Kim, Leonard; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning
2013-07-01
Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ⁎ 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.
Clayson, D.B.; Iverson, F.; Mueller, R. )
1991-01-01
Cancers arise in specific tissues. One difficulty with the present definitions of the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), as they pertain to the rodent cancer bioassay, is that they base MTD on relatively crude parameters associated with the well-being of the entire animal rather than with the lack of specific tissue toxicity. Additional factors that could be included in the MTD definition, or could be separately determined, are addressed. Many of these factors refer to toxic behavior in one or a few tissues and, if used in setting the MTD, may mask more relevant events occurring at higher dose levels in other tissues. Reducing the MTD to a level that fails to take into account pesticide or drug-related toxicity may lead to the loss of relevant information in the bioassay. It is concluded, therefore, that there are two possible approaches to a more appropriate use of the MTD. The highest dose of the test agent (MTD) may be chosen (i) to lie below the thresholds of carcinogenicity-related non-genotoxic toxicity or (ii) the present high level MTD may continue to be used and tumors that arise may be classified as being irrelvant to humans at some or all exposure levels. The latter approach is to be preferred. It has the potential to avoid missing high level effects of the test agent that may be relevant to the human population.91 references.
Developability assessment of clinical drug products with maximum absorbable doses.
Ding, Xuan; Rose, John P; Van Gelder, Jan
2012-05-10
Maximum absorbable dose refers to the maximum amount of an orally administered drug that can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum absorbable dose, or D(abs), has proved to be an important parameter for quantifying the absorption potential of drug candidates. The purpose of this work is to validate the use of D(abs) in a developability assessment context, and to establish appropriate protocol and interpretation criteria for this application. Three methods for calculating D(abs) were compared by assessing how well the methods predicted the absorption limit for a set of real clinical candidates. D(abs) was calculated for these clinical candidates by means of a simple equation and two computer simulation programs, GastroPlus and an program developed at Eli Lilly and Company. Results from single dose escalation studies in Phase I clinical trials were analyzed to identify the maximum absorbable doses for these compounds. Compared to the clinical results, the equation and both simulation programs provide conservative estimates of D(abs), but in general D(abs) from the computer simulations are more accurate, which may find obvious advantage for the simulations in developability assessment. Computer simulations also revealed the complex behavior associated with absorption saturation and suggested in most cases that the D(abs) limit is not likely to be achieved in a typical clinical dose range. On the basis of the validation findings, an approach is proposed for assessing absorption potential, and best practices are discussed for the use of D(abs) estimates to inform clinical formulation development strategies.
Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min
2013-07-01
In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.
Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves
Frome, E.L; DuFrain, R.J.
1983-10-01
In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between the yield of dicentric chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The dicentric yields follow the Poisson distribution, and the expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose for low LET radiation. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been obtained by Kellerer and Rossi using the theory of dual radiation action. The yield of elementary lesions is kappa(..gamma..d + g(t, tau)d/sup 2/), where t is the time and d is dose. The coefficient of the d/sup 2/ term is determined by the recovery function and the temporal mode of irradiation. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described and illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.
Maximum likelihood estimation for cytogenetic dose-response curves
Frome, E.L.; DuFrain, R.J.
1986-03-01
In vitro dose-response curves are used to describe the relation between chromosome aberrations and radiation dose for human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are exposed to low-LET radiation, and the resulting dicentric chromosome aberrations follow the Poisson distribution. The expected yield depends on both the magnitude and the temporal distribution of the dose. A general dose-response model that describes this relation has been presented by Kellerer and Rossi (1972, Current Topics on Radiation Research Quarterly 8, 85-158; 1978, Radiation Research 75, 471-488) using the theory of dual radiation action. Two special cases of practical interest are split-dose and continuous exposure experiments, and the resulting dose-time-response models are intrinsically nonlinear in the parameters. A general-purpose maximum likelihood estimation procedure is described, and estimation for the nonlinear models is illustrated with numerical examples from both experimental designs. Poisson regression analysis is used for estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression diagnostics. Results are discussed in the context of exposure assessment procedures for both acute and chronic human radiation exposure.
Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses
Marter, W.L.
1990-11-01
Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.
A Fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation
Li, Haisen S.; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Dempsey, James F.
2006-09-15
orientation of the beam with respect to the dose grid was also investigated. The maximum acceptable dose grid size depends on the gradient of dose profile and in turn the range of proton beam. In the case that only the phantom scattering was considered and that the beam was aligned with the dose grid, grid sizes from 0.4 to 6.8 mm were required for proton beams with ranges from 2 to 30 cm for 2% error limit at the Bragg peak point. A near linear relation between the maximum acceptable grid size and beam range was observed. For this analysis model, the resolution requirement was not significantly related to the orientation of the beam with respect to the grid.
A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert
2013-05-01
The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.
Hardware Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maganga, Othman; Phillip, Navneesh; Burnham, Keith J.; Montecucco, Andrea; Siviter, Jonathan; Knox, Andrew; Simpson, Kevin
2014-06-01
This work describes the practical implementation of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, namely those of perturb and observe, and extremum seeking control. The proprietary dSPACE system is used to perform hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation whereby the two control algorithms are implemented using the MATLAB/Simulink (Mathworks, Natick, MA) software environment in order to control a synchronous buck-boost converter connected to two commercial thermoelectric modules. The process of performing HIL simulation using dSPACE is discussed, and a comparison between experimental and simulated results is highlighted. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the two MPPT algorithms, and in conclusion the benefits and limitations of real-time implementation of MPPT controllers using dSPACE are discussed.
Investigation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillip, Navneesh; Maganga, Othman; Burnham, Keith J.; Ellis, Mark A.; Robinson, Simon; Dunn, Julian; Rouaud, Cedric
2013-07-01
In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed as a tool for investigating optimized maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for TEG systems within automotive exhaust heat energy recovery applications. The model comprises three main subsystems that make up the TEG system: the heat exchanger, thermoelectric material, and power conditioning unit (PCU). In this study, two MPPT algorithms known as the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm and extremum seeking control (ESC) are investigated. A synchronous buck-boost converter is implemented as the preferred DC-DC converter topology, and together with the MPPT algorithm completes the PCU architecture. The process of developing the subsystems is discussed, and the advantage of using the MPPT controller is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate that the ESC algorithm implemented in combination with a synchronous buck-boost converter achieves favorable power outputs for TEG systems. The appropriateness is by virtue of greater responsiveness to changes in the system's thermal conditions and hence the electrical potential difference generated in comparison with the P&O algorithm. The MATLAB/Simulink environment is used for simulation of the TEG system and comparison of the investigated control strategies.
