for both vaccines after the first dose might be between 1:50,000 and 1:80,000. Although it may be argued that the risk is acceptable vis-à-vis the great benefits of RV vaccination, this argument alone may not suffice, and every effort should be made to reduce the risk of IS. Considerable evidence, including postvaccination surveillance data from Germany, suggests that the risk of IS can be reduced by early administration of the first dose of oral RV vaccine. The previous European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases/European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations held that the first dose of oral RV vaccine should be given between 6 and 12 weeks of age; this recommendation is sustained but with an emphasis toward the lower range of the recommended age, that is, preferably between 6 and 8 weeks of age. At the time of the earlier recommendations, experience of RV vaccination in premature infants and other special target groups was limited. It is now recommended with greater confidence than

  19. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, H. A.; Allison, R. R.; Downie, G. H.; Mota, H. C.; Austerlitz, C.; Jenkins, T.; Sibata, C. H.

    2007-06-01

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed.

  20. Benchmarking B-Cell Epitope Prediction with Quantitative Dose-Response Data on Antipeptide Antibodies: Towards Novel Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C.

    2014-01-01

    B-cell epitope prediction can enable novel pharmaceutical product development. However, a mechanistically framed consensus has yet to emerge on benchmarking such prediction, thus presenting an opportunity to establish standards of practice that circumvent epistemic inconsistencies of casting the epitope prediction task as a binary-classification problem. As an alternative to conventional dichotomous qualitative benchmark data, quantitative dose-response data on antibody-mediated biological effects are more meaningful from an information-theoretic perspective in the sense that such effects may be expressed as probabilities (e.g., of functional inhibition by antibody) for which the Shannon information entropy (SIE) can be evaluated as a measure of informativeness. Accordingly, half-maximal biological effects (e.g., at median inhibitory concentrations of antibody) correspond to maximally informative data while undetectable and maximal biological effects correspond to minimally informative data. This applies to benchmarking B-cell epitope prediction for the design of peptide-based immunogens that elicit antipeptide antibodies with functionally relevant cross-reactivity. Presently, the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) contains relatively few quantitative dose-response data on such cross-reactivity. Only a small fraction of these IEDB data is maximally informative, and many more of them are minimally informative (i.e., with zero SIE). Nevertheless, the numerous qualitative data in IEDB suggest how to overcome the paucity of informative benchmark data. PMID:24949474

  1. The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity.

    PubMed

    Connaboy, Chris; Naemi, Roozbeh; Brown, Susan; Psycharakis, Stelios; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The optimisation of undulatory underwater swimming is highly important in competitive swimming performance. Nineteen kinematic variables were identified from previous research undertaken to assess undulatory underwater swimming performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine which kinematic variables were key to the production of maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity. Kinematic data at maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity were collected from 17 skilled swimmers. A series of separate backward-elimination analysis of covariance models was produced with cycle frequency and cycle length as dependent variables (DVs) and participant as a fixed factor, as including cycle frequency and cycle length would explain 100% of the maximal swimming velocity variance. The covariates identified in the cycle-frequency and cycle-length models were used to form the saturated model for maximal swimming velocity. The final parsimonious model identified three covariates (maximal knee joint angular velocity, maximal ankle angular velocity and knee range of movement) as determinants of the variance in maximal swimming velocity (adjusted-r2 = 0.929). However, when participant was removed as a fixed factor there was a large reduction in explained variance (adjusted r2 = 0.397) and only maximal knee joint angular velocity continued to contribute significantly, highlighting its importance to the production of maximal swimming velocity. The reduction in explained variance suggests an emphasis on inter-individual differences in undulatory underwater swimming technique and/or anthropometry. Future research should examine the efficacy of other anthropometric, kinematic and coordination variables to better understand the production of maximal swimming velocity and consider the importance of individual undulatory underwater swimming techniques when interpreting the data.

  2. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil R.W.; Turner, Mark C.; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP‐1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co‐incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly‐controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. PMID:28409828

  3. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  4. Maximizing Health or Sufficient Capability in Economic Evaluation? A Methodological Experiment of Treatment for Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Goranitis, Ilias; Coast, Joanna; Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Freemantle, Nick; Frew, Emma

    2017-07-01

    Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability. Capability well-being is an evaluative space grounded on Amartya Sen's capability approach and assesses well-being based on individuals' ability to do and be the things they value in life. Sufficient capability is an egalitarian approach to decision making that aims to ensure everyone in society achieves a normatively sufficient level of capability well-being. The case study is treatment for drug addiction, and the cost-effectiveness of 2 psychological interventions relative to usual care is assessed using data from a pilot trial. Analyses are undertaken from a health care and a government perspective. For the purpose of the study, quality-adjusted life years (measured using the EQ-5D-5L) and years of full capability equivalent and years of sufficient capability equivalent (both measured using the ICECAP-A [ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults]) are estimated. The study concludes that different evaluative spaces and decision-making rules have the potential to offer opposing treatment recommendations. The implications for policy makers are discussed.

  5. Brachytherapy for cervix cancer: low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy – a meta-analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Gustavo A; Manta, Gustavo B; Stefano, Eduardo J; de Fendi, Ligia I

    2009-01-01

    Background The literature supporting high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) in the treatment of cervical carcinoma derives primarily from retrospective series. However, controversy still persists regarding the efficacy and safety of HDR brachytherapy compared to low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, in particular, due to inadequate tumor coverage for stage III patients. Whether LDR or HDR brachytherapy produces better results for these patients in terms of survival rate, local control rate and the treatment complications remain controversial. Methods A meta-analysis of RCT was performed comparing LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer treated for radiotherapy alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT and Cochrane Library databases, as well as abstracts published in the annual proceedings were systematically searched. We assessed methodological quality for each outcome by grading the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations, and "suggest" for weak recommendations. Results Pooled results from five randomized trials (2,065 patients) of HDR brachytherapy in cervix cancer showed no significant increase of mortality (p = 0.52), local recurrence (p = 0.68), or late complications (rectal; p = 0.7, bladder; p = 0.95 or small intestine; p = 0.06) rates as compared to LDR brachytherapy. In the subgroup analysis no difference was observed for overall mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stages I, II and III. The quality of evidence was low for mortality and local recurrence in patients with clinical stage I, and moderate for other clinical stages. Conclusion Our meta-analysis shows that there are no differences between HDR and LDR for overall survival, local recurrence and late complications for clinical stages I, II and III. By means of the GRADE system, we recommend the use of HDR for all clinical stages of cervix cancer. PMID:19344527

  6. Impact of the Revised 10 CFR 835 on the Neutron Dose Rates at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2009-01-13

    In June 2007, 10 CFR 835 [1] was revised to include new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. A significant aspect of the revised 10 CFR 835 is the adoption of the recommendations outlined in ICRP-60 [2]. The recommended new quantities demand a review of much of the basic data used in protection against exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements has defined a number of quantities for use in personnel and area monitoring [3,4,5] including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d) tomore » be used for area monitoring and instrument calibrations. These quantities are used in ICRP-60 and ICRP-74. This report deals only with the changes in the ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms neutron dose and neutron dose rate will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose and ambient neutron dose rate unless otherwise stated. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative estimate of how much the neutron dose rates at LLNL will change with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. Neutron spectra and dose rates from selected locations at the LLNL were measured with a high resolution spectroscopic neutron dose rate system (ROSPEC) as well as with a standard neutron rem meter (a.k.a., a remball). The spectra obtained at these locations compare well with the spectra from the Radiation Calibration Laboratory's (RCL) bare californium source that is currently used to calibrate neutron dose rate instruments. The measurements obtained from the high resolution neutron spectrometer and dose meter ROSPEC and the NRD dose meter compare within the range of {+-}25%. When the new radiation weighting factors are adopted with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835, the measured dose rates will increase by up

  7. Case Report: Linezolid Optic Neuropathy and Proposed Evidenced-based Screening Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Sean P; Sickman, Amy; Slagle, William Scott

    2018-05-01

    This case illustrates a novel screening protocol for linezolid-induced toxic optic neuropathy. To present a case report and analysis of linezolid-induced optic neuropathies in adult patients to develop screening recommendations. A case report of optic neuropathy from extended use of linezolid illustrates its potential effects on vision. We conduct a retrospective analysis of 39 reported cases to derive a recommended screening protocol for linezolid-induced toxic optic neuropathy in adult patients. Of 39 reported adult cases, 32 presented with optic neuropathy within 90 to 365 days of treatment. Within this subset, the duration of linezolid dosage to first symptoms is 235 ± 71 days. Seven outliers either experienced optic neuropathy within the first 28 days or between 600 and 1125 days. Of the 33 cases that quantified visual recovery, 30 reported final binocular visual acuity equivalent to 20/40 or better when the medication was discontinued from 0 to 268 days after symptom onset. Recovery potential was reported over a period of 2 weeks to approximately 6 months after cessation. To evaluate the effect of cumulative dose, the data were separated into patients taking 600 mg twice daily and those at 600 mg once daily. At the higher dosage, a mean of 180 ± 96 days with a mean cumulative dosage of 216 ± 115 g was noted at first symptom, whereas at lower dosage, a mean of 201 ± 102 days was noted with a mean cumulative dose of 138 ± 69 g. We recommend screening adult patients within 1 month after initiating linezolid, followed by a subsequent evaluation every 30 to 60 days beginning 3 months from initiation. Substantial visual recovery is reported when linezolid is discontinued. Toxicity appears to be correlated to duration of treatment, rather than cumulative dose.

  8. Dose-response relationship in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, T R; Demol, P

    1989-08-01

    Numerous clinical studies have been performed to establish efficacy and safety of drugs in gastroenterological disorders. Only in a few if any of these studies, however, the rationale for the optimal dose and the dose regimens, respectively, have been addressed. Adequate and well-controlled dose finding studies play a key role in the clinical assessment of new drugs and in the evaluation of new indications. Hereby the range from the minimal effective dose to the maximal effective and well tolerated dose can be assessed and thus the optimal dose-range and dosage regimen be determined. Meaningful pharmacodynamic studies can be performed in the gastrointestinal tract also in healthy volunteers provided that a method with a high predictability for the desired therapeutic effect is available such as measurement of gastric acid secretion and its inhibition by a drug. Dose finding studies in gastroenterology can be carried out under two main aspects: First, to assess the pharmacodynamic and therapeutic effect of a compound on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. anti-ulcer drug). Second, to evaluate the side effects of a drug on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. gastric mucosal damage by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). For the evaluation of new drugs in gastrointestinal therapy a number of methods are available which yield accurate and reproducible data. While careful clinical-pharmacological dose-response studies using these methods have been carried out already more than a decade ago, it is surprising that therapeutic dose finding studies have become available only during the past few years. For scientific as well as for ethical reasons more trials which determine the optimal therapeutic dose are warranted.

  9. Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G

    2013-08-02

    We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.

  10. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate. Eating three to six meals per day with a meal containing 0.4-0.5 g/kg bodyweight of protein prior and subsequent to resistance training likely maximizes any theoretical benefits of nutrient timing and frequency. However, alterations in nutrient timing and frequency appear to have little effect on fat loss or lean mass retention. Among popular supplements, creatine monohydrate, caffeine and beta-alanine appear to have beneficial effects relevant to contest preparation, however others do not or warrant further study. The practice of dehydration and electrolyte manipulation in the final days and hours prior to competition can be dangerous, and may not improve appearance. Increasing carbohydrate intake at the end of preparation has a theoretical rationale to improve appearance, however it is understudied. Thus, if carbohydrate loading is pursued it should be practiced prior to competition and its benefit assessed individually. Finally, competitors should be aware of the increased risk of developing eating and body image disorders in aesthetic sport and therefore should have access to the appropriate mental health professionals. PMID:24864135

  11. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation.

    PubMed

    Helms, Eric R; Aragon, Alan A; Fitschen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate. Eating three to six meals per day with a meal containing 0.4-0.5 g/kg bodyweight of protein prior and subsequent to resistance training likely maximizes any theoretical benefits of nutrient timing and frequency. However, alterations in nutrient timing and frequency appear to have little effect on fat loss or lean mass retention. Among popular supplements, creatine monohydrate, caffeine and beta-alanine appear to have beneficial effects relevant to contest preparation, however others do not or warrant further study. The practice of dehydration and electrolyte manipulation in the final days and hours prior to competition can be dangerous, and may not improve appearance. Increasing carbohydrate intake at the end of preparation has a theoretical rationale to improve appearance, however it is understudied. Thus, if carbohydrate loading is pursued it should be practiced prior to competition and its benefit assessed individually. Finally, competitors should be aware of the increased risk of developing eating and body image disorders in aesthetic sport and therefore should have access to the appropriate mental health professionals.

  12. Deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hideyuki; Tsumura, Koji; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is one of the most important methods in machine learning, and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is often used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates. However, EM heavily depends on initial configurations and fails to find the global optimum. On the other hand, in the field of physics, quantum annealing (QA) was proposed as a novel optimization approach. Motivated by QA, we propose a quantum annealing extension of EM, which we call the deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization (DQAEM) algorithm. We also discuss its advantage in terms of the path integral formulation. Furthermore, by employing numerical simulations, we illustrate how DQAEM works in MLE and show that DQAEM moderate the problem of local optima in EM.

  13. Relationship between arterial oxygen desaturation and ventilation during maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Miyachi, M; Tabata, I

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of ventilation to arterial O2 desaturation during maximal exercise. Nine untrained subjects and 22 trained long-distance runners [age 18-36 yr, maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 48-74 ml.min-1 x kg-1] volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects performed an incremental exhaustive cycle ergometry test at 70 rpm of pedaling frequency, during which arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) and ventilatory data were collected every minute. SaO2 was estimated with a pulse oximeter. A significant positive correlation was found between SaO2 and end-tidal PO2 (PETO2; r = 0.72, r2 = 0.52, P < 0.001) during maximal exercise. These statistical results suggest that approximately 50% of the variability of SaO2 can be accounted for by differences in PETO2, which reflects alveolar PO2. Furthermore, PETO2 was highly correlated with the ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2; r = 0.91, P < 0.001), which indicates that PETO2 could be the result of ventilation stimulated by maximal exercise. Finally, SaO2 was positively related to VE/VO2 during maximal exercise (r = 0.74, r2 = 0.55, P < 0.001). Therefore, one-half of the arterial O2 desaturation occurring during maximal exercise may be explained by less hyperventilation, specifically for our subjects, who demonstrated a wide range of trained states. Furthermore, we found an indirect positive correlation between SaO2 and ventilatory response to CO2 at rest (r = 0.45, P < 0.05), which was mediated by ventilation during maximal exercise. These data also suggest that ventilation is an important factor for arterial O2 desaturation during maximal exercise.

