Science.gov

Sample records for maximum allowable dose

  1. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  2. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  3. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  5. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  6. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...

  7. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of appropriate assessment...

  8. 14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...

  9. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...

  10. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  11. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  12. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  13. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  14. 46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....

  15. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  16. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  17. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  18. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  19. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...

  20. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1) A provisional water budget in the Newlands Project Water Budget table must be recalculated for each irrigation season to reflect anticipated water-righted acres to be irrigated. At the start of the irrigation...

  1. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated annually to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose water use complies... subsequent decisions concerning transfers of Project water rights, using the methodology established in this... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  2. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calculated annually to ensure an adequate water supply for all water right holders whose water use complies... subsequent decisions concerning transfers of Project water rights, using the methodology established in this... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.13 Maximum allowable limits. (a) Maximum allowable diversions. (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  7. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  8. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for

  9. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M. |

    1996-12-31

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  10. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  11. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate tensile strength of its material. (b) Safety factor. When it is necessary to use the code of original..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; (ii) The initial amounts approved for force account work to be performed on the project; (iii) The... an allowance under § 35.2025 and for contingencies; and (2) Five percent of the sum of the amounts..., each subagreement awarded on or after the effective date of this regulation will be five percent of...

  13. Maximum Allowed Solvent Accessibilites of Residues in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Matthew Z.; Meyer, Austin G.; Sydykova, Dariya K.; Spielman, Stephanie J.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2013-01-01

    The relative solvent accessibility (RSA) of a residue in a protein measures the extent of burial or exposure of that residue in the 3D structure. RSA is frequently used to describe a protein's biophysical or evolutionary properties. To calculate RSA, a residue's solvent accessibility (ASA) needs to be normalized by a suitable reference value for the given amino acid; several normalization scales have previously been proposed. However, these scales do not provide tight upper bounds on ASA values frequently observed in empirical crystal structures. Instead, they underestimate the largest allowed ASA values, by up to 20%. As a result, many empirical crystal structures contain residues that seem to have RSA values in excess of one. Here, we derive a new normalization scale that does provide a tight upper bound on observed ASA values. We pursue two complementary strategies, one based on extensive analysis of empirical structures and one based on systematic enumeration of biophysically allowed tripeptides. Both approaches yield congruent results that consistently exceed published values. We conclude that previously published ASA normalization values were too small, primarily because the conformations that maximize ASA had not been correctly identified. As an application of our results, we show that empirically derived hydrophobicity scales are sensitive to accurate RSA calculation, and we derive new hydrophobicity scales that show increased correlation with experimentally measured scales. PMID:24278298

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds This appendix contains four tables identifying maximum allowing curving speeds based on 3, 4, 5, and 6 inches of unbalance (cant deficiency), respectively. Table 1—Three...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds This appendix contains four tables identifying maximum allowing curving speeds based on 3, 4, 5, and 6 inches of unbalance (cant deficiency), respectively. Table 1—Three...

  16. 41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7.302 Section 302-7.302 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum...

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.302 - What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? 302-7.302 Section 302-7.302 Public Contracts and Property Management...) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.302 What is the maximum weight allowance for a UAB shipment? The maximum...

  18. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the maximum... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-5 Maximum allowable working...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance Degree of curvature 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance Degree of curvature 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds A Appendix A to...—Maximum Allowable Curving Speeds Table 1—Three Inches Unbalance Degree of curvature 0 1/2 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 41/2 5 51/2 6 (12) Maximum allowable operating speed (mph) 0°30′ 93 100 107 113 120 125...

  2. Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyEWe use the symbol GyE for the correct notation of Gy(RBE). for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose.

  3. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems. 192.623 Section 192.623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.623 Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure;...

  4. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. 192.621 Section 192.621 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems....

  5. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of...

  6. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of...

  7. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of...

  8. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of...

  9. 46 CFR 52.01-55 - Increase in maximum allowable working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-55 Increase in maximum allowable working pressure. (a) When the maximum allowable working pressure of a boiler has been established, an increase in the pressure settings of its safety valves shall not be granted unless the boiler design meets the requirements of...

  10. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or...

  11. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the maximum... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any...

  12. 46 CFR 54.10-5 - Maximum allowable working pressure (reproduces UG-98).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 54.01-1.) (b) The maximum allowable working pressure for a vessel part is the maximum... loadings listed in UG-22 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (see 46 CFR 54.01-30) that are likely to occur, or the designated coincident operating temperature, excluding any...

  13. Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan

    2012-05-10

    Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies.

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa(..gamma..d + g(t, tau)d/sup 2/), where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d/sup 2/ term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

  15. Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.; DuFrain, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been presented by Kellerer and Rossi (1972, Current Topics on Radiation Research Quarterly 8, 85-158; 1978, Radiation Research 75, 471-488) using the theory of dual radiation action. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting dose-time-response models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general-purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described, and estimation for the nonlinear models is illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.

  16. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  17. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  18. Column flooding and entrainment. [Estimation of maximum allowable vapor velocity and entrainment in a distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Lygeros, A.I.; Magoulas, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    Here is a way to estimate maximum allowable vapor velocity and entrainment in a distillation column. The method can easily be computerized. It is based on equations derived from the widely accepted correlations. The equation for flooding velocity is applicable to bubble-cup, sieve and valve trays, while the entrainment equation applies only to sieve trays.

  19. 77 FR 56555 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... on October 17, 2006. (71 FR 61144). The PM standard regulates two types of particulates: fine... Missouri rule include: --10 CSR 10-2.040, Maximum Allowable Emission of Particulate Matter from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating, for the Kansas City Metropolitan Area; --10 CSR...

  20. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  1. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  2. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  3. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  4. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi. Strength of Materials ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS... maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  5. Methotrexate Dosing Regimen for Plaque-type Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of the Use of Test-dose, Start-dose, Dosing Scheme, Dose Adjustments, Maximum Dose and Folic Acid Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Menting, Stef P; Dekker, Paul M; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hooft, Lotty; Spuls, Phyllis I

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of methotrexate dosing regimens for psoriasis. This review summarizes the evidence for test-dose, start-dose, dosing scheme, dose adjustments, maximum dose and use of folic acid. A literature search for randomized controlled trials and guidelines was performed. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials (29 treatment groups) and 10 guidelines were included. Two treatment groups used a test-dose, 5 guidelines recommend it. The methotrexate start-dose in randomized controlled trials varied from 5 to 25 mg/week, most commonly being either 7.5 mg or 15 mg. Guidelines vary from 5 to 15 mg/week. Methotrexate was administered as a single dose or in a Weinstein schedule in 15 and 11 treatment-groups, respectively; both recommended equally in guidelines. A fixed dose (n = 18), predefined dose (n = 3), or dose adjusted on clinical improvement (n = 8) was used, the last also being recommended in guidelines. Ten treatment groups used folic acid; in 2 it was allowed, in 14 not mentioned, and in 3 no folic acid was used. Most guidelines recommend the use of folic acid. Authors' suggestions for methotrexate dosing are given.

  6. Investigation on the presence of sulphites in fresh meat preparations: estimation of an allowable maximum limit.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Muscarella, Marilena

    2012-02-01

    Sulphiting agents are commonly used food additives. They are not allowed in fresh meat preparations. In this work, 2250 fresh meat samples were analysed to establish the maximum concentration of sulphites that can be considered as "natural" and therefore be admitted in fresh meat preparations. The analyses were carried out by an optimised Monier-Williams Method and the positive samples confirmed by ion chromatography. Sulphite concentrations higher than the screening method LOQ (10.0 mg · kg(-1)) were found in 100 samples. Concentrations higher than 76.6 mg · kg(-1), attributable to sulphiting agent addition, were registered in 40 samples. Concentrations lower than 41.3 mg · kg(-1) were registered in 60 samples. Taking into account the distribution of sulphite concentrations obtained, it is plausible to estimate a maximum allowable limit of 40.0 mg · kg(-1) (expressed as SO(2)). Below this value the samples can be considered as "compliant".

  7. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  8. Cricket frogs maintain body hydration and temperature near levels allowing maximum jump performance.

    PubMed

    Walvoord, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    One goal of this study was to determine the combination of hydration and temperature in the northern cricket frog Acris crepitans that allowed maximum jump distance in the laboratory. Second, environmental variables in the field were measured to determine the best predictor(s) of mean body temperature and hydration and to determine whether frogs maintain levels of temperature and hydration yielding maximum jump distance. Laboratory data revealed that hydration and the hydration-temperature interaction significantly affected jump performance. Frogs at 95% and 85% hydration jumped significantly better than frogs at 75% hydration, but frogs at 95% hydration at 15 degrees C jumped significantly poorer than those at 95% hydration at 30 degrees C. Animals at 85% hydration at 30 degrees C and 85% hydration at 15 degrees C jumped just as well as those at 95% hydration at 30 degrees C. Mean body temperature of 55 frogs in the field was 28.0 degrees C, and hydration was 97.4%. Sky condition (sunny, cloudy, or partly cloudy) was the best predictor of frog hydration, and air temperature was the best predictor of frog body temperature. Cricket frogs in the field maintain a hydration and temperature near those found to yield maximum jump distances in laboratory trials. This may be a behavioral adaptation to allow maximum jump distance during predator avoidance.

  9. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are LWLSG, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and LΦ, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 RSun central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size LΦ of the active region, (2) in (Log LWLSG, Log LΦ) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active-region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: áBñ ≡ ΦA ≈ 300 G, where Φ is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (< 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division, NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences, and AFOSR's MURI Program.

  10. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  11. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  12. Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

  13. Maximum allowable values of the heavy metals in recycled water for household laundry.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Bandita; Pham, Thi Thu Nga; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2013-05-01

    Household laundry as a new end use of recycled water in dual reticulation systems has a great potential as the significant amount of potable water from urban households can be saved. However, there is still no sufficient evidence and supporting recycled water quality guidelines for this particular use. A key gap in knowledge is the impact of heavy metals in recycled water on clothes and washing machines. Thus, this study aims to determine the maximum allowable values (MAVs) of the heavy metals iron (Fe), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in recycled water for washing clothes in washing machines. Six different concentrations of each targeted metals were prepared in tap water for the washing machine experiments. The tearing/tensile strength tests were used for the assessment of cloth durability. MINITAB 16 as a statistical tool was used and ANOVA one way test was applied for the significance analysis (Turkey's test p<0.05). The results show that the MAVs of the heavy metals Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were found to be 1 mg/l, 1 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 5 mg/l and 1 mg/l respectively in terms of cloth durability.

  14. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions. PMID:26480926

  15. Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

  16. 77 FR 56591 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Maximum Allowable Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... Allowable Emission of Particulate Matter From Fuel Burning Equipment Used for Indirect Heating AGENCY... Allowable Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions from Fuel Burning Equipment Used for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  18. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  19. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  20. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  1. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Change in class location: Confirmation or revision...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.611 Change in class location: Confirmation or revision... location, and the segment is in satisfactory physical condition, the maximum allowable operating...

  2. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  3. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  4. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  5. 49 CFR 192.611 - Change in class location: Confirmation or revision of maximum allowable operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of maximum allowable operating pressure. (a) If the hoop stress corresponding to the established... locations. The corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 72 percent of the SMYS of the pipe in Class 2... pressure per § 192.620, the corresponding hoop stress may not exceed 80 percent of the SMYS of the pipe...

  6. Allowing for random errors in radiation dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor data.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D A; Stram, D O; Vaeth, M

    1990-09-01

    The presence of random errors in the individual radiation dose estimates for the A-bomb survivors causes underestimation of radiation effects in dose-response analyses, and also distorts the shape of dose-response curves. Statistical methods are presented which will adjust for these biases, provided that a valid statistical model for the dose estimation errors is used. Emphasis is on clarifying some rather subtle statistical issues. For most of this development the distinction between radiation dose and exposure is not critical. The proposed methods involve downward adjustment of dose estimates, but this does not imply that the dosimetry system is faulty. Rather, this is a part of the dose-response analysis required to remove biases in the risk estimates. The primary focus of this report is on linear dose-response models, but methods for linear-quadratic models are also considered briefly. Some plausible models for the dose estimation errors are considered, which have typical errors in a range of 30-40% of the true values, and sensitivity analysis of the resulting bias corrections is provided. It is found that for these error models the resulting estimates of excess cancer risk based on linear models are about 6-17% greater than estimates that make no allowance for dose estimation errors. This increase in risk estimates is reduced to about 4-11% if, as has often been done recently, survivors with dose estimates above 4 Gy are eliminated from the analysis.

