Achieving Maximum Integration Utilizing Requirements Flow Down
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Archiable, Wes; Askins, Bruce
2011-01-01
A robust and experienced systems engineering team is essential for a successful program. It is often a challenge to build a core systems engineering team early enough in a program to maximize integration and assure a common path for all supporting teams in a project. Ares I was no exception. During the planning of IVGVT, the team had many challenges including lack of: early identification of stakeholders, team training in NASA s system engineering practices, solid requirements flow down and a top down documentation strategy. The IVGVT team started test planning early in the program before the systems engineering framework had been matured due to an aggressive schedule. Therefore the IVGVT team increased their involvement in the Constellation systems engineering effort. Program level requirements were established that flowed down to IVGVT aligning all stakeholders to a common set of goals. The IVGVT team utilized the APPEL REQ Development Management course providing the team a NASA focused model to follow. The IVGVT team engaged directly with the model verification and validation process to assure that a solid set of requirements drove the need for the test event. The IVGVT team looked at the initial planning state, analyzed the current state and then produced recommendations for the ideal future state of a wide range of systems engineering functions and processes. Based on this analysis, the IVGVT team was able to produce a set of lessons learned and to provide suggestions for future programs or tests to use in their initial planning phase.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Titze, Ingo R.
2006-01-01
Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…
Maximum speeds and alpha angles of flowing avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClung, David; Gauer, Peter
2016-04-01
A flowing avalanche is one which initiates as a slab and, if consisting of dry snow, will be enveloped in a turbulent snow dust cloud once the speed reaches about 10 m/s. A flowing avalanche has a dense core of flowing material which dominates the dynamics by serving as the driving force for downslope motion. The flow thickness typically on the order of 1 -10 m which is on the order of about 1% of the length of the flowing mass. We have collected estimates of maximum frontal speed um (m/s) from 118 avalanche events. The analysis is given here with the aim of using the maximum speed scaled with some measure of the terrain scale over which the avalanches ran. We have chosen two measures for scaling, from McClung (1990), McClung and Schaerer (2006) and Gauer (2012). The two measures are the √H0-;√S0-- (total vertical drop; total path length traversed). Our data consist of 118 avalanches with H0 (m)estimated and 106 with S0 (m)estimated. Of these, we have 29 values with H0 (m),S0 (m)and um (m/s)estimated accurately with the avalanche speeds measured all or nearly all along the path. The remainder of the data set includes approximate estimates of um (m/s)from timing the avalanche motion over a known section of the path where approximate maximum speed is expected and with either H0or S0or both estimated. Our analysis consists of fitting the values of um/√H0--; um/√S0- to probability density functions (pdf) to estimate the exceedance probability for the scaled ratios. In general, we found the best fits for the larger data sets to fit a beta pdf and for the subset of 29, we found a shifted log-logistic (s l-l) pdf was best. Our determinations were as a result of fitting the values to 60 different pdfs considering five goodness-of-fit criteria: three goodness-of-fit statistics :K-S (Kolmogorov-Smirnov); A-D (Anderson-Darling) and C-S (Chi-squared) plus probability plots (P-P) and quantile plots (Q-Q). For less than 10% probability of exceedance the results show that
Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from simulated maximum daily flow using the HBV model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe
2014-05-01
Instantaneous peak flow (IPF) data are the foundation of the design of hydraulic structures and flood frequency analysis. However, the long discharge records published by hydrological agencies contain usually only average daily flows which are of little value for design in small catchments. In former research, statistical analysis using observed peak and daily flow data was carried out to explore the link between instantaneous peak flow (IPF) and maximum daily flow (MDF) where the multiple regression model is proved to have the best performance. The objective of this study is to further investigate the acceptability of the multiple regression model for post-processing simulated daily flows from hydrological modeling. The model based flood frequency analysis allows to consider change in the condition of the catchments and in climate for design. Here, the HBV model is calibrated on peak flow distributions and flow duration curves using two approaches. In a two -step approach the simulated MDF are corrected with a priory established regressions. In a one-step procedure the regression coefficients are calibrated together with the parameters of the model. For the analysis data from 18 mesoscale catchments in the Aller-Leine river basin in Northern Germany are used. The results show that: (1) the multiple regression model is capable to predict the peak flows with the simulated MDF data; (2) the calibrated hydrological model reproduces well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows; (3) the one-step procedure outperforms the two-step procedure regarding the estimation of peak flows.
Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from maximum daily flow-a comparison of methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe
2013-04-01
Estimation of flood frequency based on instantaneous peak flow (IPF) is important for the design of hydraulic structures. However, observed flow data with high temporal resolution are scarce, especially regarding the limited length of the available flow time series. Here, three different methods are developed and compared to estimate the IPF based on maximum daily flow (MDF), which is available usually at more gauges and for longer time periods. In the first approach, simple linear regressions with non-intercept of probability weighted moments (PWM) or quantile values between IPF and MDF data are employed. Secondly, stepwise multiple linear regressions is used to generate regression equations describing the relationship between easily obtained catchment attributes and MDF predictors and the IPF as target variable. With the third method, the temporal scaling properties of IPF series based on the hypothesis of piece wise simple scaling are investigated for 3 different flow gauges with 15 min data and then utilized to estimate the IPF for all gauges in the area. The study region is the Aller-Leine river basin in northern Germany with 45 stream flow gauges. Cross validation results from the three presented models show good performance in reproducing the peak flow and the potential to be used in other catchment. The simple regressions are the easiest to apply given enough peak flow data, the scaling method is the most efficient one among these three models but stepwise multiple linear regressions gives the best results compared with the other two methods.
Estimation of Maximum Likelihood of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gortsev, A. M.; Solov'ev, A. A.
2016-03-01
A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the MAP-flow of events. The flow circulates under conditions of the unextendable dead time period, when the dead time period is unknown. The dead time period is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood from observations of arrival instants of events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Xinyou; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Savinell, Robert F.
2014-12-01
Flow batteries show promise for very large-scale stationary energy storage such as needed for the grid and renewable energy implementation. In recent years, researchers and developers of redox flow batteries (RFBs) have found that electrode and flow field designs of PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) technology can increase the power density and consequently push down the cost of flow battery stacks. In this paper we present a macroscopic model of a typical PEMFC-like RFB electrode-flow field design. The model is a layered system comprised of a single passage of a serpentine flow channel and a parallel underlying porous electrode (or porous layer). The effects of the inlet volumetric flow rate, permeability of the porous layer, thickness of the porous layer and thickness of the flow channel on the flow penetration into the porous layer are investigated. The maximum current density corresponding to stoichiometry is estimated to be 377 mA cm-2 and 724 mA cm-2, which compares favorably with experiments of ∼400 mA cm-2 and ∼750 mA cm-2, for a single layer and three layers of the carbon fiber paper, respectively.
An inconsistency in the standard maximum likelihood estimation of bulk flows
Nusser, Adi
2014-11-01
Maximum likelihood estimation of the bulk flow from radial peculiar motions of galaxies generally assumes a constant velocity field inside the survey volume. This assumption is inconsistent with the definition of bulk flow as the average of the peculiar velocity field over the relevant volume. This follows from a straightforward mathematical relation between the bulk flow of a sphere and the velocity potential on its surface. This inconsistency also exists for ideal data with exact radial velocities and full spatial coverage. Based on the same relation, we propose a simple modification to correct for this inconsistency.
Maximum two-phase flow rates of subcooled nitrogen through a sharp-edged orifice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simoneau, R. J.
1975-01-01
An experiment was conducted and data are presented in which subcooled liquid nitrogen was discharged through a sharp-edged orifice at flow rates near the maximum. The data covered a range of inlet stagnation pressure from slightly above saturation to twice the thermodynamic critical pressure. The data were taken along five separate inlet stagnation isotherms ranging from 0.75 to 1.035 times the thermodynamic critical temperature. The results indicate that: (1) subcooled liquids do not choke or approach maximum flow in an asymptotic manner even though the back pressure is well below saturation; (2) orifice flow coefficients are not constant as is frequently assumed. A metastable jet appears to exist which breaks down if the difference between back pressure and saturation pressure is large enough.
Maximum two-phase flow rates of subcooled nitrogen through a sharp-edged orifice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simoneau, R. J.
1975-01-01
Data are presented of an experiment in which subcooled liquid nitrogen was discharged through a sharp-edged orifice at flow rates near the maximum. The data covered a range of inlet stagnation pressures from slightly above saturation to twice the thermodynamic critical pressure. The data were taken along five separate inlet stagnation isotherms ranging from 0.75 to 1.035 times the thermodynamic critical temperature. The results indicate that subcooled liquids do not choke or approach maximum flow in an asymptotic manner even though the back pressure is well below saturation; and orifice flow coefficients are not constant as is frequently assumed. A metastable jet appears to exist which breaks down if the difference between back pressure and saturation pressure is large enough.
Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes
Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian
2010-01-01
Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min
2015-12-01
This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.
Structure of Turbulence in Katabatic Flows Below and Above the Wind-Speed Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grachev, Andrey A.; Leo, Laura S.; Sabatino, Silvana Di; Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fairall, Christopher W.
2016-06-01
Measurements of small-scale turbulence made in the atmospheric boundary layer over complex terrain during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the structure of turbulence in katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured on four towers deployed along the east lower slope (2-4°) of Granite Mountain near Salt Lake City in Utah, USA. The multi-level (up to seven) observations made during a 30-day long MATERHORN field campaign in September-October 2012 allowed the study of temporal and spatial structure of katabatic flows in detail, and herein we report turbulence statistics (e.g., fluxes, variances, spectra, and cospectra) and their variations in katabatic flow. Observed vertical profiles show steep gradients near the surface, but in the layer above the slope jet the vertical variability is smaller. It is found that the vertical (normal to the slope) momentum flux and horizontal (along-slope) heat flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the along-slope heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. This suggests that the position of the jet-speed maximum can be obtained by linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the along-slope heat flux) to derive the height where the flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind-speed components (and therefore of the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind-speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat flux is completely cancelled by the generation of turbulence due to the along-slope heat flux. Turbulence above the wind
The turbulence structure of katabatic flows below and above wind-speed maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grachev, Andrey; Leo, Laura; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra; Pardyjak, Eric; Fairall, Christopher
2015-04-01
Measurements of atmospheric small-scale turbulence made over the complex-terrain at the US Army Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the turbulence structure of katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured at multiple levels (up to seven) on four towers deployed along East lower slope (2-4 degrees) of Granite Mountain. The multi-level, multi-tower observations obtained during a 30-day long MATERHORN-Fall field campaign in September-October 2102 allow studying temporal and spatial structure of nocturnal slope flows in detail. In this study, we focus on the various statistics (fluxes, variances, spectra, cospectra, etc.) of the small-scale turbulence of katabatic winds. Observed vertical profiles of velocity, turbulent fluxes, and other quantities show steep gradients near the surface but in the layer above the slope jet these variables vary with height more slowly than near the surface. It is found that vertical momentum flux and horizontal heat (buoyancy) flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The vertical momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the horizontal heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. Our study, therefore, suggests that a position of the jet speed maximum can be derived from linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the horizontal heat flux) and determination of a height where a flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind speed components (and therefore the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat
Maximum likelihood estimation of missing data applied to flow reconstruction around NACA profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leroux, R.; Chatellier, L.; David, L.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in fluid flows series. The maximum likelihood estimation is provided with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm applied to the linear and quadratic proper orthogonal decomposition POD-Galerkin reduced-order models (ROMs) for various sub-samplings of large data sets. The flows around a NACA0012 profile at Reynolds numbers of 103 and angle of incidence of 20^\\circ and a NACA0015 profile at Reynolds numbers of 105 and angle of incidence of 30^\\circ are first investigated using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements and sub-sampled according to different ratios of missing data. The EM algorithm is then applied to the POD ROMs constructed from the sub-sampled data sets. The results show that, depending on the sub-sampling used, the EM algorithm is robust with respect to the Reynolds number and can reproduce the velocity fields and the main structures of the missing flow fields for 50% and 75% of missing data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehe, E.; Blume, T.; Bloeschl, G.
2009-04-01
Helmholtz free energy. Thermodynamic equilibrium is a state of minimum free energy. The latter is determined by potential energy and capillary energy in soil, which in turn strongly depends on soil moisture, pore size distribution and depth to groundwater. The objective of this study is threefold. First, we will introduce the necessary theoretical background. Second we suggest ? based on simulations with a physically based hydrological model ? that water flow in connected preferential pathways assures a faster relaxation towards thermodynamic equilibrium through a faster drainage of ?excess water? and a faster redistribution of ?capillary water? within the soil. The latter process is of prime importance in case of cohesive soils where the pore size distribution is dominated by medium and small pores. Third, an application of a physically based hydrological model to predict water flow and runoff response from a pristine catchment in the Chilenean Andes underpins this hypothesis. Behavioral model structures that allow a good match of the observed hydrographs turned out to be most efficient in dissipating free energy by means of preferential flow. It seems that a population of connected preferential pathways is favourable both for resilience and stability of these soils during extreme events and to retain water resources for the ecosystem at the same time. We suggest that this principle of ?maximum energy dissipation? may on the long term help us to better understand why soil structures remain stable, threshold nature of preferential as well as offer a means to further reduce model structural uncertainty. Bloeschl, G. 2006. Idle thoughts on a unifying theory of catchment Hydrology. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 8, 10677, 2006 SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU06-A-10677 European Geosciences Union 2006 Kleidon, A., and S. Schymanski (2008), Thermodynamics and optimality of the water budget on land: A review, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20404, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL035393.
Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose
2013-11-01
As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.
Regional analysis of the mean annual maximum peak flow in South West Europe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kjeldsen, Thomas; Cooper, David
2010-05-01
The work reported here is a pilot study carried out as part of the EU FP7 project Mirage, and aims to derive flood frequency relationships for temporary rivers in the Mediterranean region. Regional studies of flood characteristics are often limited to national, or even sub-national, regions. Reasons for these spatially limited studies are manifold, but include: lack of international co-operation, difficulties in getting access to hydrometric data from other countries, and inconsistencies in national datasets for deriving catchment characteristics. As part of this study, preliminary regional datasets from south-west Europe of flood statistics and relevant catchment descriptors have been derived. The annual maximum peak flow data have been obtained from the UNESCO/FRIEND project and includes 381 time series of daily river flow from Portugal, Spain and southern France. Note that a majority of these data comes from perennial rivers. The catchment descriptors including catchment area, mean annual rainfall, soil properties and land-use characteristics. These characteristics have been derived from pan-European dataset including the SRTM (90m) dtm, gridded precipitation data from CRU (18km), the JRC soil database (1km) and CORINE land-cover data (250m). The logarithm of the mean annual maximum peak flow (QBAR) has been linked to a subset of log-transformed catchment descriptors using a linear regression-type model, including correlation in both observations and regression model errors. The existence of model error correlation suggests that the data contains more between-catchment variation in QBAR than can be explained by the catchment descriptors alone. Thus, further research is needed to identify additional explanatory variables with the potential to be made available on a pan-European scale.
Reversed flow of Atlantic deep water during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Negre, César; Zahn, Rainer; Thomas, Alexander L; Masqué, Pere; Henderson, Gideon M; Martínez-Méndez, Gema; Hall, Ian R; Mas, José L
2010-11-01
The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the Atlantic Ocean is considered to be one of the most important components of the climate system. This is because its warm surface currents, such as the Gulf Stream, redistribute huge amounts of energy from tropical to high latitudes and influence regional weather and climate patterns, whereas its lower limb ventilates the deep ocean and affects the storage of carbon in the abyss, away from the atmosphere. Despite its significance for future climate, the operation of the MOC under contrasting climates of the past remains controversial. Nutrient-based proxies and recent model simulations indicate that during the Last Glacial Maximum the convective activity in the North Atlantic Ocean was much weaker than at present. In contrast, rate-sensitive radiogenic (231)Pa/(230)Th isotope ratios from the North Atlantic have been interpreted to indicate only minor changes in MOC strength. Here we show that the basin-scale abyssal circulation of the Atlantic Ocean was probably reversed during the Last Glacial Maximum and was dominated by northward water flow from the Southern Ocean. These conclusions are based on new high-resolution data from the South Atlantic Ocean that establish the basin-scale north to south gradient in (231)Pa/(230)Th, and thus the direction of the deep ocean circulation. Our findings are consistent with nutrient-based proxies and argue that further analysis of (231)Pa/(230)Th outside the North Atlantic basin will enhance our understanding of past ocean circulation, provided that spatial gradients are carefully considered. This broader perspective suggests that the modern pattern of the Atlantic MOC-with a prominent southerly flow of deep waters originating in the North Atlantic-arose only during the Holocene epoch. PMID:21048764
Forced expirations and maximum expiratory flow-volume curves during sustained microgravity on SLS-1.
Elliott, A R; Prisk, G K; Guy, H J; Kosonen, J M; West, J B
1996-07-01
Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microG) on forced expirations has not previously been reported. Tests were carried out by four subjects in both the standing and supine postures during each of seven preflight and four postflight data-collection sessions and four times during the 9 days of microG exposure on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Compared with preflight standing values, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was significantly reduced by 12.5% on flight day 2 (FD2), 11.6% on FD4, and 5.0% on FD5 but returned to standing values by FD9. The supine posture caused a 9% reduction in PEFR. Forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in 1 s were slightly reduced (approximately 3-4%) on FD2 but returned to preflight standing values on FD4 and FD5, and by FD9 both values were slightly but significantly greater than standing values. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were both reduced in the supine posture (approximately 8-10%). Forced expiratory flows at 50% and between 25 and 75% of vital capacity did not change during microG but were reduced in the supine posture. Analysis of the maximum expiratory flow-volume curve showed that microG caused no consistent change in the curve configuration when individual in-flight days were compared with preflight standing curves, although two subjects did show a slight reduction in flows at low lung volumes from FD2 to FD9. The interpretation of the lack of change in curve configuration must be made cautiously because the lung volumes varied from day to day in flight. Therefore, the flows at absolute lung volumes in microG and preflight standing are not being compared. The supine curves showed a subtle but consistent reduction in flows at low lung volumes. The mechanism responsible for the reduction in PEFR is not clear. It could be due to a lack of physical stabilization when performing the maneuver in the absence of
Maximum expiratory flow-volume curves during short periods of microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guy, H. J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.
1991-01-01
Nine normal subjects were studied in a NASA microgravity research aircraft to elucidate the effect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV). They performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0, 1, and approximately 2 G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at residual volume, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the forced vital capacity at 0 G. The mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0 G over about the upper half of the vital capacity. There were consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve. This supports the concept that the location and motion of choke points that determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFG curves can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and thus wave speed.
Maximum expiratory flow-volume curves during short periods of microgravity.
Guy, H J; Prisk, G K; Elliott, A R; West, J B
1991-06-01
To elucidate the effect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve, we studied nine normal subjects in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration microgravity research aircraft. They performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0, 1, and approximately 2 G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at residual volume, and ensemble averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the forced vital capacity at 0 G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0 G over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during headout immersion and is consistent with the known effect of engorgement of the lung with blood on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points that determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and thus wave speed. PMID:1885453
Emulsification in turbulent flow 1. Mean and maximum drop diameters in inertial and viscous regimes.