  14. A new augmentation based algorithm for extracting maximal chordal subgraphs

    DOE PAGES

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2014-10-18

    If every cycle of a graph is chordal length greater than three then it contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms’more » parallelizability. In our paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. Finally, we experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.« less

  15. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  16. Occupational Exposure of the Eye Lens in Interventional Procedures: How to Assess and Manage Radiation Dose.

    PubMed

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O'Connor, Una

    2016-11-01

    Occupational exposure from interventional x-ray procedures is one of the areas in which increased eye lens exposure may occur. Accurate dosimetry is an important element to investigate the correlation of observed radiation effects with radiation dose, to verify the compliance with regulatory dose limits, and to optimize radiation protection practice. The objective of this work is to review eye lens dose levels in clinical practice that may occur from the use of ionizing radiation. The use of a dedicated eye lens dosimeter is the recommended methodology; however, in practice it cannot always be easily implemented. Alternatively, the eye lens dose could be assessed from measurements of other dosimetric quantities or other indirect parameters, such as patient dose. The practical implementation of monitoring eye lens doses and the use of adequate protective equipment still remains a challenge. The use of lead glasses with a good fit to the face, appropriate lateral coverage, and/or ceiling-suspended screens is recommended in workplaces with potential high eye lens doses. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  18. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    PubMed

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  19. Maximal tree size of few-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Huy Nguyen; Cai, Yu; Wu, Xingyao; Rabelo, Rafael; Scarani, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    Tree size (TS) is an interesting measure of complexity for multiqubit states: not only is it in principle computable, but one can obtain lower bounds for it. In this way, it has been possible to identify families of states whose complexity scales superpolynomially in the number of qubits. With the goal of progressing in the systematic study of the mathematical property of TS, in this work we characterize the tree size of pure states for the case where the number of qubits is small, namely, 3 or 4. The study of three qubits does not hold great surprises, insofar as the structure of entanglement is rather simple; the maximal TS is found to be 8, reached for instance by the |W> state. The study of four qubits yields several insights: in particular, the most economic description of a state is found not to be recursive. The maximal TS is found to be 16, reached for instance by a state called |Ψ(4)> which was already discussed in the context of four-photon down-conversion experiments. We also find that the states with maximal tree size form a set of zero measure: a smoothed version of tree size over a neighborhood of a state (ɛ-TS) reduces the maximal values to 6 and 14, respectively. Finally, we introduce a notion of tree size for mixed states and discuss it for a one-parameter family of states.

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Aerobic Exercise Training on Exercise Blood Pressure in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Damon L.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to reduce exercise blood pressure. However, it is unknown if these improvements occur in a dose dependent manner. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women. Methods Participants (n=404) were randomized to one of 4 groups: 4, 8, or 12 kilocalories per kilogram of energy expenditure per week (kcal/kg/week) or the non-exercise control group for 6 months. Exercise blood pressure was obtained during the 50 watts stage of a cycle ergometer maximal exercise test. Results There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure at 50 watts in the 4 kcal/kg/week (−10.9 mmHg, p< 0.001), 8 kcal/kg/week (−9.9 mmHg, p= 0.022), and 12 kcal/kg/week (−13.7 mmHg, p<0.001) compared to control (−4.2 mmHg). Only the highest exercise training dose significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (−4.3 mmHg, p= 0.033) compared to control. Additionally, resting blood pressure was not altered following exercise training (p>0.05) compared to control, and was not associated with changes in exercise systolic (r=0.09, p=0.09) or diastolic (r=0.10, p=0.08) blood pressure. Conclusions Aerobic exercise training reduces exercise blood pressure and may be more modifiable than changes in resting blood pressure. A high dose of aerobic exercise is recommended to successfully reduce both exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and therefore may attenuate the CVD risk associated with abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure. PMID:22547251

  1. EPICON consensus: recommendations for proper management of switching to eslicarbazepine acetate in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, V; Ojeda, J; Rocamora, R A; Serrano-Castro, P J; Parra, J; Rodríguez-Uranga, J J; Bathal, H; Viteri, C

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the EPICON Project is to develop a set of recommendations on how to adequately switch from carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in some patients with epilepsy. A steering committee drafted a questionnaire of 56 questions regarding the transition from CBZ or OXC to ESL in clinical practice (methodology and change situation). The questionnaire was then distributed to 54 epilepsy experts in 2 rounds using the Delphi method. An agreement/disagreement consensus was defined when a median ≥ 7 points or ≤ 3 was achieved, respectively, and a relative interquartile range ≤ 0.40. We analysed the results obtained to reach our conclusions. Our main recommendations were the following: switching from CBZ to ESL must be carried out over a period of 1 to 3 weeks with a CBZ:ESL dose ratio of 1:1.3 and is recommended for patients who frequently forget to take their medication, those who work rotating shifts, polymedicated patients, subjects with cognitive problems, severe osteoporosis-osteopaenia, dyslipidaemia, or liver disease other than acute liver failure, as well as for men with erectile dysfunction caused by CBZ. The transition from OXC to ESL can take place overnight with an OXC:ESL dose ratio of 1:1 and it is recommended for patients who frequently forget to take their medication, those who work rotating shifts, polymedicated patients, or those with cognitive problems. The transition was not recommended for patients with prior rash due to CBZ or OXC use. The EPICON Project offers a set of recommendations about the clinical management of switching from CBZ or OXC to ESL, using the Delphi method. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation dose to physicians’ eye lens during interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahruddin, N. A.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.; Bakar, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    The demand of interventional radiology has increased, leading to significant risk of radiation where eye lens dose assessment becomes a major concern. In this study, we investigate physicians' eye lens doses during interventional procedures. Measurement were made using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) dosimeters and was recorded in equivalent dose at a depth of 0.07 mm, Hp(0.07). Annual Hp(0.07) and annual effective dose were estimated using workload estimation for a year and Von Boetticher algorithm. Our results showed the mean Hp(0.07) dose of 0.33 mSv and 0.20 mSv for left and right eye lens respectively. The highest estimated annual eye lens dose was 29.33 mSv per year, recorded on left eye lens during fistulogram procedure. Five physicians had exceeded 20 mSv dose limit as recommended by international commission of radiological protection (ICRP). It is suggested that frequent training and education on occupational radiation exposure are necessary to increase knowledge and awareness of the physicians’ thus reducing dose during the interventional procedure.

  3. Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

  4. High variability in the dosing of commonly used antibiotics revealed by a Europe-wide point prevalence study: implications for research and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Metsvaht, Tuuli; Nellis, Georgi; Varendi, Heili; Nunn, Anthony J; Graham, Susan; Rieutord, Andre; Storme, Thomas; McElnay, James; Mulla, Hussain; Turner, Mark A; Lutsar, Irja

    2015-04-16

    Antibiotic dosing in neonates varies between countries and centres, suggesting suboptimal exposures for some neonates. We aimed to describe variations and factors influencing the variability in the dosing of frequently used antibiotics in European NICUs to help define strategies for improvement. A sub-analysis of the European Study of Neonatal Exposure to Excipients point prevalence study was undertaken. Demographic data of neonates receiving any antibiotic on the study day within one of three two-week periods from January to June 2012, the dose, dosing interval and route of administration of each prescription were recorded. The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) and Neofax were used as reference sources. Risk factors for deviations exceeding ±25% of the relevant BNFC dosage recommendation were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In 89 NICUs from 21 countries, 586 antibiotic prescriptions for 342 infants were reported. The twelve most frequently used antibiotics - gentamicin, penicillin G, ampicillin, vancomycin, amikacin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, meropenem, amoxicillin, metronidazole, teicoplanin and flucloxacillin - covered 92% of systemic prescriptions. Glycopeptide class, GA <32 weeks, 5(th) minute Apgar score <5 and geographical region were associated with deviation from the BNFC dosage recommendation. While the doses of penicillins exceeded recommendations, antibiotics with safety concerns followed (gentamicin) or were dosed below (vancomycin) recommendations. The current lack of compliance with existing dosing recommendations for neonates needs to be overcome through the conduct of well-designed clinical trials with a limited number of antibiotics to define pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety in this population and by efficient dissemination of the results.

  5. Dose finding with the sequential parallel comparison design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessie J; Ivanova, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) is a two-stage design recommended for trials with possibly high placebo response. A drug-placebo comparison in the first stage is followed in the second stage by placebo nonresponders being re-randomized between drug and placebo. We describe how SPCD can be used in trials where multiple doses of a drug or multiple treatments are compared with placebo and present two adaptive approaches. We detail how to analyze data in such trials and give recommendations about the allocation proportion to placebo in the two stages of SPCD.

  6. Influence of crank length and crank width on maximal hand cycling power and cadence.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Christian; Hilker, Lutz; Böhm, Harald

    2009-07-01

    The effect of different crank lengths and crank widths on maximal hand cycling power, cadence and handle speed were determined. Crank lengths and crank widths were adapted to anthropometric data of the participants as the ratio to forward reach (FR) and shoulder breadth (SB), respectively. 25 able-bodied subjects performed maximal inertial load hand cycle ergometry using crank lengths of 19, 22.5 and 26% of FR and 72, 85 and 98% of SB. Maximum power ranged from 754 (246) W for the crank geometry short wide (crank length x crank width) to 873 (293) W for the combination long middle. Every crank length differed significantly (P < 0.05) from each other, whereas no significant effect of crank width to maximum power output was revealed. Optimal cadence decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing crank length from 124.8 (0.9) rpm for the short to 107.5 (1.6) rpm for the long cranks, whereas optimal handle speed increased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing crank length from 1.81 (0.01) m/s for the short to 2.13 (0.03) m/s for the long cranks. Crank width did neither influence optimal cadence nor optimal handle speed significantly. From the results of this study, for maximum hand cycling power, a crank length to FR ratio of 26% for a crank width to SB ratio of 85% is recommended.

  7. Prevention and control of haemophilus influenzae type b disease: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Briere, Elizabeth C; Rubin, Lorry; Moro, Pedro L; Cohn, Amanda; Clark, Thomas; Messonnier, Nancy

    2014-02-28

    This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations; it is intended for use by clinicians, public health officials, vaccination providers, and immunization program personnel as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination with a licensed conjugate Hib vaccine for infants aged 2 through 6 months (2 or 3 doses, depending on vaccine product) with a booster dose at age 12 through 15 months. ACIP also recommends vaccination for certain persons at increased risk for Hib disease (i.e., persons who have early component complement deficiencies, immunoglobulin deficiency, anatomic or functional asplenia, or HIV infection; recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant; and recipients of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms). This report summarizes current information on Hib epidemiology in the United States and describes Hib vaccines licensed for use in the United States. Guidelines for antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis of contacts of persons with Hib disease also are provided.

  8. Maximal volume behind horizons without curvature singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Guo, Xin-Xuan; Wang, Towe

    2018-01-01

    The black hole information paradox is related to the area of event horizon, and potentially to the volume and singularity behind it. One example is the complexity/volume duality conjectured by Stanford and Susskind. Accepting the proposal of Christodoulou and Rovelli, we calculate the maximal volume inside regular black holes, which are free of curvature singularity, in asymptotically flat and anti-de Sitter spacetimes respectively. The complexity/volume duality is then applied to anti-de Sitter regular black holes. We also present an analytical expression for the maximal volume outside the de Sitter horizon.

  9. Concussion management in collegiate student-athletes: return-to-academics recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Crenshaw, Cayce R; Baker, Martin H; McConnell, Jodi M; Patel, Kirtida

    2015-05-01

    Concussions in collegiate athletics can affect student-athletes both on the field and in the classroom. As policies are made to outline return-to-play decisions and timelines, this article will make the case that return-to-academics should also be included and follow a step-wise protocol. Complete cognitive rest is a cornerstone of concussion recovery and slow reintroduction to academics should precede return-to-play. The college structure allows for student-athletes to begin small doses of cognitive activity after the recommended complete cognitive rest. It is recommended that return-to-academics involves a team approach to help the student-athlete navigate the responsibilities of course work while healing from a brain injury.

  10. Equivalent uniform dose concept evaluated by theoretical dose volume histograms for thoracic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dumas, J L; Lorchel, F; Perrot, Y; Aletti, P; Noel, A; Wolf, D; Courvoisier, P; Bosset, J F

    2007-03-01

    The goal of our study was to quantify the limits of the EUD models for use in score functions in inverse planning software, and for clinical application. We focused on oesophagus cancer irradiation. Our evaluation was based on theoretical dose volume histograms (DVH), and we analyzed them using volumetric and linear quadratic EUD models, average and maximum dose concepts, the linear quadratic model and the differential area between each DVH. We evaluated our models using theoretical and more complex DVHs for the above regions of interest. We studied three types of DVH for the target volume: the first followed the ICRU dose homogeneity recommendations; the second was built out of the first requirements and the same average dose was built in for all cases; the third was truncated by a small dose hole. We also built theoretical DVHs for the organs at risk, in order to evaluate the limits of, and the ways to use both EUD(1) and EUD/LQ models, comparing them to the traditional ways of scoring a treatment plan. For each volume of interest we built theoretical treatment plans with differences in the fractionation. We concluded that both volumetric and linear quadratic EUDs should be used. Volumetric EUD(1) takes into account neither hot-cold spot compensation nor the differences in fractionation, but it is more sensitive to the increase of the irradiated volume. With linear quadratic EUD/LQ, a volumetric analysis of fractionation variation effort can be performed.

  11. Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang

    2018-03-01

    The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.