An approximate, maximum terminal velocity descent to a point
Eisler, G.R.; Hull, D.G.
1987-01-01
No closed form control solution exists for maximizing the terminal velocity of a hypersonic glider at an arbitrary point. As an alternative, this study uses neighboring extremal theory to provide a sampled data feedback law to guide the vehicle to a constrained ground range and altitude. The guidance algorithm is divided into two parts: 1) computation of a nominal, approximate, maximum terminal velocity trajectory to a constrained final altitude and computation of the resulting unconstrained groundrange, and 2) computation of the neighboring extremal control perturbation at the sample value of flight path angle to compensate for changes in the approximate physical model and enable the vehicle to reach the on-board computed groundrange. The trajectories are characterized by glide and dive flight to the target to minimize the time spent in the denser parts of the atmosphere. The proposed on-line scheme successfully brings the final altitude and range constraints together, as well as compensates for differences in flight model, atmosphere, and aerodynamics at the expense of guidance update computation time. Comparison with an independent, parameter optimization solution for the terminal velocity is excellent. 6 refs., 3 figs.
SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume
Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y
2015-06-15
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.
Increasing maximum tumor dose to manage range uncertainties in IMPT treatment planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petit, Steven; Seco, Joao; Kooy, Hanne
2013-10-01
The accuracy of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is sensitive to range uncertainties. Geometric margins, as dosimetric surrogates, are ineffective and robust optimization strategies are needed. These, however, lead to increased normal tissue dose. We explore here how this dose increase can be reduced by increasing the maximum tumor dose instead. We focus on range uncertainties, modeled by scaling the stopping powers 5% up (undershoot) or down (overshoot) compared to the nominal scenario. Robust optimization optimizes for target dose conformity in the most likely scenario, not the worst, while constraining target coverage for the worst-case scenario. Non-robust plans are also generated. Different maximum target doses are applied (105% versus 120% versus 140%) to investigate the effect on normal tissue dose reduction. The method is tested on a homogeneous and a lung phantom and on a liver patient. Target D99 of the robust plans equals the prescription dose of 60 GyEWe use the symbol GyE for the correct notation of Gy(RBE). for all scenarios, but decreases to 36 GyE for the non-robust plans. The mean normal tissue dose in a 2 cm ring around the target is 11% to 31% higher for the robust plans. This increase can be reduced to -8% and 3% (compared to the non-robust plan) by allowing a maximum tumor dose of 120% instead of 105%. Thus robustness leads to more normal tissue dose, but it can be compensated by allowing a higher maximum tumor dose.
A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrowski, Mariusz
2016-04-01
Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ariffin, Syaiba Balqish; Midi, Habshah; Arasan, Jayanthi; Rana, Md Sohel
2015-02-01
This article is concerned with the performance of the maximum estimated likelihood estimator in the presence of separation in the space of the independent variables and high leverage points. The maximum likelihood estimator suffers from the problem of non overlap cases in the covariates where the regression coefficients are not identifiable and the maximum likelihood estimator does not exist. Consequently, iteration scheme fails to converge and gives faulty results. To remedy this problem, the maximum estimated likelihood estimator is put forward. It is evident that the maximum estimated likelihood estimator is resistant against separation and the estimates always exist. The effect of high leverage points are then investigated on the performance of maximum estimated likelihood estimator through real data sets and Monte Carlo simulation study. The findings signify that the maximum estimated likelihood estimator fails to provide better parameter estimates in the presence of both separation, and high leverage points.
The maximum single dose of resistant maltodextrin that does not cause diarrhea in humans.
Kishimoto, Yuka; Kanahori, Sumiko; Sakano, Katsuhisa; Ebihara, Shukuko
2013-01-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the maximum dose of resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol)-2, a non-viscous water-soluble dietary fiber), that does not induce transitory diarrhea. Ten healthy adult subjects (5 men and 5 women) ingested Fibersol-2 at increasing dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 g/kg body weight (bw). Each administration was separated from the previous dose by an interval of 1 wk. The highest dose level that did not cause diarrhea in any subject was regarded as the maximum non-effective level for a single dose. The results showed that no subject of either sex experienced diarrhea at dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, or 1.0 g/kg bw. At the highest dose level of 1.1 g/kg bw, no female subject experienced diarrhea, whereas 1 male subject developed diarrhea with muddy stools 2 h after ingestion of the test substance. Consequently, the maximum non-effective level for a single dose of the resistant maltodextrin Fibersol-2 is 1.0 g/kg bw for men and >1.1 g/kg bw for women. Gastrointestinal symptoms were gurgling sounds in 4 subjects (7 events) and flatus in 5 subjects (9 events), although no association with dose level was observed. These symptoms were mild and transient and resolved without treatment.
A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.
2016-08-01
The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.
Menting, Stef P; Dekker, Paul M; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hooft, Lotty; Spuls, Phyllis I
2016-01-01
There is a range of methotrexate dosing regimens for psoriasis. This review summarizes the evidence for test-dose, start-dose, dosing scheme, dose adjustments, maximum dose and use of folic acid. A literature search for randomized controlled trials and guidelines was performed. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials (29 treatment groups) and 10 guidelines were included. Two treatment groups used a test-dose, 5 guidelines recommend it. The methotrexate start-dose in randomized controlled trials varied from 5 to 25 mg/week, most commonly being either 7.5 mg or 15 mg. Guidelines vary from 5 to 15 mg/week. Methotrexate was administered as a single dose or in a Weinstein schedule in 15 and 11 treatment-groups, respectively; both recommended equally in guidelines. A fixed dose (n = 18), predefined dose (n = 3), or dose adjusted on clinical improvement (n = 8) was used, the last also being recommended in guidelines. Ten treatment groups used folic acid; in 2 it was allowed, in 14 not mentioned, and in 3 no folic acid was used. Most guidelines recommend the use of folic acid. Authors' suggestions for methotrexate dosing are given.