Vankova, Nina; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Ivanov, Ivan B; Vulchev, Vassil D; Danner, Thomas
2007-08-15
Systematic experimental study of the effects of several factors on the mean and maximum drop sizes during emulsification in turbulent flow is performed. These factors include: (1) rate of energy dissipation, epsilon; (2) interfacial tension, sigma; (3) viscosity of the oil phase, eta(D); (4) viscosity of the aqueous phase, eta(C); and (5) oil volume fraction, Phi. The emulsions are prepared by using the so-called "narrow-gap homogenizer" working in turbulent regime of emulsification. The experiments are performed at high surfactant concentration to avoid the effect of drop-drop coalescence. For emulsions prepared in the inertial turbulent regime, the mean and the maximum drop sizes increase with the increase of eta(D) and sigma, and with the decrease of epsilon. In contrast, Phi and eta(C) affect only slightly the mean and the maximum drop sizes in this regime of emulsification. These results are described very well by a theoretical expression proposed by Davies [Chem. Eng. Sci. 40 (1985) 839], which accounts for the effects of the drop capillary pressure and the viscous dissipation inside the breaking drops. The polydispersity of the emulsions prepared in the inertial regime of emulsification does not depend significantly on sigma and epsilon. However, the emulsion polydispersity increases significantly with the increase of oil viscosity, eta(D). The experiments showed also that the inertial turbulent regime is inappropriate for emulsification of oils with viscosity above ca. 500 mPa s, if drops of micrometer size are to be obtained. The transition from inertial to viscous turbulent regime of emulsification was accomplished by a moderate increase of the viscosity of the aqueous phase (above 5 mPa s in the studied systems) and/or by increase of the oil volume fraction, Phi>0.6. Remarkably, emulsions with drops of micrometer size are easily formed in the viscous turbulent regime of emulsification, even for oils with viscosity as high as 10,000 mPa s. In this regime
Computation of the maximum flow rate of a perfect gas through a slit in a plane wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahlund, Per
The steady flow of a perfect gas through a slit in a plane wall is studied. The pressure conditions are such that the flow is near its maximum rate, and the flow is transonic. The flow is assumed to have no shocks near the wall, and the equations are formulated in a potential-stream function-coordinate system. The coordinate system is then transformed, and the equations are solved with a finite-difference method using second order accurate, central differences all over the domain. The resulting nonlinear system is solved using Newton's method. By computing a certain characteristic it is determined when changes in the pressure no longer influence the inflow side. This is used to estimate the maximum flow rate. The numerical computations were performed on the vector computers CYBER 203 and CYBER 205.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Vegetative treatment systems (VTSs) are one type of control structure that has shown potential to control runoff from open feedlots. To achieve maximum performance, sheet-flow over the width of the vegetative treatment area (VTA) is required. Tools, such as maps of flow paths through the VTA, are ne...
Basal conditions and flow dynamics of the Rhine glacier, Alps, at the Last Glacial Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Denis; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Zwinger, Thomas; Machguth, Horst; Haeberli, Wilfried; Fischer, Urs H.
2016-04-01
The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories requires their containment and isolation for up to one million years. In Switzerland, repositories are planned in the northern Swiss lowlands near the marginal zone of the former Rhine glacier that repeatedly formed two extensive piedmont lobes (the Rhine and Linth lobes) over the Swiss Plateau. Future ice-age conditions may thus impact the repositories due to erosion by glaciers, permafrost conditions, and changes in groundwater fluxes. We use the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a representative future ice-age scenario over northern Switzerland and model the Rhine glacier at the LGM using a full three-dimensional, thermo-mechanical model that solves Stokes flow in ice and the heat equation in both ice and rock. Permafrost in rocks and sediments is implemented using an effective heat capacity formulation. The Rhine glacier at the LGM is one of the best studied paleo-glacier with geomorphic reconstructions of terminal moraines, equilibrium lines, provenance of erratics, till extent and provenance, and evidences of cold vs warm subglacial environments. These data are compared with modeled ice ice thickness, cold vs warm basal condition, and flow paths. Numerical results indicate that LGM modeled ice extent and ice thickness are not fully consistent with geomorphic reconstructions and known climate proxies: ice is either too thick in the accumulation zone or summer temperatures are too cold at the terminus. Simulations with different climate parameters all indicate, however, that the beds of the Rhine and Linth lobes were at the melting temperature except above local topographic highs and along a thin marginal zone. Sliding speed was highest along topographic lows with ice moving at 20 to 80 m a‑1 depending on mass balance gradients. Basal shear stress was low (< 30 kPa). Melt water was probably abundant due to above-freezing temperatures in summer. Thus, melt water was likely routed over large
Uncertainties in transient projections of maximum and minimum flows over the United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuntoli, Ignazio; Villarini, Gabriele; Prudhomme, Christel; Hannah, David M.
2016-04-01
Global multi-model ensemble experiments provide a valuable basis for the examination of potential future changes in runoff. However, these projections suffer from uncertainties that originate from different sources at different levels in the modelling chain. We present the partitioning of uncertainty into four distinct sources of projections of decadally-averaged annual maximum (AMax) and minimum (AMin) flows over the USA. More specifically, we quantify the relative contribution of the uncertainties arising from internal variability, global impact models (GIMs), global climate models (GCMs), and representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We use a set of nine state-of-the-art GIMs driven by five CMIP5 GCMs under four RCPs from the ISI-MIP multi-model ensemble. We examine the temporal changes in the relative contribution of each source of uncertainty over the course of the 21st century. Results show that GCMs and GIMs are responsible for the majority of uncertainty over most of the study area, followed by internal variability and RCPs. Proportions vary regionally and depend on the end of the runoff spectrum (AMax, AMin) considered. In particular, for AMax, large fractions of uncertainty are attributable to GCMs throughout the century with the GIMs increasing their share especially in mountainous and cold areas. For Amin, the contribution of GIMs to uncertainty increases with time, becoming the dominant source over most of the country by the end of the 21st century. Importantly, compared to the other sources, the RCPs contribution to uncertainty is negligible generally (for AMin especially). This finding indicates that the effects of different emission scenarios are barely noticeable in hydrological impact studies, while GIMs and GCMs make up most of the amplitude of the ensemble spread (uncertainty).
An approximate method of estimating the maximum saturation, the nucleation rate, and the total number nucleated per second during the laminar flow of a hot vapour–gas mixture along a tube with cold walls is described. The basis of the approach is that the temperature an...
Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Wallis, Simon R; Yamamoto, Junji
2004-01-29
Tectonic plate motion is thought to cause solid-state plastic flow within the underlying upper mantle and accordingly lead to the development of a lattice preferred orientation of the constituent olivine crystals. The mechanical anisotropy that results from such preferred orientation typically produces a direction of maximum seismic wave velocity parallel to the plate motion direction. This has been explained by the existence of an olivine preferred orientation with an 'a-axis' maximum parallel to the induced mantle flow direction. In subduction zones, however, the olivine a axes have been inferred to be arranged roughly perpendicular to plate motion, which has usually been ascribed to localized complex mantle flow patterns. Recent experimental work suggests an alternative explanation: under conditions of high water activity, a 'B-type' olivine preferred orientation may form, with the a-axis maximum perpendicular to the flow direction. Natural examples of such B-type preferred orientation are, however, almost entirely unknown. Here we document widespread B-type olivine preferred orientation patterns from a subduction-type metamorphic belt in southwest Japan and show that these patterns developed in the presence of water. Our discovery implies that mantle flow above subduction zones may be much simpler than has generally been thought. PMID:14749828
Li, Chang-Feng; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna; Khomami, Bamin
2015-10-01
Self-consistent direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows of dilute polymer solutions exhibiting friction drag reduction (DR) show that an effective Deborah number defined as the ratio of polymer relaxation time to the time scale of fluctuations in the vorticity in the mean flow direction remains O(1) from the onset of DR to the maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote. However, the ratio of the convective time scale associated with streamwise vorticity fluctuations to the vortex rotation time decreases with increasing DR, and the maximum drag reduction asymptote is achieved when these two time scales become nearly equal. Based on these observations, a simple framework is proposed that adequately describes the influence of polymer additives on the extent of DR from the onset of DR to MDR as well as the universality of the MDR in wall-bounded turbulent flows with polymer additives. PMID:26565339
Maximum Flow Efficiency in an Anabranching River, Magela Creek, Northern Australia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansen, J. D.; Nanson, G. C.
2002-12-01
In this field- and laboratory-based study, we demonstrate that the development of anabranching channels in some rivers increases the conveyance of sediment and water, compared with a single channel at the same flow discharge. That is, under certain conditions, anabranching channels exhibit greater sediment transporting capacity per unit available stream power. Anabranching is a globally widespread river pattern noted in diverse physiographic, hydrologic and sedimentologic environments, and recent efforts have sought to unravel controls on their origin and maintenance. It is widely held that most rivers form a single-channel in order to minimise boundary roughness while conveying water and sediment, but do all rivers show a tendency to develop a single channel? And if so, what factors lead to long-term anabranching? The observation that anabranching commonly develops in environments where water and sediment conveyance is maintained with little or no recourse to increasing energy slope prompted the hypothesis that rivers may adopt a multiple channel pattern in order to optimise their efficiency where they cannot otherwise increase slope. It is reasoned that development of a system of multiple channels reduces total flow width and raises mean flow depth, thereby maximising sediment transport per unit area of the channel bed and maintaining or enhancing water and sediment throughput. In testing the hypothesis we present: (1) results of a field experiment in which hydraulic variables and bedload discharge are measured and compared for single-channel versus multichannel reaches of the same river (Magela Creek, northern Australia); (2) comparison of these field results with bedload transport modelling via well known bedload equations; and (3) results of an experimental flume study comparing hydraulic variables and sediment flux in single-channel versus divided flow. Magela Creek is representative of several anabranching systems draining the Alligators Rivers Region of
Flying-hot-wire study of two-dimensional mean flow past an NACA 4412 airfoil at maximum lift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coles, D.; Wadcock, A. J.
1978-01-01
Hot-wire measurements have been made in the boundary layer, the separated region, and the near wake for flow past an NACA 4412 airfoil at maximum lift. The Reynolds number based on chord was about 1,500,000. The main instrumentation was a hot-wire probe mounted on the end of a rotating arm. A digital computer was used to control synchronized sampling of hot-wire data at closely spaced points along the probe arc. Ensembles of data were obtained at several thousand locations in the flow field. The data include intermittency, two components of mean velocity, and twelve mean values for double, triple, and quadruple products of two velocity fluctuations. The data are available on punched cards in raw form and also after use of smoothing and interpolation routines to obtain values on a fine rectangular grid aligned with the airfoil chord. The data are displayed in the paper as contour plots.
Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Cappa, F.; Tsang, C.-F.
2006-10-17
This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolution of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu; Merz, Bruno; Dung, Nguyen Viet
2015-08-01
Especially for extreme precipitation or floods, there is considerable spatial and temporal variability in long term trends or in the response of station time series to large-scale climate indices. Consequently, identifying trends or sensitivity of these extremes to climate parameters can be marked by high uncertainty. When one develops a nonstationary frequency analysis model, a key step is the identification of potential trends or effects of climate indices on the station series. An automatic clustering procedure that effectively pools stations where there are similar responses is desirable to reduce the estimation variance, thus improving the identification of trends or responses, and accounting for spatial dependence. This paper presents a new hierarchical Bayesian approach for exploring homogeneity of response in large area data sets, through a multicomponent mixture model. The approach allows the reduction of uncertainties through both full pooling and partial pooling of stations across automatically chosen subsets of the data. We apply the model to study the trends in annual maximum daily stream flow at 68 gauges over Germany. The effects of changing the number of clusters and the parameters used for clustering are demonstrated. The results show that there are large, mainly upward trends in the gauges of the River Rhine Basin in Western Germany and along the main stream of the Danube River in the south, while there are also some small upward trends at gauges in Central and Northern Germany.
Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.
2008-06-01
A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hauser, Cavour H; Plohr, Henry W
1951-01-01
The nature of the flow at the exit of a row of turbine blades for the range of conditions represented by four different blade configurations was evaluated by the conservation-of-momentum principle using static-pressure surveys and by analysis of Schlieren photographs of the flow. It was found that for blades of the type investigated, the maximum exit tangential-velocity component is a function of the blade geometry only and can be accurately predicted by the method of characteristics. A maximum value of exit velocity coefficient is obtained at a pressure ratio immediately below that required for maximum blade loading followed by a sharp drop after maximum blade loading occurs.
Memon, Mazhar A.; Ather, M. Hammad
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS) and maximum flow rate (Qmax) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68). The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208) and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0). The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0). In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's) correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001). In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V) and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27), LOE (p=0.941) and V.V (p=0.082). Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance. PMID:27256186
Rao, D.V.; Darby, J.L.; Ross, S.B.; Clark, R.A.
1990-04-19
The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) operated by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) employs forced downflow for heat removal during normal operation. In the event of total loss of forced flow, the reactor will shutdown and the flow reversal valves open. When the downward core flow becomes sufficiently small then the opposing thermal buoyancy induces flow reversal leading to decay heat removal by natural convection. There is some uncertainty as to whether the natural circulation is adequate for decay heat removal after 60 MW operation. BNL- staff carried out a series of calculations to establish the adequacy of flow reversal to remove decay heat. Their calculations are based on a natural convective CHF model. The primary purpose of the present calculations is to review the accuracy and applicability of Fauske`s CHF model for the HFBR, and the assumptions and methodology employed by BNL-staff to determine the heat removal limit in the HFBR during a flow reversal and natural convection situation.
Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa; Blöschl, Günter
2010-05-12
Preferential flow in biological soil structures is of key importance for infiltration and soil water flow at a range of scales. In the present study, we treat soil water flow as a dissipative process in an open non-equilibrium thermodynamic system, to better understand this key process. We define the chemical potential and Helmholtz free energy based on soil physical quantities, parametrize a physically based hydrological model based on field data and simulate the evolution of Helmholtz free energy in a cohesive soil with different populations of worm burrows for a range of rainfall scenarios. The simulations suggest that flow in connected worm burrows allows a more efficient redistribution of water within the soil, which implies a more efficient dissipation of free energy/higher production of entropy. There is additional evidence that the spatial pattern of worm burrow density at the hillslope scale is a major control of energy dissipation. The pattern typically found in the study is more efficient in dissipating energy/producing entropy than other patterns. This is because upslope run-off accumulates and infiltrates via the worm burrows into the dry soil in the lower part of the hillslope, which results in an overall more efficient dissipation of free energy. PMID:20368256
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakatani, S.; Garcia, M. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Rodriguez, L.; Grimm, R. A.; Greenberg, N. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed whether hemodynamic parameters of left atrial (LA) systolic function could be estimated noninvasively using Doppler echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Left atrial systolic function is an important aspect of cardiac function. Doppler echocardiography can measure changes in LA volume, but has not been shown to relate to hemodynamic parameters such as the maximal value of the first derivative of the pressure (LA dP/dt(max)). METHODS: Eighteen patients in sinus rhythm were studied immediately before and after open heart surgery using simultaneous LA pressure measurements and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Left atrial pressure was measured with a micromanometer catheter, and LA dP/dt(max) during atrial contraction was obtained. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow were recorded by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Peak velocity, and mean acceleration and deceleration, and the time-velocity integral of each flow during atrial contraction was measured. The initial eight patients served as the study group to derive a multilinear regression equation to estimate LA dP/dt(max) from Doppler parameters, and the latter 10 patients served as the test group to validate the equation. A previously validated numeric model was used to confirm these results. RESULTS: In the study group, LA dP/dt(max) showed a linear relation with LA pressure before atrial contraction (r = 0.80, p < 0.005), confirming the presence of the Frank-Starling mechanism in the LA. Among transmitral flow parameters, mean acceleration showed the strongest correlation with LA dP/dt(max) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Among pulmonary venous flow parameters, no single parameter was sufficient to estimate LA dP/dt(max) with an r2 > 0.30. By stepwise and multiple linear regression analysis, LA dP/dt(max) was best described as follows: LA dP/dt(max) = 0.1 M-AC +/- 1.8 P-V - 4.1; r = 0.88, p < 0.0001, where M-AC is the mean acceleration of transmitral flow and P-V is the peak velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Kanai, Genshin
Open access to electric power transmission networks has been carried out in order to foster generation competition and customer choice in the worldwide. When several PPSs request to simultaneously supply power to customers based on bilateral contracts, it is expected that transmission network accepts amounts of wheeled power requested by the PPSs as much as possible. It is possible to maximize total requested wheeled power by controlling power flow through transmission lines. It is well known that FACTS device is available to control line flow flexibly. In this paper, in order to maximize total wheeled power simultaneously requested by several PPSs, the authors propose an algorithm to determine the optimal reactance of TCSC (one of FACTS devices). The proposed algorithm is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which is one of optimization methods based on swarm intelligence. In the proposed algorithm, PSO is improved to enhance ability of searching global minimum by giving different characteristic to behavior of each agent. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical results are shown for 6 and IEEE 30 bus system models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huh, K. I.; Mark, B. G.; Baraer, M.; Ahn, Y.
2014-12-01
Assessing the historical contribution of glacier ice volume loss to stream flow based on reconstructed volume changes through Little Ice Age (LIA) can be directly related to the understanding of glacier-hydrology in the current epoch of rapid glacier ice loss that has disquieting implications for water resources in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes. However, the accurate prediction of the future glacial meltwater availability for the increasing regional Andean society needs more extensive quantitative estimation from long-term glacial meltwater of reconstructed glacial volume. Modeling LIA paleoglaciers using a cellular automata glacier flow model in different catchments of the Cordillera Blanca allows us to reconstruct glacier volume and its change from likely combinations of climatic control variables and time. We compute the rate and magnitude of glacier volume changes for Yanamarey and Queshque glaciers between the LIA and modern defined by 2011 Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM V2) from the Cordillera Blanca. Also, we employ a recently demonstrated hydrological stream model (Baraer et al., 2012) for integrating the reconstructed glacier volume and its change to calculate glacier contribution to meltwater runoff as a function of glacier loss rate in the Yanamarey and the Queshque catchments, and reconstruct long-term glacier significance to stream flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Akira; Anzou, Hideki; Yamamoto, So; Shimagaki, Mituru
2015-11-01
In order to control the maximum tangential velocity Vθm(m/s) of the turbulent rotational air flow and the collection efficiency ηc (%) using the fly ash of the mean diameter XR50=5.57 µm, two secondary jet nozzles were installed to the body of the axial flow cyclone dust collector with the body diameter D1=99mm. Then in order to estimate Vθm (m/s), the conservation theory of the angular momentum flux with Ogawa combined vortex model was applied. The comparisons of the estimated results of Vθm(m/s) with the measured results by the cylindrical Pitot-tube were shown in good agreement. And also the estimated collection efficiencies ηcth (%) basing upon the cut-size Xc (µm) which was calculated by using the estimated Vθ m(m/s) and also the particle size distribution R(Xp) were shown a little higher values than the experimental results due to the re-entrainment of the collected dust. The best method for adjustment of ηc (%) related to the contribution of the secondary jet flow is principally to apply the centrifugal effect Φc (1). Above stated results are described in detail.
Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.; Lewan, M.D.
1999-01-01
Nine basalt dikes, ranging from 6 cm to 40 m thick, intruding the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Strzelecki Group, western onshore Gippsland Basin, were used to study maximum temperatures (Tmax) reached next to dikes. Tmax was estimated from fluid inclusion and vitrinitereflectance geothermometry and compared to temperatures calculated using heat-flow models of contact metamorphism. Thermal history reconstruction suggests that at the time of dike intrusion the host rock was at a temperature of 100-135??C. Fracture-bound fluid inclusions in the host rocks next to thin dikes ( 1.5, using a normalized distance ratio used for comparing measurements between dikes regardless of their thickness. In contrast, the pattern seen next to the thin dikes is a relatively narrow zone of elevated Rv-r. Heat-flow modeling, along with whole rock elemental and isotopic data, suggests that the extended zone of elevated Rv-r is caused by a convection cell with local recharge of the hydrothermal fluids. The narrow zone of elevated Rv-r found next to thin dikes is attributed to the rise of the less dense, heated fluids at the dike contact causing a flow of cooler groundwater towards the dike and thereby limiting its heating effects. The lack of extended heating effects suggests that next to thin dikes an incipient convection system may form in which the heated fluid starts to travel upward along the dike but cooling occurs before a complete convection cell can form. Close to the dike contact at X/D 1.5. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singleton, B.