  12. Recommendations for imaging tumor response in neurofibromatosis clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barker, Fred G.; Connor, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Fisher, Michael J.; Goutagny, Stephane; Harris, Gordon J.; Jaramillo, Diego; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Korf, Bruce R.; Mautner, Victor; Plotkin, Scott R.; Poussaint, Tina Y.; Robertson, Kent; Shih, Chie-Schin; Widemann, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurofibromatosis (NF)-related benign tumors such as plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and vestibular schwannomas (VS) can cause substantial morbidity. Clinical trials directed at these tumors have become available. Due to differences in disease manifestations and the natural history of NF-related tumors, response criteria used for solid cancers (1-dimensional/RECIST [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors] and bidimensional/World Health Organization) have limited applicability. No standardized response criteria for benign NF tumors exist. The goal of the Tumor Measurement Working Group of the REiNS (Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis) committee is to propose consensus guidelines for the evaluation of imaging response in clinical trials for NF tumors. Methods: Currently used imaging endpoints, designs of NF clinical trials, and knowledge of the natural history of NF-related tumors, in particular PN and VS, were reviewed. Consensus recommendations for response evaluation for future studies were developed based on this review and the expertise of group members. Results: MRI with volumetric analysis is recommended to sensitively and reproducibly evaluate changes in tumor size in clinical trials. Volumetric analysis requires adherence to specific imaging recommendations. A 20% volume change was chosen to indicate a decrease or increase in tumor size. Use of these criteria in future trials will enable meaningful comparison of results across studies. Conclusions: The proposed imaging response evaluation guidelines, along with validated clinical outcome measures, will maximize the ability to identify potentially active agents for patients with NF and benign tumors. PMID:24249804

  13. Recommendations for imaging tumor response in neurofibromatosis clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dombi, Eva; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barker, Fred G; Connor, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Fisher, Michael J; Goutagny, Stephane; Harris, Gordon J; Jaramillo, Diego; Karajannis, Matthias A; Korf, Bruce R; Mautner, Victor; Plotkin, Scott R; Poussaint, Tina Y; Robertson, Kent; Shih, Chie-Schin; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2013-11-19

    Neurofibromatosis (NF)-related benign tumors such as plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and vestibular schwannomas (VS) can cause substantial morbidity. Clinical trials directed at these tumors have become available. Due to differences in disease manifestations and the natural history of NF-related tumors, response criteria used for solid cancers (1-dimensional/RECIST [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors] and bidimensional/World Health Organization) have limited applicability. No standardized response criteria for benign NF tumors exist. The goal of the Tumor Measurement Working Group of the REiNS (Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis) committee is to propose consensus guidelines for the evaluation of imaging response in clinical trials for NF tumors. Currently used imaging endpoints, designs of NF clinical trials, and knowledge of the natural history of NF-related tumors, in particular PN and VS, were reviewed. Consensus recommendations for response evaluation for future studies were developed based on this review and the expertise of group members. MRI with volumetric analysis is recommended to sensitively and reproducibly evaluate changes in tumor size in clinical trials. Volumetric analysis requires adherence to specific imaging recommendations. A 20% volume change was chosen to indicate a decrease or increase in tumor size. Use of these criteria in future trials will enable meaningful comparison of results across studies. The proposed imaging response evaluation guidelines, along with validated clinical outcome measures, will maximize the ability to identify potentially active agents for patients with NF and benign tumors.

  14. Usability Guidelines for Product Recommenders Based on Example Critiquing Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo

    Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.

  15. Procedure for maximizing oocyte harvest for in vitro embryo production in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, A; Pereyra Bonnet, F; Cueto, M I; Catala, M; Salamone, D F; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2007-08-01

    Possible effects of repeated hormonal treatments and laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) on the efficiency of oocyte recovery rate and quality were determined in sheep and goats. In six adult Merino sheep and five Criolla goats, ovarian status was synchronized by a prostaglandin F(2 alpha) analogue and the insertion of an intravaginal sponge 48 h later. Follicle development was stimulated by a single dose of FSH (60 mg NIH-FSH-P1) plus a single dose of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG; 300 UI). The first FSH/eCG doses were administered 48 h after the sponge insertion, being repeated every 4 days to complete a total of four treatments in sheep and three in goats. Follicles in both ovaries were categorized according to their diameter and follicular fluid was aspirated under laparoscopic observation without a vacuum pump. In sheep, during a 12-day-period, a total of 347 follicles were aspirated with a recovery rate of 46.9%. In goats, during an 8-day-period, 219 follicles were aspirated with a recovery rate of 45.6%. In both species, there were no significant differences in the number of aspirated follicles, oocyte recovery rate and good quality oocyte recovery rate. However, in sheep the oocyte recovery rate was higher for large follicles, whereas in goats no such effect was detected. In summary, current results indicate that retrieval of oocytes can be maximized, without affecting oocyte quality, by repeating 'oneshot' FSH/eCG regimes and LOPUs at intervals as short as 4 days.

  16. Comparison of selected dose calculation algorithms in radiotherapy treatment planning for tissues with inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woon, Y. L.; Heng, S. P.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ung, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    Inhomogeneity correction is recommended for accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy treatment planning since human body are highly inhomogeneous with the presence of bones and air cavities. However, each dose calculation algorithm has its own limitations. This study is to assess the accuracy of five algorithms that are currently implemented for treatment planning, including pencil beam convolution (PBC), superposition (SP), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), Monte Carlo (MC) and Acuros XB (AXB). The calculated dose was compared with the measured dose using radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT2) in inhomogeneous phantoms. In addition, the dosimetric impact of different algorithms on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied for head and neck region. MC had the best agreement with the measured percentage depth dose (PDD) within the inhomogeneous region. This was followed by AXB, AAA, SP and PBC. For IMRT planning, MC algorithm is recommended for treatment planning in preference to PBC and SP. The MC and AXB algorithms were found to have better accuracy in terms of inhomogeneity correction and should be used for tumour volume within the proximity of inhomogeneous structures.

  17. Case factors affecting hearing aid recommendations by hearing care professionals.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Kirkegaard, Matilde; Jørgensen, Ole; Jensen, Kasper; Schum, Don

    2015-03-01

    hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome. American Academy of Audiology.

  18. The impact of different dose response parameters on biologically optimized IMRT in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Ferreira, Brigida; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Adamus-Górka, Magdalena; Svensson, Roger; Lind, Bengt K.

    2008-05-01

    The full potential of biologically optimized radiation therapy can only be maximized with the prediction of individual patient radiosensitivity prior to treatment. Unfortunately, the available biological parameters, derived from clinical trials, reflect an average radiosensitivity of the examined populations. In the present study, a breast cancer patient of stage I II with positive lymph nodes was chosen in order to analyse the effect of the variation of individual radiosensitivity on the optimal dose distribution. Thus, deviations from the average biological parameters, describing tumour, heart and lung response, were introduced covering the range of patient radiosensitivity reported in the literature. Two treatment configurations of three and seven biologically optimized intensity-modulated beams were employed. The different dose distributions were analysed using biological and physical parameters such as the complication-free tumour control probability (P+), the biologically effective uniform dose (\\bar{\\bar{D}} ), dose volume histograms, mean doses, standard deviations, maximum and minimum doses. In the three-beam plan, the difference in P+ between the optimal dose distribution (when the individual patient radiosensitivity is known) and the reference dose distribution, which is optimal for the average patient biology, ranges up to 13.9% when varying the radiosensitivity of the target volume, up to 0.9% when varying the radiosensitivity of the heart and up to 1.3% when varying the radiosensitivity of the lung. Similarly, in the seven-beam plan, the differences in P+ are up to 13.1% for the target, up to 1.6% for the heart and up to 0.9% for the left lung. When the radiosensitivity of the most important tissues in breast cancer radiation therapy was simultaneously changed, the maximum gain in outcome was as high as 7.7%. The impact of the dose response uncertainties on the treatment outcome was clinically insignificant for the majority of the simulated patients

  19. A comprehensive study on the relationship between the image quality and imaging dose in low-dose cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2012-04-01

    While compressed sensing (CS)-based algorithms have been developed for the low-dose cone beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction, a clear understanding of the relationship between the image quality and imaging dose at low-dose levels is needed. In this paper, we qualitatively investigate this subject in a comprehensive manner with extensive experimental and simulation studies. The basic idea is to plot both the image quality and imaging dose together as functions of the number of projections and mAs per projection over the whole clinically relevant range. On this basis, a clear understanding of the tradeoff between the image quality and imaging dose can be achieved and optimal low-dose CBCT scan protocols can be developed to maximize the dose reduction while minimizing the image quality loss for various imaging tasks in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Main findings of this work include (1) under the CS-based reconstruction framework, image quality has little degradation over a large range of dose variation. Image quality degradation becomes evident when the imaging dose (approximated with the x-ray tube load) is decreased below 100 total mAs. An imaging dose lower than 40 total mAs leads to a dramatic image degradation, and thus should be used cautiously. Optimal low-dose CBCT scan protocols likely fall in the dose range of 40-100 total mAs, depending on the specific IGRT applications. (2) Among different scan protocols at a constant low-dose level, the super sparse-view reconstruction with the projection number less than 50 is the most challenging case, even with strong regularization. Better image quality can be acquired with low mAs protocols. (3) The optimal scan protocol is the combination of a medium number of projections and a medium level of mAs/view. This is more evident when the dose is around 72.8 total mAs or below and when the ROI is a low-contrast or high-resolution object. Based on our results, the optimal number of projections is around 90 to 120. (4

  20. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.

    PubMed

    Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D

    2000-10-01

    The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines

  1. Basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity.

    PubMed

    Mamoun, John

    2012-01-01

    To maximize office productivity, dentists should focus on performing tasks that only they can perform and not spend office hours performing tasks that can be delegated to non-dentist personnel. An important element of maximizing productivity is to arrange the schedule so that multiple patients are seated simultaneously in different operatories. Doing so allows the dentist to work on one patient in one operatory without needing to wait for local anesthetic to take effect on another patient in another operatory, or for assistants to perform tasks (such as cleaning up, taking radiographs, performing prophylaxis, or transporting and preparing equipment and supplies) in other operatories. Another way to improve productivity is to structure procedures so that fewer steps are needed to set up and implement them. In addition, during procedures, four-handed dental passing methods can be used to provide the dentist with supplies or equipment when needed. This article reviews basic principles of maximizing dental office productivity, based on the author's observations of business logistics used by various dental offices.

  2. Solar ultraviolet doses and vitamin D in a northern mid-latitude.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos; Gurrea, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the most important factors in the development of skin cancer in human, solar erythema and skin aging. Nevertheless, numerous studies have shown the benefits of UV solar radiation in moderate doses, such as the reduction of blood pressure and mental health, treatment of various diseases, and the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. This paper analyses data from solar ultraviolet erythemal (UVER) irradiance in W/m 2 measured in a northern mid-latitude as Valencia (Spain) for the period 2003-2010. To estimate effective solar UV radiation in the production of vitamin D (UVD) we used the relationship proposed by McKenzie et al. (2009). It was obtained for one month for each season the minimum exposure time needed around solar noon and at 9 UTC and 15 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) to obtain the recommended daily dose of 1000IU. Also, it has been calculated time for erythema induction around solar noon for the same months. The median UVER daily dose during the summer months was 4000J/m 2 day, and 700J/m 2 day in winter. With regard to UVD, the median UVD daily dose in summer season was 7700J/m 2 day, and in winter it was 1000J/m 2 day. Around noon in January it takes more than two hours of solar exposure to obtain the recommended daily dose of vitamin D, whereas the rest of the year range between 7min on July and 31min on October. For the same months around noon, exposure times to produce erythema were obtained, these being of higher value to the previous. The results show that it is difficult to obtain the recommended vitamin D doses in winter in a northern mid-latitude, as the human body is almost entirely covered in this season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximal Ethics in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the concept of maximal ethics as a basis of counselor behavior and describes the need for ethics development in counselor education training. Notes modeling aspects of counselor educator behavior and considers programming for ethical development in counselor training. Suggests resource materials for counselor training in ethics. (RC)

  4. Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…

  5. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  6. Statistical mechanics of influence maximization with thermal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Christopher W.; Lee, Daniel D.

    2017-03-01

    The problem of optimally distributing a budget of influence among individuals in a social network, known as influence maximization, has typically been studied in the context of contagion models and deterministic processes, which fail to capture stochastic interactions inherent in real-world settings. Here, we show that by introducing thermal noise into influence models, the dynamics exactly resemble spins in a heterogeneous Ising system. In this way, influence maximization in the presence of thermal noise has a natural physical interpretation as maximizing the magnetization of an Ising system given a budget of external magnetic field. Using this statistical mechanical formulation, we demonstrate analytically that for small external-field budgets, the optimal influence solutions exhibit a highly non-trivial temperature dependence, focusing on high-degree hub nodes at high temperatures and on easily influenced peripheral nodes at low temperatures. For the general problem, we present a projected gradient ascent algorithm that uses the magnetic susceptibility to calculate locally optimal external-field distributions. We apply our algorithm to synthetic and real-world networks, demonstrating that our analytic results generalize qualitatively. Our work establishes a fruitful connection with statistical mechanics and demonstrates that influence maximization depends crucially on the temperature of the system, a fact that has not been appreciated by existing research.