  7. The maximum single dose of resistant maltodextrin that does not cause diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuka; Kanahori, Sumiko; Sakano, Katsuhisa; Ebihara, Shukuko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the maximum dose of resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol)-2, a non-viscous water-soluble dietary fiber), that does not induce transitory diarrhea. Ten healthy adult subjects (5 men and 5 women) ingested Fibersol-2 at increasing dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 g/kg body weight (bw). Each administration was separated from the previous dose by an interval of 1 wk. The highest dose level that did not cause diarrhea in any subject was regarded as the maximum non-effective level for a single dose. The results showed that no subject of either sex experienced diarrhea at dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, or 1.0 g/kg bw. At the highest dose level of 1.1 g/kg bw, no female subject experienced diarrhea, whereas 1 male subject developed diarrhea with muddy stools 2 h after ingestion of the test substance. Consequently, the maximum non-effective level for a single dose of the resistant maltodextrin Fibersol-2 is 1.0 g/kg bw for men and >1.1 g/kg bw for women. Gastrointestinal symptoms were gurgling sounds in 4 subjects (7 events) and flatus in 5 subjects (9 events), although no association with dose level was observed. These symptoms were mild and transient and resolved without treatment.

  8. A Fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haisen S.; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-09-15

    We developed an analytical method for determining the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete dose calculation in proton therapy treatment plan optimization, so that the accuracy of the optimized dose distribution is guaranteed in the phase of dose sampling and the superfluous computational work is avoided. The accuracy of dose sampling was judged by the criterion that the continuous dose distribution could be reconstructed from the discrete dose within a 2% error limit. To keep the error caused by the discrete dose sampling under a 2% limit, the dose grid size cannot exceed a maximum acceptable value. The method was based on Fourier analysis and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem as an extension of our previous analysis for photon beam intensity modulated radiation therapy [J. F. Dempsey, H. E. Romeijn, J. G. Li, D. A. Low, and J. R. Palta, Med. Phys. 32, 380-388 (2005)]. The proton beam model used for the analysis was a near mono-energetic (of width about 1% the incident energy) and monodirectional infinitesimal (nonintegrated) pencil beam in water medium. By monodirection, we mean that the proton particles are in the same direction before entering the water medium and the various scattering prior to entrance to water is not taken into account. In intensity modulated proton therapy, the elementary intensity modulation entity for proton therapy is either an infinitesimal or finite sized beamlet. Since a finite sized beamlet is the superposition of infinitesimal pencil beams, the result of the maximum acceptable grid size obtained with infinitesimal pencil beam also applies to finite sized beamlet. The analytic Bragg curve function proposed by Bortfeld [T. Bortfeld, Med. Phys. 24, 2024-2033 (1997)] was employed. The lateral profile was approximated by a depth dependent Gaussian distribution. The model included the spreads of the Bragg peak and the lateral profiles due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The dependence of the maximum acceptable dose grid size on the

  9. MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.

  10. Low-dose ethanol consumption allows strength recovery in chronic alcoholic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, J; Nicolás, J M; Sacanella, E; Robert, J; Cofan, M; Estruch, R; Urbano-Márquez, A

    2000-01-01

    Chronic skeletal myopathy may affect one third of chronic alcohol misusers. It is generally accepted that abstinence allows partial recovery, and that continued high-dose ethanol consumption progressively deteriorates muscle function. However, the effect of low-dose ethanol consumption in alcoholic myopathy has not been studied. We studied 58 chronic alcoholic male patients with biopsy-proven chronic alcoholic myopathy over 5 years. We evaluated ethanol intake, biochemical and nutritional parameters, and assessed muscle strength. Eighteen patients who remained abstinent showed marked improvement in muscle strength. As expected, the 19 patients who persisted in high-dose ethanol consumption further diminished in their muscle strength. In the 11 patients who maintained low-dose (dose-dependent recovery in muscle strength according to the degree of ethanol consumption, and moderate controlled drinking of up to 60 g ethanol/day still allows improvement in muscle strength.

  11. The effect of maximum-allowable payload temperature on the mass of a multimegawatt space-based platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-08-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space-based platform as a function of the maximum-allowed operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The first program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum-allowed payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumped-loop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. 3 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Calculation of maximum allowable free span length and safety assessment of the DF1-1 submarine pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jishang; Li, Guangxue; Horrillo, Juan J.; Yang, Rongmin; Cao, Lihua

    2010-03-01

    The DF1-1 submarine pipeline was investigated using a dual-frequency side-scan sonar and a swath sounder system. More than a hundred scour pits under the pipeline were found, most of which have caused the span of the pipeline to increase and threatened its safety. The maximum allowable free span length (MAFSL) of the pipeline was determined through the limitations regarding maximum allowable stress under static or quasi-static loads and the onset of Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV) under different hydrodynamic actions. The results show that the MAFSL under static conditions is 56 m. However, the MAFSLs are 30 m and 20 m under ordinary weather conditions and hurricane-induced currents for the 100-year return period, respectively, to avoid VIV as calculated by using the highest safety class factor. It is suggested that spanning pipelines longer than 20 m should be supported. Additionally, eight successive spans which may also threaten the pipeline were proposed. The most hazardous scour pits are along the pipeline section from KP42 to KP51.

  13. SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046...

  19. Evaluating the efficacies of Maximum Tolerated Dose and metronomic chemotherapies: A mathematical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraldello, Rafael T.; Martins, Marcelo L.; Mancera, Paulo F. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a mathematical model based on partial differential equations that is applied to understand tumor development and its response to chemotherapy. Our primary aim is to evaluate comparatively the efficacies of two chemotherapeutic protocols, Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and metronomic, as well as two methods of drug delivery. Concerning therapeutic outcomes, the metronomic protocol proves more effective in prolonging the patient's life than MTD. Moreover, a uniform drug delivery method combined with the metronomic protocol is the most efficient strategy to reduce tumor density.

  20. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  1. Estimation of maximum tolerated dose for long-term bioassays from acute lethal dose and structure by QSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gombar, V.K.; Enslein, K.; Hart, J.B.; Blake, B.W.; Borgstedt, H.H.

    1991-09-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been developed to estimate maximum tolerated doses (MTD) from structural features of chemicals and the corresponding oral acute lethal doses (LD50) as determined in male rats. The model is based on a set of 269 diverse chemicals which have been tested under the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program (NCI/NTP) protocols. The rat oral LD50 value was the strongest predictor. Additionally, 22 structural descriptors comprising nine substructural MOLSTAC(c) keys, three molecular connectivity indices, and sigma charges on 10 molecular fragments were identified as endpoint predictors. The model explains 76% of the variance and is significant (F = 35.7) at p less than 0.0001 with a standard error of the estimate of 0.40 in the log (1/mol) units used in Hansch-type equations. Cross-validation showed that the difference between the average deleted residual square (0.179) and the model residual square (0.160) was not significant (t = 0.98).

  2. Dose reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis using a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mini; Gifford, Howard; O'Connor, Michael; Glick, Stephen J.

    2009-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging modality with limited angle projection data. The ability of tomosynthesis systems to accurately detect smaller microcalcifications is debatable. This is because of the higher noise in the projection data (lower average dose per projection), which is then propagated through the reconstructed image . Reconstruction methods that minimize the propagation of quantum noise have potential to improve microcalcification detectability using DBT. In this paper we show that penalized maximum likelihood (PML) reconstruction in DBT yields images with an improved resolution/noise tradeoff as compared to conventional filtered backprojection (FBP). Signal to noise ratio (SNR) using PML was observed to be higher than that obtained using the standard FBP algorithm. Our results indicate that for microcalcifications, using the PML algorithm, reconstructions obtained with a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.5 mGy yielded better SNR than that those obtained with FBP using a 4mGy total dose. Thus perhaps total dose could be reduced to one-third or lower with same microcalcification detectability, if PML reconstruction is used instead of FBP. Visibility of low contrast masses with various contrast levels were studied using a contrast-detail phantom in a breast shape structure with an average breast density. Images generated using various dose levels indicate that visibility of low contrast masses generated using PML reconstructions are significantly better than those generated using FBP. SNR measurements in the low-contrast study did not appear to correlate with the visual subjective analysis of the reconstruction indicating that SNR is not a good figure of merit to be used.

  3. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with oligometastases from colorectal cancer: risk-adapted dose prescription with a maximum dose of 83–100 Gy in five fractions

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Tsurugai, Yuichiro; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the local control of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with moderate prescription dose was relatively worse. We investigated the treatment outcomes and toxicities of patients with oligometastases from CRC treated by SBRT using risk-adapted, very high- and convergent-dose regimens. Among patients referred for SBRT from August 2011 to January 2015, those patients were extracted who had liver or pulmonary metastases from CRC, and they were treated with a total dose of 50–60 Gy in five fractions prescribed to the 60% isodose line of the maximum dose covering the surface of the planning target volume. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy was not admitted during SBRT, while neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was allowed. A total of 21 patients (12 liver, 9 lung) with 28 oligometastases were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 27.5 months (range: 6.5–43.3 months). Four patients were treated with SBRT as a series of initial treatments, and 17 patients were treated after recurrent oligometastases. The local control rates at 1 and 2 years from the start of SBRT were 100%. The disease-free and actuarial overall survival rates were 62% and 55%, and 79% and 79%, respectively. No severe toxicities (≥grade 3) occurred during follow-up. The outcomes following high-dose SBRT were excellent. This treatment can provide an alternative to the surgical resection of oligometastases from CRC. Prospective studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of SBRT. PMID:26983981

  4. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.17 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.17 Section 302-7.17 Public Contracts and Property Management...) General Rules § 302-7.17 Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited...

  6. 41 CFR 304-5.4 - May we authorize an employee to exceed the maximum subsistence allowances (per diem, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) prescribed in applicable travel regulations where we have authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal... where we have authorized acceptance of payment from a non-Federal source for such allowances?...

  7. First-order correct bootstrap support adjustments for splits that allow hypothesis testing when using maximum likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Susko, Edward

    2010-07-01

    The most frequent measure of phylogenetic uncertainty for splits is bootstrap support. Although large bootstrap support intuitively suggests that a split in a tree is well supported, it has not been clear how large bootstrap support needs to be to conclude that there is significant evidence that a hypothesized split is present. Indeed, recent work has shown that bootstrap support is not first-order correct and thus cannot be directly used for hypothesis testing. We present methods that adjust bootstrap support values in a maximum likelihood (ML) setting so that they have an interpretation corresponding to P values in conventional hypothesis testing; for instance, adjusted bootstrap support larger than 95% occurs only 5% of the time if the split is not present. Through examples and simulation settings, it is found that adjustments always increase the level of support. We also find that the nature of the adjustment is fairly constant across parameter settings. Finally, we consider adjustments that take into account the data-dependent nature of many hypotheses about splits: the hypothesis that they are present is being tested because they are in the tree estimated through ML. Here, in contrast, we find that bootstrap probability often needs to be adjusted downwards.

  8. Does EU legislation allow the use of the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach for risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Brandon, E F A; Bulder, A S; van Engelen, J G M; Mahieu, C M; Mennes, W C; Pronk, M E J; Rietveld, A G; van de Ven, B M; Ten Voorde, S E C G; Wolterink, G; Slob, W; Zeilmaker, M J; Bessems, J G M

    2013-11-01

    Hazard characterisation is largely based on an approach of (statistically) comparing dose groups with the controls in order to derive points of departure such as no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs). This approach suggests the absence of any relevant effect at the NOAEL. The NOAEL approach has been debated for decades. A recent Scientific Opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that the Benchmark Dose (BMD) approach should be preferred over the NOAEL approach for deriving human (health-based) limit or guidance values. Nonetheless, the BMD approach is used infrequently within European regulatory frameworks. The reason for this may lie in legislation or guidelines requiring the use of the NOAEL approach. In this context, various EU regulatory frameworks were examined on such demands. Interestingly, no single legislation was identified containing statutory requirements in conflict with the use of the BMD approach.

  9. A comparative study of current Medicaid prescription reimbursement (MAC/EAC) (maximum allowable cost/estimated acquisition cost) with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market.