First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth gravity and death as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.
Schachter, E.N.; Kapp, M.C.; Maunder, L.R.; Beck, G.; Witek, T.J.
1986-04-01
Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. Similar abnormal lung function patterns may occur with other respiratory diseases, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. The authors defined a new functional parameter (angle ..beta..) related to the shape of the MEFV curve in order better to characterize the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure. In this study, 477 cotton textile workers, both current smokers and never smokers 45 years and older, were compared to 932 similarly aged control subjects from three communities: Lebanon and Ansonia, CT, and Winnsboro, SC. Smokers, regardless of their occupational exposure or sex, have smaller values of ..beta.. than do nonsmokers. Cotton textile workers who have more abnormal lung function than do controls, cannot be distinguished from controls by ..beta... They suggest that such functional differences between cotton and smoking effects may reflect injury to different portions of the bronchial tree.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chebli, R.; Coutier-Delgosha, O.; Audebert, B.
2013-12-01
Cavitation is one of the most demanding physical phenomena influencing the performance of hydraulic machines. It is therefore important to predict correctly its inception and development, in order to quantify the performance drop it induces, and also to characterize the resulting flow instabilities. The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm for the numerical simulation of cavitation in an industrial CFD code (Code_saturne). It is based on a fractional step method which preserves the minimum/maximum principle of the void fraction. An implicit solver, based on a transport equation of the void fraction coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. A specific numerical treatment of the cavitation source term provides physical values of the void fraction (between 0 and 1) without including any artificial numerical limitation. The influence of RANS turbulence models on the simulation of cavitation on a 2D Venturi type geometry is then studied. It confirms the capability of the k-ε model and the k-ω SST model with the modification proposed by Reboud et al. (1998) to reproduce the main features of the unsteady sheet cavity behaviour.
Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C
2016-01-01
Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. PMID:26768978
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bash, E. A.; Laabs, B. J.
2006-12-01
The Wasatch Mountains of northern Utah contained numerous valley glaciers east and immediately downwind of Lake Bonneville during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). While the extent and chronology of glaciation in the Wasatch Mountains and the rise and fall of Lake Bonneville are becoming increasingly well understood, inferences of climatic conditions during the LGM for this area and elsewhere in the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Basin have yielded a wide range of temperature depression estimates. For example, previous estimates of temperature depression based on glacier and lake reconstructions in this region generally range from 7° to 9° C colder than modern. Glacier modeling studies for Little Cottonwood Canyon (northern Wasatch Mountains) suggest that such temperature depressions would have been accompanied by precipitation increases of about 3 to 1x modern, respectively (McCoy and Williams, 1985; Laabs et al., 2006). However, interpretations of other proxies suggest that temperature depression in this area may have been significantly greater, up to 13° C (e.g., Kaufman 2003), which would likely have been accompanied by less precipitation than modern. To address this issue, we reconstructed ice extent in the American Fork Canyon of the Wasatch Mountains and applied glacier modeling methods of Plummer and Phillips (2003) to infer climatic conditions during the LGM. Field mapping indicates that glaciers occupied an area of more than 20 km2 in the canyon and reached maximum lengths of about 9 km. To link ice extent to climatic changes, a physically based, two- dimensional numerical model of glacier mass balance and ice flow was applied to these valleys. The modeling approach allows the combined effects of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation on net mass balance of a drainage basin to be explored. Results of model experiments indicate that a temperature depression of less than 9° C in the American Fork Canyon would have been accompanied by greater
Deren, Tomasz M; Coris, Eric E; Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bain, Anthony R; Walz, Steve M; Jay, Ollie
2014-06-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum potential for heat loss of football linemen (L) and non-linemen (NL) during a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) summer training camp. It was hypothesized that heat loss potential in L would be lower than NL because of differences in self-generated air flow during position-specific activities. Fourteen NCAA division 1 football players {7 L (mass: 126 ± 6 kg; body surface area [BSA]: 2.51 ± 0.19 m(2)) and 7 NL (mass: 88 ± 13 kg; BSA: 2.09 ± 0.18 m(2))} participated over 6 days in southern Florida (Tdb: 31.2 ± 1.6 °C, T(wb): 27.0 ± 0.7 °C, Tr: 38.4 ± 2.8° C). Simultaneous on-field measurements of self-generated air velocities (v(self)) and mean skin temperatures (Tsk) were performed throughout practice, which included 4 drill categories (special teams, wind sprints, individual drills, and team drills). The resultant net potential for heat loss through convection, radiation, and evaporation (H(total)) was calculated. Values for Tsk were similar between L and NL for all drills (L: 35.4 ± 0.8 °C; NL: 35.4 ± 0.4 °C; p = 0.92). However, v(self) was greater in NL during wind sprints, individual drills, and team drills (p ≤ 0.05). Consequently H(total) was significantly greater in NL for all drills except special teams (p ≤ 0.05). The mean estimated rate of oxygen consumption needed to exceed H(total) was 8.6 ± 1.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) (2.5 ± 0.4 METs) for NL but only 5.6 ± 1.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) (1.6 ± 0.4 METs) for L. A lower heat loss potential occurs in L because of the more static nature of their position-related activities and not because of differences in Tsk. The practical relevance of these findings is that potential interventions that increase convective and evaporative heat loss (i.e., mechanical fans) should specifically target L, particularly while they are participating in static on-field drills and during rest intervals. PMID:24552793
Kuo, Yu-Hung
2016-01-01
Background The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of acute urine retention and prostate surgery in patients receiving alpha-1 blockers treatment and having a maximum urinary flow rate of less than 15ml/sec. Methods We identified patients who were diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and had a maximum uroflow rate of less than 15ml/sec between 1 January, 2002 to 31 December, 2011 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database into study group (n = 303). The control cohort included four BPH/LUTS patients without 5ARI used for each study group, randomly selected from the same dataset (n = 1,212). Each patient was monitored to identify those who subsequently developed prostate surgery and acute urine retention. Results Prostate surgery and acute urine retention are detected in 5.9% of control group and 8.3% of study group during 10-year follow up. Compared with the control group, there was increase in the risk of prostate surgery and acute urine retention in the study group (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.91) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, geographic region and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Maximum urine flow rate of less than 15ml/sec is a risk factor of urinary retention and subsequent prostate surgery in BPH patients receiving alpha-1 blocker therapy. This result can provide a reference for clinicians. PMID:27513673
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bihrle, W., Jr.; Bowman, J. S., Jr.
1980-01-01
The NASA Langley Research Center has initiated a broad general aviation stall/spin research program. A rotary balance system was developed to support this effort. Located in the Langley spin tunnel, this system makes it possible to identify an airplane's aerodynamic characteristics in a rotational flow environment, and thereby permits prediction of spins. This paper presents a brief description of the experimental set-up, testing technique, five model programs conducted to date, and an overview of the rotary balance results and their correlation with spin tunnel free-spinning model results. It is shown, for example, that there is a large, nonlinear dependency of the aerodynamic moments on rotational rate and that these moments are pronouncedly configuration-dependent. Fuselage shape, horizontal tail and, in some instances, wing location are shown to appreciably influence the yawing moment characteristics above an angle of attack of 45 deg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Weihong; Jiang, Ning
2016-05-01
Since most previous attempts to establish monsoon indices have been limited to specific regions, they have lacked the applicability to universally describe the global monsoon domain. In this paper, we first review the history of global monsoon study and then identify the climatology of global precipitation associated with major systems of the atmospheric general circulation. A new index, based on the annual and semiannual harmonic precipitation rate difference between two local calendar maximal and minimal precipitation pentads, is used to identify the global monsoon domain focusing on where experienced and what caused the climatic dry-wet alteration. The global monsoon domain is defined by the regions where two pentad-mean precipitation difference exceeds 4 mm ṡday-1, which is also influenced by the low-level prevailing wind reversal associated with the cross-equatorial flow. This definition not only confirmed previous results of the classical global monsoon domain from the tropical Africa to Asia-Australia and non-classical monsoon region in the tropical America but also solved an issue of missing local summer monsoon spots.
O'Sullivan, G.
1983-03-01
By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schweikhard, W. G.; Dennon, S. R.
1986-01-01
A review of the Melick method of inlet flow dynamic distortion prediction by statistical means is provided. These developments include the general Melick approach with full dynamic measurements, a limited dynamic measurement approach, and a turbulence modelling approach which requires no dynamic rms pressure fluctuation measurements. These modifications are evaluated by comparing predicted and measured peak instantaneous distortion levels from provisional inlet data sets. A nonlinear mean-line following vortex model is proposed and evaluated as a potential criterion for improving the peak instantaneous distortion map generated from the conventional linear vortex of the Melick method. The model is simplified to a series of linear vortex segments which lay along the mean line. Maps generated with this new approach are compared with conventionally generated maps, as well as measured peak instantaneous maps. Inlet data sets include subsonic, transonic, and supersonic inlets under various flight conditions.
Maximum thrust mode evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.
1995-01-01
Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.
The maximum drag reduction asymptote
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn
2015-11-01
Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Akira
2010-12-01
There are many types of cyclone dust collectors for separating the fine solid and dust particles from gases in the various industries and also in the home used purposes. For estimating the power loss and the collection efficiency, one of the most important factors is the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region in the cyclone body. In order to determine V θm by the simple method, it is useful to apply the mechanical balance of the angular momentum fluxes under the assumption of Ogawa combined vortex model which is composed of the quasi-forced vortex in the vortex core region and also the quasi-free vortex surrounded the vortex core region and also under the assumption of the introduction of equivalent length Heq corresponding to the cone spaces of the cyclone body and the dust bunker. On the other hand, the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface is also estimated by the mechanical balance of angular momentum fluxes with the moment of viscous friction force. For confirming the general applications of the obtained equations, the returned flow types cyclones changed the throat diameter D3 are designed. The material of the cyclone is the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore the inner surface of the cyclone body can be regarded as smooth surface. The comparisons of the measured velocities V θm and V oi by a cylindrical Pitot tube are shown in good agreement with those of the proposed equations. The above stated results are described in detail.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjorth, Jens
The unique feature of MEM is that C(-1)(z) = exp(z) amplifies all scales equally. Narayan & Nityananda (1986) have shown that this leads to Gaussian deconvolved peaks. In MMM different scales are treated differently, depending on the choice of C. This gives different peak shapes, but also allows one to experiment with the degree of peak sharpening as a function of peak height. In fact, despite its strong information-theoretic background, MEM is known to redistribute flux incorrectly during deconvolution, thus making the method problematic if the goal is to get correct intensities out. MMM could remedy this problem by using an alternative to the entropy. In conclusion, some ideas connecting the physics of blurring with a proposed reconstruction scheme, dubbed Maximum Mixing Method, have been presented. It has been shown that this physically motivated, non-information theoretic, non-probabilistic, non-Bayesian approach can be turned into a powerful deconvolution technique, competitive with, and having as a special case, the Maximum Entropy Method. Further work within the proposed framework is required to fully explore the consequences of the theory. A paper including proofs and examples is in preparation.
Mores, Robert
2016-08-01
Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Maximum entropy production - Full steam ahead
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Ralph D.
2012-05-01
The application of a principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP, or less ambiguously MaxEP) to planetary climate is discussed. This idea suggests that if sufficiently free of dynamical constraints, the atmospheric and oceanic heat flows across a planet may conspire to maximize the generation of mechanical work, or entropy. Thermodynamic and information-theoretic aspects of this idea are discussed. These issues are also discussed in the context of dust devils, convective vortices found in strongly-heated desert areas.
Minimizing the probable maximum flood
Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )
1994-06-01
This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.
AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...
Maximum Daily Discharge Prediction using Multi Layer Perceptron Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaeian Zadeh, M.; Abghari, H.; van de Giesen, N.; Nikian, A.; Niknia, N.
2009-04-01
Prediction of maximum daily flow is essential for planning of water resources systems. This study presents the use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to maximum daily flow prediction in the Khosrow Shirin watershed, in north-west Fars province in Iran. Precipitation from four meteorological stations was used to develop a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) optimized with the Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP_LM) training algorithm and using a tangent sigmoid activation function. Different methods to construct the input vectors were considered during models development. In the first method the precipitation signal is imported separately as input vectors for training. In the second method area-weighted precipitation and related Hydrographs were used in MLP development. In addition to precipitation, in the last model three inputs were used that were base on antecedent flows with one and two days time lag. The performance of each of these models was investigated with the root mean square errors (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). The results show that the second method with weighted precipitation has higher prediction efficiency. R2 and RMSE of training and validation phase for third the model with weighted precipitation were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively Addition of antecedent flow as input vector and use of weighted precipitation provide better results in maximum daily flow prediction. Keywords: Multi Layer Perceptron, Maximum Daily Flow Prediction, Weighted Precipitation, Antecedent flow, Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm.
Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worley, Bradley
2016-04-01
Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartibu, L. K.
2016-01-01
This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.
Maximum Power Point Regulator System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simola, J.; Savela, K.; Stenberg, J.; Tonicello, F.
2011-10-01
The target of the study done under the ESA contract No.17830/04/NL/EC (GSTP4) for Maximum Power Point Regulator System (MPPRS) was to investigate, design and test a modular power system (a core PCU) fulfilling requirement for maximum power transfer even after a single failure in the Power System by utilising a power concept without any potential and credible single point failure. The studied MPPRS concept is of a modular construction, able to track the MPP individually on each SA sections, maintaining its functionality and full power capability after a loss of a complete MPPR module (by utilizingN+1module).Various add-on DCDC converter topology candidates were investigated and redundancy, failure mechanisms and protection aspects were studied
Solar maximum: Solar array degradation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, T.
1985-01-01
The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported. PMID:26111403
Quantum optimization and maximum clique problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yatsenko, Vitaliy A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Chiarini, Bruno H.
2004-08-01
This paper describes a new approach to global optimization and control uses geometric methods and modern quantum mathematics. Polynomial extremal problems (PEP) are considered. PEP constitute one of the most important subclasses of nonlinear programming models. Their distinctive feature is that an objective function and constraints can be expressed by polynomial functions in one or several variables. A general approach to optimization based on quantum holonomic computing algorithms and instanton mechanism. An optimization method based on geometric Lie - algebraic structures on Grassmann manifolds and related with Lax type flows is proposed. Making use of the differential geometric techniques it is shown that associated holonomy groups properly realizing quantum computation can be effectively found concerning polynomial problems. Two examples demonstrating calculation aspects of holonomic quantum computer and maximum clique problems in very large graphs, are considered in detail.
Comparing Assayed Surface Heterogeneity Under Low Versus Maximum Attachment Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmuson, J. A.
2014-12-01
It has long been suspected that nanoscale heterogeneity is responsible for colloid attachment to surfaces under conditions unfavorable to attachment. Recently, mechanistic colloid force and torque simulations have been applied to arrays of experimental data to back out nanoscale heterogeneity that is representative of the collector surface. These recent experiments were performed under flowing conditions with limited colloid attachment. This presentation explores whether surface heterogeneity backed out from experiments performed under conditions designed to maximize attachment (e.g., non-flowing followed by elution) yields a characteristic heterogeneity that can be reproduced on surfaces backed out under other conditions. The nature of attachment under flowing vs. non-flowing conditions differed for large (2.0 μm) relative to small (0.25 μm) colloids. For example, the maximum loading of small colloids was the same under flowing conditions versus non-flowing conditions followed by elution. The maximum loading of large colloids however was much lower under flowing conditions relative to non-flowing conditions followed by elution. This difference indicates a mechanism contributing to the attachment of large colloids that is not included in mechanistic force and torque balances. These possible mechanisms are reviewed and strategies to incorporate them are discussed. The reproducibility of attachments and their spatial distribution will also be examined.
Maximum entropy and drug absorption.
Charter, M K; Gull, S F
1991-10-01
The application of maximum entropy to the calculation of drug absorption rates was introduced in an earlier paper. Here it is developed further, and the whole procedure is presented as a problem in scientific inference to be solved using Bayes' theorem. Blood samples do not need to be taken at equally spaced intervals, and no smoothing, interpolation, extrapolation, or other preprocessing of the data is necessary. The resulting input rate estimates are smooth and physiologically realistic, even with noisy data, and their accuracy is quantified. Derived quantities such as the proportion of the dose absorbed, and the mean and median absorption times, are also obtained, together with their error estimates. There are no arbitrarily valued parameters in the analysis, and no specific functional form, such as an exponential or polynomial, is assumed for the input rate functions. PMID:1783989
Discrimination networks for maximum selection.
Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz
2004-01-01
We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence. PMID:14690714
Traffic network and distribution of cars: Maximum-entropy approach
Das, N.C.; Chakrabarti, C.G.; Mazumder, S.K.
2000-02-01
An urban transport system plays a vital role in the modeling of the modern cosmopolis. A great emphasis is needed for the proper development of a transport system, particularly the traffic network and flow, to meet possible future demand. There are various mathematical models of traffic network and flow. The role of Shannon entropy in the modeling of traffic network and flow was stressed by Tomlin and Tomlin (1968) and Tomlin (1969). In the present note the authors study the role of maximum-entropy principle in the solution of an important problem associated with the traffic network flow. The maximum-entropy principle initiated by Jaynes is a powerful optimization technique of determining the distribution of a random system in the case of partial or incomplete information or data available about the system. This principle has now been broadened and extended and has found wide applications in different fields of science and technology. In the present note the authors show how the Jaynes' maximum-entropy principle, slightly modified, can be successfully applied in determining the flow or distribution of cars in different paths of a traffic network when incomplete information is available about the network.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2016-07-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
Maximum Entropy Principle for Transportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilich, F.; DaSilva, R.
2008-11-01
In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.
Maximum entropy principal for transportation
Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.
2008-11-06
In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.
Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.
2011-12-01
Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water
Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huleihil, Mahmoud
2009-05-01
The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ηmp=1-√1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ηmp.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Generalized Rasch Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Leeuw, Jan; Verhelst, Norman
1986-01-01
Maximum likelihood procedures are presented for a general model to unify the various models and techniques that have been proposed for item analysis. Unconditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Wright and Haberman, and conditional maximum likelihood estimation, proposed by Rasch and Andersen, are shown as important special cases. (JAZ)
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be...
Probable maximum floods at the Yucca Mountain exploration shafts
Cardle, J.A.; Lim, S.T.
1990-10-01
This paper presents an analysis of flood flows in the Coyote Wash at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Estimates of the hydrographs at various points in this wash resulting from the 100 year storm and from the probable maximum storms are developed and compared with other results. Flows in this particular wash are particularly critical due to the adjacent location of the proposed exploratory shafts. The resulting hydrographs at the site of the exploratory shaft pad are delineated.
Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doria, Michael L.
1991-01-01
The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.
Multiple element airfoils optimized for maximum lift coefficient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ormsbee, A. I.; Chen, A. W.
1972-01-01
Optimum airfoils in the sense of maximum lift coefficient are obtained for incompressible fluid flow at large Reynolds number. The maximum lift coefficient is achieved by requiring that the turbulent skin friction be zero in the pressure rise region on the airfoil upper surface. Under this constraint, the pressure distribution is optimized. The optimum pressure distribution is a function of Reynolds number and the trailing edge velocity. Geometries of those airfoils which will generate these optimum pressure distributions are obtained using a direct-iterative method which is developed in this study. This method can be used to design airfoils consisting of any number of elements. Numerical examples of one- and two-element airfoils are given. The maximum lift coefficients obtained range from 2 to 2.5.
Duality in a maximum generalized entropy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eguchi, Shinto; Komori, Osamu; Ohara, Atsumi
2015-01-01
This paper discusses a possible generalization for the maximum entropy principle. A class of generalized entropy is introduced by that of generator functions, in which the maximum generalized distribution model is explicitly derived including q-Gaussian distributions, Wigner semicircle distributions and Pareto distributions. We define a totally geodesic subspace in the total space of all probability density functions in a framework of information geometry. The model of maximum generalized entropy distributions is shown to be totally geodesic. The duality of the model and the estimation in the maximum generalized principle is elucidated to give intrinsic understandings from the point of information geometry.