  7. The Impact of a One-Dose versus Two-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine Regimen in Outbreak Settings: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Ciglenecki, Iza; Grais, Rebecca F.; Sack, David A.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited. Innovative strategies are needed to maximize the health impact and minimize the logistical barriers to using available vaccine. Here we ask under what conditions the use of one dose rather than the internationally licensed two-dose protocol may do both. Methods and Findings Using mathematical models we determined the minimum relative single-dose efficacy (MRSE) at which single-dose reactive campaigns are expected to be as or more effective than two-dose campaigns with the same amount of vaccine. Average one- and two-dose OCV effectiveness was estimated from published literature and compared to the MRSE. Results were applied to recent outbreaks in Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Guinea using stochastic simulations to illustrate the potential impact of one- and two-dose campaigns. At the start of an epidemic, a single dose must be 35%–56% as efficacious as two doses to avert the same number of cases with a fixed amount of vaccine (i.e., MRSE between 35% and 56%). This threshold decreases as vaccination is delayed. Short-term OCV effectiveness is estimated to be 77% (95% CI 57%–88%) for two doses and 44% (95% CI −27% to 76%) for one dose. This results in a one-dose relative efficacy estimate of 57% (interquartile range 13%–88%), which is above conservative MRSE estimates. Using our best estimates of one- and two-dose efficacy, we projected that a single-dose reactive campaign could have prevented 70,584 (95% prediction interval [PI] 55,943–86,205) cases in Zimbabwe, 78,317 (95% PI 57,435–100,150) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and 2,826 (95% PI 2,490–3,170) cases in Conakry, Guinea: 1.1 to 1.2 times as many as a two-dose campaign. While extensive sensitivity analyses were performed, our projections of cases averted in past epidemics are based on severely limited single-dose efficacy data and may not fully capture

  8. Maximizing the Gains and Minimizing the Pains of Diversity: A Policy Perspective.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Todd, Andrew R; Homan, Astrid C; Phillips, Katherine W; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Sasaki, Stacey J; Richeson, Jennifer A; Olayon, Jennifer B; Maddux, William W

    2015-11-01

    Empirical evidence reveals that diversity-heterogeneity in race, culture, gender, etc.-has material benefits for organizations, communities, and nations. However, because diversity can also incite detrimental forms of conflict and resentment, its benefits are not always realized. Drawing on research from multiple disciplines, this article offers recommendations for how best to harness the benefits of diversity. First, we highlight how two forms of diversity-the diversity present in groups, communities, and nations, and the diversity acquired by individuals through their personal experiences (e.g., living abroad)-enable effective decision making, innovation, and economic growth by promoting deeper information processing and complex thinking. Second, we identify methods to remove barriers that limit the amount of diversity and opportunity in organizations. Third, we describe practices, including inclusive multiculturalism and perspective taking, that can help manage diversity without engendering resistance. Finally, we propose a number of policies that can maximize the gains and minimize the pains of diversity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  10. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  11. Maximizing the physical use of the office.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-10-01

    When referring to the physical plant in a dental practice, I am referring mainly to the use of dental chairs, because this is where dental practice production occurs. By maximizing the use of chairs or adding the necessary number of chairs to a practice, any office can grow and experience a proper patient flow. Since most offices have significantly high rates of no-shows, last-minute cancellations and overdue patients, the potential for growth is enormous. By using the schedule and chairs properly, the office has the opportunity to maximize production, create convenient appointments for patients and significantly increase practice profitability.

  12. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    PubMed

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  13. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  14. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain: preliminary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective "high" (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to "cannabinoid" clinics (level III evidence). Future guidelines should be based on

  15. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  16. Pressurised metered dose inhaler-spacer technique in young children improves with video instruction.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Nicole; Le Souëf, Peter; Turkovic, Lidija; McCahon, Lucy; Kicic, Anthony; Sly, Peter D; Devadason, Sunalene; Schultz, André

    2016-07-01

    The importance of good device technique to maximise delivery of aerosolised medications is widely recognised. Pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI)-spacer technique was investigated in 122 children, aged 2-7 years, with asthma. Eight individual steps of device technique were evaluated before and after viewing an instructional video for correct device technique. Video measurements were repeated every three months for nine months. Device technique improved directly after video instruction at the baseline study visit (p < 0.001) but had no immediate effect at subsequent visits. Additionally, pMDI-spacer technique improved with successive visits over one year for the group overall as evidenced by increases in the proportion of children scoring maximal (p = 0.02) and near-maximal (p = 0.04) scores. Repeated video instruction over time improves inhaler technique in young children. • Correct device technique is considered essential for sufficient delivery of inhaled medication. • Poor inhaler use is common in young asthmatic children using pressurised metered dose inhalers and spacers. What is New: • Video instruction could be used as a strategy to improve device technique in young children.

  17. Measles, mumps, and rubella--vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Watson, J C; Hadler, S C; Dykewicz, C A; Reef, S; Phillips, L

    1998-05-22

    These revised recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on measles, mumps, and rubella prevention supersede recommendations published in 1989 and 1990. This statement summarizes the goals and current strategies for measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) elimination and for mumps reduction in the United States. Changes from previous recommendations include: Emphasis on the use of combined MMR vaccine for most indications; A change in the recommended age for routine vaccination to 12-15 months for the first dose of MMR, and to 4-6 years for the second dose of MMR; A recommendation that all states take immediate steps to implement a two dose MMR requirement for school entry and any additional measures needed to ensure that all school-aged children are vaccinated with two doses of MMR by 2001; A clarification of the role of serologic screening to determine immunity; A change in the criteria for determining acceptable evidence of rubella immunity; A recommendation that all persons who work in health-care facilities have acceptable evidence of measles and rubella immunity; Changes in the recommended interval between administration of immune globulin and measles vaccination; and Updated information on adverse events and contraindications, particularly for persons with severe HIV infection, persons with a history of egg allergy or gelatin allergy, persons with a history of thrombocytopenia, and persons receiving steroid therapy.

  18. [Antibiotic management of acute otitis media. New recommendations].

    PubMed

    Longuet, P

    2000-12-02

    FAILURES OF ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT: The number of failures after treatment of acute middle ear infections with the 2 main antibiotics prescribed (amoxicillin and the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) is on the rise. These failures appear to be related to increased resistance of the 2 principal pathogens, pneumococci and Hemophilus influenzae. A NEW FORMULATION: In order to reduce the rate of failure, it has been necessary to both increase the dose of penicillin to overcome the reduced susceptibility of pneumococci to penicillin and to prescribe a beta-lactam because of the frequent isolation of beta-lactamase producing Hemophilus influenzae. A new formulation has been developed where the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dose is 14 to 1. This allows a daily dose of 80 mg/kg for amoxicillin and 6.4 mg/kg for clavulanic acid. In one open multicentric study including 51 pediatric patients aged 3 to 48 months with acute middle ear infections, it was demonstrated that this new formulation can be very effective in eradicating the causal agents of acute middle ear infections, including pneumococci and penicillin-resistant Hemophilus. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOOD EFFICACY: Amoxicillin must always be prescribed, either alone or in combination with clavulanic acid, at the dose of 45 to 50 mg/kg b.i.d. the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination should be preferred for children under 2 years due to the risk of beta-lactamase producing Hemophilus.

  19. Occupational dose in interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Chida, Koichi; Kaga, Yuji; Haga, Yoshihiro; Kataoka, Nozomi; Kumasaka, Eriko; Meguro, Taiichiro; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiology tends to involve long procedures (i.e., long fluoroscopic times). Therefore, radiation protection for interventional radiology staff is an important issue. This study describes the occupational radiation dose for interventional radiology staff, especially nurses, to clarify the present annual dose level for interventional radiology nurses. We compared the annual occupational dose (effective dose and dose equivalent) among interventional radiology staff in a hospital where 6606 catheterization procedures are performed annually. The annual occupational doses of 18 physicians, seven nurses, and eight radiologic technologists were recorded using two monitoring badges, one worn over and one under their lead aprons. The annual mean ± SD effective dose (range) to the physicians, nurses, and radiologic technologists using two badges was 3.00 ± 1.50 (0.84-6.17), 1.34 ± 0.55 (0.70-2.20), and 0.60 ± 0.48 (0.02-1.43) mSv/y, respectively. Similarly, the annual mean ± SD dose equivalent range was 19.84 ± 12.45 (7.0-48.5), 4.73 ± 0.72 (3.9-6.2), and 1.30 ± 1.00 (0.2-2.7) mSv/y, respectively. The mean ± SD effective dose for the physicians was 1.02 ± 0.74 and 3.00 ± 1.50 mSv/y for the one- and two-badge methods, respectively (p < 0.001). Similarly, the mean ± SD effective dose for the nurses (p = 0.186) and radiologic technologists (p = 0.726) tended to be lower using the one-badge method. The annual occupational dose for interventional radiology staff was in the order physicians > nurses > radiologic technologists. The occupational dose determined using one badge under the apron was far lower than the dose obtained with two badges in both physicians and nonphysicians. To evaluate the occupational dose correctly, we recommend use of two monitoring badges to evaluate interventional radiology nurses as well as physicians.

  20. High-dose buprenorphine: perioperative precautions and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D M; Meyer-Witting, M

    2005-02-01

    Buprenorphine has been in clinical use in anaesthesia for several decades. Recently, the high-dose sublingual formulation (Subutex, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, U.K.) has been increasingly used as maintenance therapy in opioid dependence, as an alternative to methadone and other pharmacological therapies. Buprenorphine has unique pharmacological properties making it well suited for use as a maintenance therapy in opioid dependence. However, these same properties may cause difficulty in the perioperative management of pain. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, attenuating the effects of supplemental illicit or therapeutic opioid agonists. As a result of its high receptor affinity, supplemental opioids do not readily displace buprenorphine from the opioid receptor in standard doses. High-dose buprenorphine has an extended duration of action that prolongs both of these effects. The perioperative management of patients stabilized on high-dose buprenorphine and undergoing surgery requires consideration of the likely analgesic requirements. Where possible the buprenorphine should be continued. Pain management should focus on maximizing non-opioid analgesia, local anaesthesia and non-pharmacological techniques. Where pain may not be adequately relieved by these methods, the addition of a full opioid agonist such as fentanyl or morphine at appropriate doses should be considered, accompanied by close monitoring in a high dependency unit. In situations where this regimen is unlikely to be effective, preoperative conversion to morphine or methadone may be an option. Where available, liaison with a hospital-based alcohol and drug service should always be considered.

  1. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-07-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems.

  2. Maximizers in Lipschitz spacetimes are either timelike or null

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Melanie; Ling, Eric

    2018-04-01

    We prove that causal maximizers in C 0,1 spacetimes are either timelike or null. This question was posed in Sämann and Steinbauer (2017 arXiv:1710.10887) since bubbling regions in C0, α spacetimes (α <1 ) can produce causal maximizers that contain a segment which is timelike and a segment which is null, see Chruściel and Grant (2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 145001). While C 0,1 spacetimes do not produce bubbling regions, the causal character of maximizers for spacetimes with regularity at least C 0,1 but less than C 1,1 was unknown until now. As an application we show that timelike geodesically complete spacetimes are C 0,1-inextendible.

  3. Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Robert Q.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

  4. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  5. New dosing strategies for an old antibiotic: pharmacodynamics of front-loaded regimens of colistin at simulated pharmacokinetics in patients with kidney or liver disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gauri G; Ly, Neang S; Haas, Curtis E; Garonzik, Samira; Forrest, Alan; Bulitta, Jurgen B; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Tsuji, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that colistin monotherapy is suboptimal at currently recommended doses. We hypothesized that front-loading provides an improved dosing strategy for polymyxin antibiotics to maximize killing and minimize total exposure. Here, we utilized an in vitro pharmacodynamic model to examine the impact of front-loaded colistin regimens against a high bacterial density (10(8) CFU/ml) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pharmacokinetics were simulated for patients with hepatic (half-life [t1/2] of 3.2 h) or renal (t1/2 of 14.8 h) disease. Front-loaded regimens (n=5) demonstrated improvement in bacterial killing, with reduced overall free drug areas under the concentration-time curve (fAUC) compared to those with traditional dosing regimens (n=14) with various dosing frequencies (every 12 h [q12h] and q24h). In the renal failure simulations, front-loaded regimens at lower exposures (fAUC of 143 mg · h/liter) obtained killing activity similar to that of traditional regimens (fAUC of 268 mg · h/liter), with an ∼97% reduction in the area under the viable count curve over 48 h. In hepatic failure simulations, front-loaded regimens yielded rapid initial killing by up to 7 log10 within 2 h, but considerable regrowth occurred for both front-loaded and traditional regimens. No regimen eradicated the high bacterial inoculum of P. aeruginosa. The current study, which utilizes an in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model, demonstrates the potential benefits of front-loading strategies for polymyxins simulating differential pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic and renal failure at a range of doses. Our findings may have important clinical implications, as front-loading polymyxins as a part of a combination regimen may be a viable strategy for aggressive treatment of high-bacterial-burden infections.

  6. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  7. General form of a cooperative gradual maximal covering location problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Bashiri, Mahdi; Nikzad, Hamideh

    2018-07-01

    Cooperative and gradual covering are two new methods for developing covering location models. In this paper, a cooperative maximal covering location-allocation model is developed (CMCLAP). In addition, both cooperative and gradual covering concepts are applied to the maximal covering location simultaneously (CGMCLP). Then, we develop an integrated form of a cooperative gradual maximal covering location problem, which is called a general CGMCLP. By setting the model parameters, the proposed general model can easily be transformed into other existing models, facilitating general comparisons. The proposed models are developed without allocation for physical signals and with allocation for non-physical signals in discrete location space. Comparison of the previously introduced gradual maximal covering location problem (GMCLP) and cooperative maximal covering location problem (CMCLP) models with our proposed CGMCLP model in similar data sets shows that the proposed model can cover more demands and acts more efficiently. Sensitivity analyses are performed to show the effect of related parameters and the model's validity. Simulated annealing (SA) and a tabu search (TS) are proposed as solution algorithms for the developed models for large-sized instances. The results show that the proposed algorithms are efficient solution approaches, considering solution quality and running time.