    PubMed

    Porter, B H; Carroll, N V; Kotzan, J A

    1988-01-01

    Many pharmacists have suggested that the current Maximum Allowable Cost/Estimated Acquisition Cost (MAC/EAC) program has departed from its intended purpose of generating savings by taking full but fair advantage of the competitive marketplace. The objective of this study was to compare Medicaid prescription reimbursement under current MAC/EAC regulations with prescription reimbursement based on a competitive market. Data representing the top selling single source and multiple source drug products for nine states were analyzed. Results indicated that the current MAC/EAC system of Medicaid reimbursement produced a small savings when compared to reimbursement based on a competitive market. PMID:10303401

  10. The relationship between neuroleptic drug dose and the performance of psychiatric patients in a maximum security token economy program.

    PubMed

    Harris, G T

    1989-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between neuroleptic medication dose and performance in a token economy program on two maximum security psychiatric wards. Patients receiving higher than average doses exhibited poorer than average program performance but there was a small but statistically significant positive relationship between neuroleptic drug dose (measured in CPZ units/kg) and program performance. However, this positive relationship existed only for the first few weeks of patients' hospital stays, and there was a delay (approximately 2 weeks) between the administration of the drug and the maximal positive effect on program performance. Only a very small minority of medication changes were ever followed by improvements in program performance. The results are discussed in terms of what is a rational strategy for the provision of psychiatric medication and other forms of treatment in institutional settings.

  11. An appreciation of the maximum tolerated dose: an inadequately precise decision point in designing a carcinogenesis bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Clayson, D.B.; Iverson, F.; Mueller, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD definition, or could be separately determined, are addressed. Many of these factors refer to toxic behavior in one or a few tissues and, if used in setting the MTD, may mask more relevant events occurring at higher dose levels in other tissues. Reducing the MTD to a level that fails to take into account pesticide or drug-related toxicity may lead to the loss of relevant information in the bioassay. It is concluded, therefore, that there are two possible approaches to a more appropriate use of the MTD. The highest dose of the test agent (MTD) may be chosen (i) to lie below the thresholds of carcinogenicity-related non-genotoxic toxicity or (ii) the present high level MTD may continue to be used and tumors that arise may be classified as being irrelvant to humans at some or all exposure levels. The latter approach is to be preferred. It has the potential to avoid missing high level effects of the test agent that may be relevant to the human population.91 references.

  12. Estimation of the maximum allowable loading amount of COD in Luoyuan Bay by a 3-D COD transport and transformation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jialin; Li, Keqiang; Shi, Xiaoyong; Liang, Shengkang; Han, Xiurong; Ma, Qimin; Wang, Xiulin

    2014-08-01

    The rapid economic and social developments in the Luoyuan and Lianjiang counties of Fujian Province, China, raise certain environment and ecosystem issues. The unusual phytoplankton bloom and eutrophication, for example, have increased in severity in Luoyuan Bay (LB). The constant increase of nutrient loads has largely caused the environmental degradation in LB. Several countermeasures have been implemented to solve these environmental problems. The most effective of these strategies is the reduction of pollutant loadings into the sea in accordance with total pollutant load control (TPLC) plans. A combined three-dimensional hydrodynamic transport-transformation model was constructed to estimate the marine environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The allowed maximum loadings for each discharge unit in LB were calculated with applicable simulation results. The simulation results indicated that the environmental capacity of COD is approximately 11×104 t year-1 when the water quality complies with the marine functional zoning standards for LB. A pollutant reduction scheme to diminish the present levels of mariculture- and domestic-based COD loadings is based on the estimated marine COD environmental capacity. The obtained values imply that the LB waters could comply with the targeted water quality criteria. To meet the revised marine functional zoning standards, discharge loadings from discharge units 1 and 11 should be reduced to 996 and 3236 t year-1, respectively.

  13. Feasibility study of stereotactic body radiotherapy for peripheral lung tumors with a maximum dose of 100 Gy in five fractions and a heterogeneous dose distribution in the planning target volume.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Aoki, Yousuke; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Kaneko, Takeshi; Nishimura, Shuichi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated toxicity and outcomes for patients with peripheral lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a dose-escalation and dose-convergence study. A total of 15 patients were enrolled. SBRT was performed with 60 Gy in 5 fractions (fr.) prescribed to the 60% isodose line of maximum dose, which was 100 Gy in 5 fr., covering the planning target volume (PTV) surface (60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose)) using dynamic conformal multiple arc therapy (DCMAT). The primary endpoint was radiation pneumonitis (RP) ≥ Grade 2 within 6 months. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Using dose-volumetric analysis, the trial regimen of 60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose) was compared with our institutional conventional regimen of 50 Gy/5 fr. - (80%-isodose). The enrolled consecutive patients had either a solitary peripheral tumor or two ipsilateral tumors. The median follow-up duration was 22.0 (12.0-27.0) months. After 6 months post-SBRT, the respective number of RP Grade 0, 1 and 2 cases was 5, 9 and 1. In the Grade 2 RP patient, the image showed an organizing pneumonia pattern at 6.0 months post-SBRT. No other toxicity was found. At last follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence of the treated tumors. The target volumes of 60 Gy/ 5 fr. - (60%-isodose) were irradiated with a significantly higher dose than those of 50 Gy/5 fr. - (80%-isodose), while the former dosimetric parameters of normal lung were almost equivalent to the latter. SBRT with 60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose) using DCMAT allowed the delivery of very high and convergent doses to peripheral lung tumors with feasibility in the acute and subacute phases. Further follow-up is required to assess for late toxicity.

  14. A multi-head intradermal electroporation device allows for tailored and increased dose DNA vaccine delivery to the skin

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Jay R; Mendoza, Janess M; Spik, Kristin W; Badger, Catherine; Gomez, Alan F; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an effective and tolerable delivery method is a necessity for the success of DNA vaccines in the clinic. This article describes the development and validation of a multi-headed intradermal electroporation device which would be applicable for delivering multiple DNA vaccine plasmids simultaneously but spatially separated. Reporter gene plasmids expressing green and red fluorescent proteins were used to demonstrate the impact of spatial separation on DNA delivery to increase the number of transfected cells and avoid interference through visible expression patterns. To investigate the impact of plasmid interference on immunogenicity, a disease target was investigated where issues with multi-valent vaccines had been previously described. DNA-based Hantaan and Puumala virus vaccines were delivered separately or as a combination and the effect of multi-valence was determined by appropriate assays. While a negative impact was observed for both antigenic vaccines when delivered together, these effects were mitigated when the vaccine was delivered using the multi-head device. We also demonstrate how the multi-head device facilitates higher dose delivery to the skin resulting in improved immune responses. This new multi-head platform device is an efficient, tolerable and non-invasive method to deliver multiple plasmid DNA constructs simultaneously allowing the tailoring of delivery sites for combination vaccines. Additionally, this device would allow the delivery of multi-plasmid vaccine formulations without risk of impacted immune responses through interference. Such a low-cost, easy to use device platform for the delivery of multi-agent DNA vaccines would have direct applications by the military and healthcare sectors for mass vaccination purposes. PMID:25839221

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.16 Section 302-7.16 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  16. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Is the maximum weight allowance for HHG and temporary storage limited when quarters are furnished...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is the maximum weight... Government OCONUS or upon return to CONUS? 302-7.16 Section 302-7.16 Public Contracts and Property Management...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  17. The maximal cumulative solar UVB dose allowed to maintain healthy and young skin and prevent premature photoaging.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Ando, Hideya

    2014-10-01

    The young facial skin of children with a smooth healthy appearance changes over time to photoaged skin having mottled pigmentation, solar lentigines, wrinkles, dry and rough skin, leathery texture, and benign and malignant tumors after exposure to chronic, repeated solar radiation. The first sign of photoaging in Japanese subjects is usually solar lentigines appearing around 20 years of age on the face. Fine wrinkles can then appear after 30 years of age, and benign skin tumors, seborrhoeic keratoses, can occur after 35 years of age in sun-exposed skin. We theoretically calculated the maximal daily exposure time to solar radiation, which could prevent the development of photoaged skin until 60 and 80 years of age, based on published data of personal solar UVB doses in sun-exposed skin. One MED (minimal erythema dose) was determined to be 20 mJ/cm(2) , and 200 MED was used as the average yearly dose of Japanese children. Further, we hypothesized that the annual dose of Japanese adults is the same as that of the children. The cumulative UVB dose at 20 years of age was thus calculated to be 4000 MED, and 22 MED was used as the maximal daily UVB dose based on data measured in Kobe, located in the central area of Japan. We used the solar UVB dose from 10:00 a.m. to 14:00 p.m. which occupies 60% of the total daily UV dose, to obtain the maximal UVB per hour in a day, and calculated the maximal daily UV exposure time that would delay the onset of solar lentigines until 60 or 80 years of age. The mean daily sun exposure time to maintain healthy skin until 80 years of age in the summer was calculated to be 2.54 min (0.14 MED) for unprotected skin and 127 min with the use of a sunscreen of SPF (sun protection factor) of 50. In this study, we did not evaluate the photoaging effect of UVA radiation, but findings of the adverse effects of UVA radiation on the skin have accumulated in the last decade. Therefore, it will be important to estimate the maximal dose of solar

  18. Re-Assessing the Maximum Allowed Infrared (IR) Power for Enchanced Layering in a Conduction Dominated Cryogenic NIF-Scale Hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B J

    2003-08-11

    Recent measurements of the infrared (IR) absorption coefficient of CH and CD capsules differ significantly from earlier estimated values from thin flat samples. The optimum wavelength for IR enhanced layering of DT and D{sub 2} ice layers inside of a NIF scale hohlraum depends on the relative ice and capsule absorption coefficients. This update of a previous memo shows the maximum ice heating with IR as a function of ice and capsule absorption instead of at discrete wavelengths. Also discussed is the leverage of other parameters, such as the IR absorption of the hohlraum wall and thermal conductivities of the support rods and exchange gas. The most likely capsule and ice absorption values limit the IR heating to between 2-7 Q{sub DT}. We find most leverage of the IR heating comes from increasing the ice to capsule absorption ratio. As before, this is the conduction only limit to IR, with convection potentially playing a large role.

  19. Learning maximum entropy models from finite-size data sets: A fast data-driven algorithm allows sampling from the posterior distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Ulisse

    2016-08-01

    Maximum entropy models provide the least constrained probability distributions that reproduce statistical properties of experimental datasets. In this work we characterize the learning dynamics that maximizes the log-likelihood in the case of large but finite datasets. We first show how the steepest descent dynamics is not optimal as it is slowed down by the inhomogeneous curvature of the model parameters' space. We then provide a way for rectifying this space which relies only on dataset properties and does not require large computational efforts. We conclude by solving the long-time limit of the parameters' dynamics including the randomness generated by the systematic use of Gibbs sampling. In this stochastic framework, rather than converging to a fixed point, the dynamics reaches a stationary distribution, which for the rectified dynamics reproduces the posterior distribution of the parameters. We sum up all these insights in a "rectified" data-driven algorithm that is fast and by sampling from the parameters' posterior avoids both under- and overfitting along all the directions of the parameters' space. Through the learning of pairwise Ising models from the recording of a large population of retina neurons, we show how our algorithm outperforms the steepest descent method.