33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.29 Maximum draft. (a) Notwithstanding any provision herein, the...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30,...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...
Magnetic field generated resistivity maximum in graphite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wollam, J. A.; Kreps, L. W.; Rojeski, M.; Vold, T.; Devaty, R.
1976-01-01
In zero magnetic field, B, the electrical resistivity, rho(O,T) of highly oriented pyrolytic (polycrystalline) graphite drops smoothly with decreasing T, becoming constant below 4 K. However, in a fixed applied magnetic field B, the resistivity rho(B,T) goes through a maximum as a function of T, with larger maximum for larger B. The temperature of the maximum increases with B, but saturates to a constant value near 25 K (exact T depends on sample) at high B. In single crystal graphite a maximum in rho(B,T) as a function of T is also present, but has the effects of Landau level quantization superimposed. Several possible explanations for the rho(B,T) maximum are proposed, but a complete explanation awaits detailed calculations involving the energy band structure of graphite, and the particular scattering mechanisms involved.
Boundary condition effects on maximum groundwater withdrawal in coastal aquifers.
Lu, Chunhui; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian
2012-01-01
Prevention of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers subject to groundwater withdrawal requires optimization of well pumping rates to maximize the water supply while avoiding sea water intrusion. Boundary conditions and the aquifer domain size have significant influences on simulating flow and concentration fields and estimating maximum pumping rates. In this study, an analytical solution is derived based on the potential-flow theory for evaluating maximum groundwater pumping rates in a domain with a constant hydraulic head landward boundary. An empirical correction factor, which was introduced by Pool and Carrera (2011) to account for mixing in the case with a constant recharge rate boundary condition, is found also applicable for the case with a constant hydraulic head boundary condition, and therefore greatly improves the usefulness of the sharp-interface analytical solution. Comparing with the solution for a constant recharge rate boundary, we find that a constant hydraulic head boundary often yields larger estimations of the maximum pumping rate and when the domain size is five times greater than the distance between the well and the coastline, the effect of setting different landward boundary conditions becomes insignificant with a relative difference between two solutions less than 2.5%. These findings can serve as a preliminary guidance for conducting numerical simulations and designing tank-scale laboratory experiments for studying groundwater withdrawal problems in coastal aquifers with minimized boundary condition effects. PMID:22050244
Estimating the seasonal maximum light use efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muramatsu, Kanako; Furumi, Shinobu; Soyama, Noriko; Daigo, Motomasa
2014-11-01
Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key parameter in estimating gross primary production (GPP) based on global Earth-observation satellite data and model calculations. In current LUE-based GPP estimation models, the maximum LUE is treated as a constant for each biome type. However, the maximum LUE varies seasonally. In this study, seasonal maximum LUE values were estimated from the maximum incident LUE versus the incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the fraction of absorbed PAR. First, an algorithm to estimate maximum incident LUE was developed to estimate GPP capacity using a light response curve. One of the parameters required for the light response curve was estimated from the linear relationship of the chlorophyll index and the GPP capacity at a high PAR level of 2000 (µmolm-2s-1), and was referred to as" the maximum GPP capacity at 2000". The relationship was determined for six plant functional types: needleleaf deciduous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needleleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf evergreen trees, C3 grass, and crops. The maximum LUE values estimated in this study displayed seasonal variation, especially those for deciduous broadleaf forest, but also those for evergreen needleleaf forest.
Leading-edge slat optimization for maximum airfoil lift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, L. E.; Mcgowan, P. R.; Guest, C. J.
1979-01-01
A numerical procedure for determining the position (horizontal location, vertical location, and deflection) of a leading edge slat that maximizes the lift of multielement airfoils is presented. The structure of the flow field is calculated by iteratively coupling potential flow and boundary layer analysis. This aerodynamic calculation is combined with a constrained function minimization analysis to determine the position of a leading edge slat so that the suction peak on the nose of the main airfoil is minized. The slat position is constrained by the numerical procedure to ensure an attached boundary layer on the upper surface of the slat and to ensure negligible interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the upper surface of the main airfoil. The highest angle attack at which this optimized slat position can maintain attached flow on the main airfoil defines the optimum slat position for maximum lift. The design method is demonstrated for an airfoil equipped with a leading-edge slat and a trailing edge, single-slotted flap. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, obtained in the Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel, to verify experimentally the predicted slat position for maximum lift. The experimentally optimized slat position is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, indicating that the theoretical procedure is a feasible design method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hart, Vincent G.
1981-01-01
Two examples are given of ways traffic engineers estimate traffic flow. The first, Floating Car Method, involves some basic ideas and the notion of relative velocity. The second, Maximum Traffic Flow, is viewed to involve simple applications of calculus. The material provides insight into specialized applications of mathematics. (MP)
Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons.
Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J; Mitter, Sanjoy K
2014-10-01
We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems. PMID:25375450
Maximum work extraction and implementation costs for nonequilibrium Maxwell's demons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Henrik; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Newton, Nigel J.; Mitter, Sanjoy K.
2014-10-01
We determine the maximum amount of work extractable in finite time by a demon performing continuous measurements on a quadratic Hamiltonian system subjected to thermal fluctuations, in terms of the information extracted from the system. The maximum work demon is found to apply a high-gain continuous feedback involving a Kalman-Bucy estimate of the system state and operates in nonequilibrium. A simple and concrete electrical implementation of the feedback protocol is proposed, which allows for analytic expressions of the flows of energy, entropy, and information inside the demon. This let us show that any implementation of the demon must necessarily include an external power source, which we prove both from classical thermodynamics arguments and from a version of Landauer's memory erasure argument extended to nonequilibrium linear systems.
The Maximum Entropy Principle for Generalized Entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukada, Makoto
2008-03-01
It is well known that Gibbs states and the Gaussian distribution are characterized by the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we discuss probability distributions which maximize generalized entropies including Rényi's and Tsal-lis's.
Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.
Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J
1983-08-01
The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin
2016-04-01
Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions
The analysis and kinetic energy balance of an upper-level wind maximum during intense convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuelberg, H. E.; Jedlovec, G. J.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the formation and maintenance of the upper-level wind maximum which formed between 1800 and 2100 GMT, April 10, 1979, during the AVE-SESAME I period, when intense storms and tornadoes were experienced (the Red River Valley tornado outbreak). Radiosonde stations participating in AVE-SESAME I are plotted (centered on Oklahoma). National Meteorological Center radar summaries near the times of maximum convective activity are mapped, and height and isotach plots are given, where the formation of an upper-level wind maximum over Oklahoma is the most significant feature at 300 mb. The energy balance of the storm region is seen to change dramatically as the wind maximum forms. During much of its lifetime, the upper-level wind maximum is maintained by ageostrophic flow that produces cross-contour generation of kinetic energy and by the upward transport of midtropospheric energy. Two possible mechanisms for the ageostrophic flow are considered.
Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle
McEligot, D.M.
1995-08-14
For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.
An Improved Forecasting Method of Sunspot Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Z.; Tian, L.; Han, Y.; Wang, B.; Han, Y.
2015-12-01
It has been paid more and more attention for forecasting sunspot maximum of future solar cycle in recent decades, and a variety of forecasting methods have been studied. However, to make an accurate prediction is still very difficult due to the complexities of the characteristics of solar activity. Some authors summerized a variety of methods for the maximum predictions of 22nd, 23rd, 24th solar cycles, the incomplete statistics are 63, 54 and 75 cases respectively, results of the methods, which the difference between forecasting and observed values within the range of ±15%, are 27.0%, 25.9% and 24.3% respectively. Using the 13 points smoothed value of monthly sunspot numbers, we studied correlation between sunspot number rising rate of the first 24 months of the solar cycle and the coming cycle maximum, published forecasting result that the maximum value was 139.2 ± 18.8 for 23rd solar cycle (Han et al., 2000), and the observed value is 120.8, the error is about 15.2%. The present paper describes our improved forecasting methods. First, Vondrak smoothing method is used to deal with the monthly sunspot numbers. It is studied that the relationship between the rise rate of earlier months of sunspot numbers of this smoothed sequence and the coming maximum value in each solar cycles. The results show that the first 22, 23, 24 months rise rate of sunspot numbers are highly related with the coming maximum values, and simulated prediction of maximum for 22~24 cycles show that using the 22-month rise rate of three solar cycles, the maximum forecasting error is about 13.2%, using 23-month rise rate, the maximum error is about 11.2%, while using 24-month rise rate, the maximum error is only about 9.3%. The new method not only improves the forecasting accuracy but also can make the forecasting time in advance at least half a year than the common method using 13 points monthly smoothed value.
Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information
Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.
2014-01-01
Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Optimization of multi-element airfoils for maximum lift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, L. E.
1979-01-01
Two theoretical methods are presented for optimizing multi-element airfoils to obtain maximum lift. The analyses assume that the shapes of the various high lift elements are fixed. The objective of the design procedures is then to determine the optimum location and/or deflection of the leading and trailing edge devices. The first analysis determines the optimum horizontal and vertical location and the deflection of a leading edge slat. The structure of the flow field is calculated by iteratively coupling potential flow and boundary layer analysis. This design procedure does not require that flow separation effects be modeled. The second analysis determines the slat and flap deflection required to maximize the lift of a three element airfoil. This approach requires that the effects of flow separation from one or more of the airfoil elements be taken into account. The theoretical results are in good agreement with results of a wind tunnel test used to corroborate the predicted optimum slat and flap positions.
Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi
2000-07-01
The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.
The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.
2012-12-01
Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.
Maximum stabilizer dimension for nonproduct states
Walck, Scott N.; Lyons, David W.
2007-08-15
Composite quantum states can be classified by how they behave under local unitary transformations. Each quantum state has a stabilizer subgroup and a corresponding Lie algebra, the structure of which is a local unitary invariant. In this paper, we study the structure of the stabilizer subalgebra for n-qubit pure states, and find its maximum dimension to be n-1 for nonproduct states of three qubits and higher. The n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state has a stabilizer subalgebra that achieves the maximum possible dimension for pure nonproduct states. The converse, however, is not true: We show examples of pure 4-qubit states that achieve the maximum nonproduct stabilizer dimension, but have stabilizer subalgebra structures different from that of the n-qubit GHZ state.
Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summhammer, Johann
1994-01-01
In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.
Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.
Maximum Entropy for the International Division of Labor
Lei, Hongmei; Chen, Ying; Li, Ruiqi; He, Deli; Zhang, Jiang
2015-01-01
As a result of the international division of labor, the trade value distribution on different products substantiated by international trade flows can be regarded as one country’s strategy for competition. According to the empirical data of trade flows, countries may spend a large fraction of export values on ubiquitous and competitive products. Meanwhile, countries may also diversify their exports share on different types of products to reduce the risk. In this paper, we report that the export share distribution curves can be derived by maximizing the entropy of shares on different products under the product’s complexity constraint once the international market structure (the country-product bipartite network) is given. Therefore, a maximum entropy model provides a good fit to empirical data. The empirical data is consistent with maximum entropy subject to a constraint on the expected value of the product complexity for each country. One country’s strategy is mainly determined by the types of products this country can export. In addition, our model is able to fit the empirical export share distribution curves of nearly every country very well by tuning only one parameter. PMID:26172052
On the location of the maximum homogeneous crystal nucleation temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinberg, Michael C.
1986-01-01
Detailed considerations are given to the location of the temperature of maximum homogeneous nucleation as predicted by classical nucleation theory. It is shown quite generally that this maximum temperature, T-asterisk, must occur above the Kauzmann temperature and that the T-asterisk is such that T-asterisk is greater than T(m)/3, where T(m) is the melting temperature. Also, it is demonstrated tha T-asterisk may be considered to be approximately dependent upon two parameters: gamma, the ratio of the difference in specific heat between the crystal and liquid divided by the entropy of fusion, and E, a reduced activation energy for viscous flow. The variation of T-asterisk with these parameters is described. The relationship of the relative location of T-asterisk to the glass transition temperature, is discussed too. This discussion is couched within the framework of the strong and fragile liquid notion introduced by Angell (1981) and coworkers. Finally, the question of the ultimate limits to the undercooling of liquid metals is considered and its relationhsip to computations of the maximum nucleation temperature in such systems.
Methodology and Implications of Maximum Paleodischarge Estimates for
Channels, M.; Pruess, J.; Wohl, E.E.; Jarrett, R.D.
1998-01-01
Historical and geologic records may be used to enhance magnitude estimates for extreme floods along mountain channels, as demonstrated in this study from the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. Historical photographs and local newspaper accounts from the October 1911 flood indicate the likely extent of flooding and damage. A checklist designed to organize and numerically score evidence of flooding was used in 15 field reconnaissance surveys in the upper Animas River valley of southwestern Colorado. Step-backwater flow modeling estimated the discharges necessary to create longitudinal flood bars observed at 6 additional field sites. According to these analyses, maximum unit discharge peaks at approximately 1.3 m3 s~' km"2 around 2200 m elevation, with decreased unit discharges at both higher and lower elevations. These results (1) are consistent with Jarrett's (1987, 1990, 1993) maximum 2300-m elevation limit for flash-flooding in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, and (2) suggest that current Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) estimates based on a 24-h rainfall of 30 cm at elevations above 2700 m are unrealistically large. The methodology used for this study should be readily applicable to other mountain regions where systematic streamflow records are of short duration or nonexistent. ?? 1998 Regents of the University of Colorado.
Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars
Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )
1990-07-15
Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.
33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....
33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....
33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 1 The main channels between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie have a controlling depth of 8.23m....
33 CFR 401.29 - Maximum draft.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum draft. 401.29 Section 401.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tendency to list or squat, so as to avoid striking bottom.1 1 The main channels between the Port...
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
Maximum hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuai, J. W.; Chen, Z. X.; Liu, R. T.; Wu, B. X.
1997-07-01
Hyperchaos in chaotic nonmonotonic neuronal networks is discussed with computer simulations. Maximum chaos with all Lyapunov exponents positive is found not only in the present dissipative model with weak coupling connections between neurons, but also with some strong-coupling connections. Although the model presented is a noninvertible map, the information dimension of simple chaos still yields a good approximation to the Lyapunov dimension.
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...
Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography
Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Milstead, W. Bryan; Urrutia, M. Andrea
2011-01-01
Information about lake morphometry (e.g., depth, volume, size, etc.) aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate measures of lake morphometry, particularly lake depth, are usually collected on a lake-by-lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. To span the gap between studies of individual lakes where detailed data exist and regional studies where access to useful data on lake depth is unavailable, we developed a method to predict maximum lake depth from the slope of the topography surrounding a lake. We use the National Elevation Dataset and the National Hydrography Dataset – Plus to estimate the percent slope of surrounding lakes and use this information to predict maximum lake depth. We also use field measured maximum lake depths from the US EPA's National Lakes Assessment to empirically adjust and cross-validate our predictions. We were able to predict maximum depth for ∼28,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States with an average cross-validated RMSE of 5.95 m and 5.09 m and average correlation of 0.82 and 0.69 for Hydrological Unit Code Regions 01 and 02, respectively. The depth predictions and the scripts are openly available as supplements to this manuscript. PMID:21984945
Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Medhekar, Sarang
1991-01-01
Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...
Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M
1922-01-01
Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.
24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...
24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...
Menu Plans: Maximum Nutrition for Minimum Cost.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas Child Care, 1995
1995-01-01
Suggests that menu planning is the key to getting maximum nutrition in day care meals and snacks for minimum cost. Explores United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid guidelines for children and tips for planning menus and grocery shopping. Includes suggested meal patterns and portion sizes. (HTH)
The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altrock, Richard C.
2013-01-01
Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-27
... civil monetary penalties per the Inflation Act. See 74 FR 68701 (December 29, 2009). FRA's maximum and... materials violation was $275. 69 FR 30590, May 28, 2004. To implement these SAFETEA-LU amendments to the maximum and minimum penalties, FRA issued a final rule that was published on December 26, 2006, 71...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-10
...PHMSA is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform detailed threat and risk analyses that integrate accurate data and information from their entire pipeline system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum......
Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood
Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.
2016-01-01
Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic. PMID:25871054
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, Chris H.; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Calabrese, Justin M.
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097
Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program
Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph
1983-01-01
This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.
Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003
Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood.
Barendse, M T; Ligtvoet, R; Timmerman, M E; Oort, F J
2016-01-01
Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log-likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two-way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136
Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy
Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Naixing; Zhang, Hongwu; Xu, Yanji; Huang, Weiguang
2003-08-01
A design procedure for improving the efficiency of a transonic compressor blading was proposed based on a rapid generation method for three-dimensional blade configuration and computational meshes, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver and an optimization approach. The objective of the present paper is to design a transonic compressor blading optimized only by selection of the locations of maximum camber and maximum thickness for the airfoils at different span heights and to study how do these two design parameters affect the blade performance. The blading configuration and the computational meshes can be obtained very rapidly for any given combination of maximum camber and maximum thickness. The computational grid system generated is used for the Navier-Stokes solution to predict adiabatic efficiency, total pressure ratio and flow rate. As a main result of the optimization, adiabatic efficiency was successfully improved.
Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Hwa-Tung
2004-01-01
In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.
Sensor registration using airlanes: maximum likelihood solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Hwa-Tung
2003-12-01
In this contribution, the maximum likelihood estimation of sensor registration parameters, such as range, azimuth and elevation biases in radar measurements, using airlane information is proposed and studied. The motivation for using airlane information for sensor registration is that it is freely available as a source of reference and it provides an alternative to conventional techniques that rely on synchronised and correctly associated measurements from two or more sensors. In the paper, the problem is first formulated in terms of a measurement model that is a nonlinear function of the unknown target state and sensor parameters, plus sensor noise. A probabilistic model of the target state is developed based on airlane information. The maximum likelihood and also maximum a posteriori solutions are given. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is derived and simulation results are presented for the case of estimating the biases in radar range, azimuth and elevation measurements. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared against the Cramer-Rao lower bound and that of an existing two-sensor alignment method. It is concluded that sensor registration using airlane information is a feasible alternative to existing techniques.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862
"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Raymond
2014-05-01
The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-03-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the superposition model. We present two examples that demonstrate what consequences can be drawn for energy dependent changes in the primary composition.
Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimation.
van der Laan, Mark J; Gruber, Susan
2010-01-01
Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q(0) in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for "collaborative double robustness," demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum
Collaborative Double Robust Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation*
van der Laan, Mark J.; Gruber, Susan
2010-01-01
Collaborative double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimators represent a fundamental further advance over standard targeted maximum likelihood estimators of a pathwise differentiable parameter of a data generating distribution in a semiparametric model, introduced in van der Laan, Rubin (2006). The targeted maximum likelihood approach involves fluctuating an initial estimate of a relevant factor (Q) of the density of the observed data, in order to make a bias/variance tradeoff targeted towards the parameter of interest. The fluctuation involves estimation of a nuisance parameter portion of the likelihood, g. TMLE has been shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed (CAN) under regularity conditions, when either one of these two factors of the likelihood of the data is correctly specified, and it is semiparametric efficient if both are correctly specified. In this article we provide a template for applying collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE) to the estimation of pathwise differentiable parameters in semi-parametric models. The procedure creates a sequence of candidate targeted maximum likelihood estimators based on an initial estimate for Q coupled with a succession of increasingly non-parametric estimates for g. In a departure from current state of the art nuisance parameter estimation, C-TMLE estimates of g are constructed based on a loss function for the targeted maximum likelihood estimator of the relevant factor Q that uses the nuisance parameter to carry out the fluctuation, instead of a loss function for the nuisance parameter itself. Likelihood-based cross-validation is used to select the best estimator among all candidate TMLE estimators of Q0 in this sequence. A penalized-likelihood loss function for Q is suggested when the parameter of interest is borderline-identifiable. We present theoretical results for “collaborative double robustness,” demonstrating that the collaborative targeted maximum
Effects of Airfoil Thickness and Maximum Lift Coefficient on Roughness Sensitivity: 1997--1998
Somers, D. M.