  8. Proton Therapy Dose Characterization and Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    than recommended as these patients are on a separate UPENN research study where dose maximum accepted was 6700 cGy. 15... Research Protection Office. 8.0 Data Handling and Record Keeping All patients must have a signed Informed Consent Form and an On - study (confirmation...this award. Phase 1 concentrated on designing and building a Multi-leaf collimator for use in proton therapy. Phase 2 focused on studying the

  9. Radiation dose constraints for organs at risk in neuro-oncology; the European Particle Therapy Network consensus.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Maarten; Eekers, Daniëlle B P; Alapetite, Claire; Burnet, Neil G; Calugaru, Valentin; Coremans, Ida E M; Fossati, Piero; Høyer, Morten; Langendijk, Johannes A; Romero, Alejandra Méndez; Paulsen, Frank; Perpar, Ana; Renard, Laurette; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Timmermann, Beate; Vitek, Pavel; Weber, Damien C; van der Weide, Hiske L; Whitfield, Gillian A; Wiggenraad, Ruud; Roelofs, Erik; Nyström, Petra Witt; Troost, Esther G C

    2018-05-17

    For unbiased comparison of different radiation modalities and techniques, consensus on delineation of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs) and on their dose constraints is warranted. Following the publication of a digital, online atlas for OAR delineation in neuro-oncology by the same group, we assessed the brain OAR-dose constraints in a follow-up study. We performed a comprehensive search to identify the current papers on OAR dose constraints for normofractionated photon and particle therapy in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science. Moreover, the included articles' reference lists were cross-checked for potential studies that met the inclusion criteria. Consensus was reached among 20 radiation oncology experts in the field of neuro-oncology. For the OARs published in the neuro-oncology literature, we summarized the available literature and recommended dose constraints associated with certain levels of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) according to the recent ICRU recommendations. For those OARs with lacking or insufficient NTCP data, a proposal for effective and efficient data collection is given. The use of the European Particle Therapy Network-consensus OAR dose constraints summarized in this article is recommended for the model-based approach comparing photon and proton beam irradiation as well as for prospective clinical trials including novel radiation techniques and/or modalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of doses to game animals in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vetikko, Virve; Kostiainen, Eila

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to assess the dose rates to game animals in Finland affected by the radioactive caesium deposition that occurred after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986. The aim of this assessment was to obtain new information on the dose rates to mammals and birds under Finnish conditions. Dose rates were calculated using the ERICA Assessment Tool developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme. The input data consisted of measured activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in soil and lake water samples and in flesh samples of selected animal species obtained for environmental monitoring. The study sites were located in the municipality of Lammi, Southern Finland, where the average (137)Cs deposition was 46.5 kBq m(-2) (1 October 1987). The study sites represented the areas receiving the highest deposition in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The selected species included moose (Alces alces), arctic hare (Lepus timidus) and several bird species: black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), hazel hen (Bonasia bonasia), mallard (Anas platurhynchos), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and teal (Anas crecca). For moose, dose rates were calculated for the years 1986-1990 and for the 2000s. For all other species, maximal measured activity concentrations were used. The results showed that the dose rates to these species did not exceed the default screening level of 10 μGy h(-1) used as a protection criterion. The highest total dose rate (internal and external summed), 3.7 μGy h(-1), was observed for the arctic hare in 1986. Although the dose rate of 3.7 μGy h(-1) cannot be considered negligible given the uncertainties involved in predicting the dose rates, the possible harmful effects related to this dose rate are too small to be assessed based on current knowledge on the biological effects of low doses in mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A phase I study of different doses and frequencies of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) in patients with standard-dose chemotherapy-induced neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yan; Han, Xiaohong; Wang, Lin; Du, Ping; Yao, Jiarui; Wu, Di; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Tang, Le; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-01-01

    Objective The recommended dose of prophylactic pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) is 100 μg/kg once per cycle for patients receiving intense-dose chemotherapy. However, few data are available on the proper dose for patients receiving less-intense chemotherapy. The aim of this phase I study is to explore the proper dose and administration schedule of PEG rhG-CSF for patients receiving standard-dose chemotherapy. Methods Eligible patients received 3-cycle chemotherapy every 3 weeks. No PEG rhG-CSF was given in the first cycle. Patients experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia would then enter the cycle 2 and 3. In cycle 2, patients received a single subcutaneous injection of prophylactic PEG rhG-CSF on d 3, and received half-dose subcutaneous injection in cycle 3 on d 3 and d 5, respectively. Escalating doses (30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg) of PEG rhG-CSF were investigated. Results A total of 26 patients were enrolled and received chemotherapy, in which 24 and 18 patients entered cycle 2 and cycle 3 treatment, respectively. In cycle 2, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia for patients receiving single-dose PEG rhG-CSF of 30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg was 66.67%, 33.33%, 22.22% and 0, respectively, with a median duration less than 1 (0–2) d. No grade 3 or higher neutropenia was noted in cycle 3 in all dose cohorts. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of PEG rhG-CSF used in cancer patients were similar to those reported, as well as the safety. Double half dose administration model showed better efficacy result than a single dose model in terms of grade 3 neutropenia and above. The single dose of 60 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and double half dose of 30 μg/kg were recommended to the phase II study, hoping to find a preferable method for neutropenia treatment. PMID:29142459

  12. A phase I study of different doses and frequencies of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) in patients with standard-dose chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan; Han, Xiaohong; Wang, Lin; Du, Ping; Yao, Jiarui; Wu, Di; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Tang, Le; Shi, Yuankai

    2017-10-01

    The recommended dose of prophylactic pegylated recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG rhG-CSF) is 100 μg/kg once per cycle for patients receiving intense-dose chemotherapy. However, few data are available on the proper dose for patients receiving less-intense chemotherapy. The aim of this phase I study is to explore the proper dose and administration schedule of PEG rhG-CSF for patients receiving standard-dose chemotherapy. Eligible patients received 3-cycle chemotherapy every 3 weeks. No PEG rhG-CSF was given in the first cycle. Patients experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia would then enter the cycle 2 and 3. In cycle 2, patients received a single subcutaneous injection of prophylactic PEG rhG-CSF on d 3, and received half-dose subcutaneous injection in cycle 3 on d 3 and d 5, respectively. Escalating doses (30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg) of PEG rhG-CSF were investigated. A total of 26 patients were enrolled and received chemotherapy, in which 24 and 18 patients entered cycle 2 and cycle 3 treatment, respectively. In cycle 2, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia for patients receiving single-dose PEG rhG-CSF of 30, 60, 100 and 200 μg/kg was 66.67%, 33.33%, 22.22% and 0, respectively, with a median duration less than 1 (0-2) d. No grade 3 or higher neutropenia was noted in cycle 3 in all dose cohorts. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of PEG rhG-CSF used in cancer patients were similar to those reported, as well as the safety. Double half dose administration model showed better efficacy result than a single dose model in terms of grade 3 neutropenia and above. The single dose of 60 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and double half dose of 30 μg/kg were recommended to the phase II study, hoping to find a preferable method for neutropenia treatment.

  13. Effect of antiischemic therapy on coronary flow reserve and the pressure-maximal coronary flow relationship in anesthetized swine.

    PubMed

    McFalls, E O; Duncker, D J; Sassen, L M; Gho, B C; Verdouw, P D

    1991-12-01

    The effect of nifedipine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms/kg/min), metoprolol (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg), the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor partial agonist epanolol (10, 50, and 200 micrograms/kg), or equivalent volumes of isotonic saline (n = 6, in each group), on coronary blood flow capacity were studied in anesthetized swine. Intracoronary bolus injections of adenosine (20 micrograms/kg/0.2 ml) were administered without and during three levels of coronary stenosis, prior to and following each dose of drug, to obtain maximal coronary blood flows at different perfusion pressures in the autoregulatory range. Coronary perfusion pressures were varied by partial inflation of a balloon around the left anterior descending coronary artery. Special care was taken that the stenoses not lead to myocardial ischemia. Three indices of coronary blood flow capacity were used: absolute coronary flow reserve (ACFR, the ratio of maximal to resting coronary blood flow), the slope and the extrapolated pressure at zero flow (Pzf) of the pressure-maximal coronary flow (PMCF) relationship, and relative coronary flow reserve (RCFR, the ratio of maximal coronary blood flow with a stenosis to maximal coronary blood flow without a stenosis) at two of the three levels of stenosis. Nifedipine decreased ACFR from 4.5 +/- 1.9 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SD; p less than 0.05), reflecting in part the increase in resting coronary blood flow. The nifedipine-induced changes in maximal coronary blood flow were not only due to a drop in perfusion pressure, as the slope of the PMCF relationship decreased from 2.27 +/- 0.49 ml/(min.mm Hg) to 1.54 +/- 0.51 ml/(min.mm Hg) (p less than 0.05), and Pzf decreased from 30 +/- 4 mm Hg to 20 +/- 7 mm Hg (p less than 0.05). Consequently, calculated maximal coronary blood flow was attenuated from 114 +/- 31 ml/min to 93 +/- 37 ml/min at 80 mm Hg, but was enhanced from 23 +/- 13 to 37 +/- 24 ml/min at 40 mm Hg coronary perfusion pressure. In concert with the change in the

  14. Engaging youth in research planning, design and execution: Practical recommendations for researchers.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lisa D; Relihan, Jacqueline; Miller, Joshua; McCann, Emma; Rong, Jessica; Darnay, Karleigh; Docherty, Samantha; Chaim, Gloria; Henderson, Joanna L

    2018-06-01

    Engaging youth as partners in academic research projects offers many benefits for the youth and the research team. However, it is not always clear to researchers how to engage youth effectively to optimize the experience and maximize the impact. This article provides practical recommendations to help researchers engage youth in meaningful ways in academic research, from initial planning to project completion. These general recommendations can be applied to all types of research methodologies, from community action-based research to highly technical designs. Youth can and do provide valuable input into academic research projects when their contributions are authentically valued, their roles are clearly defined, communication is clear, and their needs are taken into account. Researchers should be aware of the risk of tokenizing the youth they engage and work proactively to take their feedback into account in a genuine way. Some adaptations to regular research procedures are recommended to improve the success of the youth engagement initiative. By following these guidelines, academic researchers can make youth engagement a key tenet of their youth-oriented research initiatives, increasing the feasibility, youth-friendliness and ecological validity of their work and ultimately improve the value and impact of the results their research produces. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose phenobarbital in children with focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihisa; Nakahara, Eri; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Nakazawa, Mika; Takasu, Michihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of children with focal epilepsy treated with oral high-dose phenobarbital. We reviewed data on children (aged<15 years) with focal seizures treated with high-dose phenobarbital (>5 mg/kg/day to maintain a target serum level >40 μg/mL) for at least 6 months. Seizure frequency was evaluated after phenobarbital titration, and 1 and 2 years after high-dose phenobarbital treatment commenced. Treatment was judged effective when seizure frequencies fell by ⩾75%. Seven boys and eight girls were treated. The median age at commencement of high-dose phenobarbital therapy was 30 months. The maximal serum phenobarbital level ranged from 36.5 to 62.9 μg/mL. High-dose PB was effective in seven. In two patients, treatment was transiently effective, but seizure frequency later returned to the baseline. High-dose PB was ineffective in six. No significant association between effectiveness and any clinical variable was evident. Drowsiness was recorded in nine patients, but no patient developed a behavioral problem or hypersensitivity. Oral high-dose phenobarbital was effective in 7 of 15 patients with focal epilepsy and well tolerated. High-dose PB may be useful when surgical treatment is difficult. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuing education: online monitoring of haemodialysis dose.

    PubMed

    Vartia, Aarne

    2018-01-25

    Kt/V urea reflects the efficacy of haemodialysis scaled to patient size (urea distribution volume). The guidelines recommend monthly Kt/V measurements based on blood samples. Modern haemodialysis machines are equipped with accessories monitoring the dose online at every session without extra costs, blood samples and computers. To describe the principles, devices, benefits and shortcomings of online monitoring of haemodialysis dose. A critical literature overview and discussion. UV absorbance methods measure Kt/V, ionic dialysance Kt (product of clearance and treatment time; cleared volume without scaling). Both are easy and useful methods, but comparison is difficult due to problems in scaling of the dialysis dose to the patient's size. The best dose estimation method is the one which predicts the quality of life and survival most accurately. There is some evidence on the predictive value of ionic dialysance Kt, but more documentation is required on the UV method. Online monitoring is a useful tool in everyday quality assurance, but blood samples are still required for more accurate kinetic modelling. After reading this article the reader should be able to: Understand the elements of the Kt/V equation for dialysis dose. Compare and contrast different methods of measurement of dialysis dose. Reflect on the importance of adequate dialysis dose for patient survival and life quality. © 2018 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  17. Qianliguang (Senecio scandens) safety dilemma: dose is the key?

    PubMed

    Lin, Ge; Li, Song-Lin; Li, Mi; Li, Na; Sun-Kin Chan, Sunny; Chan, Wood-Yee; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2009-08-01

    Qianliguang ( SENECIO SCANDENS) is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The safety of using Qianliguang and its products has raised general concerns because of a potential risk of the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). A systematic toxicological study is thus required to verify this public concern. In the present article, we report, for the first time, that S. SCANDENS contains nine hepatotoxic PAs with a content of 6.95-7.19 microg/g. At a dose equivalent to the daily intake recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of China, the total content of toxic PAs in Qianliguang was determined to be 3.48 microg/kg/day, which is far below the lowest dose to cause hepatotoxicity (15 microg/kg/day) suggested by the International Program on Chemical Safety. No significant hepatotoxic effects were observed in rats fed with the extract at this human-equivalent dose for 14 consecutive days. However, a single overdose of the herbal water extract (6 g/kg), which was about 8-fold higher than the recommended dose, produced typical PA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Therefore, appropriate dosage guidelines should be implemented for the herbal industry, for export/import retailers, and for herbal medicine practitioners to ensure the safe and beneficial use of these herbal medicines. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  18. Ischemic preconditioning of the muscle improves maximal exercise performance but not maximal oxygen uptake in humans.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Tangianu, Flavio; Tocco, Filippo; Concu, Alberto; Mameli, Ombretta; Mulliri, Gabriele; Caria, Marcello A

    2011-08-01

    Brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia, commonly known as "ischemic preconditioning" (IP), are protective against cell injury induced by infarction. Moreover, muscle IP has been found capable of improving exercise performance. The aim of the study was the comparison of standard exercise performances carried out in normal conditions with those carried out following IP, achieved by brief muscle ischemia at rest (RIP) and after exercise (EIP). Seventeen physically active, healthy male subjects performed three incremental, randomly assigned maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer up to exhaustion. One was the reference (REF) test, whereas the others were performed after the RIP and EIP sessions. Total exercise time (TET), total work (TW), and maximal power output (W(max)), oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), and pulmonary ventilation (VE(max)) were assessed. Furthermore, impedance cardiography was used to measure maximal heart rate (HR(max)), stroke volume (SV(max)), and cardiac output (CO(max)). A subgroup of volunteers (n = 10) performed all-out tests to assess their anaerobic capacity. We found that both RIP and EIP protocols increased in a similar fashion TET, TW, W(max), VE(max), and HR(max) with respect to the REF test. In particular, W(max) increased by ∼ 4% in both preconditioning procedures. However, preconditioning sessions failed to increase traditionally measured variables such as VO(2max), SV(max,) CO(max), and anaerobic capacity(.) It was concluded that muscle IP improves performance without any difference between RIP and EIP procedures. The mechanism of this effect could be related to changes in fatigue perception.