  20. Learning maximum entropy models from finite-size data sets: A fast data-driven algorithm allows sampling from the posterior distribution.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ulisse

    2016-08-01

    Maximum entropy models provide the least constrained probability distributions that reproduce statistical properties of experimental datasets. In this work we characterize the learning dynamics that maximizes the log-likelihood in the case of large but finite datasets. We first show how the steepest descent dynamics is not optimal as it is slowed down by the inhomogeneous curvature of the model parameters' space. We then provide a way for rectifying this space which relies only on dataset properties and does not require large computational efforts. We conclude by solving the long-time limit of the parameters' dynamics including the randomness generated by the systematic use of Gibbs sampling. In this stochastic framework, rather than converging to a fixed point, the dynamics reaches a stationary distribution, which for the rectified dynamics reproduces the posterior distribution of the parameters. We sum up all these insights in a "rectified" data-driven algorithm that is fast and by sampling from the parameters' posterior avoids both under- and overfitting along all the directions of the parameters' space. Through the learning of pairwise Ising models from the recording of a large population of retina neurons, we show how our algorithm outperforms the steepest descent method. PMID:27627406

  1. Selective withdrawal optimization in river-reservoir systems; trade-offs between maximum allowable receiving waste load and water quality criteria enhancement.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Fariborz; Afshar, Abbas; Palatkaleh, Sedigheh Torabi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new systematic approach is designed to maximize the demand coverage and receiving waste load by river-reservoir systems while enhancing water quality criteria. The approach intends to control the reservoir eutrophication while developing a trade-off between the maximum receiving load and shortage on demand coverage. To simulate the system, a hybrid process-based and data-driven model is tailored. Initially, the two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulation model (CE-QUAL-W2) is linked with an effective single and/or multiple optimization algorithms (PSO) to evaluate the proposed scenarios. To increase the computational efficiencies, the simulation model is substituted with a surrogate model (ANN) in an adaptive-dynamically refined routine. The proposed method is illustrated by a case study in Iran, namely, Karkheh River Reservoir, for 180-monthly periods. The results showed the applicability of the methodology especially to solve high-dimensional multi-period complex water resource optimization problems. Also, the results demonstrated that eutrophication could be reduced under the optimal inflow phosphate control and reservoir operation, regulating the total phosphorous concentration in the reservoir. PMID:27260530

  2. Selective withdrawal optimization in river-reservoir systems; trade-offs between maximum allowable receiving waste load and water quality criteria enhancement.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Fariborz; Afshar, Abbas; Palatkaleh, Sedigheh Torabi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new systematic approach is designed to maximize the demand coverage and receiving waste load by river-reservoir systems while enhancing water quality criteria. The approach intends to control the reservoir eutrophication while developing a trade-off between the maximum receiving load and shortage on demand coverage. To simulate the system, a hybrid process-based and data-driven model is tailored. Initially, the two-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality simulation model (CE-QUAL-W2) is linked with an effective single and/or multiple optimization algorithms (PSO) to evaluate the proposed scenarios. To increase the computational efficiencies, the simulation model is substituted with a surrogate model (ANN) in an adaptive-dynamically refined routine. The proposed method is illustrated by a case study in Iran, namely, Karkheh River Reservoir, for 180-monthly periods. The results showed the applicability of the methodology especially to solve high-dimensional multi-period complex water resource optimization problems. Also, the results demonstrated that eutrophication could be reduced under the optimal inflow phosphate control and reservoir operation, regulating the total phosphorous concentration in the reservoir.

  3. Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Advax delta inulin adjuvant overcomes immune immaturity in neonatal mice thereby allowing single-dose influenza vaccine protection.

    PubMed

    Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Ong, Chun Hao; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-09-11

    Neonates are at high risk for influenza morbidity and mortality due to immune immaturity and lack of priming by prior influenza virus exposure. Inactivated influenza vaccines are ineffective in infants under six months and to provide protection in older children generally require two doses given a month apart. This leaves few options for rapid protection of infants, e.g. during an influenza pandemic. We investigated whether Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles could help overcome neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness. We first tested whether it was possible to use Advax to obtain single-dose vaccine protection of neonatal pups against lethal influenza infection. Inactivated influenza A/H1N1 vaccine (iH1N1) combined with Advax™ adjuvant administered as a single subcutaneous immunization to 7-day-old mouse pups significantly enhanced serum influenza-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels and was associated with a 3-4 fold increase in the frequency of splenic influenza-specific IgM and IgG antibody secreting cells. Pups immunized with Advax had significantly higher splenocyte influenza-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production by CBA and a 3-10 fold higher frequency of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 or IL-17 secreting T cells by ELISPOT. Immunization with iH1N1+Advax induced robust protection of pups against virus challenge 3 weeks later, whereas pups immunized with iH1N1 antigen alone had no protection. Protection by Advax-adjuvanted iH1N1 was dependent on memory B cells rather than memory T cells, with no protection in neonatal μMT mice that are B-cell deficient. Hence, Advax adjuvant overcame neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness and enabled single-dose protection of pups against otherwise lethal influenza infection, thereby supporting ongoing development of Advax™ as a neonatal vaccine adjuvant.

  5. Advax Delta Inulin Adjuvant Overcomes Immune Immaturity In Neonatal Mice Thereby Allowing Single–Dose Influenza Vaccine Protection

    PubMed Central

    Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Ong, Chun Hao; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Neonates are at high risk for influenza morbidity and mortality due to immune immaturity and lack of priming by prior exposure. Inactivated influenza vaccines are ineffective in infants under six months and to provide protection in older children generally require two doses given a month apart. This leaves few options for rapid protection of infants, e.g. during an influenza pandemic. We investigated whether Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles could help overcome neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness and also whether it was possible to obtain single-dose influenza vaccine protection of babies against lethal infection. Inactivated influenza A/H1N1 vaccine (iH1N1) combined with Advax™ adjuvant administered as a single immunization to 7-day-old mouse pups significantly enhanced serum influenza-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels in association with a 3–4 fold increase in the frequency of splenic influenza-specific IgM and IgG antibody secreting cells versus pups immunized with iH1N1 alone. Pups immunized with Advax-adjuvanted iH1N1 had significantly higher influenza-stimulated splenocyte production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 and a 3–10 fold higher frequency of T cells IFN-γ secreting IL-2, IL-4 or IL-17 by ELISPOT. Immunisation with iH1N1+Advax adjuvant induced robust protection against influenza virus challenge 3 weeks post-immunization, whereas pups immunized with iH1N1 alone had no protection. Protection by Advax-adjuvanted iH1N1 was mediated by serum antibody and memory B cells rather than memory T cells as protection was lost in neonatal µMT mice that are B-cell deficient. Hence, Advax adjuvant overcame neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness and enabled single-dose protection of pups against otherwise lethal influenza infection, thereby supporting development of Advax™ as a neonatal vaccine adjuvant. PMID:26232344

  6. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that

  7. Measurement of maximum skin dose in interventional radiology and cardiology and challenges in the set-up of European alert thresholds.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Knežević, Ž

    2015-04-01

    To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds.

  8. SERS of meso-droplets supported on superhydrophobic wires allows exquisitely sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid, an anthrax biomarker, considerably below the infective dose.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Melody; Lee, Wendy W Y; Cowcher, David P; Goodacre, Royston; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman measurements of <1 μL analyte/colloid meso-droplets on superhydrophobic wires with hydrophilic tips allowed dipicolinic acid, a spore biomarker for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), to be detected at 10(-6) mol dm(-3). This is equivalent to 18 spores, significantly below the infective dose of 10(4) spores and 2 orders of magnitude better than previous measurements. PMID:27432481

  9. Biocompatibility of antimicrobials to maggot debridement therapy: medical maggots Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exhibit tolerance to clinical maximum doses of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C

    2012-09-01

    The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the Maximum Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on dose and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x Maximum Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. A phase II study in patients with Alzheimer's disease to assess the preliminary efficacy and maximum tolerated dose of rivastigmine (Exelon).

    PubMed

    Forette, F; Anand, R; Gharabawi, G

    1999-07-01

    Rivastigmine is a carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor with central selectivity. Early studies showed that daily doses up to 6 mg/day have some efficacy in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The present study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of rivastigmine at doses up to 12 mg/day. A total of 114 patients with mild-moderate DAT were randomly assigned to either rivastigmine (b.i.d. (twice daily) or t.i.d. (three times daily)) or placebo in a double-blind fashion titrated to their maximum tolerated dose over 10 weeks followed by an eight-week maintenance phase. The mean maximum tolerated dose was approximately 10 mg/day (b.i.d. or t.i.d.). Gastrointestinal complaints, the majority of which were mild to moderate, were the most frequently reported adverse events. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, haematology or organ function were detected. Significantly more patients taking rivastigmine b.i.d. were considered improved according to the Clinicians' Interview-Based Impression of Change-Plus (CIBIC-Plus) vs. placebo (57% vs. 16%, respectively; P = 0.027). The Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) (memory component) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) also improved in the rivastigmine b.i.d. group vs. placebo (mean change from baseline on NOSGER = -0.7 vs. +1.3, respectively; P = 0.037: mean change from baseline on ADAS-cog = -2.7 vs. +0.2, respectively; P = 0.054). Despite the relatively small size and limited duration of the study, the finding that rivastigmine induced changes in the same (positive) direction in all three dimensions measured suggests that rivastigmine at doses of up to 12 mg/day has useful efficacy in patients with mild-moderate DAT. Reports from larger phase III studies confirm this finding. The results of this study also suggest that b.i.d. is the more efficacious regimen and has comparable tolerability to the t.i.d. regimen

  11. Single-event and total-dose effects in geo-stationary transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.

    The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in Geo-stationary Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper

  12. Intra-tumor AvidinOX allows efficacy of low dose systemic biotinylated Cetuximab in a model of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, Anna Maria; Petronzelli, Fiorella; Chiapparino, Caterina; Carollo, Valeria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Marra, Emanuele; Luberto, Laura; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Pacello, Maria Lucrezia; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; De Santis, Rita

    2016-01-01

    For locally advanced and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the current clinical use of Cetuximab in chemo/radiotherapy protocols is often associated to severe systemic toxicity. Here we report in vitro data in human FaDu pharynx SCC cells, showing that inactive concentrations of biotinylated Cetuximab (bCet) become active upon anchorage to AvidinOX on the surface of tumor cells. AvidinOX-anchored bCet induces apoptosis and DNA damage as well as specific inhibition of signaling, degradation and abrogation of nuclear translocation of EGFR. In the mouse model of FaDu cancer, we show that intra-tumor injection of AvidinOX allows anti-tumor activity of an otherwise inactive, intraperitoneally delivered, low dose bCet. Consistently with in vitro data, in vivo tumor inhibition is associated to induction of apoptosis, DNA damage and reduced angiogenesis. AvidinOX is under clinical investigation for delivering radioactive biotin to inoperable tumors (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02053324) and present data support its use for the local treatment of HNSCC in combination with systemic administration of low dose bCet. PMID:26575422

  13. Safety and maximum tolerated dose of superselective intraarterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for recurrent malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Boockvar, John A.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Kovanlikaya, Ilham I; Fralin, Sherese; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Seedial, Stephen M.; Pannullo, Susan C.; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Stieg, Philip; Zimmerman, Robert D.; Knopman, Jared; Scheff, Ronald J.; Christos, Paul; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Riina, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Object The authors assessed the safety and maximum tolerated dose of superselective intraarterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of bevacizumab after osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with mannitol in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Methods A total of 30 patients with recurrent malignant glioma were included in the current study. Results The authors report no dose-limiting toxicity from a single dose of SIACI of bevacizumab up to 15 mg/kg after osmotic BBB disruption with mannitol. Two groups of patients were studied; those without prior bevacizumab exposure (naïve patients; Group I) and those who had received previous intravenous bevacizumab (exposed patients; Group II). Radiographic changes demonstrated on MR imaging were assessed at 1 month postprocedure. In Group I patients, MR imaging at 1 month showed a median reduction in the area of tumor enhancement of 34.7%, a median reduction in the volume of tumor enhancement of 46.9%, a median MR perfusion (MRP) reduction of 32.14%, and a T2-weighted/FLAIR signal decrease in 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients. In Group II patients, MR imaging at 1 month showed a median reduction in the area of tumor enhancement of 15.2%, a median volume reduction of 8.3%, a median MRP reduction of 25.5%, and a T2-weighted FLAIR decrease in 0 (0%) of 11 patients. Conclusions The authors conclude that SIACI of mannitol followed by bevacizumab (up to 15 mg/kg) for recurrent malignant glioma is safe and well tolerated. Magnetic resonance imaging shows that SIACI treatment with bevacizumab can lead to reduction in tumor area, volume, perfusion, and T2-weighted/FLAIR signal. PMID:20964595

  14. Volumetric-modulated arc stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer: dosimetric impact of an increased near-maximum target dose and of a rectal spacer