A more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points in electric power systems
Chiang, H.D.; Jean-Jumeau, R.
1995-05-01
This paper presents a more efficient formulation for computation of the maximum loading points. A distinguishing feature of the new formulation is that it is of dimension (n + 1), instead of the existing formulation of dimension (2n + 1), for n-dimensional load flow equations. This feature makes computation of the maximum loading points very inexpensive in comparison with those required in the existing formulation. A theoretical basis for the new formulation is provided. The new problem formulation is derived by using a simple reparameterization scheme and exploiting the special properties of the power flow model. Moreover, the proposed test function is shown to be monotonic in the vicinity of a maximum loading point. Therefore, it allows one to monitor the approach to maximum loading points during the solution search process. Simulation results on a 234-bus system are presented.
Hamby, D.M.
1994-02-01
An EXCEL{reg_sign} spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ.
A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai
2016-08-01
To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.
A Digital Coreless Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Shiho; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Namjae; Baatar, Nyambayar; Kwon, Jangwoo
2011-05-01
This paper describes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for thermoelectric generators (TEG) without a digital controller unit. The proposed method uses an analog tracking circuit that samples the half point of the open-circuit voltage without a digital signal processor (DSP) or microcontroller unit for calculating the peak power point using iterative methods. The simulation results revealed that the MPPT circuit, which employs a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter, handled rapid variation of temperature and abrupt changes of load current; this method enables stable operation with high power transfer efficiency. The proposed MPPT technique is a useful analog MPPT solution for thermoelectric generators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.
2016-03-01
In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.
2014-01-01
Background Despite rendering serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) within the normal population ranges broadly defined as euthyroidism, many patients being treated for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism persistently experience subnormal well-being discordant from their pre-disease healthy euthyroid state. This suggests that intra-individual physiological optimal ranges are narrower than laboratory-quoted normal ranges and implies the existence of a homeostatic set point encoded in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis that is unique to every individual. Methods We have previously shown that the dose–response characteristic of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit to circulating thyroid hormone levels follows a negative exponential curve. This led to the discovery that the normal reference intervals of TSH and FT4 fall within the ‘knee’ region of this curve where the maximum curvature of the exponential HP characteristic occurs. Based on this observation, we develop the theoretical framework localizing the position of euthyroid homeostasis over the point of maximum curvature of the HP characteristic. Results The euthyroid set points of patients with primary hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily derived from their calculated HP curve parameters using the parsimonious mathematical model above. It can be shown that every individual has a euthyroid set point that is unique and often different from other individuals. Conclusions In this treatise, we provide evidence supporting a set point-based approach in tailoring euthyroid targets. Rendering FT4 and TSH within the laboratory normal ranges can be clinically suboptimal if these hormone levels are distant from the individualized euthyroid homeostatic set point. This mathematical technique permits the euthyroid set point to be realistically computed using an algorithm readily implementable for computer-aided calculations to facilitate precise targeted dosing of patients in this modern
Abrupt change point detection of annual maximum precipitation using fused lasso
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Jong-June; Sung, Jang Hyun; Chung, Eun-Sung
2016-07-01
Because the widely used Bayesian change point analysis (BCPA) is generally applied to the normal distribution, it cannot be freely used to the annual maximum precipitations (AMP) in South Korea. Therefore, this study proposed the fused lasso penalty function to detect the change point of AMP which can be generally fitted by using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution in South Korea. First, four numerical experiments are conducted to compare the detection performances between BCPA and fused lasso method. As a result, fused lasso shows the superiority of the data generated by GEV distribution having skewness. The fused lasso method is applied to 63 weather stations in South Korea and then 17 stations having any change points from BCPA and the GEV fused lasso are analyzed. Similar to the numerical analyses, the GEV fused lasso method can delicately detect the change point of AMPs. After the change point, the means of AMPs did not go back to the previous. Alternately, BCPA can be stated to find variation points not change points because the means returned to their original values as time progressed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GEV fused lasso method detects the change points of non-stationary AMPs of South Korea. This study can be extended to more extreme distributions for various meteorological variables.
An improved maximum power point tracking method for a photovoltaic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouoba, David; Fakkar, Abderrahim; El Kouari, Youssef; Dkhichi, Fayrouz; Oukarfi, Benyounes
2016-06-01
In this paper, an improved auto-scaling variable step-size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for photovoltaic (PV) system was proposed. To achieve simultaneously a fast dynamic response and stable steady-state power, a first improvement was made on the step-size scaling function of the duty cycle that controls the converter. An algorithm was secondly proposed to address wrong decision that may be made at an abrupt change of the irradiation. The proposed auto-scaling variable step-size approach was compared to some various other approaches from the literature such as: classical fixed step-size, variable step-size and a recent auto-scaling variable step-size maximum power point tracking approaches. The simulation results obtained by MATLAB/SIMULINK were given and discussed for validation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain Mutlag, Ammar; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain
2016-03-01
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is normally required to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper presents artificial intelligent-based maximum power point tracking (AI-MPPT) by considering three artificial intelligent techniques, namely, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven triangular fuzzy sets (7-tri), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with seven gbell fuzzy sets. The AI-MPPT is designed for the 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV panels, with the capacity of 3 kW peak. A complete PV system is modelled using 300,000 data samples and simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The AI-MPPT has been tested under real environmental conditions for two days from 8 am to 18 pm. The results showed that the ANN based MPPT gives the most accurate performance and then followed by the 7-tri-based MPPT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guiraldello, Rafael T.; Martins, Marcelo L.; Mancera, Paulo F. A.
2016-08-01
We present a mathematical model based on partial differential equations that is applied to understand tumor development and its response to chemotherapy. Our primary aim is to evaluate comparatively the efficacies of two chemotherapeutic protocols, Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) and metronomic, as well as two methods of drug delivery. Concerning therapeutic outcomes, the metronomic protocol proves more effective in prolonging the patient's life than MTD. Moreover, a uniform drug delivery method combined with the metronomic protocol is the most efficient strategy to reduce tumor density.