2005-01-01
A matrix of airfoils has been developed to determine the effects of airfoil thickness and the maximum lift to leading-edge roughness. The matrix consists of three natural-laminar-flow airfoils, the S901, S902, and S903, for wind turbine applications. The airfoils have been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Pennsylvania State University low-speed, low-turbulence wind tunnel. The effect of roughness on the maximum life increases with increasing airfoil thickness and decreases slightly with increasing maximum lift. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.
A Realization of Theoretical Maximum Performance in IPSec on Gigabit Ethernet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onuki, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Inada, Toru; Tokiniwa, Yasuhisa; Ushirozawa, Shinobu
This paper describes “IPSec(IP Security) VPN system" and how it attains a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. The Conventional System is implemented by software. However, the system has several bottlenecks which must be overcome to realize a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. Thus, we newly propose IPSec VPN System with the FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) based hardware architecture, which transmits a packet by the pipe-lined flow processing and has 6 parallel structure of encryption and authentication engines. We show that our system attains the theoretical maximum performance in the short packet which is difficult to realize until now.
Estimation of ecological high flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jen-Yang; Chen, Yen-Chang; Hsienshao Tsao, Eric
2006-02-01
Floods can destroy fish habitat. During a flood a fish has to seek shelters (refuges) to survive. It is necessary to know the maximum discharge that the fish can sustain against the strong current. Ecological and hydraulic engineers can simulate the flow condition of high flow for designing the refuge when restoring and enhancing the rivers are needed. Based on the average ratio of the mean and maximum velocities invariant with time, discharge and water level, this paper tries to introduce the concept of ecological high flow. The mean-maximum velocity ratio can be used to estimate the mean velocity of the river. If the maximum velocity of the cross section is replaced by the maximum sustained swimming speeds of fish, the mean velocity of ecological high flow can be calculated with the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area can be estimated by the gage height. Then the ecological high flow can be estimated as the product of mean velocity of ecological high flow multiplied by the cross-sectional area. The available data of the upstream of the Dacha River where is the habitat of the Formosan landlocked salmon were used to illustrate the estimation of the ecological high flow. Any restoration project at Sonmou that try to improve the stream habitat can use the ecological high flow to design the hydraulic structure at suitable location to offer refuges for the Formosan landlocked salmon that is an endangered species in Taiwan
Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.
2015-12-01
A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.
Maximum caliber inference of nonequilibrium processes.
Otten, Moritz; Stock, Gerhard
2010-07-21
Thirty years ago, Jaynes suggested a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called maximum caliber (MaxCal) [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)]. MaxCal is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that maximum entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. Motivated by the success of maximum entropy inference methods for equilibrium problems, in this work the MaxCal formulation is applied to the inference of nonequilibrium processes. That is, given some time-dependent observables of a dynamical process, one constructs a model that reproduces these input data and moreover, predicts the underlying dynamics of the system. For example, the observables could be some time-resolved measurements of the folding of a protein, which are described by a few-state model of the free energy landscape of the system. MaxCal then calculates the probabilities of an ensemble of trajectories such that on average the data are reproduced. From this probability distribution, any dynamical quantity of the system can be calculated, including population probabilities, fluxes, or waiting time distributions. After briefly reviewing the formalism, the practical numerical implementation of MaxCal in the case of an inference problem is discussed. Adopting various few-state models of increasing complexity, it is demonstrated that the MaxCal principle indeed works as a practical method of inference: The scheme is fairly robust and yields correct results as long as the input data are sufficient. As the method is unbiased and general, it can deal with any kind of time dependency such as oscillatory transients and multitime decays. PMID:20649320
Modeling East African tropical glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doughty, Alice; Kelly, Meredith; Russell, James; Jackson, Margaret; Anderson, Brian; Nakileza, Robert
2016-04-01
The timing and magnitude of tropical glacier fluctuations since the last glacial maximum could elucidate how climatic signals transfer between hemispheres. We focus on ancient glaciers of the East African Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda/D.R. Congo, where efforts to map and date the moraines are on-going. We use a coupled mass balance - ice flow model to infer past climate by simulating glacier extents that match the mapped and dated LGM moraines. A range of possible temperature/precipitation change combinations (e.g. -15% precipitation and -7C temperature change) allow simulated glaciers to fit the LGM moraines dated to 20,140±610 and 23,370±470 years old.
Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.
1991-01-01
A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.
Design of toroidal transformers for maximum efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dayton, J. A., Jr.
1972-01-01
The design of the most efficient toroidal transformer that can be built given the frequency, volt-ampere rating, magnetic flux density, window fill factor, and materials is described. With the above all held constant and only the dimensions of the magnetic core varied, the most efficient design occurs when the copper losses equal 60 percent of the iron losses. When this criterion is followed, efficiency is only slightly dependent on design frequency and fill factor. The ratios of inside diameter to outside diameter and height to build of the magnetic core that result in transformers of maximum efficiency are computed.
Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.
Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas
2016-01-01
Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Efficient maximum entropy algorithms for electronic structure
Silver, R.N.; Roeder, H.; Voter, A.F.; Kress, J.D.
1996-04-01
Two Chebyshev recursion methods are presented for calculations with very large sparse Hamiltonians, the kernel polynomial method (KPM) and the maximum entropy method (MEM). If limited statistical accuracy and energy resolution are acceptable, they provide linear scaling methods for the calculation of physical properties involving large numbers of eigenstates such as densities of states, spectral functions, thermodynamics, total energies for Monte Carlo simulations and forces for molecular dynamics. KPM provides a uniform approximation to a DOS, with resolution inversely proportional to the number of Chebyshev moments, while MEM can achieve significantly higher, but non-uniform, resolution at the risk of possible artifacts. This paper emphasizes efficient algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Gang; Tang, Zheng; Dai, Hongwei
Through analyzing the dynamics characteristic of maximum neural network with an added vertex, we find that the solution quality is mainly determined by the added vertex weights. In order to increase maximum neural network ability, a stochastic nonlinear self-feedback and flexible annealing strategy are embedded in maximum neural network, which makes the network more powerful to escape local minima and be independent of the initial values. Simultaneously, we present that solving ability of maximum neural network is dependence on problem. We introduce a new parameter into our network to improve the solving ability. The simulation in k random graph and some DIMACS clique instances in the second DIMACS challenge shows that our improved network is superior to other algorithms in light of the solution quality and CPU time.
Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.
2013-10-01
Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought.
Possible dynamical explanations for Paltridge's principle of maximum entropy production
Virgo, Nathaniel Ikegami, Takashi
2014-12-05
Throughout the history of non-equilibrium thermodynamics a number of theories have been proposed in which complex, far from equilibrium flow systems are hypothesised to reach a steady state that maximises some quantity. Perhaps the most celebrated is Paltridge's principle of maximum entropy production for the horizontal heat flux in Earth's atmosphere, for which there is some empirical support. There have been a number of attempts to derive such a principle from maximum entropy considerations. However, we currently lack a more mechanistic explanation of how any particular system might self-organise into a state that maximises some quantity. This is in contrast to equilibrium thermodynamics, in which models such as the Ising model have been a great help in understanding the relationship between the predictions of MaxEnt and the dynamics of physical systems. In this paper we show that, unlike in the equilibrium case, Paltridge-type maximisation in non-equilibrium systems cannot be achieved by a simple dynamical feedback mechanism. Nevertheless, we propose several possible mechanisms by which maximisation could occur. Showing that these occur in any real system is a task for future work. The possibilities presented here may not be the only ones. We hope that by presenting them we can provoke further discussion about the possible dynamical mechanisms behind extremum principles for non-equilibrium systems, and their relationship to predictions obtained through MaxEnt.
Maximum longevities of Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata propagules
Drexler, J.Z.
2001-01-01
The longevity of viviparous mangrove seedlings (propagules) in seawater is a key factor determining their ability to survive dispersal both locally and across large expanses of ocean. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the maximum longevities of propagules from two common Pacific mangrove species: Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Propagules from each of these species were placed in outdoor tubs with continously flowing seawater. The condition of each propagule was monitored until it sank or started to rot. Propagules were then planted to determine viability. After planting, 50% of R. apiculata propagules and 21% of R. mucronata propagules were viable. For both species, mortality of propagules was strongly related to the length of the floating interval. Maximum longevities for R. mucronata and R. apiculata propagules were 150 (median = 70) and 89 days (median = 7), respectively. Rhizophora mucronata propagules appeared to be better equipped for long-distance dispersal, yet had low survivorship that would decrease overall dispersal opportunities. In comparison, R. apiculata propagules had higher survivorship yet shorter longevity and, thus, appeared to be better equipped for shorter distance dispersal.
Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes
Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.
2013-01-01
Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand “dune-building” species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481
Maximum likelihood decoding of Reed Solomon Codes
Sudan, M.
1996-12-31
We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points ((x{sub i}, y{sub i})){sup n}{sub i=1} from F x F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in at least t places (i.e., y{sub i} = f (x{sub i}) for at least t values of i), provided t = {Omega}({radical}nd). The running time is bounded by a polynomial in n. This immediately provides a maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for Reed Solomon Codes, which works in a setting with a larger number of errors than any previously known algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient (i.e., polynomial time bounded) algorithm which provides some maximum likelihood decoding for any efficient (i.e., constant or even polynomial rate) code.
States of Maximum Thermodynamic Efficiency In Daisyworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujol, T.
Daisyworld is the simplest example used to illustrate the implications of the Gaia hypothesis. The interaction between the environment and the biota follows from the assumption of using daisies with different colours (i.e., albedos) than that of the bare earth. Then, the amount of daisies may modify the energy absorbed by the planet. In the classical version of Daisyworld, turbulent fluxes adopt a diffusive approximation, which clearly constraints the range of values for the solar insolation from which biota may grow in the planet. Here we apply the maximum entropy principle (MEP) to Daisyworld. We conclude that the MEP sets the maximum range of values for the solar insolation with a non-zero amount of daisies. Outside this range, daisies cannot grow in the planet for any physically realistic heat flux. Inside this range, the distribution of daisies is set to agree with the MEP. The range of values for the solar insolation from which biota stabilises the climate is substantially enlarged in comparison with the classical version of Daisyworld.
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
Maximum efficiency of the electro-osmotic pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zuli; Miao, Jianying; Wang, Ning; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping
2011-06-01
Electro-osmotic effect in a porous medium arises from the electrically charged double layer at the fluid-solid interface, whereby an externally applied electric field can give rise to fluid flow. The electro-osmotic pump (EOP) is potentially useful for a variety of engineering and biorelated applications, but its generally low efficiency is a negative factor in this regard. A study to determine the optimal efficiency of the EOP and the condition(s) under which it can be realized is therefore of scientific interest and practical importance. We present the results of a theoretical and experimental study on the maximum efficiency optimization of the electrokinetic effect in artificially fabricated porous media with controlled pore diameters. It is shown that whereas the EOP efficiency increases with decreasing channel diameter, from 4.5 to 2.5 μm for samples fabricated on oxidized silicon wafers as expected for the interfacial nature of the electro-osmotic effect, the opposite trend was observed for samples with much smaller channel diameters fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide films, with the pore surface coated with silica. These results are in agreement with the theoretical prediction, based on the competition between interfacial area and the no-slip flow boundary condition, that an optimal efficiency of ˜1% is attained at a microchannel diameter that is five times the Debye length, with a zeta potential of ˜100 mV.
CMB maximum temperature asymmetry axis: Alignment with other cosmic asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariano, Antonio; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros
2013-02-01
We use a global pixel-based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP seven-year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) cosmic microwave background temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4°-15°) and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large-scale HEALPix resolutions: Nside=16(3.7°), Nside=8(7.3°) and Nside=4(14.7°). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (α dipole, dark energy dipole and dark flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 104 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on ΛCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduce the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed α dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5% (depending on the resolution chosen for the cosmic microwave background map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (dark energy dipole and dark flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.
Approximate maximum likelihood decoding of block codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenberger, H. J.
1979-01-01
Approximate maximum likelihood decoding algorithms, based upon selecting a small set of candidate code words with the aid of the estimated probability of error of each received symbol, can give performance close to optimum with a reasonable amount of computation. By combining the best features of various algorithms and taking care to perform each step as efficiently as possible, a decoding scheme was developed which can decode codes which have better performance than those presently in use and yet not require an unreasonable amount of computation. The discussion of the details and tradeoffs of presently known efficient optimum and near optimum decoding algorithms leads, naturally, to the one which embodies the best features of all of them.
Lead in soil: Recommended maximum permissible levels
Madhavan, S.; Rosenman, K.D.; Shehata, T.
1989-06-01
Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Lead-contaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. Based on available data on blood lead and lead in soil, an approach has been developed to suggest a permissible level of lead in soil, below which there will be reasonable certainty that adverse health effects will not occur. An acceptable level of 600 ppm of lead in soil suggested as a ''safe'' level would contribute no more than 5 micrograms/dl to total blood lead of children under 12 years of age. Maximum permissible levels of lead in soil have been recommended based on the dose-response relationship of lead in soil and blood lead in children.
Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, P. B.
1975-01-01
A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.
The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.
1992-01-01
Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.
The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speich, D. M.; Nelson, J. J.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.
1991-01-01
Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.
Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase
Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin
2012-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730
Diffusivity maximum in a reentrant nematic phase.
Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin
2012-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic-nematic-smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730
Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.
Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine
2016-05-01
Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257
The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.
1992-01-01
This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, John T.
2008-01-01
The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).
Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry
2014-05-01
Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the
An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Taehun
2010-01-01
In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…
Static Flow Characteristics of a Mass Flow Injecting Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattern, Duane; Paxson, Dan
1995-01-01
A sleeve valve is under development for ground-based forced response testing of air compression systems. This valve will be used to inject air and to impart momentum to the flow inside the first stage of a multi-stage compressor. The valve was designed to deliver a maximum mass flow of 0.22 lbm/s (0.1 kg/s) with a maximum valve throat area of 0.12 sq. in (80 sq. mm), a 100 psid (689 KPA) pressure difference across the valve and a 68 F, (20 C) air supply. It was assumed that the valve mass flow rate would be proportional to the valve orifice area. A static flow calibration revealed a nonlinear valve orifice area to mass flow relationship which limits the maximum flow rate that the valve can deliver. This nonlinearity was found to be caused by multiple choking points in the flow path. A simple model was used to explain this nonlinearity and the model was compared to the static flow calibration data. Only steady flow data is presented here. In this report, the static flow characteristics of a proportionally controlled sleeve valve are modelled and validated against experimental data.
Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegwarth, J. D.
1986-01-01
In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-01-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
Portable measurement of maximum mouth pressures.
Hamnegård, C H; Wragg, S; Kyroussis, D; Aquilina, R; Moxham, J; Green, M
1994-02-01
We have compared a small portable mouth pressure meter (MPM) to our laboratory standard (LS) pressure recording equipment in order to evaluate this new device. The mouth pressure meter measures and displays as a digital read-out peak pressure for inspiratory and expiratory efforts. It samples the signal at 16 Hz, and an integral microprocessor is programmed to determine and display the maximum pressure averaged over one second both during inspiratory and expiratory manoeuvres (PImax and PEmax, respectively). A fine bore catheter connecting the mouthpiece of the mouth pressure meter to a Validyne pressure transducer enabled simultaneous measurement of pressure, which was analysed by LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh Quadra 700 computer. We studied 13 normal subjects and 11 patients with respiratory disease. Each subject performed inspiratory and five expiratory efforts. The values displayed from the mouth pressure meter were manually recorded. The mouth pressure meter reliably and accurately measured peak pressure and maximal pressure both for inspiratory and expiratory efforts in normals and patients. The mean +/- SD difference when compared with the Validyne method was 0.19 +/- 0.12 and -0.04 +/- 0.12 kPa, for PImax and PEmax, respectively. This portable device should be useful to measure mouth pressures, not only in the routine lung function laboratory but also at the bedside and in the clinic. PMID:8162993
Preparing for the Upcoming Solar Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretkoff, Ernie
2009-07-01
As the next solar maximum approaches, society is increasingly reliant on satellite communications and navigation technologies, which are vulnerable to solar storms. To prepare for the upcoming peak in solar activity, expected in 2013, the U.S. National Space Weather Program Council organized the 2009 Space Weather Enterprise Forum, held 19-20 May in Washington, D. C. The conference, themed "Space Weather and Our Technological Society—Are We Ready for Solar Max?," attracted more than 225 participants, representing government agencies, industry, and academia. Presentations and panel discussion throughout the conference addressed issues including opportunities for coordinated collaboration among various agencies and with industry; the need for more effective outreach to stakeholders, policy makers, and the public; and ways to improve communication between scientists and space weather forecasters. Participants also agreed that it is important to plan for follow-up projects that will replace aging space weather satellites, such as the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), which provides continuous solar wind monitoring.
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Targeted maximum likelihood estimation in safety analysis
Lendle, Samuel D.; Fireman, Bruce; van der Laan, Mark J.
2013-01-01
Objectives To compare the performance of a targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) and a collaborative TMLE (CTMLE) to other estimators in a drug safety analysis, including a regression-based estimator, propensity score (PS)–based estimators, and an alternate doubly robust (DR) estimator in a real example and simulations. Study Design and Setting The real data set is a subset of observational data from Kaiser Permanente Northern California formatted for use in active drug safety surveillance. Both the real and simulated data sets include potential confounders, a treatment variable indicating use of one of two antidiabetic treatments and an outcome variable indicating occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Results In the real data example, there is no difference in AMI rates between treatments. In simulations, the double robustness property is demonstrated: DR estimators are consistent if either the initial outcome regression or PS estimator is consistent, whereas other estimators are inconsistent if the initial estimator is not consistent. In simulations with near-positivity violations, CTMLE performs well relative to other estimators by adaptively estimating the PS. Conclusion Each of the DR estimators was consistent, and TMLE and CTMLE had the smallest mean squared error in simulations. PMID:23849159
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS
Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M
2007-11-12
Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, David N., Jr.
1986-01-01
A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.
Laser Transmission Holograms Maximum Permissible Exposure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, Paula; Wilksch, P. A.
2010-05-01
The laser illumination of holograms for public display is governed by international standard IEC 60825-3, to which the Australian Standard AS/NZS 2211.3 conforms. These standards do not accommodate vital mitigating factors of hologram replay that impinge on the level of laser power i.e. angle of the replay reference beam, the divergence of the beam, the distance of the viewer from the holographic plate and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram plate itself. Such factors indicate that a more meaningful calculation of the radiation level would be obtained from direct measurement at the position of the viewer of the hologram. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of these factors in realistically determining the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for viewers of large format holograms. Materials and Methods: A comparison is made between measurements based on the power or energy that can pass through a fully open pupil for Class 3B and Class 4 lasers (1. medical copper bromide laser, 2. diode laser, and 3. argon continuous wave laser), and the actual power levels when the measurement is taken from the beholder's point of view. Discussion and conclusion: these results indicate a need to review current standards.
46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...