    PubMed Central

    Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Fersino, Sergio; Giaj Levra, Niccolò; Mazzola, Rosario; Mancosu, Pietro; Scorsetti, Marta; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) becomes challenging when the sparing of rectum, bladder and urethra is strictly pursued. Our current 35-Gy-in-five-fraction plans only assure 33.2 Gy to ≥95% PTV (V33.2PTV ≥ 95%). Looking for an improved V33.2PTV, increased near-maximum target dose (D2%) and prostate–rectum spacer insertion were tested. Methods: For 11 patients, two VMAT plans, with D2% ≤ 37.5 Gy (Hom) or D2% ≤ 40.2 Gy (Het), on each of two CT studies, before or after spacer insertion, were computed. All plans assured V33.2PTV ≥95%, and <1 cm3 of rectum, bladder and urethra receiving ≥35 Gy. By hypothesis testing, several dose–volume metrics for target coverage and rectal sparing were compared across the four groups of plans. The impact of spacer insertion on the fractions of rectum receiving more than 18, 28 and 32 Gy (VXr) was further tested by linear correlation analysis. Results: By hypothesis testing, the increased D2% was associated with improvements in target coverage, whereas spacer insertion was associated with improvements in both target coverage and rectal VXr. By linear correlation analysis, spacer insertion was related to the reductions in rectal VXr for X ≥ 28 Gy. Conclusion: A slightly increased D2% or the use of spacer insertion was each able to improve V33.2PTV. Their combined use assured V33.2PTV ≥ 98% to all our patients. Spacer insertion was further causative for improvements in rectal sparing. Advances in knowledge: For VMAT plans in prostate SBRT, the distinct dosimetric usefulness of increased D2% and of the use of spacer insertion were validated in terms of target coverage and rectal sparing. PMID:26235142

  15. Determination of zero-field size percent depth doses and tissue maximum ratios for stereotactic radiosurgery and IMRT dosimetry: comparison between experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chee-Wai; Cho, Sang Hyun; Taylor, Michael; Das, Indra J

    2007-08-01

    In this study, zero-field percent depth dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for 6 MV x rays have been determined by extrapolation from dosimetric measurements over the field size range 1 x 1-10 x 10 cm2. The key to small field dosimetry is the selection of a proper dosimeter for the measurements, as well as the alignment of the detector with the central axis (CAX) of beam. The measured PDD results are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to examine the consistency and integrity of the measured data from which the zero-field PDD is extrapolated. Of the six most commonly used dosimeters in the clinic, the stereotactic diode field detector (SFD), the PTW Pinpoint, and the Exradin A14 are the most consistent and produce results within 2% of each other over the entire field size range 1 x 1-40 x 40 cm2. Although the diamond detector has the smallest sensitive volume, it is the least stable and tends to disagree with all other dosimeters by more than 10%. The zero-field PDD data extrapolated from larger field measurements obtained with the SFD are in good agreement with the MC results. The extrapolated and MC data agree within 2.5% over the clinical depth range (dmax-30 cm), when the MC data for the zero field are derived from a 1 X 1 cm2 field simulation using a miniphantom (1 x 1 x 48 cm3). The agreement between the measured PDD and the MC data based on a full phantom (48 x 48 x 48 cm3) simulation is fairly good within 1% at shallow depths to approximately 5% at 30 cm. Our results seem to indicate that zero-field TMR can be accurately calculated from PDD measurements with a proper choice of detector and a careful alignment of detector axis with the CAX. PMID:17879776

  16. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references.

  17. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

  18. Maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuying; De Angelis, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method is a popular statistical inferential procedure widely used in many areas to obtain the estimates of the unknown parameters of a population of interest. This chapter gives a brief description of the important concepts underlying the maximum likelihood method, the definition of the key components, the basic theory of the method, and the properties of the resulting estimates. Confidence interval and likelihood ratio test are also introduced. Finally, a few examples of applications are given to illustrate how to derive maximum likelihood estimates in practice. A list of references to relevant papers and software for a further understanding of the method and its implementation is provided.

  19. Metronomic chemotherapy: an attractive alternative to maximum tolerated dose therapy that can activate anti-tumor immunity and minimize therapeutic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

    2015-03-28

    The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed 'metronomic' chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. Here we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic.

  20. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  1. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the liquid... above sea level....

  2. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the liquid... above sea level....

  3. 78 FR 67465 - Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Arkansas 1050 N/A 350 California 1000 N/A 350 Colorado 1225 N/A 350 Connecticut N/A 1700 350 Delaware N/A... Hawaii N/A 2400 350 Idaho 1050 N/A 350 Illinois N/A 1750 350 Indiana N/A 1500 350 Iowa 850 1300...

  4. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., but are not limited to: (1) Bid bond premiums. (2) Financial, accounting, legal, engineering and other... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid...

  5. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS...

  6. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS...

  7. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS...

  8. 10 CFR 800.200 - Maximum loan; allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cost principles of the Federal Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 1, 1-15.205-3) and DOE Procurement Regulation (41 CFR Ch. 9, 9-15.205-3); and; (2) Be necessary, reasonable and customary for the bid or... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS...

  9. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 431.57 of this chapter, for non-emergency services furnished in a hospital emergency department, if... Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... nonemergency services furnished in a hospital emergency room. (c) Institutional services. For...

  10. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 431.57 of this chapter, for non-emergency services furnished in a hospital emergency department, if... furnished in a hospital emergency department. (a) The agency may impose cost sharing for non-emergency services provided in a hospital emergency department. The provisions in § 447.56(a) shall apply except...

  11. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 431.57 of this chapter, for non-emergency services furnished in a hospital emergency department, if... Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... nonemergency services furnished in a hospital emergency room. (c) Institutional services. For...

  12. 42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 431.57 of this chapter, for non-emergency services furnished in a hospital emergency department, if... Section 447.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... nonemergency services furnished in a hospital emergency room. (c) Institutional services. For...

  13. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the liquid... above sea level....

  14. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the liquid... above sea level....

  15. 43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... water right holder the full water entitlement for irrigable eligible acres and includes distribution... efficiency target for the examples shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table would be: 285,243 AF...

  16. 43 CFR 418.38 - Maximum allowable diversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water right holder the full water entitlement for irrigable eligible acres and includes distribution... efficiency target for the examples shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table would be: 285,243 AF...

  17. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the MAD except as provided in §§ 418.23 and 418.35 of... 308,319 acre-feet for the 1995 Example. The sample MAD corresponds to a system efficiency for...

  18. 43 CFR 418.13 - Maximum allowable limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Truckee Canal to Rock Dam Ditch) must be charged to the MAD except as provided in §§ 418.23 and 418.35 of... 308,319 acre-feet for the 1995 Example. The sample MAD corresponds to a system efficiency for...

  19. Application of the CFU-GM assay to predict acute drug-induced neutropenia: an international blind trial to validate a prediction model for the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of myelosuppressive xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Pessina, A; Albella, B; Bayo, M; Bueren, J; Brantom, P; Casati, S; Croera, C; Gagliardi, G; Foti, P; Parchment, R; Parent-Massin, D; Schoeters, G; Sibiril, Y; Van Den Heuvel, R; Gribaldo, L

    2003-10-01

    In a previous study of prevalidation, a standard operating procedure (SOP) for two independent in vitro tests (human and mouse) had been developed, to evaluate the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct and the adverse effects on granulocyte-macrophages (CFU-GM). A predictive model to calculate the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was set up, by adjusting a mouse-derived MTD for the differential interspecies sensitivity. In this paper, we describe an international blind trial designed to apply this model to the clinical neutropenia, by testing 20 drugs, including 14 antineoplastics (Cytosar-U, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Bleomycin, Methotrexate, Gemcitabine, Carmustine, Etoposide, Teniposide, Cytoxan, Taxol, Adriamycin); two antivirals (Retrovir, Zovirax,); three drugs for other therapeutic indications (Cyclosporin, Thorazine, Indocin); and one pesticide (Lindane). The results confirmed that the SOP developed generates reproducible IC90 values with both human and murine GM-CFU. For 10 drugs (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Etoposide, Fludarabine, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Taxol, Teniposide, Thioguanine, and Thorazine), IC90 values were found within the range of the actual drug doses tested (defined as the actual IC90). For the other 10 drugs (Carmustine, Cyclosporin, Cytosar-U, Cytoxan, Gemcitabine, Indocin, Lindane, Methotrexate, Retrovir, and Zovirax) extrapolation on the regression curve out of the range of the actual doses tested was required to derive IC90 values (extrapolated IC90). The model correctly predicted the human MTD for 10 drugs out of 10 that had "actual IC90 values" and 7 drugs out of 10 for those having only an extrapolated IC90. Two of the incorrect predictions (Gemcitabine and Zovirax) were within 6-fold of the correct MTD, instead of the 4-fold range required by the model, whereas the prediction with Cytosar-U was approximately 10-fold in error. A possible explanation for the failure in the prediction of these

  20. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea

  1. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural

  2. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  3. Increase in family allowances.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  4. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  5. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  6. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...

  10. The last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  11. The Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka.

  12. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches.

  13. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... would receive under paragraph (a) of this section. (5) In the event a Step 2+3, Step 3 or Step 7...

  14. The Solar Maximum observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

  15. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  16. Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.

  17. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  18. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for certain steel pipelines. 192.620 Section 192.620 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL...

  19. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  20. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  1. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for certain steel pipelines. 192.620 Section 192.620 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL...

  2. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for certain steel pipelines. 192.620 Section 192.620 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL...

  3. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  4. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 192.619, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  5. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for certain steel pipelines. 192.620 Section 192.620 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL...

  6. 30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel:air ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... above sea level. (b) When the carbon monoxide content of the exhaust exceeds 0.30 percent, by volume... not exceeding 1,000 feet above sea level. Note: The applicant may be requested to adjust the liquid... above sea level....

  7. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... segment must meet the following additional design requirements. Records for alternative MAOP must...

  8. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  9. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  10. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  11. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  12. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... expected penetration of the soil. (d) Initial strength testing (1) The pipeline segment must not have... stringing, field bending, welding, non-destructive examination of girth welds, applying and testing field applied coating, lowering of the pipeline into the ditch, padding and backfilling, and hydrostatic...

  13. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Certification must address material properties such as chemistry, minimum yield strength and minimum wall...) of this section. (2) If research, testing and field monitoring tests demonstrate that the...

  14. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Certification must address material properties such as chemistry, minimum yield strength and minimum wall...) of this section. (2) If research, testing and field monitoring tests demonstrate that the...

  15. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the...

  16. 49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 192.111(b), (c), or (d) or, if none of these paragraphs apply, in accordance with the following table... was tested after construction by a factor determined in the following table: Class location... that includes a moisture analyzer, chromatograph, and periodic hydrogen sulfide sampling. (iv)...

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... formula) or 0.43 percent by weight, as calculated by the International Institute of Welding (IIW) formula... include (i) and either (ii) or (iii): (i) An ultrasonic test of the ends and at least 35 percent of the... from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line per day; and (ii) For each sample cross section,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... formula) or 0.43 percent by weight, as calculated by the International Institute of Welding (IIW) formula... include (i) and either (ii) or (iii): (i) An ultrasonic test of the ends and at least 35 percent of the... from each heat plus one pipe from each welding line per day; and (ii) For each sample cross section,...

  19. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... segment, determined in accordance with subparts C and D of this part. (2) 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, for a segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless... devices in series that meet the requirements of § 192.197(c). (3) 25 p.s.i. (172 kPa) gage in segments...

  20. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  1. Single daily dosing of gentamicin: pharmacokinetic comparison of two dosing methodologies for postpartum endometritis.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Abate, B; Reyes, M; Gonik, B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the pharmacokinetics of two methods for dosing gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endometritis with the goal of achieving adequate peak serum concentrations (>12 mg/L) and prolonged trough levels below 2 mg/L. METHODS: Group-I subjects (n = 5) received intravenous gentamicin, 5 mg/kg per total body weight over 60 min., with a maximum dose of 500 mg. Group-II subjects (n = 17) were dosed intravenously according to the following formula: Dose = desired peak concentration (fixed at 14 mg/L) * (volume of distribution, i.e., 0.35 L/kg) * adjusted body weight (in kilograms). Serum gentamicin levels were obtained 1 hr. and 8-12 hr. after infusion of the second dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the subjects in each group were calculated according to standard formulas. RESULTS: Subjects in Group I had significantly higher doses and peak drug concentrations (P < 0.01), while in Group II, 76% of patients had peak levels less than desired (<12 mg/L). Both groups maintained trough levels of <2 mg/L in excess of 12 hr. CONCLUSIONS: Changing to the adjusted body weight formula for Group I, while maintaining a dose between 4 and 5 mg/kg, would reduce excessive peak concentrations. Using a calculated volume of distribution of 0.4 L/kg in Group II would improve peak serum concentrations to the desired levels. Both dosing regimens ensure adequate aminoglycoside pharmacokinetic parameters and avoid the need for monitoring serial serum drug concentrations, provided the expected clinical response is also achieved. While the first dosing formula is simpler to calculate, the second dosing formula allows for more individualized dosing considerations. PMID:10371471

  2. The Tangle of Student Allowances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the distribution of student financial aid in Australia focuses on these issues: direct vs. indirect payment to students; inequality in living allowances given to secondary and postsecondary students; and distribution of expense allowances by state government and living allowances by the Commonwealth. (MSE)

  3. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A B C Color: Vary markedly...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 29.1527 Section 29.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 29.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed,...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 27.1527 Section 27.1527 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1527 Maximum operating altitude. The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed, as...