Gombar, V.K.; Enslein, K.; Hart, J.B.; Blake, B.W.; Borgstedt, H.H.
1991-09-01
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model has been developed to estimate maximum tolerated doses (MTD) from structural features of chemicals and the corresponding oral acute lethal doses (LD50) as determined in male rats. The model is based on a set of 269 diverse chemicals which have been tested under the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program (NCI/NTP) protocols. The rat oral LD50 value was the strongest predictor. Additionally, 22 structural descriptors comprising nine substructural MOLSTAC(c) keys, three molecular connectivity indices, and sigma charges on 10 molecular fragments were identified as endpoint predictors. The model explains 76% of the variance and is significant (F = 35.7) at p less than 0.0001 with a standard error of the estimate of 0.40 in the log (1/mol) units used in Hansch-type equations. Cross-validation showed that the difference between the average deleted residual square (0.179) and the model residual square (0.160) was not significant (t = 0.98).
Dose reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis using a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Mini; Gifford, Howard; O'Connor, Michael; Glick, Stephen J.
2009-02-01
Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D imaging modality with limited angle projection data. The ability of tomosynthesis systems to accurately detect smaller microcalcifications is debatable. This is because of the higher noise in the projection data (lower average dose per projection), which is then propagated through the reconstructed image . Reconstruction methods that minimize the propagation of quantum noise have potential to improve microcalcification detectability using DBT. In this paper we show that penalized maximum likelihood (PML) reconstruction in DBT yields images with an improved resolution/noise tradeoff as compared to conventional filtered backprojection (FBP). Signal to noise ratio (SNR) using PML was observed to be higher than that obtained using the standard FBP algorithm. Our results indicate that for microcalcifications, using the PML algorithm, reconstructions obtained with a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.5 mGy yielded better SNR than that those obtained with FBP using a 4mGy total dose. Thus perhaps total dose could be reduced to one-third or lower with same microcalcification detectability, if PML reconstruction is used instead of FBP. Visibility of low contrast masses with various contrast levels were studied using a contrast-detail phantom in a breast shape structure with an average breast density. Images generated using various dose levels indicate that visibility of low contrast masses generated using PML reconstructions are significantly better than those generated using FBP. SNR measurements in the low-contrast study did not appear to correlate with the visual subjective analysis of the reconstruction indicating that SNR is not a good figure of merit to be used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho
2015-06-01
We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.
Unbounded Binary Search for a Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland
2011-12-01
This paper presents a technique for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a concentrating photovoltaic system using cell level power optimization. Perturb and observe (P&O) has been a standard for an MPPT, but it introduces a tradeoff between the tacking speed and the accuracy of the maximum power delivered. The P&O algorithm is not suitable for a rapid environmental condition change by partial shading and self-shading due to its tracking time being linear to the length of the voltage range. Some of researches have been worked on fast tracking but they come with internal ad hoc parameters. In this paper, by using the proposed unbounded binary search algorithm for the MPPT, tracking time becomes a logarithmic function of the voltage search range without ad hoc parameters.
Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies
Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.
2014-07-15
Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.
Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum
2014-12-01
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level.
Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum
2014-12-01
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level. PMID:25365216
Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong
2012-05-01
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appelbaum, J.; Singer, S.
1989-01-01
A calculation of the starting torque ratio of permanent magnet, series, and shunt-excited dc motors powered by solar cell arrays is presented for two cases, i.e., with and without a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT). Defining motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors are obtained. The study also shows that all motor types are less sensitive to solar insolation variation in systems including MPPTs as compared to systems without MPPTs.
A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications
Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A.
2010-01-15
This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chew, Z. J.; Zhu, M.
2015-12-01
A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme by tracking the open-circuit voltage from a piezoelectric energy harvester using a differentiator is presented in this paper. The MPPT controller is implemented by using a low-power analogue differentiator and comparators without the need of a sensing circuitry and a power hungry controller. This proposed MPPT circuit is used to control a buck converter which serves as a power management module in conjunction with a full-wave bridge diode rectifier. Performance of this MPPT control scheme is verified by using the prototyped circuit to track the maximum power point of a macro-fiber composite (MFC) as the piezoelectric energy harvester. The MFC was bonded on a composite material and the whole specimen was subjected to various strain levels at frequency from 10 to 100 Hz. Experimental results showed that the implemented full analogue MPPT controller has a tracking efficiency between 81% and 98.66% independent of the load, and consumes an average power of 3.187 μW at 3 V during operation.
Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking
Barth, C; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN
2015-08-01
This study demonstrates a new method for rapid and precise maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic (PV) applications using dithered PWM control. Constraints imposed by efficiency, cost, and component size limit the available PWM resolution of a power converter, and may in turn limit the MPP tracking efficiency of the PV system. In these scenarios, PWM dithering can be used to improve average PWM resolution. In this study, we present a control technique that uses ripple correlation control (RCC) on the dithering ripple, thereby achieving simultaneous fast tracking speed and high tracking accuracy. Moreover, the proposed method solves some of the practical challenges that have to date limited the effectiveness of RCC in solar PV applications. We present a theoretical derivation of the principles behind dithering digital ripple correlation control, as well as experimental results that show excellent tracking speed and accuracy with basic hardware requirements.
Solar Panel System for Street Light Using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiedjaja, A.; Harta, S.; Josses, L.; Winardi; Rinda, H.
2014-03-01
Solar energy is one form of the renewable energy which is very abundant in regions close to the equator. One application of solar energy is for street light. This research focuses on using the maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT), particularly the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, to charge battery for street light system. The proposed charger circuit can achieve 20.73% higher power efficiency compared to that of non-MPPT charger. We also develop the LED driver circuit for the system which can achieve power efficiency up to 91.9% at a current of 1.06 A. The proposed street lightning system can be implemented with a relatively low cost for public areas.