46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
Maximum Mouth Opening in Saudi Adolescents
Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Asiry, Moshabab A
2014-01-01
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maximum mouth opening (MMO) in a representative sample of the Saudi adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 1825 Saudi adolescents (1007 males and 818 females) aged 12-16 years were randomly selected. The subjects were asked to open their mouth maximally till no further opening was possible and then the distance from the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors to incisal edge of the mandibular incisors was recorded. All data were analyzed using SPSS program and simple descriptive statistics of MMO with regard to gender and age groups were reported. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to examine differences in mouth opening relative to gender and age groups. Results: The mean maximal mouth opening for males was 43.5 ± 4.23 mm (range 29-59 mm). The mean maximal mouth opening for females was 35.5 ± 4.4 mm (range 20-45 mm). There was a significant difference between the mouth opening of males and females in all the age group (P = 0.000). The mouth opening, regardless of gender, increases significantly with age from the age of 12 years to the age of 14 years (P = 0.000), then remained unchanged till the age of 16 years. Conclusion: The mouth opening of males is significantly higher than that of females in all the age group. There was a significant increase in MMO with age up to the age of 14 years regardless of gender. PMID:25628483
A maximum likelihood framework for protein design
Kleinman, Claudia L; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Bonnard, Cécile; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas
2006-01-01
Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces shaping protein sequences, and
Gauging the Nearness and Size of Cycle Maximum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.
2003-01-01
A simple method for monitoring the nearness and size of conventional cycle maximum for an ongoing sunspot cycle is examined. The method uses the observed maximum daily value and the maximum monthly mean value of international sunspot number and the maximum value of the 2-mo moving average of monthly mean sunspot number to effect the estimation. For cycle 23, a maximum daily value of 246, a maximum monthly mean of 170.1, and a maximum 2-mo moving average of 148.9 were each observed in July 2000. Taken together, these values strongly suggest that conventional maximum amplitude for cycle 23 would be approx. 124.5, occurring near July 2002 +/-5 mo, very close to the now well-established conventional maximum amplitude and occurrence date for cycle 23-120.8 in April 2000.
The Maximum Energy of Accelerated Particles in Relativistic Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Arons, Jonathan
2013-07-01
The afterglow emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually interpreted as synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated at the GRB external shock that propagates with relativistic velocities into the magnetized interstellar medium. By means of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the acceleration performance of weakly magnetized relativistic shocks, in the magnetization range 0 <~ σ <~ 10-1. The pre-shock magnetic field is orthogonal to the flow, as generically expected for relativistic shocks. We find that relativistic perpendicular shocks propagating in electron-positron plasmas are efficient particle accelerators if the magnetization is σ <~ 10-3. For electron-ion plasmas, the transition to efficient acceleration occurs for σ <~ 3 × 10-5. Here, the acceleration process proceeds similarly for the two species, since the electrons enter the shock nearly in equipartition with the ions, as a result of strong pre-heating in the self-generated upstream turbulence. In both electron-positron and electron-ion shocks, we find that the maximum energy of the accelerated particles scales in time as ɛmaxvpropt 1/2. This scaling is shallower than the so-called (and commonly assumed) Bohm limit ɛmaxvpropt, and it naturally results from the small-scale nature of the Weibel turbulence generated in the shock layer. In magnetized plasmas, the energy of the accelerated particles increases until it reaches a saturation value ɛsat/γ0 mic 2 ~ σ-1/4, where γ0 mic 2 is the mean energy per particle in the upstream bulk flow. Further energization is prevented by the fact that the self-generated turbulence is confined within a finite region of thickness vpropσ-1/2 around the shock. Our results can provide physically grounded inputs for models of non-thermal emission from a variety of astrophysical sources, with particular relevance to GRB afterglows.
Characteristics of Solar Meridional Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Sarbani; Antia, H. M.
2011-01-01
We have done a ring-diagram analysis of MDI full-disc data to determine the properties of solar meridional flow in the outer 2% of the Sun over the solar cycle 23. The meridional flows show a migrating pattern with higher-velocity flows migrating toward the equator as activity increases. Additionally, we find that the migrating pattern of the meridional flow matches those of the sunspot butterfly diagram and the zonal flows in the shallow layers. A Legendre polynomial decomposition of the meridional flows shows that the latitudinal pattern of the flow was also different during the maximum as compared to that during the two minima. We also find that the dominant component of the meridional flows during solar maxima was much lower than that during the minima of solar cycles 23 and 24.
NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrzynski, L.
2008-10-01
The Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods are now standard routines in various data analyses, irrespective of ones own preference to the more conventional approach based on so-called frequentists understanding of the notion of the probability. It is not the purpose of the Editor to show all achievements of these methods in various branches of science, technology and medicine. In the case of condensed matter physics most of the oldest examples of Bayesian analysis can be found in the excellent tutorial textbooks by Sivia and Skilling [1], and Bretthorst [2], while the application of the Maximum Entropy Methods were described in `Maximum Entropy in Action' [3]. On the list of questions addressed one finds such problems as deconvolution and reconstruction of the complicated spectra, e.g. counting the number of lines hidden within the spectrum observed with always finite resolution, reconstruction of charge, spin and momentum density distribution from an incomplete sets of data, etc. On the theoretical side one might find problems like estimation of interatomic potentials [4], application of the MEM to quantum Monte Carlo data [5], Bayesian approach to inverse quantum statistics [6], very general to statistical mechanics [7] etc. Obviously, in spite of the power of the Bayesian and Maximum Entropy Methods, it is not possible for everything to be solved in a unique way by application of these particular methods of analysis, and one of the problems which is often raised is connected not only with a uniqueness of a reconstruction of a given distribution (map) but also with its accuracy (error maps). In this `Comments' section we present a few papers showing more recent advances and views, and highlighting some of the aforementioned problems. References [1] Sivia D S and Skilling J 2006 Data Analysis: A Bayesian Tutorial 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Bretthorst G L 1988 Bayesian Spectruim Analysis and Parameter Estimation (Berlin: Springer) [3] Buck B and
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
Solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model.
Xiao, Dongmei; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Zhizhou; He, Lin
2005-12-01
In this paper, we consider a procedure for solving maximum cut problems in the Adleman-Lipton model. The procedure works in O(n2) steps for maximum cut problems of an undirected graph with n vertices. PMID:16236426
33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... difference between its maximum displacement and boat weight. (b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) “Maximum displacement” is the weight of the volume of water displaced by the boat at...
31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...
30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 56.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 56.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
30 CFR 57.19062 - Maximum acceleration and deceleration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum acceleration and deceleration. 57.19062... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19062 Maximum acceleration and deceleration. Maximum normal operating acceleration and deceleration shall not exceed 6 feet per second per second. During emergency braking,...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets. 230.27 Section 230.27 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing...
14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...
33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is designed or intended...
14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum allowable weights. 375.23 Section... Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...
33 CFR 183.35 - Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum weight capacity: Outboard... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading § 183.35 Maximum weight capacity: Outboard boats. (a) The maximum weight capacity marked on a boat that is designed or intended...
49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...
49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...
49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...
49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...
49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dead section; maximum length. 236.55 Section 236... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.55 Dead section; maximum length. Where dead section exceeds 35... over such dead section is less than 35 feet, the maximum length of the dead section shall not...
49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....
49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....
49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....
Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebben, William P.
2001-01-01
Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…
49 CFR 230.27 - Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.27 Maximum shearing strength of rivets. The maximum shearing strength... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum shearing strength of rivets....
40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity....
40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13 Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity....
40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary maximum contaminant levels. 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant...
43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...
43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...
43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...
43 CFR 3594.1 - Ultimate maximum recovery.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ultimate maximum recovery. 3594.1 Section...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Mining Methods § 3594.1 Ultimate maximum recovery. (a) Mining operations shall be conducted in a manner to yield the ultimate maximum recovery of the mineral...
31 CFR 149.3 - Maximum obligation limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 149.3 Section 149.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM OBLIGATION LIMITATION § 149.3 Maximum obligation...
5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual maximum earnings limitation. (a)(1) For any pay period...
5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. (a) Except as provided...
7 CFR 4290.840 - Maximum term of Financing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any Debt Security must be no longer than 20... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 4290.840 Section...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wit, J.; And Others
1993-01-01
Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sellers, W. L., III; Dunham, R. E., Jr.; Goodman, W. L.; Howard, F. G.; Margason, R. J.; Rudy, D. H.; Rumsey, C. L.; Stough, H. P., III; Thomas, J. L.
1986-01-01
A brief overview of flow separation phenomena is provided. Langley has many active research programs in flow separation related areas. Three cases are presented which describe specific examples of flow separation research. In each example, a description of the fundamental fluid physics and the complexity of the flow field is presented along with a method of either reducing or controlling the extent of separation. The following examples are discussed: flow over a smooth surface with an adverse pressure gradient; flow over a surface with a geometric discontinuity; and flow with shock-boundary layer interactions. These results will show that improvements are being made in the understanding of flow separation and its control.
Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.
Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla
2014-01-01
Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number. PMID:25225935
The effect of maximum open height on operating characteristics of polymer injected pump poppet valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S. C.; Chen, X. D.; Deng, H. Y.
2012-11-01
Reciprocating polymer injected pump is the key injection equipment of tertiary oil recovery, the poppet valve in it exists the problem of large vibration noise, low efficiency and short life when transportation high viscosity medium. So the CFD technique is adopted to simulate and analyze the inner flow fields of fluid end poppet valve. According to the practical structure of the poppet valve, a simplified 2D axis-symmetry geometry model of the flow field is established. Combined with pump speed, plunger stroke and plunger diameter, given the boundary condition of the inlet valve, then the numerical simulation of flow field under six different maximum open heights is done depending on software Fluent. The relationship between open height to valve gap flow velocity, hydraulic loss and lag angle is obtained. The results indicate that, with the increase of open height, the valve gap flow velocity decreases, inlet outlet pressure differential decreases and hydraulic loss decreases. But the lag angle is continuously increasing with the increase of maximum open height, the valve has a good work performance when the open height is 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mm, but when it reaches 3.5mm, the valve performance becomes poor. The study can offer certain reference to understand operating characteristics of poppet valve, help to reduce the hydraulic losses and raise volume efficiency of the pump.
Hazoglou, Michael J; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D; Dill, Ken A
2015-08-01
There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example. PMID:26254635
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazoglou, Michael J.; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D.; Dill, Ken A.
2015-08-01
There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example.
Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonacci, Ognjen
2001-07-01
Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1
Storm-surge prediction at the Tanshui estuary: development model for maximum storm surges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C.-P.; You, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-Y.
2013-12-01
This study applies artificial networks, including both the supervised multilayer perception neural network and the radial basis function neural network to the prediction of storm-surges at the Tanshui estuary in Taiwan. The optimum parameters for the prediction of the maximum storm-surges based on 22 previous sets of data are discussed. Two different neural network methods are adopted to build models for the prediction of storm surges and the importance of each factor is also discussed. The factors relevant to the maximum storm surges, including the pressure difference, maximum wind speed and wind direction at the Tanshui Estuary and the flow rate at the upstream station, are all investigated. These good results can further be applied to build a neural network model for prediction of storm surges with time series data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Titze, Ingo R.
2002-01-01
Two competing views of regulating glottal airflow for maximum vocal output are investigated theoretically. The maximum power transfer theorem is used as a guide. A wide epilarynx tube (laryngeal vestibule) matches well with low glottal resistance (believed to correspond to the ``yawn-sigh'' approach in voice therapy), whereas a narrow epilarynx tube matches well with a higher glottal resistance (believed to correspond to the ``twang-belt'' approach). A simulation model is used to calculate mean flows, peak flows, and oral radiated pressure for an impedance ratio between the vocal tract (the load) and the glottis (the source). Results show that when the impedance ratio approaches 1.0, maximum power is transferred and radiated from the mouth. A full update of the equations used for simulating driving pressures, glottal flow, and vocal tract input pressures is provided as a programming guide for those interested in model development.
Titze, Ingo R
2002-01-01
Two competing views of regulating glottal airflow for maximum vocal output are investigated theoretically. The maximum power transfer theorem is used as a guide. A wide epilarynx tube (laryngeal vestibule) matches well with low glottal resistance (believed to correspond to the "yawn-sigh" approach in voice therapy), whereas a narrow epilarynx tube matches well with a higher glottal resistance (believed to correspond to the "twang-belt" approach). A simulation model is used to calculate mean flows, peak flows, and oral radiated pressure for an impedance ratio between the vocal tract (the load) and the glottis (the source). Results show that when the impedance ratio approaches 1.0, maximum power is transferred and radiated from the mouth. A full update of the equations used for simulating driving pressures, glottal flow, and vocal tract input pressures is provided as a programming guide for those interested in model development. PMID:11831809
Testing the Mass Balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet During the Last Glacial Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullman, D. J.; Carlson, A. E.; Legrande, A. N.; Anslow, F. S.; Licciardi, J. M.; Caffee, M. W.
2010-12-01
Recent findings have suggested that the global Last Glacial Maximum occurred 26.5-20 ka. During this time, ice sheets were at their maximum extent and eustatic sea level was nearly 130 m lower than present. Such stability of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets suggests a nearly neutral net mass balance. Here we test the mass balance of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum using an energy-mass balance model and two different ice sheet configurations. The energy-mass balance model is forced by simulated climate from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E-R, consistent with Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model contains water isotope tracers throughout the hydrologic cycle, which are used to constrain model skill against water isotopic records. Two model experiments are performed with different Laurentide Ice Sheet configurations: one using the ICE-5G geophysical reconstruction and the other using an alternative reconstruction based on a flow-line model that simulates glacier dynamics over deformable and rigid beds. These two reconstructions have widely contrasting ice sheet geometries at the Last Glacial Maximum, with the ICE-5G reconstruction having a much larger Keewatin Dome over west-central Canada, while the largest mass center according to the flow-line model is in the Labrador Dome over eastern Canada. This disparity in ice sheet geometry may result in large differences in simulated climate and net ice sheet mass balance. Initial results suggest that 1) the ICE-5G ice sheet forces a Last Glacial Maximum climate in conflict with paleoceanographic reconstructions of ocean circulation, whereas the flow-line ice sheet is in better agreement with circulation reconstructions; and 2) the initial increase in boreal summer insolation could trigger a negative mass balance for the Laurentide Ice Sheet by 21 ka, driving ice retreat. We will also compare our mass balance results with existing
An estimate of the maximum speed of the solar wind, 1938-1989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cliver, E. W.; Feynman, J.; Garrett, H. B.
1990-01-01
In an effort to estimate the highest flow velocity that the solar wind has exhibited at earth during the past 50 years, geomagnetic storms that occurred from 1938 to 1989 were surveyed, and the storms that were preceded by a major proton flare were selected. For each identified flare-storm pair, the average speed ('transit speed') of the associated interplanetary shock from the interval between the flare onset and the sudden commencement of the geomagnetic storm was calculated. In each case, the maximum solar wind flow speed was inferred from an empirical relationship (derived for a sample of recent events) between the shock transit speed and the peak flow velocity of the associated transient stream, obtaining a distribution of maximum solar wind speeds, which presumably corresponds to a sample of the most energetic events of this 50-yr period. Results show no evidence for bulk flow velocities greater than the about 2000 km/sec value deduced by Zastenker et al. (1978) and Grunwaldt (1975) for the August 4, 1972 event.
Maximum range three-dimensional lifting planetary entry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickmanns, E. D.
1972-01-01
Variational equations for maximum range three-dimensional quasisteady glide are given. Nonlinear oscillatory maximum range trajectories obtained with a refined gradient program are approximated by a superposition of quasisteady glide and linearized perturbation equation results. A basic control law is found which is closely followed for maximum cross-range trajectories. The effect of a reradiative heating constraint involving velocity, altitude and angle of attack on a maximum cross-range trajectory for a space shuttle orbiter-type vehicle reentering the earth's atmosphere is investigated numerically.
40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...
40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...
40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...
40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106... water pollution control program. (b) The Regional Administrator may increase the maximum federal...
40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of 2 percent of the engine maximum fuel flow rate. The...
40 CFR 89.415 - Fuel flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.415 Fuel flow measurement specifications. The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of 2 percent of the engine maximum fuel flow rate. The...
42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...
42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...
42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.54 Maximum allowable and nominal..., any co-payments it imposes under a fee-for-service delivery system do not exceed the amounts shown in the following table: State payment for the service Maximum copayment $10 or less $0.60 $10.01 to $25...
10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...
10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...
10 CFR 429.120 - Maximum civil penalty.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum civil penalty. 429.120 Section 429.120 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 429.120 Maximum civil penalty. Any person who...
33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...
33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.3 Maximum vessel dimensions..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of...
46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...
46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a) Tanks carrying liquids or liquefied gases at...
40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...
40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
.... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...
40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...
40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
.... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant levels. The secondary maximum contaminant levels for public water systems are as follows:...
A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Correlational Outlier Identification.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Donald R.
1995-01-01
A maximum likelihood approach to correlational outlier identification is introduced and compared to the Mahalanobis D squared and Comrey D statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. Identification performance depends on the nature of correlational outliers and the measure used, but the maximum likelihood approach is the most robust performance…
22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum prices for commodities. 201.63 Section... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.63 Maximum prices for commodities. (a) U.S. prevailing market price—U.S. source. The purchase price for a commodity, the source of which is the...
29 CFR 4022.23 - Computation of maximum guaranteeable benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... in any manner other than as a monthly benefit payable for life commencing at age 65, the maximum... of a step-down life annuity, the maximum guaranteeable monthly amount of such benefit shall be... 120 month period. (d) Factor for benefit payable in a form other than as a life annuity. When...
46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...
46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...
46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at...
46 CFR 151.03-37 - Maximum allowable working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable working pressure. 151.03-37 Section... working pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure shall be as defined in section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code....
Relevance Data for Language Models Using Maximum Likelihood.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodoff, David; Wu, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael
2003-01-01
Presents a preliminary empirical test of a maximum likelihood approach to using relevance data for training information retrieval parameters. Discusses similarities to language models; the unification of document-oriented and query-oriented views; tests on data sets; algorithms and scalability; and the effectiveness of maximum likelihood…
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....
30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...
30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...
30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...
30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...
40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...
40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...
40 CFR 35.635 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.635 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide up... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.635 Section 35.635 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...
Walking after Stroke: Comfortable versus Maximum Safe Speed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohannon, Richard W.
1992-01-01
This study attempted to (1) determine whether stroke patients (n=20) can safely increase their walking speed above that of comfortable walking; (2) describe the relationship between comfortable and maximum safe walking speed; and (3) examine correlations between maximum and comfortable speeds and a functional walking score. Subjects were able to…
33 CFR 401.4 - Maximum length and weight.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum length and weight. 401.4... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.4 Maximum length and weight. No vessel of less than 6 m in overall length or 900 kg in weight shall transit through Seaway Locks....
33 CFR 401.4 - Maximum length and weight.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum length and weight. 401.4... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.4 Maximum length and weight. No vessel of less than 6 m in overall length or 900 kg in weight shall transit through Seaway Locks....
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings....
36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum number of permittees. 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees....
36 CFR 20.3 - Maximum number of permittees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum number of permittees. 20.3 Section 20.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK; COMMERCIAL FISHING § 20.3 Maximum number of permittees....
10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.20 Maximum... shall not be obligated to make any additional, supplemental, continuation, renewal, or other award...
12 CFR 380.10 - Maximum obligation limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum obligation limitation. 380.10 Section 380.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ORDERLY LIQUIDATION AUTHORITY General and Miscellaneous Provisions § 380.10 Maximum obligation limitation. (a) General rule. The FDIC shall...
Renewing Solar Science. The Solar Maximum Repair Mission.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neal, Valerie
This publication describes the Solar Maximum Repair Mission for restoring the operational capability of the solar observatory in space by using the Space Shuttle. Major sections include: (1) "The Solar Maximum Mission" (describing the duties of the mission); (2) "Studying Solar Flares" (summarizing the major scientific accomplishments of the…
5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...
5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...
5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...
5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...
5 CFR 591.103 - Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate. 591.103 Section 591.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. Unless a higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate is payable under § 591.104 to an...
14 CFR § 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount. Â§ 1261.102 Section Â§ 1261.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to...
10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...
10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...
10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...