  19. ['Third day intervention': an analysis of the factors associated with following the recommendations on the prescribing of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    García-San Miguel, Lucía; Cobo, Javier; Martínez, José Antonio; Arnau, Josep Maria; Murillas, Javier; Peña, Carmen; Segura, Ferran; Gurguí, Montserrat; Gálvez, Juan; Giménez, Montserrat; Gudiol, Francesc

    2014-12-01

    Stewardship programs on the use of antibiotics usually include interventions based on non-compulsory recommendations for the prescribers. Factors related to the adherence to expert recommendations, and the implementation of these programmes in daily practice, are of interest. A randomized, controlled, multicentre intervention study was performed in 32 hospitalization units. Antibiotic prescriptions were evaluated by an infectious disease specialist on the third day. We describe the implementation of the intervention, the factors associated with adherence to recommendations, and the impact of the intervention. A total of 3,192 interventions were carried out. Information sources used to prepare the recommendations varied significantly between centres. A modification was recommended in 65% of cases: withdrawal (47%), change in administration route (26%), change of drugs or number of antibiotics (27%), and change in dose (5%). Simplification of treatment accounted for 75% of all recommendations. Adherence was 68%, with significant differences between hospitals, and higher when the recommendations consisted of a dose adjustment or change of route, during the first intervention period, and also when recommendations were personally commented on, in addition to writing a note in the clinical chart. We did not find any reduction in antibiotic consumption or variation in the incidence of resistant pathogens. An important proportion of antibiotic prescriptions may be susceptible to improvement, most of them towards simplification. The adherence to the intervention was high, but significant variations at different centres were observed, depending on the type of recommendation, and the study period. Those recommendations that were personally commented on were more followed more than those only written. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  1. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating.

    PubMed

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method-used to infer probabilistic models from data-is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  2. Les Ambivalences du Silence: Les "Maximes" de la Rochefoucauld Par Quatre Chemins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcat, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Maxims are famous for their moral pronouncements, yet La Rochefoucauld's "Maximes" (1678) have become infamous for offering little moral guidance. Morally ambivalent at best, the "Maximes" are also less known for their other forms of ambivalence, whether rhetorical, psychological, anthropological or linguistic. Such are…

  3. Influence of simulated weightlessness on maximal oxygen uptake of untrained rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb suspension on maximal oxygen uptake of rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to head-down (HD) suspension, horizontal (HOZ) suspension, or cage (C) control for 6-9 days. Rats were tested for maximal oxygen uptake before and after surgical instrumentation (Doppler flow probes, carotid and jugular cannulae), and after suspension. Body weight was significantly decreased after suspension in both HD and HOZ groups, but was significantly increased in the C group. Absolute maximal O2 uptake (ml/min) was not different in the C group. However, because of their increased weight, relative maximal O2 uptake (ml/min per kg) was significantly reduced. In contrast, both relative and absolute maximal O2 uptake were significantly lower, following suspension, for the HD and HOZ groups. These preliminary results support the use of hindlimb suspension as an effective model to study the mechanism(s) of cardiovascular deconditioning.

  4. Poor guideline adherence in the initiation of antidepressant treatment in children and adolescents in the Netherlands: choice of antidepressant and dose.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ymkje Anna; de Jonge, Peter; Kalverdijk, Luuk; Bos, Jens H J; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C M; Hak, Eelko

    2016-11-01

    The Dutch guideline for the treatment of depression in young people recommends initiating antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine, as the evidence for its efficacy is strongest and the risk of suicidality may be lower than with other antidepressants. Furthermore, low starting doses are recommended. We aimed to determine whether antidepressant prescriptions are in accord with guidelines. A cohort of young people aged between 6 and 17 at the time of antidepressant initiation was selected from IABD, a Dutch pharmacy prescription database. The percentage of prescriptions for each antidepressant was determined. Starting and maintenance doses were determined and compared with recommendations for citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline. During the study period, 2942 patients initiated antidepressant treatment. The proportion of these young people who were prescribed fluoxetine increased from 10.1 % in 1994-2003 to 19.7 % in 2010-2014. However, the most commonly prescribed antidepressants were paroxetine in 1994-2003 and citalopram in 2004-2014. The median starting and maintenance doses were ≤0.5 DDD/day for tricyclic antidepressants and 0.5-1 DDD/day for SSRIs and other antidepressants. Starting doses were guideline-concordant 58 % of the time for children, 31 % for preteens, and 16 % for teens. Sixty percent of teens were prescribed an adult starting dose. In conclusion, guideline adherence was poor. Physicians preferred citalopram over fluoxetine, in contrast to the recommendations. Furthermore, although children were prescribed a low starting dose relatively frequently, teens were often prescribed an adult starting dose. These results suggest that dedicated effort may be necessary to improve guideline adherence.

  5. Maximally random discrete-spin systems with symmetric and asymmetric interactions and maximally degenerate ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalay, Bora; Berker, A. Nihat

    2018-05-01

    Discrete-spin systems with maximally random nearest-neighbor interactions that can be symmetric or asymmetric, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, including off-diagonal disorder, are studied, for the number of states q =3 ,4 in d dimensions. We use renormalization-group theory that is exact for hierarchical lattices and approximate (Migdal-Kadanoff) for hypercubic lattices. For all d >1 and all noninfinite temperatures, the system eventually renormalizes to a random single state, thus signaling q ×q degenerate ordering. Note that this is the maximally degenerate ordering. For high-temperature initial conditions, the system crosses over to this highly degenerate ordering only after spending many renormalization-group iterations near the disordered (infinite-temperature) fixed point. Thus, a temperature range of short-range disorder in the presence of long-range order is identified, as previously seen in underfrustrated Ising spin-glass systems. The entropy is calculated for all temperatures, behaves similarly for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions, and shows a derivative maximum at the short-range disordering temperature. With a sharp immediate contrast of infinitesimally higher dimension 1 +ɛ , the system is as expected disordered at all temperatures for d =1 .

  6. In vivo maximal fascicle-shortening velocity during plantar flexion in humans.

    PubMed

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Guilhem, Gaël; Rabita, Giuseppe; Dorel, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    Interindividual variability in performance of fast movements is commonly explained by a difference in maximal muscle-shortening velocity due to differences in the proportion of fast-twitch fibers. To provide a better understanding of the capacity to generate fast motion, this study aimed to 1) measure for the first time in vivo the maximal fascicle-shortening velocity of human muscle; 2) evaluate the relationship between angular velocity and fascicle-shortening velocity from low to maximal angular velocities; and 3) investigate the influence of musculo-articular features (moment arm, tendinous tissues stiffness, and muscle architecture) on maximal angular velocity. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis were obtained from 31 participants during maximal isokinetic and light-loaded plantar flexions. A strong linear relationship between fascicle-shortening velocity and angular velocity was reported for all subjects (mean R(2) = 0.97). The maximal shortening velocity (V(Fmax)) obtained during the no-load condition (NLc) ranged between 18.8 and 43.3 cm/s. V(Fmax) values were very close to those of the maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), which was extrapolated from the F-V curve (the Hill model). Angular velocity reached during the NLc was significantly correlated with this V(Fmax) (r = 0.57; P < 0.001). This finding was in agreement with assumptions about the role of muscle fiber type, whereas interindividual comparisons clearly support the fact that other parameters may also contribute to performance during fast movements. Nevertheless, none of the biomechanical features considered in the present study were found to be directly related to the highest angular velocity, highlighting the complexity of the upstream mechanics that lead to maximal-velocity muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Ionizing radiation sensitivity of the ocular lens and its dose rate dependence.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection reduced the threshold for the lens effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. On one hand, the revised threshold of 0.5 Gy is much lower than previously recommended thresholds, but mechanisms behind high radiosensitivity remain incompletely understood. On the other hand, such a threshold is independent of dose rate, in contrast to previously recommended separate thresholds each for single and fractionated/protracted exposures. Such a change was made predicated on epidemiological evidence suggesting that a threshold for fractionated/protracted exposures is not higher than an acute threshold, and that a chronic threshold is uncertain. Thus, the dose rate dependence is still unclear. This paper therefore reviews the current knowledge on the radiosensitivity of the lens and the dose rate dependence of radiation cataractogenesis, and discusses its mechanisms. Mounting biological evidence indicates that the lens cells are not necessarily radiosensitive to cell killing, and the high radiosensitivity of the lens thus appears to be attributable to other mechanisms (e.g., excessive proliferation, abnormal differentiation, a slow repair of DNA double-strand breaks, telomere, senescence, crystallin changes, non-targeted effects and inflammation). Both biological and epidemiological evidence generally supports the lack of dose rate effects. However, there is also biological evidence for the tissue sparing dose rate (or fractionation) effect of low-LET radiation and an enhancing inverse dose fractionation effect of high-LET radiation at a limited range of LET. Emerging epidemiological evidence in chronically exposed individuals implies the inverse dose rate effect. Further biological and epidemiological studies are warranted to gain deeper knowledge on the radiosensitivity of the lens and dose rate dependence of radiation cataractogenesis.

  8. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  9. Recommendations for a Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS).

    PubMed

    Langdon, D W; Amato, M P; Boringa, J; Brochet, B; Foley, F; Fredrikson, S; Hämäläinen, P; Hartung, H-P; Krupp, L; Penner, I K; Reder, A T; Benedict, R H B

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive impairment in MS impacts negatively on many patients at all disease stages and in all subtypes. Full clinical cognitive assessment is expensive, requiring expert staff and special equipment. Test versions and normative data are not available for all languages and cultures. To recommend a brief cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis (MS) that is optimized for small centers, with one or few staff members, who may not have neuropsychological training and constructed to maximize international use. An expert committee of twelve members representing the main cultural groups that have so far contributed considerable data about MS cognitive dysfunction was convened. Following exhaustive literature review, peer-reviewed articles were selected to cover a broad spectrum of cultures and scales that targeted cognitive domains vulnerable to MS. Each was rated by two committee members and candidates scales were rated on psychometric qualities (reliability, validity, and sensitivity), international application, ease of administration, feasibility in the specified context, and acceptability to patients. The committee recommended the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, if only 5 minutes was available, with the addition of the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised learning trials if a further 10 minutes could be allocated for testing. A brief cognitive assessment for MS has been recommended. A validation protocol has been prepared for language groups and validation studies have commenced.

  10. Rational maximizing by humans (Homo sapiens) in an ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phillip; Silberberg, Alan

    2010-07-01

    In the human mini-ultimatum game, a proposer splits a sum of money with a responder. If the responder accepts, both are paid. If not, neither is paid. Typically, responders reject inequitable distributions, favoring punishing over maximizing. In Jensen et al.'s (Science 318:107-109, 2007) adaptation with apes, a proposer selects between two distributions of raisins. Despite inequitable offers, responders often accept, thereby maximizing. The rejection response differs between the human and ape versions of this game. For humans, rejection is instantaneous; for apes, it requires 1 min of inaction. We replicate Jensen et al.'s procedure in humans with money. When waiting 1 min to reject, humans favor punishing over maximizing; however, when rejection requires 5 min of inaction, humans, like apes, maximize. If species differences in time horizons are accommodated, Jensen et al.'s ape data are reproducible in humans.

  11. The Missing Pieces in Reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials of External Beam Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Egleston, Brian L; Horwitz, Eric M; Dicker, Adam P; Nguyen, Paul L; Showalter, Timothy N; Den, Robert B

    2016-08-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the most rigorous way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost-effectiveness of a treatment. For many patients, cancer is a chronic illness; RCTs evaluating treatments for indolent cancers must evolve to facilitate medical decision-making, as "concrete" patient outcomes (eg, survival) will likely be excellent independent of the intervention, and detecting a difference between trial arms may be impossible. In this commentary, we articulate 9 recommendations that we hope future clinical trialists and funding agencies (including those under the National Cancer Institute) will take into consideration when planning RCTs to help guide subsequent interpretation of results and clinical decision making, based on RCTs of external beam radiation therapy dose escalation for the most common indolent cancer in men, that is, prostate cancer. We recommend routinely reporting: (1) race; (2) medical comorbidities; (3) psychiatric comorbidities; (4) insurance status; (5) education; (6) marital status; (7) income; (8) sexual orientation; and (9) facility-related characteristics (eg, number of centers involved, type of facilities, yearly hospital volumes). We discuss how these factors independently affect patient outcomes and toxicities; future clinicians and governing organizations should consider this information to plan RCTs accordingly (to maximize patient accrual and total n), select appropriate endpoints (eg, toxicity, quality of life, sexual function), actively monitor RCTs, and report results so as to identify the optimal treatment among subpopulations.

  12. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  13. IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXTUAL DATA IN PRODUCING HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT RECOMMENDATIONS: A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Bellemare, Christian A

    2018-01-01

    Contextual data and local expertise are important sources of data that cannot be ignored in hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) processes. Despite a lack of or unconvincing evidence in the scientific literature, technology can be recommended in a given context. We illustrate this using a case study regarding biplane angiography for vascular neurointervention. A systematic literature review was conducted, along with an analysis of the context in our setting. The outcomes of interest were radiation doses, clinical complications, procedure times, purchase cost, impact on teaching program, the confidence of clinicians in the technology, quality of care, accessibility, and the volume of activity. A committee comprising managers, clinical experts, physicians, physicists and HTA experts was created to produce a recommendation regarding biplane technology acquisition to replace a monoplane device. The systematic literature review yielded nine eligible articles for analysis. Despite a very low level of evidence in the literature, the biplane system appears to reduce ionizing radiation and medical complications, as well as shorten procedure time. Contextual data indicated that the biplane system could improve operator confidence, which could translate into reduced risk, particularly for complex procedures. In addition, the biplane system can support our institution in its advanced procedures teaching program. Given the advantages provided by the biplane technology in our setting, the committee has recommended its acquisition. Contextual data were of utmost importance in this recommendation. Moreover, this technology should be implemented alongside a responsibility to collect outcome data to optimize clinical protocol in the doses of ionizing delivered.