  12. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  13. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  14. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  15. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  16. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  17. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  18. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1

  19. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... grant applicants for facilities planning and project design. (2) The State may request that the right...

  3. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR 5733-5734), VA proposed to amend its... appliances affecting different articles of clothing. 76 FR 5733; Sursely, 551 F.3d at 1356. VA will make the... allowances. The amendment provides for an annual clothing allowance for each qualifying prosthetic...

  4. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  5. Simulation studies on the effect of absorbers on dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T; Bliznakova, K; Malatara, G; Kardamakis, D; Kolitsi, Z; Pallikarakis, N

    2009-12-01

    The effect of cylindrical protector dimensions, material and distance from the source on the dose distribution in rotational radiotherapy was studied to assess the potential protection possibilities of small-sized radiosensitive structures, such as spinal cord. The dose distributions were evaluated in terms of dose at the protected region and surface dose, ratio of the dose at the protected region to the maximum dose, and dose gradient. High-density materials, such as lead, tungsten, gold and cerrobend, along with new polymer-metal composite ones were used in simulation studies, performed by an in-house developed Monte Carlo Radiotherapy Simulator. To ensure correct modeling of the composite materials, simulated attenuation data were verified against experimentally measured data. The dependence of the dose at the protected region from the protector diameter and the field size was established. Protectors of higher density and larger diameter provide not only lower dose at the protected region, but also steeper dose gradient and lower ratio of the dose at the protected region to the treatment dose. For the protection of small structures, high-density protectors placed further from the source allow thicker protectors to be used. The surface dose increases insignificantly for the studied protector-surface distances. The results have shown that shielding properties of composite materials are close to those of lead. PMID:19186088

  6. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  7. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  8. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  9. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  10. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum allowable cost (MAC) of the drug, if any, established in accordance with 45 CFR part 19, plus a... in 45 CFR part 74, no separate dispensing fee will be recognized. (b) In determining whether a... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section...

  11. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  13. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  14. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ρ, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  15. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  16. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    PubMed

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  17. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  18. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  19. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  2. Maximum likelihood as a common computational framework in tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Olivera, G H; Shepard, D M; Reckwerdt, P J; Ruchala, K; Zachman, J; Fitchard, E E; Mackie, T R

    1998-11-01

    Tomotherapy is a dose delivery technique using helical or axial intensity modulated beams. One of the strengths of the tomotherapy concept is that it can incorporate a number of processes into a single piece of equipment. These processes include treatment optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage/megavoltage image reconstruction. A common computational technique that could be used for all of these processes would be very appealing. The maximum likelihood estimator, originally developed for emission tomography, can serve as a useful tool in imaging and radiotherapy. We believe that this approach can play an important role in the processes of optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage and/or megavoltage image reconstruction. These processes involve computations that require comparable physical methods. They are also based on equivalent assumptions, and they have similar mathematical solutions. As a result, the maximum likelihood approach is able to provide a common framework for all three of these computational problems. We will demonstrate how maximum likelihood methods can be applied to optimization planning, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction in tomotherapy. Results for planning optimization, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction will be presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are analysed. Future directions for this work are also suggested. PMID:9832016

  3. Calculation of dose profiles in stereotactic synchrotron microplanar beam radiotherapy in a tissue-lung phantom.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z

    2007-03-01

    Synchrotron x-ray beams with high fluence rate and highly collimated may be used in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumours. A bundle of converging monochromatic x-ray beams having uniform microscopic thickness i.e. (microplanar beams) are directed to the center of the tumour, delivering lethal dose to the target volume while sparing normal cells. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerate the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The sharply dropping lateral dose of a microbeam provides low scattered dose to the off-target interbeam volume. In the target volume the converging bundle of beams are closely spaced, and relatively high primary and secondary electron doses overlap and produce a high dose region between the beams. This higher and lower dose margins in the target volume allows precise targeting. The advantages of stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy will be lost as the dose between microbeams exceeds the tolerance dose of the dose limiting tissues. Therefore, it is essential to optimize the interbeam doses in off-target volume. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for a single beam and an array of converging microplanar beams in a tissue, lung and tissue-lung phantoms. The EGS5 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depths and bundles of beams. The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different energies, depths, bundle sizes, heights, widths and beam spacings. The interbeam dose is calculated at different depths and an isodose map of the phantom is obtained. An acceptable energy region is found for tissue and lung microbeam radiotherapy and a stereotactic microbeam radiotherapy model is proposed for a 4 cm diameter and 1 cm thick tumour on the lung phantom.

  4. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  5. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  6. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  7. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  8. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  9. 24 CFR 965.505 - Standards for allowances for utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... formulation of methods of calculation, and actual calculation and monitoring of the allowances. (d) In... PHA installs air conditioning, it shall provide, to the maximum extent economically feasible, systems that give residents the option of choosing to use air conditioning in their units. The design...

  10. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  11. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period some quantity of consumption that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol. (2) Trade... Party to the Protocol as set forth in this paragraph (b). A person may only receive consumption from... maximum consumption that the nation is allowed under the Protocol minus the quantity (in kilograms)...

  12. [High dose rate brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Aisen, S; Carvalho, H A; Chavantes, M C; Esteves, S C; Haddad, C M; Permonian, A C; Taier, M do C; Marinheiro, R C; Feriancic, C V

    1992-01-01

    The high dose rate brachytherapy uses a single source os 192Ir with 10Ci of nominal activity in a remote afterloading machine. This technique allows an outpatient treatment, without the inconveniences of the conventional low dose rate brachytherapy such as use of general anesthesia, rhachianesthesia, prolonged immobilization, and personal exposition to radiation. The radiotherapy department is now studying 5 basic treatment schemes concerning carcinomas of the uterine cervix, endometrium, lung, esophagus and central nervous system tumors. With the Micro Selectron HDR, 257 treatment sessions were done in 90 patients. Mostly were treated with weekly fractions, receiving a total of three to four treatments each. No complications were observed neither during nor after the procedure. Doses, fraction and ideal associations still have to be studied, so that a higher therapeutic ratio can be reached.

  13. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  14. Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931

  15. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.

  16. Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weert, Ch. G.

    1982-04-01

    A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.

  17. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  18. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  19. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  20. Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

    2004-12-01

    Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its

  1. SU-E-T-498: Energy Minimization and Dose-Volume Inverse Optimization in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaylov, I; Moros, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume (DVH) and energy minimization-based (EM) optimization for prostate cancer cases. Methods: A dozen of prostate plans were retrospectively studied. For each case two IMRT plans were generated, one with DVH and the other with EM objective cost function. Those different objective functions were used only for the organs at risk (OARs), while target objectives were achieved through DVH cost functions. The plans used the same beam angles, maximum number of segments per plan, minimum segment area and MUs per segment. Both plans were normalized such that 95% of the PTV was covered by the same prescription dose. After prescription was achieved, doses to the OARs were iteratively lowered until the standard deviation of the dose across the PTV was ~3.5%. Plan quality was evaluated by several dose indices (DIs). A DI represents the dose delivered to certain volume of a structure. Tallied DIs were for rectum and bladder 10%, 40%, 60% volumes, and 1% volumes of the femoral heads as surrogate for maximum doses. Statistical significance in the differences among DIs was quantified with two-tailed paired t-tests. Results: On average EM plans performed better than DVH plans. Statistically significant dose reduction in rectum DI10, DI40, and DI60, were 2.6%, 25.7%, and 35.9%, respectively. For bladder DI10, DI40, and DI60 the differences were 1.1%, 20.8%, and 29.7%. Left and right femoral head DI1s were better by 33.8% and 27.8% in EM plans. The quoted dose reduction is with respect to EM absolute doses for the DIs. Conclusion: The performance of EM optimization with respect to DVH optimization is patient and DI dependent. While in some cases specific DIs were better with DVH optimization, on average the energy minimization allows better (ranging from 1% to ~40%) OAR sparing than DVH optimization. NIH-NCI.

  2. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  3. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  4. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  5. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  6. Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.

  7. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  8. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  9. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  10. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  11. Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2011-01-01

    High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.

  12. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  13. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  14. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  17. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  18. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  19. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  20. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  1. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  2. Interactive Learning During Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and distribute e-educational material for space science during times of solar activity that emphasizes underlying basic science principles of solar disturbances and their effects on Earth. This includes materials such as simulations, animations, group projects and other on-line materials to be used by students either in high school or at the introductory college level. The on-line delivery tool originally intended to be used is known as Interactive Multimedia Education at a Distance (IMED), which is a web-based software system used at UCLA for interactive distance learning. IMED is a password controlled system that allows students to access text, images, bulletin boards, chat rooms, animation, simulations and individual student web sites to study science and to collaborate on group projects.

  3. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  4. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (10–35 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.3–0.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  5. Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…

  6. Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

  7. Preliminary liver dose estimation in the new facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor.

    PubMed

    Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy

  8. Reassessing benzene risks using internal doses and Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, L A

    1996-01-01

    Human cancer risks from benzene have been estimated from epidemiological data, with supporting evidence from animal bioassay data. This article reexamines the animal-based risk assessments using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of benzene metabolism in animals and humans. Internal doses (total benzene metabolites) from oral gavage experiments in mice are well predicted by the PBPK model. Both the data and the PBPK model outputs are also well described by a simple nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) regression model, as previously used by Bailer and Hoel [Metabolite-based internal doses used in risk assessment of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 82:177-184 (1989)]. Refitting the multistage model family to internal doses changes the maximum-likelihood estimate (MLE) dose-response curve for mice from linear-quadratic to purely cubic, so that low-dose risk estimates are smaller than in previous risk assessments. In contrast to Bailer and Hoel's findings using interspecies dose conversion, the use of internal dose estimates for humans from a PBPK model reduces estimated human risks at low doses. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the finding of a nonlinear MLE dose-response curve at low doses is robust to changes in internal dose definitions and more consistent with epidemiological data than earlier risk models. A Monte-Carlo uncertainty analysis based on maximum-entropy probabilities and Bayesian conditioning is used to develop an entire probability distribution for the true but unknown dose-response function. This allows the probability of a positive low-dose slope to be quantified: It is about 10%. An upper 95% confidence limit on the low-dose slope of excess risk is also obtained directly from the posterior distribution and is similar to previous q1* values. This approach suggests that the excess risk due to benzene exposure may be nonexistent (or even negative) at sufficiently low doses. Two types of biological information about benzene effects

  9. Incidence of late rectal bleeding in high-dose conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer using equivalent uniform dose-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability models

    SciTech Connect

    Soehn, Matthias . E-mail: Matthias.Soehn@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Yan Di; Liang Jian; Meldolesi, Elisa; Vargas, Carlos; Alber, Markus

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of rectal complications based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) data are necessary to allow safe dose escalation in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. We applied different equivalent uniform dose (EUD)-based and dose-volume-based normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models to rectal wall DVHs and follow-up data for 319 prostate cancer patients to identify the dosimetric factors most predictive for Grade {>=} 2 rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: Data for 319 patients treated at the William Beaumont Hospital with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) under an adaptive radiotherapy protocol were used for this study. The following models were considered: (1) Lyman model and (2) logit-formula with DVH reduced to generalized EUD (3) serial reconstruction unit (RU) model (4) Poisson-EUD model, and (5) mean dose- and (6) cutoff dose-logistic regression model. The parameters and their confidence intervals were determined using maximum likelihood estimation. Results: Of the patients, 51 (16.0%) showed Grade 2 or higher bleeding. As assessed qualitatively and quantitatively, the Lyman- and Logit-EUD, serial RU, and Poisson-EUD model fitted the data very well. Rectal wall mean dose did not correlate to Grade 2 or higher bleeding. For the cutoff dose model, the volume receiving > 73.7 Gy showed most significant correlation to bleeding. However, this model fitted the data more poorly than the EUD-based models. Conclusions: Our study clearly confirms a volume effect for late rectal bleeding. This can be described very well by the EUD-like models, of which the serial RU- and Poisson-EUD model can describe the data with only two parameters. Dose-volume-based cutoff-dose models performed wor0008.