10 CFR 600.20 - Maximum DOE obligation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum DOE obligation. 600.20 Section 600.20 Energy... DOE obligation. (a) The maximum DOE obligation to the recipient is— (1) For monetary awards, the amount shown in the award as the amount of DOE funds obligated, and (2) Any designated property. (b)...
40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2205 Maximum allowable project cost. (a) Grants awarded on...
47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...
47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...
47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum transmitter power. 95.639 Section 95.639 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.639 Maximum transmitter power. (a) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition...
22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...
22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...
22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...
22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...
22 CFR 192.44 - Maximum limitation on benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum limitation on benefits. 192.44 Section 192.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Educational Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.44 Maximum limitation on benefits. (a) In no event...
40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and...
40 CFR 141.65 - Maximum residual disinfectant levels.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant levels. 141.65 Section 141.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and...
20 CFR 615.7 - Extended Benefits; maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extended Benefits; maximum amount. 615.7 Section 615.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EXTENDED BENEFITS IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.7 Extended Benefits; maximum...
32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...
76 FR 72645 - Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-11-25
... 149 RIN 1505-AC36 Calculation of Maximum Obligation Limitation AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance... the Dodd-Frank Act, the proposed rules govern the calculation of the maximum obligation limitation... Council (``FSOC''), to jointly prescribe regulations governing the calculation of the MOL. In...
14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...
14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...
14 CFR 375.23 - Maximum allowable weights.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.23 Maximum allowable weights. Foreign civil aircraft that are permitted to navigate in the... maximum certificated weights prescribed or authorized for the particular variation of the aircraft...
Maximum Duration of Sustained /s/ and /z/ in Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tait, Nancy Adkins; And Others
1980-01-01
In light of the proposal that a ratio of the maximum duration of sustained /s/ to /z/ sounds may be useful in determining the possible contributions of the respiratory and vocal mechanisms to a disordered voice, a study of /s/ and /z/ maximum phoneme duration in normal five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds was conducted. (Author/DLS)
40 CFR 35.195 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.195 Section 35.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Underground Water Source Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.195 Maximum federal share....
40 CFR 35.685 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.685 Section 35.685 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Underground Water Source Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.685 Maximum...
40 CFR 35.585 - Maximum federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.585 Section 35.585 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Pollution Control (sections 106 and 518) § 35.585 Maximum federal share....
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...
30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...
30 CFR 56.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 56.19061 Section 56... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons should not be hoisted at a...
30 CFR 57.19061 - Maximum hoisting speeds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum hoisting speeds. 57.19061 Section 57... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19061 Maximum hoisting speeds. The safe speed for hoisting persons shall be determined for each shaft, and this speed shall not be exceeded. Persons shall not be hoisted at...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.
2000-01-01
A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.
2016-01-01
The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064
Jiang, Yulin; Li, Bin; Chen, Jie
2016-01-01
The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values. PMID:26986064
Maximum Caliber: a variational approach applied to two-state dynamics.
Stock, Gerhard; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A
2008-05-21
We show how to apply a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called Maximum Caliber, originally suggested by E. T. Jaynes [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)], to a problem of two-state dynamics. Maximum Caliber is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that Maximum Entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The central idea is to compute a dynamical partition function, a sum of weights over all microscopic paths, rather than over microstates. We illustrate the method on the simple problem of two-state dynamics, A<-->B, first for a single particle, then for M particles. Maximum Caliber gives a unified framework for deriving all the relevant dynamical properties, including the microtrajectories and all the moments of the time-dependent probability density. While it can readily be used to derive the traditional master equation and the Langevin results, it goes beyond them in also giving trajectory information. For example, we derive the Langevin noise distribution rather than assuming it. As a general approach to solving nonequilibrium statistical mechanics dynamical problems, Maximum Caliber has some advantages: (1) It is partition-function-based, so we can draw insights from similarities to equilibrium statistical mechanics. (2) It is trajectory-based, so it gives more dynamical information than population-based approaches like master equations; this is particularly important for few-particle and single-molecule systems. (3) It gives an unambiguous way to relate flows to forces, which has traditionally posed challenges. (4) Like Maximum Entropy, it may be useful for data analysis, specifically for time-dependent phenomena. PMID:18500851
Maximum Caliber: A variational approach applied to two-state dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, Gerhard; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Dill, Ken A.
2008-05-01
We show how to apply a general theoretical approach to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, called Maximum Caliber, originally suggested by E. T. Jaynes [Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31, 579 (1980)], to a problem of two-state dynamics. Maximum Caliber is a variational principle for dynamics in the same spirit that Maximum Entropy is a variational principle for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The central idea is to compute a dynamical partition function, a sum of weights over all microscopic paths, rather than over microstates. We illustrate the method on the simple problem of two-state dynamics, A ↔B, first for a single particle, then for M particles. Maximum Caliber gives a unified framework for deriving all the relevant dynamical properties, including the microtrajectories and all the moments of the time-dependent probability density. While it can readily be used to derive the traditional master equation and the Langevin results, it goes beyond them in also giving trajectory information. For example, we derive the Langevin noise distribution rather than assuming it. As a general approach to solving nonequilibrium statistical mechanics dynamical problems, Maximum Caliber has some advantages: (1) It is partition-function-based, so we can draw insights from similarities to equilibrium statistical mechanics. (2) It is trajectory-based, so it gives more dynamical information than population-based approaches like master equations; this is particularly important for few-particle and single-molecule systems. (3) It gives an unambiguous way to relate flows to forces, which has traditionally posed challenges. (4) Like Maximum Entropy, it may be useful for data analysis, specifically for time-dependent phenomena.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.
2008-01-01
Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize
Elasto-Inertial Turbulence: From Subcritical Turbulence to Maximum Drag Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubief, Yves; Sid, Samir; Egan, Raphael; Terrapon, Vincent
2015-11-01
Elasto Inertial Turbulence (EIT) is a turbulence state found so far in polymer solutions. Upon the appropriate initial perturbation, an autonomous regeneration cycle emerges between polymer dynamics, pressure and velocity fluctuations. This cycle is best explained by the Poisson equation derived from viscoelastic flow models such as FENE-P (used in this study). This presentation provides an overview of the structure of EIT in 2D channel flows for Reynolds numbers ranging from Reτ = 10 to 100 and for 3D simulations up to Ret au = 300 . For flows below the Newtonian critical Reynolds number, EIT increases the drag. For higher Reynolds numbers, EIT is surmised to be the energetic bound of Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR), the asymptotic state of drag reduction in polymer solutions. The very existence of EIT at low Reynolds numbers (Reτ < 60) highlights a backward energy transfer from the small scale polymer dynamics to larger flow scales. Similar dynamics is identified at higher Reynolds numbers, which could explain why polymer flows never become fully laminar. The authors acknowledge computational resources from CÉCI (F.R.S.-FNRS grant No.2.5020.11), the PRACE infrastructure, and the Vermont Advanced Computing Core.
Postflight evaluation of the solar maximum spacecraft magnetometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunham, W. D.
1985-01-01
The Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was launched February 14, 1980 from Cape Kennedy. Attached to one side of the spacecraft was the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS). Two Schonstedt magnetometers were located within the MACS module. Although primarily used as a backup attitude determination system during the Solar Maximum Repair Mission, the magnetometers were instrumental in stabilizing the spacecraft. In October of 1984 the Solar Maximum magnetometers were returned to Schonstedt Instrument Company for postflight analysis, where they were subjected to the same electrical performance tests performed prior to use. In both instances the magnetometer performance was exceptional. Postflight test data nearly duplicated preflight test data.
Approximation algorithms for maximum two-dimensional pattern matching
Arikati, S.R.; Dessmark, A.; Lingas, A.; Marathe, M.
1996-07-01
We introduce the following optimization version of the classical pattern matching problem (referred to as the maximum pattern matching problem). Given a two-dimensional rectangular text and a 2- dimensional rectangular pattern find the maximum number of non- overlapping occurrences of the pattern in the text. Unlike the classical 2-dimensional pattern matching problem, the maximum pattern matching problem is NP - complete. We devise polynomial time approximation algorithms and approximation schemes for this problem. We also briefly discuss how the approximation algorithms can be extended to include a number of other variants of the problem.
Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements
Mookerjee, Shona A.; Nicholls, David G.; Brand, Martin D.
2016-01-01
Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way. PMID:27031845
Analyzing Flows In Rocket Nuclear Reactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, J. S.; Walton, J. T.; Mcguire, M.
1994-01-01
CAC is analytical prediction program to study heat-transfer and fluid-flow characteristics of circular coolant passage. Predicts, as function of time, axial and radial fluid conditions, temperatures of passage walls, rates of flow in each coolant passage, and approximate maximum material temperatures. Written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77.
Peterson, G.P.; Ma, H.B.
1995-12-31
A mathematical model for predicting the minimum meniscus radius and the maximum heat transport in micro heat pipes is presented. In this model, a theoretical minimum meniscus radius was found and used to calculate the capillary heat transport limit based on the physical characteristics and geometry. A control volume technique was employed to determine the flow characteristics of wickless micro heat pipes, and incorporate the effects of the frictional vapor-liquid interaction on the liquid flow. Unlike previous models, this model for the first time considers the true characteristics of micro heat pipes to determine the minimum meniscus radius and the maximum heat transport capacity. In order to compare the heat transport and flow characteristics, an effective hydraulic diameter was defined and the resulting model was solved numerically. The results indicate that the heat transport capacity of micro heat pipes is strongly dependent on the apex channel angle of the liquid arteries, the contact angle of the liquid flow, the length of the heat pipe, the vapor flow velocity and characteristics, and the tilt angle. In addition, the analysis presented here provides a mechanism, which for a given set of conditions, allows the geometry to be optimized and a micro heat pipe designed with a maximum heat transport capacity. This investigation will help optimize the design of micro heat pipes, making them capable of operating at increased power levels with greater reliability.
The Location of the Maximum Temperature on the Cutting Edges of a Drill
Bono, M J; Ni, J
2005-01-07
This study analyzes the temperature profile along the cutting edges of a drill and describes how the temperature on the chisel edge can exceed the temperature on the primary cutting edges. A finite element model predicts the temperature distribution in the drill, where the heat flux loads applied to the finite element model are determined from analytical equations. The model for the heat flux loads considers both the heat generated on the shear plane and the heat generated on the rake face of the tool to determine the amount of heat flowing into the tool on each segment of the cutting edges. Contrary to the conventional belief that the maximum temperature occurs near the outer corner of the drill, the model predicts that the maximum temperature occurs on the chisel edge, which is consistent with experimental measurements of the temperature profile.
7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.63 Maximum loan... most appropriately reflects the value of modest housing for the area: (i) The cost of the structure...
7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.63 Maximum loan... most appropriately reflects the value of modest housing for the area: (i) The cost of the structure...
24 CFR 232.903 - Maximum mortgage limitations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... limitations. Notwithstanding the maximum mortgage limitations set forth in 24 CFR 200.15, a mortgage...
24 CFR 232.903 - Maximum mortgage limitations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... limitations. Notwithstanding the maximum mortgage limitations set forth in 24 CFR 200.15, a mortgage...
A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.
2016-08-01
In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.
Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dolgener, Forrest A.
1978-01-01
The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)
Low-complexity approximations to maximum likelihood MPSK modulation classification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamkins, Jon
2004-01-01
We present a new approximation to the maximum likelihood classifier to discriminate between M-ary and M'-ary phase-shift-keying transmitted on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and received noncoherentl, partially coherently, or coherently.
TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL) PROJECTS: JUNE 2004 - SEPT. 2005
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) activities include a field investigation and a subsequent field investigation report with data generated from the field study. The data is used to establish pollutant discharge limits for various categories of pollutants (nutrients, toxics, sedime...
Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir
2014-06-01
Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.
50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs...) Mackerel—that quantity of mackerel that is less than or equal to the allowable biological catch (ABC) in...
40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...
40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...
40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...
40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...
40 CFR 35.9060 - Maximum Federal share.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9060 Maximum... development of a comprehensive conservation and management plan for the estuary as specified in the...
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint
Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.
2012-07-01
This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
Power consumption and maximum energy dissipation in a milliliter-scale bioreactor.
Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk
2010-01-01
Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions of a milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 12 mL) with a gas-inducing impeller. A standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 1,200 mL) with Rushton turbines was used as reference. The measured power characteristics (Newton number as function of Reynolds number) were the same on both scales. The changeover between laminar and turbulent flow regime was observed at a Reynolds number of 3,000 with the gas-inducing stirrer on a milliliter-scale. The Newton number (power number) in the turbulent flow regime was 3.3 on a milliliter-scale, which is close to values reported for six-blade Rushton turbines of standard bioreactors. Maximum local energy dissipation (epsilon(max)) was measured using a clay/polymer flocculation system. The maximum local energy dissipation in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared with the laboratory-scale stirred tank at the same mean power input per unit mass (epsilon(ø)), yielding epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) approximately 10 compared with epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) approximately 16. Hence, the milliliter-scale stirred tank reactor distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. These results are in good agreement with literature data, where a decreasing epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) with increasing ratio of impeller diameter to reactor diameter is found (d/D = 0.7 compared with d/D = 0.4). Based on these data, impeller speeds can now be easily adjusted to achieve the same maximum local energy dissipation at different scales. This enables a more reliable and robust scale-up of bioprocesses from milliliter-scale to liter-scale reactors. PMID:19941326
Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)
Choi, A.S.
1995-12-31
This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.
Kirchhoff's loop law and the maximum entropy production principle.
Zupanović, Pasko; Juretić, Davor; Botrić, Srećko
2004-11-01
In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature, that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production. PMID:15600693
The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions
Martyushev, Leonid M.
2010-01-01
The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to ‘prove’ the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today. PMID:20368251
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, Leonard M.
Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, Leonard M.
1991-01-01
Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.
Morozov, Victor
2011-01-18
A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.
Flow rate limitation in open capillary channel flows.
Haake, Dennis; Rosendahl, Uwe; Ohlhoff, Antje; Dreyer, Michael E
2006-09-01
This paper reports the experimental and theoretical investigations of forced liquid flows through open capillary channels under reduced gravity conditions. An open capillary channel is a structure that establishes a liquid flow path at low Bond numbers, when the capillary pressure caused by the surface tension force dominates in comparison to the hydrostatic pressure induced by gravitational or residual accelerations. In case of steady flow through the channel, the capillary pressure of the free surface balances the pressure difference between the liquid and the surrounding constant-pressure gas phase. Because of convective and viscous momentum transport, the pressure along the flow path decreases and causes the free surface to bend inward. The maximum flow rate is achieved when the free surface collapses and gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. This critical flow rate depends on the geometry of the channel and the properties of the liquid. In this paper we present a comparison of the theoretical and experimental critical flow rates and surface profiles for convective dominated flows. For the prediction of the critical flow rate a one-dimensional theoretical model taking into account the entrance pressure loss and the frictional pressure loss in the channel is developed. PMID:17124140
Timing and significance of maximum and minimum equatorial insolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi
2008-01-01
Variations in summer insolation at high northern latitudes on a timescale of 100 ka are very small. Thus a common belief is that the pronounced ~100 ka glacial cycles are not directly linked to the very weak 100 ka insolation periodicity. Here we show, analytically and numerically, that the annual maximum (and minimum) of daily equatorial insolation has pronounced eccentricity periodicities, with timescales of ~400 ka and ~100 ka, as well as a pronounced half-precession periodicity with timescale of ~11 ka. The timing of the maximum (and minimum) annual equatorial insolation may change around the equinoxes (solstices), alternating between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes (summer and winter solstices) where the time of the maximum (minimum) equatorial insolation may occur up to more than 1 month from the equinoxes (solstices). We also show that when considering the mean insolation of periods larger than 1 d, the ~11 ka periodicity becomes less dominant, and it vanishes when the averaging period is half a year; for the later case the maximum (minimum) may occur for any day in the annual cycle. The maximum equatorial insolation may alter the timing and amplitude of the maximum surface temperature of the summer hemisphere and in this way may drastically affect the Hadley circulation. Changes in Hadley circulation affect the heat and moisture transport from low to high latitudes, affecting the buildup of the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.
Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region
Huang, Yin-Nan; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Luco, Nicolas
2008-01-01
The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed.
Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region
Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.
2008-01-01
The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matveyev, S. N.
1986-01-01
Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.
Flow in journalistic telework.
Manssour, Ana Beatriz Benites
2003-02-01
Since the 1980s, the strengthening and dissemination of telework has motivated studies to verify its advantages and disadvantages to enterprises and workers, specially focusing on economy, quality, and productivity performances. This paper developed from a master's thesis research which analyzed the subjective impact of telework concerning workers' personal satisfaction, their perception about suffering and pleasure when developing their work activities and social interrelationships, and, particularly, the influence it could have in their maximum experiences, the flow. Considering that the press media represents a historical telework, it was chosen as the research focus, selecting columnists from a large newspaper, located in the Brazilian south region. PMID:12650561
Theoretical study of the seasonal behavior of the global ionosphere at solar maximum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.
1989-01-01
The seasonal behavior of the global ionosphere was studied using a time-dependent three-dimensional physical model (developed by Shunk and his coworkers) of the ionosphere at altitudes between 120 and 800 km. This model accounts for field-aligned diffusion, cross-field electrodynamic drifts both the equatorial region and at high latitudes, interhemispheric flow, thermospheric winds, polar wind escape, energy-dependent chemical reactions, neutral composition changes, ion production due to solar EUV radiation and auroral precipitation, thermal conduction, diffusion-thermal heat flow, and local heating and cooling processes. The model studies were carried out for both June and December solstice conditions at solar maximum and for low geomagnetic activity. The ionospheric features predicted by the model agreed qualitatively with the available measurements.
The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the last glacial maximum
Bush; Philander
1998-02-27
A simulation with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model configured for the Last Glacial Maximum delivered a tropical climate that is much cooler than that produced by atmosphere-only models. The main reason is a decrease in tropical sea surface temperatures, up to 6 degrees C in the western tropical Pacific, which occurs because of two processes. The trade winds induce equatorial upwelling and zonal advection of cold water that further intensify the trade winds, and an exchange of water occurs between the tropical and extratropical Pacific in which the poleward surface flow is balanced by equatorward flow of cold water in the thermocline. Simulated tropical temperature depressions are of the same magnitude as those that have been proposed from recent proxy data. PMID:9478892
Flight experiences with laminar flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holmes, Bruce J.
1986-01-01
A review of natural laminar flow (NLF) flight experiences over the period from the 1930's to the present has been given to provide information on the achievability and maintainability of NLF in typical airplane operating environments. Significant effects of loss of laminar flow on airplane performance have been observed for several airplanes, indicating the importance of providing information on these changes to laminar flow airplane operators. Significant changes in airplane stability and control and maximum lift were observed in flight experiments with the loss of laminar flow. However, these effects can be avoided by proper selection of airfoils. Conservative laminar flow airfoil designs should be employed which do not experience significant loss of lift (caused by flow separation) upon the loss of laminar flow. Mechanisms have been observed for the effects of insect accumulation, flight through clouds and precipitation, and propeller slipstreams on laminar flow behavior. Fixed transition testing, in addition to free transition testing, is recommended as a new standard procedure for airplanes with surfaces designed to support laminar flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuracina, Richard; Szabová, Zuzana; Čekan, Pavol
2015-06-01
The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, A. K.; Lilley, D. G.; Syred, N.
Attention is given to the range of swirl phenomena occurring in both the atmosphere and man-made devices which may involve combustion-generated reacting flows. Experimental studies have established that swirl has large scale favorable effects on various aspects of flowfields, such as jet growth, entrainment and decay in inert flows and flame size, shape and stability in reacting flows. Mathematical modeling and numerical prediction for swirling flows combine experimental and theoretical combustion aerodynamics with sophisticated computational fluid dynamics to reduce development program costs and duration. Attention is given to practical combustor design in gas turbine engines, industrial furnaces, and waste incinerators, as well as to the effects of combustor swirl flow on the pollutant content of exhaust gases.