  14. Recommendations on reintroduction of agalsidase Beta for patients with fabry disease in europe, following a period of shortage.

    PubMed

    Linthorst, Gabor E; Burlina, Alessandro P; Cecchi, Franco; Cox, Timothy M; Fletcher, Janice M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Giugliani, Roberto; Hollak, Carla E M; Houge, Gunnar; Hughes, Derralynn; Kantola, Iikka; Lachmann, Robin; Lopez, Monica; Ortiz, Alberto; Parini, Rossella; Rivera, Alberto; Rolfs, Arndt; Ramaswami, Uma; Svarstad, Einar; Tondel, Camilla; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Vujkovac, Bojan; Waldek, Steven; West, Michael; Weidemann, F; Mehta, Atul

    2013-01-01

    The interruption of the manufacturing process of agalsidase beta has led to a worldwide shortage of this drug. In the EU, nearly all patients initially reduced their agalsidase beta dose, and many of these switched to agalsidase alfa (Replagal Shire HGT). The clinical consequences of this period of drug shortage need to be further evaluated. A gradual increase of agalsidase beta supply is now expected. This implies that patients could resume or even commence agalsidase beta treatment. Guidance for prioritization of patients is needed to support equitable distribution of agalsidase beta to EU member states. To achieve this, in absence of level I clinical evidence, a draft consensus proposal was initiated and distributed. No full consensus was achieved, as there is disagreement regarding the indications for switching patients from agalsidase alfa to agalsidase beta. Some physicians support the concept that the 1.0 mg/kg EOW dose of agalsidase beta is more effective than agalsidase alfa at 0.2 mg/kg EOW, while others believe that at recommended dose, the preparations are equivalent. In light of these difficulties and the uncertainties with respect to supply of agalsidase beta, recommendations were agreed upon by a subgroup of physicians. These current recommendations focus on prioritization of criteria indicative of disease progression.

  15. Evaluation of dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography during radiotherapy: a comparison of methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, J.; Wilkinson, D.; Malaroda, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    Three alternative methodologies to the Computed-Tomography Dose Index for the evaluation of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography dose are compared, the Cone-Beam Dose Index, IAEA Human Health Report No. 5 recommended methodology and the AAPM Task Group 111 recommended methodology. The protocols were evaluated for Pelvis and Thorax scan modes on Varian® On-Board Imager and Truebeam kV XI imaging systems. The weighted planar average dose was highest for the AAPM methodology across all scans, with the CBDI being the second highest overall. A 17.96% and 1.14% decrease from the TG-111 protocol to the IAEA and CBDI protocols for the Pelvis mode and 18.15% and 13.10% decrease for the Thorax mode were observed for the XI system. For the OBI system, the variation was 16.46% and 7.14% for Pelvis mode and 15.93% to the CBDI protocol in Thorax mode respectively.

  16. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose in Future Studies. A Response to the Counterpoints.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2016-01-01

    We recently conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies conducted at our facility to determine how successful was the strategy of choosing the high dose of the 26-week studies based on an estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD). As a result of our publication, 2 counterviews were expressed. Both counterviews illustrate very valid points in their interpretation of our data. In this article, we would like to highlight clarifications based on several points and issues they have raised in their papers, namely, the dose-level selection, determining if MTD was exceeded in 26-week studies, and a discussion on the number of dose groups to be used in the studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Estimation of eye lens doses received by pediatric interventional cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Alejo, L; Koren, C; Ferrer, C; Corredoira, E; Serrada, A

    2015-09-01

    Maximum Hp(0.07) dose to the eye lens received in a year by the pediatric interventional cardiologists has been estimated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were placed on the eyes of an anthropomorphic phantom, whose position in the room simulates the most common irradiation conditions. Maximum workload was considered with data collected from procedures performed in the Hospital. None of the maximum values obtained exceed the dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by ICRP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  19. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Parmaksız, Aydın; İnal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; Öncü, Tolga; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey.

  20. Defining the optimal dose of rifapentine for pulmonary tuberculosis: Exposure–response relations from two phase II clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Savic, RM; MacKenzie, WR; Engle, M; Whitworth, WC; Johnson, JL; Nsubuga, P; Nahid, P; Nguyen, NV; Peloquin, CA; Dooley, KE; Dorman, SE

    2017-01-01

    Rifapentine is a highly active antituberculosis antibiotic with treatment‐shortening potential; however, exposure–response relations and the dose needed for maximal bactericidal activity have not been established. We used pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data from 657 adults with pulmonary tuberculosis participating in treatment trials to compare rifapentine (n = 405) with rifampin (n = 252) as part of intensive‐phase therapy. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses were performed with nonlinear mixed‐effects modeling. Time to stable culture conversion of sputum to negative was determined in cultures obtained over 4 months of therapy. Rifapentine exposures were lower in participants who were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus, black, male, or fasting when taking drug. Rifapentine exposure, large lung cavity size, and geographic region were independently associated with time to culture conversion in liquid media. Maximal treatment efficacy is likely achieved with rifapentine at 1,200 mg daily. Patients with large lung cavities appear less responsive to treatment, even at high rifapentine doses. PMID:28124478

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution in 157 countries (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Palache, Abraham; Oriol-Mathieu, Valerie; Abelin, Atika; Music, Tamara

    2014-11-12

    Globally there are an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness every year, resulting in 250,000-500,000 deaths. At the World Health Assembly in 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to increase influenza vaccine coverage rates (VCR) for high-risk groups, particularly focusing on at least 75% of the elderly by 2010. But systematic worldwide data have not been available to assist public health authorities to monitor vaccine uptake and review progress toward vaccination coverage targets. In 2008, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply task force (IFPMA IVS) developed a survey methodology to assess global influenza vaccine dose distribution. The current survey results represent 2011 data and demonstrate the evolution of the absolute number distributed between 2004 and 2011 inclusive, and the evolution in the per capita doses distributed in 2008-2011. Global distribution of IFPMA IVS member doses increased approximately 86.9% between 2004 and 2011, but only approximately 12.1% between 2008 and 2011. The WHO's regions in Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Southeast Asian (SEARO) and Africa (AFRO) together account for about 47% of the global population, but only 3.7% of all IFPMA IVS doses distributed. While distributed doses have globally increased, they have decreased in EURO and EMRO since 2009. Dose distribution can provide a reasonable proxy of vaccine utilization. Based on the dose distribution, we conclude that seasonal influenza VCR in many countries remains well below the WHA's VCR targets and below the recommendations of the Council of the European Union in EURO. Inter- and intra-regional disparities in dose distribution trends call into question the impact of current vaccine recommendations at achieving coverage targets. Additional policy measures, particularly those that influence patients adherence to vaccination programs, such as reimbursement, healthcare provider knowledge

  2. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  3. Instructional Patterns: Strategies for Maximizing Student Learning [with CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Larry Charles; Kysilka, Marcella L.

    2005-01-01

    "Instructional Patterns: Strategies for Maximizing Student Learning" examines instruction from the learners' point of view by showing how instructional patterns can be used to maximize the potential for students to learn. This book explores the interactive patterns that exist in today's classroom and demonstrates how teachers can…

  4. Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Principi, S; Delgado Soler, C; Ginjaume, M; Beltran Vilagrasa, M; Rovira Escutia, J J; Duch, M A

    2015-07-01

    The ICRP has recently recommended reducing the occupational exposure dose limit for the lens of the eye to 20 mSv y(-1), averaged over a period of 5 y, with no year exceeding 50 mSv, instead of the current 150 mSv y(-1). This reduction will have important implications for interventional cardiology and radiology (IC/IR) personnel. In this work, lens dose received by a staff working in IC is studied in order to determine whether eye lens dose monitoring or/and additional radiological protection measures are required. Eye lens dose exposure was monitored in 10 physicians and 6 nurses. The major IC procedures performed were coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The personnel were provided with two thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): one calibrated in terms of Hp(3) located close to the left ear of the operator and a whole-body dosemeter calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) positioned on the lead apron. The estimated annual eye lens dose for physicians ranged between 8 and 60 mSv, for a workload of 200 procedures y(-1). Lower doses were collected for nurses, with estimated annual Hp(3) between 2 and 4 mSv y(-1). It was observed that for nurses the Hp(0.07) measurement on the lead apron is a good estimate of eye lens dose. This is not the case for physicians, where the influence of both the position and use of protective devices such as the ceiling shield is very important and produces large differences among doses both at the eyes and on the thorax. For physicians, a good correlation between Hp(3) and dose area product is shown. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evidence for surprise minimization over value maximization in choice behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Classical economic models are predicated on the idea that the ultimate aim of choice is to maximize utility or reward. In contrast, an alternative perspective highlights the fact that adaptive behavior requires agents’ to model their environment and minimize surprise about the states they frequent. We propose that choice behavior can be more accurately accounted for by surprise minimization compared to reward or utility maximization alone. Minimizing surprise makes a prediction at variance with expected utility models; namely, that in addition to attaining valuable states, agents attempt to maximize the entropy over outcomes and thus ‘keep their options open’. We tested this prediction using a simple binary choice paradigm and show that human decision-making is better explained by surprise minimization compared to utility maximization. Furthermore, we replicated this entropy-seeking behavior in a control task with no explicit utilities. These findings highlight a limitation of purely economic motivations in explaining choice behavior and instead emphasize the importance of belief-based motivations. PMID:26564686

  6. Accuracy of low dose CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis in childhood and comparison with USG and standard dose CT.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dae Yong; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Kim, Jee Taek; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Hyery; Yun, Sin Weon; Chae, Soo Ahn; Lim, In Seok

    Computed tomography should be performed after careful consideration due to radiation hazard, which is why interest in low dose CT has increased recently in acute appendicitis. Previous studies have been performed in adult and adolescents populations, but no studies have reported on the efficacy of using low-dose CT in children younger than 10 years. Patients (n=475) younger than 10 years who were examined for acute appendicitis were recruited. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the examinations performed: low-dose CT, ultrasonography, and standard-dose CT. Subjects were categorized according to age and body mass index (BMI). Low-dose CT was a contributive tool in diagnosing appendicitis, and it was an adequate method, when compared with ultrasonography and standard-dose CT in terms of sensitivity (95.5% vs. 95.0% and 94.5%, p=0.794), specificity (94.9% vs. 80.0% and 98.8%, p=0.024), positive-predictive value (96.4% vs. 92.7% and 97.2%, p=0.019), and negative-predictive value (93.7% vs. 85.7% and 91.3%, p=0.890). Low-dose CT accurately diagnosed patients with a perforated appendix. Acute appendicitis was effectively diagnosed using low-dose CT in both early and middle childhood. BMI did not influence the accuracy of detecting acute appendicitis on low-dose CT. Low-dose CT is effective and accurate for diagnosing acute appendicitis in childhood, as well as in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, low-dose CT was relatively accurate, irrespective of age or BMI, for detecting acute appendicitis. Therefore, low-dose CT is recommended for assessing children with suspected acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. A Maximal Entropy Distribution Derivation of the Sharma-Taneja-Mittal Entropic Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfone, Antonio M.

    In this letter we derive the distribution maximizing the Sharma-Taneja-Mittal entropy under certain constrains by using an information inequality satisfied by the Br`egman divergence associated to this entropic form. The resulting maximal entropy distribution coincides with the one derived from the calculus according to the maximal entropy principle à la Jaynes.

  8. Biphasic and monophasic repair: comparative implications for biologically equivalent dose calculations in pulsed dose rate brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Millar, W T; Davidson, S E

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To consider the implications of the use of biphasic rather than monophasic repair in calculations of biologically-equivalent doses for pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy of cervix carcinoma. Methods: Calculations are presented of pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) doses equivalent to former low-dose-rate (LDR) doses, using biphasic vs monophasic repair kinetics, both for cervical carcinoma and for the organ at risk (OAR), namely the rectum. The linear-quadratic modelling calculations included effects due to varying the dose per PDR cycle, the dose reduction factor for the OAR compared with Point A, the repair kinetics and the source strength. Results: When using the recommended 1 Gy per hourly PDR cycle, different LDR-equivalent PDR rectal doses were calculated depending on the choice of monophasic or biphasic repair kinetics pertaining to the rodent central nervous and skin systems. These differences virtually disappeared when the dose per hourly cycle was increased to 1.7 Gy. This made the LDR-equivalent PDR doses more robust and independent of the choice of repair kinetics and α/β ratios as a consequence of the described concept of extended equivalence. Conclusion: The use of biphasic and monophasic repair kinetics for optimised modelling of the effects on the OAR in PDR brachytherapy suggests that an optimised PDR protocol with the dose per hourly cycle nearest to 1.7 Gy could be used. Hence, the durations of the new PDR treatments would be similar to those of the former LDR treatments and not longer as currently prescribed. Advances in knowledge: Modelling calculations indicate that equivalent PDR protocols can be developed which are less dependent on the different α/β ratios and monophasic/biphasic kinetics usually attributed to normal and tumour tissues for treatment of cervical carcinoma. PMID:23934965

  9. Distribution and determinants of maximal physical work capacity of Korean male metal workers.

    PubMed

    Kang, D; Woo, J H; Shin, Y C

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of maximal physical work capacity (MPWC) can be used to establish an upper limit for energy expenditure during work (EEwork). If physically demanding work has wearing effects, there will be a negative relationship between MPWC and workload. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of MPWC among Korean metal workers and to examine the relationship between workload and MPWC. MPWC was estimated with a bicycle ergometer using a submaximal test. Energy expenditure was estimated by measuring heart rates during work. The study subjects were 507 male employees from several metal industries in Korea. They had a lower absolute VO2max than the Caucasian populations described in previous studies. The older workers had a lower physical capacity and a greater overload at work. A negative relationship was found between MPWC and workload across all age groups. Upper limits for EEwork for all age groups and for older age groups are recommended based on the 5th percentile value of MPWC.