  10. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  11. Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-03-28

    Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. A fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr should be used to recalculate dose to the average individual from L-Reactor restart. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr.

  12. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Allowable costs. (a) DOE determines allowability of costs in accordance with the cost principles...

  13. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... Institutions” codified at 2 CFR 220. The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined...

  14. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  15. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  16. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  17. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  18. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  19. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  20. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  1. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  2. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  3. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  4. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  5. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  6. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  7. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  8. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  9. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  10. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  11. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  12. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  13. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly...) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of... types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded by §§ 17.44 and 17.45: (1) Property loss or damage...

  15. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.228... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  16. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 206.439... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22... section. (b) Administrative and management costs for major disasters will be paid in accordance with...

  17. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  18. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  19. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  2. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  3. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  6. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  7. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  8. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  9. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items...

  10. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  11. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  12. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum... the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except for the.... The maximum is computed as follows: (i) 150 percent of the first $230 of the individual's...

  15. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  16. Variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for the small-field dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose, tissue-maximum ratio, and off-axis ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Francescon, Paolo Satariano, Ninfa; Beddar, Sam; Das, Indra J.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Evaluate the ability of different dosimeters to correctly measure the dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), and off-axis ratio (OAR) in water for small fields. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to estimate the variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for several types of microdetectors as a function of depth and distance from the central axis for PDD, TMR, and OAR measurements. The variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} enables one to evaluate the ability of a detector to reproduce the PDD, TMR, and OAR in water and consequently determine whether it is necessary to apply correction factors. The correctness of the simulations was verified by assessing the ratios between the PDDs and OARs of 5- and 25-mm circular collimators used with a linear accelerator measured with two different types of dosimeters (the PTW 60012 diode and PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber) and the PDDs and the OARs measured with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector (PSD) and comparing those ratios with the corresponding ratios predicted by the MC simulations. Results: MC simulations reproduced results with acceptable accuracy compared to the experimental results; therefore, MC simulations can be used to successfully predict the behavior of different dosimeters in small fields. The Exradin W1 PSD was the only dosimeter that reproduced the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with high accuracy. With the exception of the EDGE diode, the stereotactic diodes reproduced the PDDs and the TMRs in water with a systematic error of less than 2% at depths of up to 25 cm; however, they produced OAR values that were significantly different from those in water, especially in the tail region (lower than 20% in some cases). The microchambers could be used for PDD

  17. Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.

    PubMed

    Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength.

  18. Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-11-18

    Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

  19. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  20. CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.

  1. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  2. Patient dose and image quality from mega-voltage cone beam computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S; Johnson, Mark; Miften, Moyed

    2007-02-01

    The evolution of ever more conformal radiation delivery techniques makes the subject of accurate localization of increasing importance in radiotherapy. Several systems can be utilized including kilo-voltage and mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT), CT on rail or helical tomography. One of the attractive aspects of mega-voltage cone-beam CT is that it uses the therapy beam along with an electronic portal imaging device to image the patient prior to the delivery of treatment. However, the use of a photon beam energy in the mega-voltage range for volumetric imaging degrades the image quality and increases the patient radiation dose. To optimize image quality and patient dose in MV-CBCT imaging procedures, a series of dose measurements in cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms using an ionization chamber, radiographic films, and thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed. Furthermore, the dependence of the contrast to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the image upon the dose delivered for a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom was evaluated. Depending on the anatomical site and patient thickness, we found that the minimum dose deposited in the irradiated volume was 5-9 cGy and the maximum dose was between 9 and 17 cGy for our clinical MV-CBCT imaging protocols. Results also demonstrated that for high contrast areas such as bony anatomy, low doses are sufficient for image registration and visualization of the three-dimensional boundaries between soft tissue and bony structures. However, as the difference in tissue density decreased, the dose required to identify soft tissue boundaries increased. Finally, the dose delivered by MV-CBCT was simulated using a treatment planning system (TPS), thereby allowing the incorporation of MV-CBCT dose in the treatment planning process. The TPS-calculated doses agreed well with measurements for a wide range of imaging protocols.

  3. Generalized relativistic wave equations with intrinsic maximum momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2014-05-01

    We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wave functions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential is stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied is bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.

  4. Radiological dose assessment for bounding accident scenarios at the Critical Experiment Facility, TA-18, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    A computer modeling code, CRIT8, was written to allow prediction of the radiological doses to workers and members of the public resulting from these postulated maximum-effect accidents. The code accounts for the relationships of the initial parent radionuclide inventory at the time of the accident to the growth of radioactive daughter products, and considers the atmospheric conditions at time of release. The code then calculates a dose at chosen receptor locations for the sum of radionuclides produced as a result of the accident. Both criticality and non-criticality accidents are examined.

  5. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  6. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  7. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  8. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  9. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  10. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  11. 20 CFR 437.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type...

  12. 34 CFR 642.40 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 642.40 Section 642.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TRAINING PROGRAM FOR FEDERAL TRIO PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? § 642.40 Allowable costs....

  13. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular. 48 CFR 931.2 Hospitals 45 CFR part 74... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  14. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance...

  15. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with...) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in accordance with the cost...

  16. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  17. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... the same trip in the same vehicle. (2) Lodging and meals. The cost allowable for lodging and meals for... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part...

  18. 30 CFR 206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating allowances. 206.160 Section 206.160 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any other provisions...

  19. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  20. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  1. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  2. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are those listed in § 632.78-80 except that community service employment is...

  3. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  4. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  5. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  6. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of organizations and... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  7. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  10. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1207.22... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  11. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  12. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  13. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  14. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  15. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  16. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  17. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  18. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 74.27 Section 74.27 Public... Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a particular set of Federal principles...

  19. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  20. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  1. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  2. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  3. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  4. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31... Contracts with Hospitals.” (iv) Governmental organizations. Allowability for State, local, or...

  5. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation allowable. (a) The amount of compensation allowable is the reasonable cost of assessing damages, and...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  7. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  8. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  9. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  10. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  11. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  12. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  13. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  14. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  15. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  16. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period are all allowable as indirect costs. Bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  17. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of allowable costs that are in accordance with uniform cost accounting standards and comply with cost... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 32.27 Allowable... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles...

  18. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  1. The Role of Allowances in Adolescent Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne; Yung, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Examines high school student perceptions of allowances and the conditions under which they are received. Finds that, contrary to adult conceptions, students perceive allowances as an entitlement or earned income rather than as an educational opportunity promoting financial decision making and money management. (FMW)

  2. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  3. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  4. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  5. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  6. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  7. Family allowances and fertility: socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona

    2009-08-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women.

  8. Independent calculation-based verification of IMRT plans using a 3D dose-calculation engine

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Goozee, Gary; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Independent monitor unit verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans requires detailed 3-dimensional (3D) dose verification. The aim of this study was to investigate using a 3D dose engine in a second commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for this task, facilitated by in-house software. Our department has XiO and Pinnacle TPSs, both with IMRT planning capability and modeled for an Elekta-Synergy 6 MV photon beam. These systems allow the transfer of computed tomography (CT) data and RT structures between them but do not allow IMRT plans to be transferred. To provide this connectivity, an in-house computer programme was developed to convert radiation therapy prescription (RTP) files as generated by many planning systems into either XiO or Pinnacle IMRT file formats. Utilization of the technique and software was assessed by transferring 14 IMRT plans from XiO and Pinnacle onto the other system and performing 3D dose verification. The accuracy of the conversion process was checked by comparing the 3D dose matrices and dose volume histograms (DVHs) of structures for the recalculated plan on the same system. The developed software successfully transferred IMRT plans generated by 1 planning system into the other. Comparison of planning target volume (TV) DVHs for the original and recalculated plans showed good agreement; a maximum difference of 2% in mean dose, − 2.5% in D95, and 2.9% in V95 was observed. Similarly, a DVH comparison of organs at risk showed a maximum difference of +7.7% between the original and recalculated plans for structures in both high- and medium-dose regions. However, for structures in low-dose regions (less than 15% of prescription dose) a difference in mean dose up to +21.1% was observed between XiO and Pinnacle calculations. A dose matrix comparison of original and recalculated plans in XiO and Pinnacle TPSs was performed using gamma analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria. The mean and standard deviation of pixels passing

  9. Dyed acrylic-acid grafted polypropylene films for high-dose radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Said, F. I. A.; Ebraheem, S.; El-Kelany, M.; El Miligy, A. A.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polypropylene (PP) film has been carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. The grafted film of PP-g-PAAc was allowed to react with solutions of two ionic dyes, namely malachite green (MALG) or methylene green (METG). The investigations show that these new dosimeter films of PPMALG and PPMETG may be useful for high-dose gamma radiation applications. The useful absorbed dose range of the dyed films extends up to about 400 kGy, with a minimum useful dose of about 5 kGy. The radiation-induced colour bleaching has been analyzed with visible spectrophotometry, either at the maximum of the absorption band peaking at 601 nm (for PPMETG) or that peaking at 623 nm for (PPMALG). The effects of relative humidity during irradiation, shelf-life and post-irradiation storage in dark and indirect daylight conditions on dosimeters performance are discussed.

  10. Dose and Dose Risk Caused by Natural Phenomena - Proposed Powder Metallurgy Core Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, W.G.

    2001-08-16

    The offsite radiological effects from high velocity straight winds, tornadoes, and earthquakes have been estimated for a proposed facility for manufacturing enriched uranium fuel cores by powder metallurgy. Projected doses range up to 30 mrem/event to the maximum offsite individual for high winds and up to 85 mrem/event for very severe earthquakes. Even under conservative assumptions on meteorological conditions, the maximum offsite dose would be about 20 per cent of the DOE limit for accidents involving enriched uranium storage facilities. The total dose risk is low and is dominated by the risk from earthquakes. This report discusses this test.

  11. Perturbative expansion for the maximum of fractional Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Mathieu; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2016-07-01

    Brownian motion is the only random process which is Gaussian, scale invariant, and Markovian. Dropping the Markovian property, i.e., allowing for memory, one obtains a class of processes called fractional Brownian motion, indexed by the Hurst exponent H. For H=1/2, Brownian motion is recovered. We develop a perturbative approach to treat the nonlocality in time in an expansion in ɛ=H-1/2. This allows us to derive analytic results beyond scaling exponents for various observables related to extreme value statistics: the maximum m of the process and the time t_{max} at which this maximum is reached, as well as their joint distribution. We test our analytical predictions with extensive numerical simulations for different values of H. They show excellent agreement, even for H far from 1/2. PMID:27575103

  12. Perturbative expansion for the maximum of fractional Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, Mathieu; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2016-07-01

    Brownian motion is the only random process which is Gaussian, scale invariant, and Markovian. Dropping the Markovian property, i.e., allowing for memory, one obtains a class of processes called fractional Brownian motion, indexed by the Hurst exponent H . For H =1 /2 , Brownian motion is recovered. We develop a perturbative approach to treat the nonlocality in time in an expansion in ɛ =H -1 /2 . This allows us to derive analytic results beyond scaling exponents for various observables related to extreme value statistics: the maximum m of the process and the time tmax at which this maximum is reached, as well as their joint distribution. We test our analytical predictions with extensive numerical simulations for different values of H . They show excellent agreement, even for H far from 1 /2 .

  13. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time... Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. (a... than prescribed herein: Provided, The party demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction...

  14. HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

  15. Stochastic Maximum Principle for Optimal Control of SPDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman, Marco; Hu, Ying; Tessitore, Gianmario

    2013-10-15

    We prove a version of the maximum principle, in the sense of Pontryagin, for the optimal control of a stochastic partial differential equation driven by a finite dimensional Wiener process. The equation is formulated in a semi-abstract form that allows direct applications to a large class of controlled stochastic parabolic equations. We allow for a diffusion coefficient dependent on the control parameter, and the space of control actions is general, so that in particular we need to introduce two adjoint processes. The second adjoint process takes values in a suitable space of operators on L{sup 4}.