Precision of maximum likelihood estimation in adaptive designs.
Graf, Alexandra Christine; Gutjahr, Georg; Brannath, Werner
2016-03-15
There has been increasing interest in trials that allow for design adaptations like sample size reassessment or treatment selection at an interim analysis. Ignoring the adaptive and multiplicity issues in such designs leads to an inflation of the type 1 error rate, and treatment effect estimates based on the maximum likelihood principle become biased. Whereas the methodological issues concerning hypothesis testing are well understood, it is not clear how to deal with parameter estimation in designs were adaptation rules are not fixed in advanced so that, in practice, the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) is used. It is therefore important to understand the behavior of the MLE in such designs. The investigation of Bias and mean squared error (MSE) is complicated by the fact that the adaptation rules need not be fully specified in advance and, hence, are usually unknown. To investigate Bias and MSE under such circumstances, we search for the sample size reassessment and selection rules that lead to the maximum Bias or maximum MSE. Generally, this leads to an overestimation of Bias and MSE, which can be reduced by imposing realistic constraints on the rules like, for example, a maximum sample size. We consider designs that start with k treatment groups and a common control and where selection of a single treatment and control is performed at the interim analysis with the possibility to reassess each of the sample sizes. We consider the case of unlimited sample size reassessments as well as several realistically restricted sample size reassessment rules. PMID:26459506
DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.
2013-01-01
It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.
DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, M.; Parker, L. Neergaard; Minow, J. I.
2013-01-01
It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions. These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka. These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.
Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John
2009-05-01
A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.
Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions.
Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John
2009-05-01
A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76 degrees C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68 degrees C in the summer and 61 degrees C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10 degrees C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses. PMID:19234721
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species. PMID:24669743
Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity.
Adiputra, N; Alex, P; Sutjana, D P; Tirtayasa, K; Manuaba, A
1996-06-01
The maximum aerobic capacity can be used to predict the maximum working capacity. The maximum working capacity plays an important role in achieving the best performance. Therefore, physical fitness program for maintaining maximum working capacity is a must. A study on the application of Balinese dance exercise was carried out. Sixty young male Balinese, aged from 17 to 19 years were used as subjects. They were divided into two groups: Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) based on their VO2max. The EG participated in a program of Balinese dance exercise 3 x 50 min per week for 8 weeks. Pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The maximum aerobic capacity was measured, based on the Modified Harvard Step-up Test and nomogram of Astrand. The results are as follows: there is a very significant improvement of VO2max from 2.7 +/- 0.5 l/min or 51.1 +/- 9.1 ml/kg/min into 3.1 +/- 0.5 l/min or 58.9 +/- 9.8 ml/kg/min. Other parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure and percent body fat were decreased significantly. The study concludes that Balinese dance exercise could be used as a program for physical fitness maintenance. PMID:9551128
Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.
Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
2014-09-01
We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength. PMID:24893597
Wadia, A.R. ); Law, C.H. )
1993-04-01
Transonic compressor rotor performance is sensitive to variations in several known design parameters. One such parameter is the chordwise location of maximum thickness. This article reports on the design and experimental evaluation of two versions of a low aspect ratio transonic rotor that had the location of the tip blade section maximum thickness moved forward in two increments from the nominal 70% to 55 and 40% chord length, respectively. The original hub characteristics were preserved and the maximum thickness location was adjusted proportionately along the span. Although designed to satisfy identical design speed requirements, the experimental results reveal significant variation in the performance of the rotors. At design speed, the rotor with its maximum thickness located at 55% chord length attains the highest peak efficiency among the three rotors but has lowest flow rollback relative to the other two versions. To focus on current ruggedization issues for transonic blading (e.g., bird and ice ingestion), detailed comparison of test data and analysis to characterize the aerodynamic flow details responsible for the measured performance differences were confined to the two rotors with the most forward location of maximum thickness. A three-dimensional viscous flow analysis was used to identify the performance-enhancing features of the higher efficiency rotor and to provide guidance in the interpretation of the experimental measurements. The computational results of the viscous analysis show that the difference in performance between the two rotors can be attributed to the higher shock losses that result from the increased leading edge wedge angle as the maximum thickness is moved closer to the leading edge.
Frictional flow characteristics of microconvective flow for variable fluid properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajan; Mahulikar, Shripad P.
2015-12-01
The present work investigates the frictional flow characteristics of water flowing through a circular microchannel with variable fluid properties. The computational analysis reveals the importance of physical mechanisms due to variations in thermophysical fluid properties such as viscosity μ(T), thermal conductivity k(T) and density ρ(T) and also their contribution in the characteristics of frictional flow. Various combinations of thermophysical fluid properties have been used to find their effects on fluid friction. It is observed that the fluid friction attains the maximum value in the vicinity of the inlet and diminishes along the flow. The main reasons are attributed to this, (1) near the inlet, there is a flow undevelopment (the reverse process of flow development) due to μ(T) variation. (2) The viscosity of the water decreases with increasing temperature, which reduces fluid friction along the flow. It is noted that the skin friction coefficient (cf) reduces with increasing fluid mean velocity for a same value of constant wall heat flux ({q}{{w}}\\prime\\prime ). In the vicinity of the inlet, the deviation of Poiseuille number (Po) from 64 (constant properties solution) is also investigated in this paper. Additionally, the relationship between Reynolds number (Re) and cf, Po and Re have been proposed for different combinations of thermophysical fluid properties. This investigation also shows that the effect of fluid property variations on pressure drop is highly significant for microconvective water flow.
Face recognition using multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination dictionary learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yanyong; Dong, Jiwen; Li, Hengjian
2015-10-01
Based on multiple maximum scatter difference discrimination Dictionary learning, a novel face recognition algorithm is proposed. Dictionary used for sparse coding plays a key role in sparse representation classification. In this paper, a multiple maximum scatter difference discriminated criterion is used for dictionary learning. During the process of dictionary learning, the multiple maximum scatter difference computes its discriminated vectors from both the range of the between class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The proposed algorithm is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the AR database and Extended Yale Database B in comparison with existing basic sparse representation and other classification methods, it shows that the performance is a little better than the original sparse representation methods with lower complexity.
Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars.
Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T
2013-09-27
We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations. PMID:24116763
Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer
Obermeir, J.; Blittersdorf, D.
1996-12-31
This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Approach to forecasting daily maximum ozone levels in St. Louis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prior, E. J.; Schiess, J. R.; Mcdougal, D. S.
1981-01-01
Measurements taken in 1976 from the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base, conducted by EPA, were analyzed to determine an optimum set of air-quality and meteorological variables for predicting maximum ozone levels for each day in 1976. A 'leaps and bounds' regression analysis was used to identify the best subset of variables. Three particular variables, the 9 a.m. ozone level, the forecasted maximum temperature, and the 6-9 a.m. averaged wind speed, have useful forecasting utility. The trajectory history of air masses entering St. Louis was studied, and it was concluded that transport-related variables contribute to the appearance of very high ozone levels. The final empirical forecast model predicts the daily maximum ozone over 341 days with a standard deviation of 11 ppb, which approaches the estimated error.
Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.
1990-01-01
The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.
Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for hidden Markov models
Alexandrovich, G.; Holzmann, H.; Leister, A.
2016-01-01
Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for finite-state hidden Markov models are investigated. We obtain identification of the parameters as well as the order of the Markov chain if the transition probability matrices have full-rank and are ergodic, and if the state-dependent distributions are all distinct, but not necessarily linearly independent. Based on this identification result, we develop a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation theory. First, we show that the asymptotic contrast, the Kullback–Leibler divergence of the hidden Markov model, also identifies the true parameter vector nonparametrically. Second, for classes of state-dependent densities which are arbitrary mixtures of a parametric family, we establish the consistency of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator. Here, identification of the mixing distributions need not be assumed. Numerical properties of the estimates and of nonparametric goodness of fit tests are investigated in a simulation study.
The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.
1988-01-01
There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.
Adaptive Maximum Marginal Relevance Based Multi-email Summarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Baoxun; Liu, Bingquan; Sun, Chengjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Bo
By analyzing the inherent relationship between the maximum marginal relevance (MMR) model and the content cohesion of emails with the same subject, this paper presents an adaptive maximum marginal relevance based multi-email summarization method. Due to the adoption of approximate computing of email content cohesion, the adaptive MMR is able to automatically adjust the parameters according to the changing of the email sets. The experimental results have shown that the email summarizing system based on this technique can increase the precision while reducing the redundancy of the automatic summary results, consequently improve the average quality of email summaries.
Estimating maximum depth distribution of seagrass using underwater videography
Norris, J.G.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.
1997-06-01
The maximum depth distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds in Willapa Bay, Washington appears to be limited by light penetration which is likely related to water turbidity. Using underwater videographic techniques we estimated that the maximum depth penetration in the less turbid outer bay was -5.85 ft (MILW) and in the more turbid inner bay was only -1.59 ft (MLLW). Eelgrass beds had well defined deepwater edges and no eelgrass was observed in the deep channels of the bay. The results from this study suggest that aerial photographs taken during low tide periods are capable of recording the majority of eelgrass beds in Willapa Bay.
Modified maximum likelihood registration based on information fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yongqing; Jing, Zhongliang; Hu, Shiqiang
2007-11-01
The bias estimation of passive sensors is considered based on information fusion in multi-platform multi-sensor tracking system. The unobservable problem of bearing-only tracking in blind spot is analyzed. A modified maximum likelihood method, which uses the redundant information of multi-sensor system to calculate the target position, is investigated to estimate the biases. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the modified method eliminates the effect of unobservable problem in the blind spot and can estimate the biases more rapidly and accurately than maximum likelihood method. It is statistically efficient since the standard deviation of bias estimation errors meets the theoretical lower bounds.
On the maximum grain size entrained by photoevaporative winds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchison, Mark A.; Laibe, Guillaume; Maddison, Sarah T.
2016-09-01
We model the behaviour of dust grains entrained by photoevaporation-driven winds from protoplanetary discs assuming a non-rotating, plane-parallel disc. We obtain an analytic expression for the maximum entrainable grain size in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds, which we demonstrate to be proportional to the mass loss rate of the disc. When compared with our hydrodynamic simulations, the model reproduces almost all of the wind properties for the gas and dust. In typical turbulent discs, the entrained grain sizes in the wind are smaller than the theoretical maximum everywhere but the inner disc due to dust settling.
Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seifert, W.; Pluschke, V.; Hinsche, N. F.
2014-06-01
The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling.
Maximum-likelihood block detection of noncoherent continuous phase modulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush
1993-01-01
This paper examines maximum-likelihood block detection of uncoded full response CPM over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Both the maximum-likelihood metrics and the bit error probability performances of the associated detection algorithms are considered. The special and popular case of minimum-shift-keying (MSK) corresponding to h = 0.5 and constant amplitude frequency pulse is treated separately. The many new receiver structures that result from this investigation can be compared to the traditional ones that have been used in the past both from the standpoint of simplicity of implementation and optimality of performance.
Consecutive polarizers arrangement producing maximum polarized light intensity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirjawan, Johannes V. D.
2016-03-01
Polarizer mainly functions as a specific filter that blocks or transmits lights of certain polarization. Malus' law predicts the average intensity of polarized light passing a polarizer that transmits certain polarization direction will be proportional to the squared cosine of angle between the two polarization directions. Arranging several polarizers consecutively with various transmission directions will produce various final intensity as well as final polarized direction. Specific arrangement of an arbitrary number (N > 3) of polarizers producing maximum intensity of polarized light will be discussed in this paper. In addition, interesting pattern of maximum values of some trigonometric functions that are difficult to be solved analytically can be obtained from this discussion.
Critical Velocities in Open Capillary Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dreyer, Michael; Langbein, Dieter; Rath, Hans J.
1996-01-01
This paper describes the proposed research program on open capillary flow and the preliminary work performed theoretically and in drop tower experiments. The work focuses on the fundamental physical understanding of the flow through capillary bound geometries, where the circumference of the cross section of the flow path contains free surfaces. Examples for such a flow configuration are capillary vanes in surface tension tanks, flow along edges and corners and flow through liquid bridges. The geometries may be classified by their cross section areas, wetted circumferences and the radii of curvature of the free surfaces. In the streaming float zone the flow path is bound by a free surface only. The ribbon vane is a model for vane types used in surface tension tanks, where a structure in proximity to the tank wall forms a capillary gap. A groove is used in heat pipes for the transportation of the condensed working fluid to the heat source and a wedge may occur in a spaceborne experiment where fluid has to be transported by the means of surface tension. The research objectives are the determination of the maximum volume flux, the observation of the free surfaces and the liquid flow inside the flow path as well as the evaluation of the limiting capillary wave speed. The restriction of the maximum volume flux is due to convective forces (flow velocity exceeding the capillary wave speed) and/or viscous forces, i.e. the viscous head loss along the flow path must be compensated by the capillary pressure due to the curved free surface. Exceeding the maximum volume flux leads to the choking of the flow path, thus the free surface collapses and.gas ingestion occurs at the outlet. The means are ground-based experimental work with plateau tanks and in a drop tower, a sounding rocket flight, and theoretical analysis with integral balances as well as full three dimensional CFD solutions for flow with free surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baratti, E.; Montanari, A.; Castellarin, A.; Salinas, J. L.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.
2012-04-01
Flood frequency analysis is often used by practitioners to support the design of river engineering works, flood miti- gation procedures and civil protection strategies. It is often carried out at annual time scale, by fitting observations of annual maximum peak flows. However, in many cases one is also interested in inferring the flood frequency distribution for given intra-annual periods, for instance when one needs to estimate the risk of flood in different seasons. Such information is needed, for instance, when planning the schedule of river engineering works whose building area is in close proximity to the river bed for several months. A key issue in seasonal flood frequency analysis is to ensure the compatibility between intra-annual and annual flood probability distributions. We propose an approach to jointly estimate the parameters of seasonal and annual probability distribution of floods. The approach is based on the preliminary identification of an optimal number of seasons within the year,which is carried out by analysing the timing of flood flows. Then, parameters of intra-annual and annual flood distributions are jointly estimated by using (a) an approximate optimisation technique and (b) a formal maximum likelihood approach. The proposed methodology is applied to some case studies for which extended hydrological information is available at annual and seasonal scale.
THE RISE AND FALL OF OPEN SOLAR FLUX DURING THE CURRENT GRAND SOLAR MAXIMUM
Lockwood, M.; Rouillard, A. P.; Finch, I. D.
2009-08-01
We use geomagnetic activity data to study the rise and fall over the past century of the solar wind flow speed V{sub SW}, the interplanetary magnetic field strength B, and the open solar flux F {sub S}. Our estimates include allowance for the kinematic effect of longitudinal structure in the solar wind flow speed. As well as solar cycle variations, all three parameters show a long-term rise during the first half of the 20th century followed by peaks around 1955 and 1986 and then a recent decline. Cosmogenic isotope data reveal that this constitutes a grand maximum of solar activity which began in 1920, using the definition that such grand maxima are when 25-year averages of the heliospheric modulation potential exceeds 600 MV. Extrapolating the linear declines seen in all three parameters since 1985, yields predictions that the grand maximum will end in the years 2013, 2014, or 2027 using V{sub SW}, F{sub S}, or B, respectively. These estimates are consistent with predictions based on the probability distribution of the durations of past grand solar maxima seen in cosmogenic isotope data. The data contradict any suggestions of a floor to the open solar flux: we show that the solar minimum open solar flux, kinematically corrected to allow for the excess flux effect, has halved over the past two solar cycles.
Modelling the trajectory of erratic boulders in the western Alps during the last glacial maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jouvet, Guillaume; Becker, Patrick; Funk, Martin; Seguinot, Julien
2015-04-01
Erratic boulders of the western Alps provide valuable information about the flow field prevailing during the last glacial maximum. In particular, the origin, the exposure time and the location of several boulders identified along the Jura are well documented. The goal of this study is to corroborate these information with ice flow simulations performed with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). PISM is capable to simulate the time evolution of a large scale ice sheet by accounting for the dynamics of ice, englacial temperature, surface mass balance and variations of the lithosphere. The main difficulty of this exercise resides in large uncertainties concerning the climate forcing required as input in the surface mass balance model. To mimic with climate conditions prevailing during the last glacial maximum, a common approach consists of applying different temperature offsets and corrections in the precipitation patterns to present-day climate data, and to select the parametrizations which yield the best match between modelled ice sheet extents and geomorphologically-based margin reconstructions. To better constrain our modelling results we take advantage of some erratic boulders from which we know their origin. More precisely, we are looking for the climatic conditions which reproduce at best the trajectories of the boulders from their origins to their final location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi-Lang; Wang, Bing-Hong; Liu, Mu-Ren
2012-01-01
Using the cellular automaton traffic flow model, we investigate an unsignalized intersection which consists of two perpendicular one-lane roads. Both the roads cross at a point and the intersecting roads are cyclic. Each vehicle may pass or occupy the intersection where all the vehicles on both roads are not allowed to turn. Different from Ishibashi and Fukui's studies in which the update is carried out for both roads in turn, the parallel update is proposed and its detailed rules are presented in our model. In this work, the cases of different maximum vehicle velocities on both roads are considered. Based on simulation results and the principle for constructing phase diagrams, phase diagrams are mapped out and their specific flow formulas for all the regions in the phase diagrams are obtained for various vehicle densities, which are seldom done in previous studies. One also finds that the topology of phase diagrams depends on the update rules of eastbound and northbound roads and their maximum velocities of vehicles.
30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...
30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...
30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...
30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...
30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...
Zones and zonal variations in welded ash flows
Smith, R.L.
1960-01-01
Welded tuffs are recognized as special parts of ash flows, other pyroclastic flows, or, more rarely, air-fall deposits. Ash flows may be emplaced at any temperature below a maximum eruption temperature. Those emplaced above a minimum welding temperature may show any and all degrees of welding and crystallization.
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Air flow measurement specifications. 89... Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method used... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...
40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ± 2 percent of the maximum engine value for...
On Parallel Push-Relabel based Algorithms for Bipartite Maximum Matching
Langguth, Johannes; Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Manne, Fredrik
2014-07-01
We study multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms for computing maximum cardinality matching in bipartite graphs. Matching is a fundamental combinatorial (graph) problem with applications in a wide variety of problems in science and engineering. We are motivated by its use in the context of sparse linear solvers for computing maximum transversal of a matrix. We implement and test our algorithms on several multi-socket multicore systems and compare their performance to state-of-the-art augmenting path-based serial and parallel algorithms using a testset comprised of a wide range of real-world instances. Building on several heuristics for enhancing performance, we demonstrate good scaling for the parallel push-relabel algorithm. We show that it is comparable to the best augmenting path-based algorithms for bipartite matching. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms. In addition to a direct impact on the applications using matching, the proposed algorithmic techniques can be extended to preflow-push based algorithms for computing maximum flow in graphs.
Analysis and Experiments of Maximum Throughput in Wireless Multi-Hop Networks for VoIP Application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inaba, Masahiko; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Sekiya, Hiroo; Sakata, Shiro; Yagyu, Kengo
This paper quantitatively analyzes the maximum UDP (User Datagram Protocol) throughput for two-way flows in wireless string multi-hop networks. The validity of the analysis is shown by the comparison with the simulation and the experiment results. The authors also clarify the difference fundamental characteristics between a one-way flow and a two-way flow in detail based on the simulation results. The result shows that collisions at both ends' nodes are decisive in determining the throughput for two-way flows. The analyses are applicable to the estimation of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) capacity for string multi-hop networks represented by WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) mesh networks.
42 CFR 447.54 - Maximum allowable and nominal charges.
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2012-10-01
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24 CFR 241.630 - Maximum insurance against loss.
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2012-04-01
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