  10. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A. W.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, 8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose.

  11. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective than therapeutic doses in providing beneficial cardiovascular pleiotropic effects in rats: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; France Štiglic, Alenka; Jerin, Aleš; Skitek, Milan; Černe, Darko; Marc, Janja; Drevenšek, Gorazd; Šabovič, Mišo

    2017-12-01

    Statins and sartans can, in therapeutic doses, induce pleiotropic cardiovascular effects. Similar has recently been shown also for sub-therapeutic doses. We thus explored and compared the cardiovascular pleiotropic efficacy of sub-therapeutic vs. therapeutic doses. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving fluvastatin, valsartan and their combination in sub-therapeutic and therapeutic doses, or saline. After 6weeks, the animals were euthanised, their hearts and thoracic aortas isolated, and blood samples taken. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the thoracic aortae and ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the isolated hearts were assessed along with the related serum parameters and genes expression. Fluvastatin and valsartan alone or in combination were significantly more effective in sub-therapeutic than therapeutic doses. The sub-therapeutic combination greatly increased thoracic aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation and maximally protected the isolated hearts against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and was thus most effective. Beneficial effects were accompanied by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and decreased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the serum (again prominently induced by the sub-therapeutic combination). Furthermore, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) genes expression increased, but only in both combination groups and without significant differences between them. In the therapeutic dose groups, fluvastatin and valsartan decreased cholesterol values and systolic blood pressure. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective in expressing cardiovascular pleiotropic effects than therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and/or valsartan. These results could be of significant clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric stroke and transcranial direct current stimulation: methods for rational individualized dose optimization

    PubMed Central

    Gillick, Bernadette T.; Kirton, Adam; Carmel, Jason B.; Minhas, Preet; Bikson, Marom

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated mainly in adults and doses may not be appropriate in pediatric applications. In perinatal stroke where potential applications are promising, rational adaptation of dosage for children remains under investigation. Objective: Construct child-specific tDCS dosing parameters through case study within a perinatal stroke tDCS safety and feasibility trial. Methods: 10-year-old subject with a diagnosis of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke and hemiparesis was identified. T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans used to derive computerized model for current flow and electrode positions. Workflow using modeling results and consideration of dosage in previous clinical trials was incorporated. Prior ad hoc adult montages vs. de novo optimized montages provided distinct risk benefit analysis. Approximating adult dose required consideration of changes in both peak brain current flow and distribution which further tradeoff between maximizing efficacy and adding safety factors. Electrode size, position, current intensity, compliance voltage, and duration were controlled independently in this process. Results: Brain electric fields modeled and compared to values previously predicted models (Datta et al., 2011; Minhas et al., 2012). Approximating conservative brain current flow patterns and intensities used in previous adult trials for comparable indications, the optimal current intensity established was 0.7 mA for 10 min with a tDCS C3/C4 montage. Specifically 0.7 mA produced comparable peak brain current intensity of an average adult receiving 1.0 mA. Electrode size of 5 × 7 cm2 with 1.0 mA and low-voltage tDCS was employed to maximize tolerability. Safety and feasibility confirmed with subject tolerating the session well and no serious adverse events. Conclusion: Rational approaches to dose customization, with steps informed by computational modeling, may improve guidance for pediatric stroke t

  13. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 kmmore » around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  14. Initial apixaban dosing in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Alexander; Ueberham, Laura; Gorczynska, Kaja; Dinov, Borislav; Hilbert, Sebastian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Husser, Daniela; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Apixaban is a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Current labeling recommends dose reduction based on patient age, weight, and renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze adherence to current labeling instructions concerning initial apixaban dosing in clinical practice and identify factors associated with inappropriate dose reduction. Patients with AF initiated on apixaban in 2016 were identified in the Heart Center Leipzig database. Records were screened to identify patient characteristics, prescribed apixaban dose, renal function, and further dosing-relevant secondary diagnoses and co-medication. We identified 569 consecutive patients with AF initiated on apixaban. In 301 (52.9%) patients, apixaban was prescribed in standard dose (5 mg b.i.d.) and in 268 (47.1%) in a reduced dose (2.5 mg b.i.d.). Of 268 patients receiving a reduced dose, 163 (60.8%) did not meet labeling criteria for dose reduction. In univariate and multivariate regression analysis, age (OR: 0.736, 95% CI: 0.664-0.816, P < 0.0001), patient weight (OR: 1.120, 95% CI: 1.076-1.166, P < 0.0001), and serum creatinine level (OR: 0.910, 95% CI: 0.881-0.940, P < 0.0001) were independent predictors for apixaban underdosage. In clinical practice, apixaban dosing is frequently inconsistent with labeling. Factors associated with inappropriate dose reduction are age, patient weight, and serum creatinine level, the same factors used as criteria for dose adjustment. However, in underdosed patients, the 3 factors did not meet the criteria for dose reduction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Overview of systematic reviews of therapeutic ranges: methodologies and recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Lewis; Loke, Yoon K; Golder, Su; Kirkham, Jamie; Jorgensen, Andrea; Sinha, Ian; Hawcutt, Daniel

    2017-06-02

    Many medicines are dosed to achieve a particular therapeutic range, and monitored using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The evidence base for a therapeutic range can be evaluated using systematic reviews, to ensure it continues to reflect current indications, doses, routes and formulations, as well as updated adverse effect data. There is no consensus on the optimal methodology for systematic reviews of therapeutic ranges. An overview of systematic reviews of therapeutic ranges was undertaken. The following databases were used: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects (DARE) and MEDLINE. The published methodologies used when systematically reviewing the therapeutic range of a drug were analyzed. Step by step recommendations to optimize such systematic reviews are proposed. Ten systematic reviews that investigated the correlation between serum concentrations and clinical outcomes encompassing a variety of medicines and indications were assessed. There were significant variations in the methodologies used (including the search terms used, data extraction methods, assessment of bias, and statistical analyses undertaken). Therapeutic ranges should be population and indication specific and based on clinically relevant outcomes. Recommendations for future systematic reviews based on these findings have been developed. Evidence based therapeutic ranges have the potential to improve TDM practice. Current systematic reviews investigating therapeutic ranges have highly variable methodologies and there is no consensus of best practice when undertaking systematic reviews in this field. These recommendations meet a need not addressed by standard protocols.

  17. Current evidence in the stability of medicines in dose administration aids: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    García, Estela R; Thalhauser, Stefanie; Loscertales, Hèctor R; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2018-06-01

    As the elderly population and polypharmacy are increasing, it is predicted that interventions to enhance medication adherence, as dose administration aids (DAA), will grow. One of the limitations of repackaging medicines into DAA is to assure the stability of medicines, and, therefore, their quality, efficacy and safety. Area covered: This article collects and summarises data of all the stability studies of repackaged medicines into DAAs. Computerized search in databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and reference texts related to the field (keywords: drug stability, DAAs, compliance aids, and repackaging), open access databases and guidelines. Also, it provides recommendations on the suitability of repackaging and compares them with those established. Expert opinion: Since medicines are removed from primary package, their stability can be compromised due to psychochemical characteristics of the drug substance and product, the dosage form, the type of DAA selected, the co-storage and splitting, the repackaging conditions, and the conditions of storage. This review reflects the need of more standardized stability studies to guarantee the quality of repackaged medicines. In addition, the importance of them to support the pharmacist to make the best decisions in order to maximize outcomes and minimize risks related to patients' medication when repackaging it.

  18. Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, Doug; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, David

    2009-01-01

    There are currently several physiological monitoring requirements for EVA in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document. There are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations. Similarly, there are questions as to whether the capability to monitor heart rhythm during a cabin depressurization scenario in the launch/landing space suit is necessary. This presentation seeks to inform space medicine personnel of recommendations made by an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine specialists regarding in-suit ECG heart rhythm monitoring requirements during lunar surface operations. After a review of demographic information and clinical cases and panel discussion, the panel recommended that ECG monitoring capability as a clinical tool was not essential in the lunar space suit; ECG monitoring was not essential in the launch/landing space suit for contingency scenarios; the current hear rate monitoring capability requirement for both launch/landing and lunar space suits should be maintained; lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG for IVA medical assessments; and, exercise stress testing for astronaut selection and retention should be changed from the current 85% maximum heart rate limit to maximal, exhaustive 'symptom-limited' testing to maximize diagnostic utility as a screening tool for evaluating the functional capacity of astronauts and their cardiovascular health.

  19. Recommendations for the use of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: up and down scaling of the dose and administration routes.

    PubMed

    Tornero Molina, Jesús; Ballina García, Francisco Javier; Calvo Alén, Jaime; Caracuel Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell Abelló, Jordi; López Meseguer, Antonio; Moreno Muelas, José Vicente; Pérez Sandoval, Trinidad; Quijada Carrera, Jesús; Trenor Larraz, Pilar; Zea Mendoza, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To describe the optimal therapeutic strategy for use of methotrexate in RA patients over the initial dose, route of administration, dose increase and decrease, patient monitoring, and use of folic/folinic acid. Eleven clinical experts proposed some questions to be solved. A systematic literature search was conducted. The contents were selected in a work session and subsequently validated via email to establish the level of agreement. The initial dose of methotrexate should not be <10mg/week, preferably orally, but considering the parenteral route as an alternative due to compliance, non effectiveness of treatment or gastrointestinal side effects, polypharmacy, obesity (if required doses are >20mg/week), patient preference, very active disease or to avoid administration errors. Changing to a parenteral administration is proposed when the oral route is not effective enough, gastrointestinal toxicity appears, there is non-compliance or due to cost-effectiveness reasons before using more expensive drugs. On the contrary, due to patient preferences, intolerance to injections, dose reduction <7.5mg/week, non effectiveness of the route, poor compliance or gastrointestinal side effects. There should be a rapid dose escalation if inadequate responses occurr up to 15-20 or even 25mg/week in about 8 weeks, with increments of 2.5-5mg. The reduction will be carried out according to the dose the patient had, with decreases of 2.5-5mg every 3-6 months. Patient monitoring should be performed every 1-1.5 months until stability and then every 1-3 months. This document pretends to solve some common clinical questions and facilitate decision-making in RA patients treated with methotrexate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  1. Canadian supportive care recommendations for the management of neutropenia in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Kouroukis, C T; Chia, S; Verma, S; Robson, D; Desbiens, C; Cripps, C; Mikhael, J

    2008-01-01

    Hematologic toxicities of cancer chemotherapy are common and often limit the ability to provide treatment in a timely and dose-intensive manner. These limitations may be of utmost importance in the adjuvant and curative intent settings. Hematologic toxicities may result in febrile neutropenia, infections, fatigue, and bleeding, all of which may lead to additional complications and prolonged hospitalization. The older cancer patient and patients with significant comorbidities may be at highest risk of neutropenic complications. Colony-stimulating factors (csfs) such as filgrastim and pegfilgrastim can effectively attenuate most of the neutropenic consequences of chemotherapy, improve the ability to continue chemotherapy on the planned schedule, and minimize the risk of febrile neutropenia and infectious morbidity and mortality. The present consensus statement reviews the use of csfs in the management of neutropenia in patients with cancer and sets out specific recommendations based on published international guidelines tailored to the specifics of the Canadian practice landscape. We review existing international guidelines, the indications for primary and secondary prophylaxis, the importance of maintaining dose intensity, and the use of csfs in leukemia, stem-cell transplantation, and radiotherapy. Specific disease-related recommendations are provided related to breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Finally, csf dosing and schedules, duration of therapy, and associated acute and potential chronic toxicities are examined.

  2. Uncountably many maximizing measures for a dense subset of continuous functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Mao

    2018-05-01

    Ergodic optimization aims to single out dynamically invariant Borel probability measures which maximize the integral of a given ‘performance’ function. For a continuous self-map of a compact metric space and a dense set of continuous functions, we show the existence of uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures. We also show that, for a topologically mixing subshift of finite type and a dense set of continuous functions there exist uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures with full support and positive entropy.

  3. GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks for adoption, adaptation, and de novo development of trustworthy recommendations: GRADE-ADOLOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Holger J; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Brozek, Jan; Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Itziar; Mustafa, Reem A; Manja, Veena; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Neumann, Ignacio; Falavigna, Maicon; Alhazzani, Waleed; Santesso, Nancy; Zhang, Yuan; Meerpohl, Jörg J; Morgan, Rebecca L; Rochwerg, Bram; Darzi, Andrea; Rojas, Maria Ximenas; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Adi, Yaser; AlRayees, Zulfa; Riva, John; Bollig, Claudia; Moore, Ainsley; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan José; Cuello, Carlos; Waziry, Reem; Akl, Elie A

    2017-01-01

    Guideline developers can: (1) adopt existing recommendations from others; (2) adapt existing recommendations to their own context; or (3) create recommendations de novo. Monetary and nonmonetary resources, credibility, maximization of uptake, as well as logical arguments should guide the choice of the approach and processes. To describe a potentially efficient model for guideline production based on adoption, adaptation, and/or de novo development of recommendations utilizing the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks. We applied the model in a new national guideline program producing 22 practice guidelines. We searched for relevant evidence that informs the direction and strength of a recommendation. We then produced GRADE EtDs for guideline panels to develop recommendations. We produced a total of 80 EtD frameworks in approximately 4 months and 146 EtDs in approximately 6 months in two waves. Use of the EtD frameworks allowed panel members understand judgments of others about the criteria that bear on guideline recommendations and then make their own judgments about those criteria in a systematic approach. The "GRADE-ADOLOPMENT" approach to guideline production combines adoption, adaptation, and, as needed, de novo development of recommendations. If developers of guidelines follow EtD criteria more widely and make their work publically available, this approach should prove even more useful. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Note on Maximized Posttest Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Hollingsworth recently showed a posttest contrast for analysis of variance situations that, for equal sample sizes, had several favorable qualities. However, for unequal sample sizes, the contrast fails to achieve status as a