  16. Evaluation of robustness of maximum likelihood cone-beam CT reconstruction with total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stsepankou, D.; Arns, A.; Ng, S. K.; Zygmanski, P.; Hesser, J.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate an iterative maximum likelihood (ML) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction with total variation (TV) regularization with respect to the robustness of the algorithm due to data inconsistencies. Three different and (for clinical application) typical classes of errors are considered for simulated phantom and measured projection data: quantum noise, defect detector pixels and projection matrix errors. To quantify those errors we apply error measures like mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and streak indicator. These measures are derived from linear signal theory and generalized and applied for nonlinear signal reconstruction. For quality check, we focus on resolution and CT-number linearity based on a Catphan phantom. All comparisons are made versus the clinical standard, the filtered backprojection algorithm (FBP). In our results, we confirm and substantially extend previous results on iterative reconstruction such as massive undersampling of the number of projections. Errors of projection matrix parameters of up to 1° projection angle deviations are still in the tolerance level. Single defect pixels exhibit ring artifacts for each method. However using defect pixel compensation, allows up to 40% of defect pixels for passing the standard clinical quality check. Further, the iterative algorithm is extraordinarily robust in the low photon regime (down to 0.05 mAs) when compared to FPB, allowing for extremely low-dose image acquisitions, a substantial issue when considering daily CBCT imaging for position correction in radiotherapy. We conclude that the ML method studied herein is robust under clinical quality assurance conditions. Consequently, low-dose regime imaging, especially for daily patient localization in radiation therapy is possible without change of the current hardware of the imaging system.

  17. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurred. (7) Claims for automobiles, only when required to perform official business or parked on a... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  18. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  19. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... wheelchair. (b) Effective August 1, 1972, the initial lump sum clothing allowance is due and payable...

  20. Higher Education Tax Allowances: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.

    1976-01-01

    Tax allowances are receiving renewed attention at the federal level. Various forms are evaluated that would aid middle-income students and private institutions, and specific bills and proposals are examined. (Editor/LBH)

  1. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  2. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  3. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum contributions. 1600.22 Section 1600.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Program of Contributions § 1600.22 Maximum contributions. (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  5. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  6. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  7. Maximum entropy image reconstruction from projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, N.; Murata, K.

    1981-07-01

    The maximum entropy method is applied to image reconstruction from projections, of which angular view is restricted. The relaxation parameters are introduced to the maximum entropy reconstruction and after iteration the median filtering is implemented. These procedures improve the quality of the reconstructed image from noisy projections

  8. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  11. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  12. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  13. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  14. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  15. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  16. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  18. Implementation of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses for a mathematical absorption model (transit compartment model).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple doses that a prior dose has been absorbed nearly completely when the next dose is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the dose superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, dose superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the maximum number of the doses that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform dose superimposition to remove the restriction that the maximum number of doses must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854

  19. A numerical investigation for the optimal positions and weighting coefficients of point dose measurements in the weighted CTDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    The mean dose over the central phantom plane (i.e., z = 0, dose maximum image) is useful in that it allows us to compare radiation dose levels across different CT scanners and acquisition protocols. The mean dose from a conventional CT scan with table translation is typically estimated by weighted CTDI (CTDIW). However, conventional CTDIW has inconsistent performance, depending on its weighting coefficients ("1/2 and 1/2" or "1/3 and 2/3") and acquisition protocols. We used a Monte Carlo (MC) model based on Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) to generate dose profiles in the central plane of the CTDI phantom. MC simulations were carried out for three different sizes of z-collimator and different tube voltages (80, 100, or 120 kVp), a tube current of 80 mA, and an exposure time of 25 ms. We derived optimal weighting coefficients by taking the integral of the radial dose profiles. The first-order linear equation and the quadratic equation were used to fit the dose profiles along the radial direction perpendicular to the central plane, and the fitted profiles were revolved about the Z-axis to compute the mean dose (i.e., total volume under the fitted profiles/the central plane area). The integral computed using the linear equation resulted in the same equation as conventional CTDIW, and the integral computed using the quadratic equation resulted in a new CTDIW (CTDIMW) that incorporates different weightings ("2/3 and 1/3") and the middle dose point instead of the central dose point. Compared to the results of MC simulations, our new CTDIMW showed less error than the previous CTDIW methods by successfully incorporating the curvature of the dose profiles regardless of acquisition protocols. Our new CTDIMW will also be applicable to the AAPM-ICRU phantom, which has a middle dose point.

  20. Independent dose calculations for commissioning, quality assurance and dose reconstruction of PBS proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, G.; Besson, R.; Nanz, A.; Safai, S.; Lomax, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload. In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures. The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations. The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow.

  1. Independent dose calculations for commissioning, quality assurance and dose reconstruction of PBS proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Meier, G; Besson, R; Nanz, A; Safai, S; Lomax, A J

    2015-04-01

    Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload. In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures. The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations. The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow. PMID:25779992

  2. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  3. Measurement of gold nanofilm dose enhancement using unlaminated radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Joseph T. Snyder, Michael G.; Hillman, Yair; Laha, Suvra S.; Lawes, Gavin; Buczek, Matthew G.; Tucker, Mark A.; Liu, Fangchao; Mao, Guangzhao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Bombarding high-Z material with x-ray radiation releases Auger electrons and Coster–Kronig electrons, along with deeper penetrating fluorescent x-rays and photoelectrons. The Auger and Coster–Kronig electron penetration distance is on the order of nanometers to micrometers in water or tissue, creating a large dose enhancement accompanied by a RBE greater than 1 at the cellular level. The authors’ aim is to measure the gold nanofilm dose enhancement factor (DEF) at the cellular level with unlaminated radiochromic film via primary 50 kVp tungsten x-ray spectrum interaction, similar to an electronic brachytherapy spectrum. Methods: Unlaminated Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 film and Monte Carlo modeling were combined to derive DEF models. Gold film of thickness 23.1 ±  4.3 nm and surface roughness of 1.2 ± 0.2 nm was placed in contact with unlaminated radiochromic film in a downstream orientation and exposed to a 50 kVp tungsten bremsstrahlung, mean energy 19.2 keV. Film response correction factors were derived by Monte Carlo modeling of electron energy deposition in the film’s active layer, and by measuring film energy dependence from 4.5 keV to 50 kVp. Results: The measured DEF within a 13.6 μm thick water layer was 0.29 with a mean dose of 94 ± 9.4 cGy from Au emissions and 324 ± 32.4 cGy from the 50 kVp primary beam. Monte Carlo derived correction factors allowed determination of Au contributed dose in shallower depths at 0.25 μm intervals. Maximum DEF of 18.31 was found in the first 0.25 μm water depth. Conclusions: Dose enhancement from Au nanofilm can be measured at the cellular level using unlaminated radiochromic film. Complementing the measured dose value with Monte Carlo calculations allows estimation of dose enhancement at depth increments within the cellular range.

  4. Using EPA`s allowance tracking system to assess the allowance market

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Kruger, J.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a credible framework for analyzing private allowance transfers recorded in EPA`s Allowance Tracking System (ATS) is essential for effective assessment of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market. The ATS began recording transfers of allowances in March, 1994, and since then has served as an automated record of allowance holdings and transfers of ownership. Though primarily concerned with determining compliance, the ATS contains details of private allowance transfers representing what is believed to be a significant portion of overall SO{sub 2} allowance market activity. This paper will analyze these private transfers recorded in ATS and will develop relevant categories for classification purposes. The resulting categorization will enable consistent analysis of the SO{sub 2} allowance market and provide substantial insight into the level and type of allowance trading activity under the Acid Rain Program.

  5. Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Walters, Matthew A.H.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (≥5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the take

  6. Allowable levels of take for the trade in Nearctic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Fred A; Walters, Matthew A H; Boomer, G Scott

    2012-06-01

    The take of Nearctic songbirds for the caged-bird trade is an important cultural and economic activity in Mexico, but its sustainability has been questioned. We relied on the theta-logistic population model to explore options for setting allowable levels of take for 11 species of passerines that were subject to legal take in Mexico in 2010. Because estimates of population size necessary for making-periodic adjustments to levels of take are not routinely available, we examined the conditions under which a constant level of take might contribute to population depletion (i.e., a population below its level of maximum net productivity). The chance of depleting a population is highest when levels of take are based on population sizes that happen to be much lower or higher than the level of maximum net productivity, when environmental variation is relatively high and serially correlated, and when the interval between estimation of population size is relatively long (> or = 5 years). To estimate demographic rates of songbirds involved in the Mexican trade we relied on published information and allometric relationships to develop probability distributions for key rates, and then sampled from those distributions to characterize the uncertainty in potential levels of take. Estimates of the intrinsic rate of growth (r) were highly variable, but median estimates were consistent with those expected for relatively short-lived, highly fecund species. Allowing for the possibility of nonlinear density dependence generally resulted in allowable levels of take that were lower than would have been the case under an assumption of linearity. Levels of take authorized by the Mexican government in 2010 for the 11 species we examined were small in comparison to relatively conservative allowable levels of take (i.e., those intended to achieve 50% of maximum sustainable yield). However, the actual levels of take in Mexico are unknown and almost certainly exceed the authorized take. Also, the

  7. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  8. Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutaria, Minda C.

    1990-06-01

    The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.

  9. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or...

  10. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Calendar Year 2010 (i) Metered Dose Inhalers (for oral inhalation) for Treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Company Chemical 2010 Quantity(metric tons) Armstrong CFC-11 or CFC-12 or...

  11. Case Example of Dose Optimization Using Data From Bortezomib Dose-Finding Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Backenroth, Daniel; Cheung, Ying Kuen Ken; Hershman, Dawn L.; Vulih, Diana; Anderson, Barry; Ivy, Percy; Minasian, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current dose-finding methodology for estimating the maximum tolerated dose of investigational anticancer agents is based on the cytotoxic chemotherapy paradigm. Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) have different toxicity profiles, which may lead to more long-lasting mild or moderate toxicities as well as to late-onset and cumulative toxicities. Several approved MTAs have been poorly tolerated during long-term administration, leading to postmarketing dose optimization studies to re-evaluate the optimal treatment dose. Using data from completed bortezomib dose-finding trials, we explore its toxicity profile, optimize its dose, and examine the appropriateness of current designs for identifying an optimal dose. Patients and Methods We classified the toxicities captured from 481 patients in 14 bortezomib dose-finding studies conducted through the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, computed the incidence of late-onset toxicities, and compared the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) among groups of patients receiving different doses of bortezomib. Results A total of 13,008 toxicities were captured: 46% of patients’ first DLTs and 88% of dose reductions or discontinuations of treatment because of toxicity were observed after the first cycle. Moreover, for the approved dose of 1.3 mg/m2, the estimated cumulative incidence of DLT was > 50%, and the estimated cumulative incidence of dose reduction or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity was nearly 40%. Conclusions When considering the entire course of treatment, the approved bortezomib dose exceeds the conventional ceiling DLT rate of 20% to 33%. Retrospective analysis of trial data provides an opportunity for dose optimization of MTAs. Future dose-finding studies of MTAs should take into account late-onset toxicities to ensure that a tolerable dose is identified for future efficacy and comparative trials. PMID:26926682

  12. 44 CFR 208.41 - Administrative allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative allowance. 208.41 Section 208.41 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.41...

  13. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not any fee or profit (or...

  14. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to cost-type contractors but not...

  15. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  16. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  17. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  18. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section 84.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  19. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of...

  20. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... contractor receiving a. cost-type contract under an assistance award, there is a set of Federal principles... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability...

  1. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  2. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  3. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in the United States amounting to at least the sum of current closure, post-closure care... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... and examined by a Federal or State agency. A copy of the trust agreement must be placed in...

  4. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public... FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health... 413 of this subchapter. (b) Typical rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center...

  5. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  6. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235 Section 136.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  7. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  8. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  9. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  12. 33 CFR 136.241 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.241...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.241...

  13. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217...

  14. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205...

  15. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.223...

  16. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.235...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.235...

  17. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.229...

  18. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... if the claim is cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2677). (c) A claim for damage... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  2. 14 CFR 1260.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher...

  3. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  4. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  6. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 1403.22 Section 1403.22 Food and... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... the applicable cost principles. For the costs of a— Use the principles in— State, local or...

  7. 38 CFR 21.5822 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... will make payments of subsistence allowance on the first day of the month following the month for which... enrollment certification so late that payment cannot be made on the first day of the month following...

  8. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  9. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  10. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  11. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  12. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 30.27 Section 30.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM...-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular...

  13. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  14. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  15. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  16. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  17. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  18. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  19. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principles applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...