Koofigar, Hamid Reza
2016-01-01
The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in photovoltaic (PV) systems, despite the model uncertainties and the variations in environmental circumstances, is addressed. Introducing a mathematical description, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm is first developed. Unlike many previous investigations, the output voltage is not required to be sensed and the upper bound of system uncertainties and the variations of irradiance and temperature are not required to be known. Estimating the output voltage by an update law, an adaptive-based H∞ tracking algorithm is then developed for the case the perturbations are energy-bounded. The stability analysis is presented for the proposed tracking control schemes, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. From a comparison viewpoint, some numerical and experimental studies are also presented and discussed. PMID:26606851
Qin, SB; Cady, ST; Dominguez-Garcia, AD; Pilawa-Podgurski, RCN
2015-04-01
This paper presents the theory and implementation of a distributed algorithm for controlling differential power processing converters in photovoltaic (PV) applications. This distributed algorithm achieves true maximum power point tracking of series-connected PV submodules by relying only on local voltage measurements and neighbor-to-neighbor communication between the differential power converters. Compared to previous solutions, the proposed algorithm achieves reduced number of perturbations at each step and potentially faster tracking without adding extra hardware; all these features make this algorithm well-suited for long submodule strings. The formulation of the algorithm, discussion of its properties, as well as three case studies are presented. The performance of the distributed tracking algorithm has been verified via experiments, which yielded quantifiable improvements over other techniques that have been implemented in practice. Both simulations and hardware experiments have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed distributed algorithm.
Koofigar, Hamid Reza
2016-01-01
The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in photovoltaic (PV) systems, despite the model uncertainties and the variations in environmental circumstances, is addressed. Introducing a mathematical description, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm is first developed. Unlike many previous investigations, the output voltage is not required to be sensed and the upper bound of system uncertainties and the variations of irradiance and temperature are not required to be known. Estimating the output voltage by an update law, an adaptive-based H∞ tracking algorithm is then developed for the case the perturbations are energy-bounded. The stability analysis is presented for the proposed tracking control schemes, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. From a comparison viewpoint, some numerical and experimental studies are also presented and discussed.
Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini
2016-03-01
Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.
2016-03-01
Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG
Long Duration Balloon Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) solar power system development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Juan
High altitude scientific balloons have been used for many years to provide scientists with access to near space at a fraction of the cost of satellite based or sounding rocket experiments. In recent years, these balloons have been successfully used for long duration missions of up to 40 days. Longer missions, with durations of up to 100 days (Ultra Long), are in the planning stages. Due to the flight durations, solar power systems have been utilized throughout the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flight program to power the necessary electronic systems. Recently, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controllers have become available off-the-shelf. These controllers along with high efficiency mono-crystalline solar cells have become reliable, low cost solutions even in the harsh environments they operate in. The LDB program at the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) began supporting solar power systems with custom units fabricated by the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) of New Mexico State University (NMSU). These charge controllers proved to be very reliable systems; however, they required intensive labor to build and were relatively expensive. As off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers have become available, they have been integrated into the LDB flight support systems. Coupled with PSL developed interface electronics for monitoring and power switching, they have proven to be as reliable, less expensive, and more efficient. The addition of MPPT allows for the controller to operate the solar panel at it highest power production point. Newer, off-the-shelf controllers with smarter MPPT, are currently being tested. This paper describes the long and ultra-long balloon missions and the role that solar power plays in mission success. More importantly, it discusses the recent developments in off-the-shelf MPPT charge controllers configured for use in the harsh high altitude balloon environment.
Lee, Larissa J.; Sadow, Cheryl A.; Russell, Anthony; Viswanathan, Akila N.
2009-11-01
Purpose: To compare high dose rate (HDR) point B to pelvic lymph node dose using three-dimensional-planned brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO Stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer received 70 tandem HDR applications using CT-based treatment planning. The obturator, external, and internal iliac lymph nodes (LN) were contoured. Per fraction (PF) and combined fraction (CF) right (R), left (L), and bilateral (Bil) nodal doses were analyzed. Point B dose was compared with LN dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Mean PF and CF doses to point B were R 1.40 Gy +- 0.14 (CF: 7 Gy), L 1.43 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.15 Gy), and Bil 1.41 +- 0.15 (CF: 7.05 Gy). The correlation coefficients between point B and the D100, D90, D50, D2cc, D1cc, and D0.1cc LN were all less than 0.7. Only the D2cc to the obturator and the D0.1cc to the external iliac nodes were not significantly different from the point B dose. Significant differences between R and L nodal DVHs were seen, likely related to tandem deviation from irregular tumor anatomy. Conclusions: With HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer, per fraction nodal dose approximates a dose equivalent to teletherapy. Point B is a poor surrogate for dose to specific nodal groups. Three-dimensional defined nodal contours during brachytherapy provide a more accurate reflection of delivered dose and should be part of comprehensive planning of the total dose to the pelvic nodes, particularly when there is evidence of pathologic involvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jungyong; Kim, Shiho
2012-06-01
An analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed. We show that the peak point of the voltage conversion gain of a boost DC-DC converter with an input voltage source having an internal resistor is the maximum power point of the TEG. The key characteristic of the proposed MPPT controller is that the duty ratio of the input clock pulse to the boost DC-DC converter shifts toward the maximum power point of the TEG by seeking the peak gain point of the boost DC-DC converters. The proposed MPPT technique provides a simple and useful analog MPPT solution, without employing digital microcontroller units.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Fahrig, Rebecca
2015-03-01
The mean dose over the central phantom plane (i.e., z = 0, dose maximum image) is useful in that it allows us to compare radiation dose levels across different CT scanners and acquisition protocols. The mean dose from a conventional CT scan with table translation is typically estimated by weighted CTDI (CTDIW). However, conventional CTDIW has inconsistent performance, depending on its weighting coefficients ("1/2 and 1/2" or "1/3 and 2/3") and acquisition protocols. We used a Monte Carlo (MC) model based on Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) to generate dose profiles in the central plane of the CTDI phantom. MC simulations were carried out for three different sizes of z-collimator and different tube voltages (80, 100, or 120 kVp), a tube current of 80 mA, and an exposure time of 25 ms. We derived optimal weighting coefficients by taking the integral of the radial dose profiles. The first-order linear equation and the quadratic equation were used to fit the dose profiles along the radial direction perpendicular to the central plane, and the fitted profiles were revolved about the Z-axis to compute the mean dose (i.e., total volume under the fitted profiles/the central plane area). The integral computed using the linear equation resulted in the same equation as conventional CTDIW, and the integral computed using the quadratic equation resulted in a new CTDIW (CTDIMW) that incorporates different weightings ("2/3 and 1/3") and the middle dose point instead of the central dose point. Compared to the results of MC simulations, our new CTDIMW showed less error than the previous CTDIW methods by successfully incorporating the curvature of the dose profiles regardless of acquisition protocols. Our new CTDIMW will also be applicable to the AAPM-ICRU phantom, which has a middle dose point.
Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Knežević, Ž
2015-04-01
To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appelbaum, Joseph; Singer, S.
1989-01-01
Direct current (dc) motors are used in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems such as in water-pumping systems for irrigation and water supply. Direct current motors may also be used for space applications. Simple and low weight systems including dc motors may be of special interest in space where the motors are directly coupled to the solar cell array (with no storage). The system will operate only during times when sufficient insolation is available. An important performance characteristic of electric motors is the starting to rated torque ratio. Different types of dc motors have different starting torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of solar cell array, and the developed motor torque may not be sufficient to overcome the load starting torque. By including a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in the PV system, the starting to rated torque ratio will increase, the amount of which depends on the motor type. The starting torque ratio is calculated for the permanent magnet, series and shunt excited dc motors when powered by solar cell arrays for two cases: with and without MPPT's. Defining a motor torque magnification by the ratio of the motor torque with an MPPT to the motor torque without an MPPT, a magnification of 3 was obtained for the permanent magnet motor and a magnification of 7 for both the series and shunt motors. The effect of the variation of solar insolation on the motor starting torque was covered. All motor types are less sensitive to insolation variation in systems including MPPT's as compared to systems with MPPT's. The analysis of this paper will assist the PV system designed to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system for a specific motor type.
Matsubara, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi
2013-07-01
Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image
Escude, Lluis . E-mail: lluis.escude@gmx.net; Linero, Dolors; Molla, Meritxell; Miralbell, Raymond
2006-11-15
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate an optimization algorithm designed to find the most favorable points to position an ionization chamber (IC) for quality assurance dose measurements of patients treated for prostate cancer with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and fields up to 10 cm x 10 cm. Methods and Materials: Three cylindrical ICs (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used with volumes of 0.6 cc, 0.125 cc, and 0.015 cc. Dose measurements were made in a plastic phantom (PMMA) at 287 optimized points. An algorithm was designed to search for points with the lowest dose gradient. Measurements were made also at 39 nonoptimized points. Results were normalized to a reference homogeneous field introducing a dose ratio factor, which allowed us to compare measured vs. calculated values as percentile dose ratio factor deviations {delta}F (%). A tolerance range of {delta}F (%) of {+-}3% was considered. Results: Half of the {delta}F (%) values obtained at nonoptimized points were outside the acceptable range. Values at optimized points were widely spread for the largest IC (i.e., 60% of the results outside the tolerance range), whereas for the two small-volume ICs, only 14.6% of the results were outside the tolerance interval. No differences were observed when comparing the two small ICs. Conclusions: The presented optimization algorithm is a useful tool to determine the best IC in-field position for optimal dose measurement conditions. A good agreement between calculated and measured doses can be obtained by positioning small volume chambers at carefully selected points in the field. Large chambers may be unreliable even in optimized points for IMRT fields {<=}10 cm x 10 cm.
Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H.; Pai, F.S.; Chang, C.C.
2009-12-15
The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)
Harris, G T
1989-03-01
This study examined the relationship between neuroleptic medication dose and performance in a token economy program on two maximum security psychiatric wards. Patients receiving higher than average doses exhibited poorer than average program performance but there was a small but statistically significant positive relationship between neuroleptic drug dose (measured in CPZ units/kg) and program performance. However, this positive relationship existed only for the first few weeks of patients' hospital stays, and there was a delay (approximately 2 weeks) between the administration of the drug and the maximal positive effect on program performance. Only a very small minority of medication changes were ever followed by improvements in program performance. The results are discussed in terms of what is a rational strategy for the provision of psychiatric medication and other forms of treatment in institutional settings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, K. L.; Tang, F. Y. C.; Gaizauskas, V.; Poland, A. I.
1986-01-01
A dominate association of coronal bright points (as seen in He wavelength 10830) was confirmed with the approach and subsequent disappearance of opposite polarity magnetic network. While coronal bright points do occur with ephemeral regions, this association is a factor of 2 to 4 less than with sites of disappearing magnetic flux. The intensity variations seen in He I wavelength 10830 are intermittent and often rapid, varying over the 3 minute time resolution of the data; their bright point counterparts in the C IV wavelength 1548 and 20 cm wavelength show similar, though not always coincident time variations. Ejecta are associated with about 1/3 of the dark points and are evident in the C IV and H alpha data. These results support the idea that the anti-correlation of X-ray bright points with the solar cycle can be explained by the correlation of these coronal emission structures with sites of cancelling flux, indicating that, in some cases, the process of magnetic flux removal results in the release of energy. That the intensity variations are rapid and variable suggests that this process works intermittently.
Tachim Medjo, Theodore
2010-08-15
We study in this article the Pontryagin's maximum principle for a class of control problems associated with the primitive equations (PEs) of the ocean with two point boundary state constraint. These optimal problems involve a two point boundary state constraint similar to that considered in Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The main difference between this work and Wang, Nonlinear Anal. 51, 509-536, 2002 is that the nonlinearity in the PEs is stronger than in the three-dimensional NS systems.
1990-10-26
Version 00 The program ZYLIND is an interactive point kernel program for photon dose rate prediction of a homogeneous cylindrical source shielded by cylindrical (radial) or plane (axial) layered shields.
Beyond Maximum Independent Set: AN Extended Model for Point-Feature Label Placement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Wolff, Alexander
2016-06-01
Map labeling is a classical problem of cartography that has frequently been approached by combinatorial optimization. Given a set of features in the map and for each feature a set of label candidates, a common problem is to select an independent set of labels (that is, a labeling without label-label overlaps) that contains as many labels as possible and at most one label for each feature. To obtain solutions of high cartographic quality, the labels can be weighted and one can maximize the total weight (rather than the number) of the selected labels. We argue, however, that when maximizing the weight of the labeling, interdependences between labels are insufficiently addressed. Furthermore, in a maximum-weight labeling, the labels tend to be densely packed and thus the map background can be occluded too much. We propose extensions of an existing model to overcome these limitations. Since even without our extensions the problem is NP-hard, we cannot hope for an efficient exact algorithm for the problem. Therefore, we present a formalization of our model as an integer linear program (ILP). This allows us to compute optimal solutions in reasonable time, which we demonstrate for randomly generated instances.
Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Tsurugai, Yuichiro; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke
2016-01-01
We previously reported that the local control of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) following stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with moderate prescription dose was relatively worse. We investigated the treatment outcomes and toxicities of patients with oligometastases from CRC treated by SBRT using risk-adapted, very high- and convergent-dose regimens. Among patients referred for SBRT from August 2011 to January 2015, those patients were extracted who had liver or pulmonary metastases from CRC, and they were treated with a total dose of 50–60 Gy in five fractions prescribed to the 60% isodose line of the maximum dose covering the surface of the planning target volume. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy was not admitted during SBRT, while neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was allowed. A total of 21 patients (12 liver, 9 lung) with 28 oligometastases were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 27.5 months (range: 6.5–43.3 months). Four patients were treated with SBRT as a series of initial treatments, and 17 patients were treated after recurrent oligometastases. The local control rates at 1 and 2 years from the start of SBRT were 100%. The disease-free and actuarial overall survival rates were 62% and 55%, and 79% and 79%, respectively. No severe toxicities (≥grade 3) occurred during follow-up. The outcomes following high-dose SBRT were excellent. This treatment can provide an alternative to the surgical resection of oligometastases from CRC. Prospective studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of SBRT. PMID:26983981
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadian, Radin
2010-09-01
This study investigated the relationship of anthocyanin concentration from different organic fruit species and output voltage and current in a TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and hypothesized that fruits with greater anthocyanin concentration produce higher maximum power point (MPP) which would lead to higher current and voltage. Anthocyanin dye solution was made with crushing of a group of fresh fruits with different anthocyanin content in 2 mL of de-ionized water and filtration. Using these test fruit dyes, multiple DSSCs were assembled such that light enters through the TiO2 side of the cell. The full current-voltage (I-V) co-variations were measured using a 500 Ω potentiometer as a variable load. Point-by point current and voltage data pairs were measured at various incremental resistance values. The maximum power point (MPP) generated by the solar cell was defined as a dependent variable and the anthocyanin concentration in the fruit used in the DSSC as the independent variable. A regression model was used to investigate the linear relationship between study variables. Regression analysis showed a significant linear relationship between MPP and anthocyanin concentration with a p-value of 0.007. Fruits like blueberry and black raspberry with the highest anthocyanin content generated higher MPP. In a DSSC, a linear model may predict MPP based on the anthocyanin concentration. This model is the first step to find organic anthocyanin sources in the nature with the highest dye concentration to generate energy.
Effect of tissue inhomogeneity on dose distribution of point sources of low-energy electrons.
Kwok, C S; Bialobzyski, P J; Yu, S K; Prestwich, W V
1990-01-01
Perturbation in dose distributions of point sources of low-energy electrons at planar interfaces of cortical bone (CB) and red marrow (RM) was investigated experimentally and by Monte Carlo codes EGS and the TIGER series. Ultrathin LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure the dose distributions of point sources of 204Tl and 147Pm in RM. When the point sources were at 12 mg/cm2 from a planar interface of CB and RM equivalent plastics, dose enhancement ratios in RM averaged over the region 0-12 mg/cm2 from the interface were measured to be 1.08 +/- 0.03 (SE) and 1.03 +/- 0.03 (SE) for 204Tl and 147Pm, respectively. The Monte Carlo codes predicted 1.05 +/- 0.02 and 1.01 +/- 0.02 for the two nuclides, respectively. However, EGS gave consistently 3% higher dose in the dose scoring region than the TIGER series when point sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 0.75 MeV energy were considered in the homogeneous RM situation or in the CB and RM heterogeneous situation. By means of the TIGER series, it was demonstrated that aluminum, which is normally assumed to be equivalent to CB in radiation dosimetry, leads to an overestimation of backscattering of low-energy electrons in soft tissue at a CB-soft-tissue interface by as much as a factor of 2.
A two-dimensional point-kernel model for dose calculations in a glovebox array
Kornreich, D.E.; Dooley, D.E.
1999-06-01
An associated paper details a model of a room containing gloveboxes using the industry standard dose equivalent (dose) estimation tool MCNP. Such tools provide an excellent means for obtaining relatively reliable estimates of radiation transport in a complicated geometric structure. However, creating the input deck that models the complicated geometry is equally complicated. Therefore, an alternative tool is desirable that provides reasonable accurate dose estimates in complicated geometries for use in engineering-scale dose analyses. In the past, several tools that use the point-kernel model for estimating doses equivalent have been constructed (those referenced are only a small sample of similar tools). This new tool, the Photon and Neutron Dose Equivalent Model Of Nuclear materials Integrated with an Uncomplicated geometry Model (PANDEMONIUM), combines point-kernel and diffusion theory calculation routines with a simple geometry construction tool. PANDEMONIUM uses Visio{trademark} to draw a glovebox array in the room, including hydrogenous shields, sources and detectors. This simplification in geometric rendering limits the tool to two-dimensional geometries (and one-dimensional particle transport calculations).
He, Yi; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam
2015-12-28
Coarse-grained models are useful tools to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of biomolecules. They are obtained by merging several atoms into one interaction site. Such simplified models try to capture as much as possible information of the original biomolecular system in all-atom representation but the resulting parameters of these coarse-grained force fields still need further optimization. In this paper, a force field optimization method, which is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of the simulated to the experimental conformational ensembles and least-squares fitting of the simulated to the experimental heat-capacity curves, is applied to optimize the Nucleic Acid united-RESidue 2-point (NARES-2P) model for coarse-grained simulations of nucleic acids recently developed in our laboratory. The optimized NARES-2P force field reproduces the structural and thermodynamic data of small DNA molecules much better than the original force field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yi; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.
2015-12-01
Coarse-grained models are useful tools to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of biomolecules. They are obtained by merging several atoms into one interaction site. Such simplified models try to capture as much as possible information of the original biomolecular system in all-atom representation but the resulting parameters of these coarse-grained force fields still need further optimization. In this paper, a force field optimization method, which is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of the simulated to the experimental conformational ensembles and least-squares fitting of the simulated to the experimental heat-capacity curves, is applied to optimize the Nucleic Acid united-RESidue 2-point (NARES-2P) model for coarse-grained simulations of nucleic acids recently developed in our laboratory. The optimized NARES-2P force field reproduces the structural and thermodynamic data of small DNA molecules much better than the original force field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.
2012-06-01
According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan
2016-02-01
Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.
Gellee, S; Page, J; Sanghera, B; Payoux, P; Wagner, Thomas
2014-05-01
Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) from fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans is a semi quantitative measure that is increasingly used in the clinical practice for diagnostic and therapeutic response assessment purposes. Technological advances such as the implementation of the point spread function (PSF) in the reconstruction algorithm have led to higher signal to noise ratio and increased spatial resolution. The impact on SUVmax measurements has not been studied in clinical setting. We studied the impact of PSF on SUVmax in 30 consecutive lung cancer patients. SUVmax values were measured on PET-computed tomography (CT) scans reconstructed iteratively with and without PSF (respectively high-definition [HD] and non-HD). HD SUVmax values were significantly higher than non-HD SUVmax. There was excellent correlation between HD and non-HD values. Details of reconstruction and PSF implementation in particular have important consequences on SUV values. Nuclear Medicine physicians and radiologists should be aware of the reconstruction parameters of PET-CT scans when they report or rely on SUV measurements. PMID:25191128
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu
Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molognoni, Daniele; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, M. Dolors; Liberale, Alessandro; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Callegari, Arianna; Colprim, Jesús
2014-12-01
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are considered to be an environmental friendly energy conversion technology. The main limitations that delay their industrialization include low current and power densities achievable and long start-up times. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has been proposed as a method to enhance MFCs electrical performances. However, the specialized literature is still lacking of experimental works on scaled-up reactors and/or real wastewater utilization. This study evaluates the impact of a MPPT system applied to MFCs treating swine wastewater in terms of start-up time and long-term performance. For this purpose, two replicate cells were compared, one with applied MPPT control and one working with fixed resistance. Both MFCs were continuously fed with swine wastewater to validate the control system under real and dynamic conditions. The study demonstrated that the automatic resistance control was able to reduce the start-up time of about one month. Moreover, MPPT system increased of 40% the Coulombic efficiency at steady-state conditions, reduced energy losses associated with anode and cathode reactions and limited methanogenic activity in the anode chamber. A power density of 5.0 ± 0.2 W m-3 NAC was achieved feeding the system at an organic loading rate of 10 kg COD m-3 d-1.
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Constantin, Dragos; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Girard, Erin; Morin, Richard L.; Dixon, Robert L.; Fahrig, Rebecca
2015-01-01
Purpose: To propose new dose point measurement-based metrics to characterize the dose distributions and the mean dose from a single partial rotation of an automatic exposure control-enabled, C-arm-based, wide cone angle computed tomography system over a stationary, large, body-shaped phantom. Methods: A small 0.6 cm3 ion chamber (IC) was used to measure the radiation dose in an elliptical body-shaped phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The IC was placed at 23 well-distributed holes in the central and peripheral regions of the phantom and dose was recorded for six acquisition protocols with different combinations of minimum kVp (109 and 125 kVp) and z-collimator aperture (full: 22.2 cm; medium: 14.0 cm; small: 8.4 cm). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to generate complete 2D dose distributions in the central plane (z = 0). The MC model was validated at the 23 dose points against IC experimental data. The planar dose distributions were then estimated using subsets of the point dose measurements using two proposed methods: (1) the proximity-based weighting method (method 1) and (2) the dose point surface fitting method (method 2). Twenty-eight different dose point distributions with six different point number cases (4, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 23 dose points) were evaluated to determine the optimal number of dose points and their placement in the phantom. The performances of the methods were determined by comparing their results with those of the validated MC simulations. The performances of the methods in the presence of measurement uncertainties were evaluated. Results: The 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases had differences below 2%, ranging from 1.0% to 1.7% for both methods, which is a performance comparable to that of the methods with a relatively large number of points, i.e., the 14- and 23-point cases. However, with the 4-point case, the performances of the two methods decreased sharply. Among the 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-point cases, the 7-point case (1.0% [±0
Raghib, Michael; Hill, Nicholas A; Dieckmann, Ulf
2011-05-01
The prevalence of structure in biological populations challenges fundamental assumptions at the heart of continuum models of population dynamics based only on mean densities (local or global). Individual-based models (IBMs) were introduced during the last decade in an attempt to overcome this limitation by following explicitly each individual in the population. Although the IBM approach has been quite useful, the capability to follow each individual usually comes at the expense of analytical tract ability, which limits the generality of the statements that can be made. For the specific case of spatial structure in populations of sessile (and identical) organisms, space-time point processes with local regulation seem to cover the middle ground between analytical tract ability and a higher degree of biological realism. This approach has shown that simplified representations of fecundity, local dispersal and density-dependent mortality weighted by the local competitive environment are sufficient to generate spatial patterns that mimic field observations. Continuum approximations of these stochastic processes try to distill their fundamental properties, and they keep track of not only mean densities, but also higher order spatial correlations. However, due to the non-linearities involved they result in infinite hierarchies of moment equations. This leads to the problem of finding a 'moment closure'; that is, an appropriate order of (lower order) truncation, together with a method of expressing the highest order density not explicitly modelled in the truncated hierarchy in terms of the lower order densities. We use the principle of constrained maximum entropy to derive a closure relationship for truncation at second order using normalisation and the product densities of first and second orders as constraints, and apply it to one such hierarchy. The resulting 'maxent' closure is similar to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, or 'power-3' closure, but it is
Badkul, R; McClinton, C; Kumar, P; Mitchell, M
2014-06-01
Purpose: Brachytherapy plays a crucial role in management of cervix cancer. MRI compatible applicators have made it possible to accurately delineate gross-target-volume(GTV) and organs-at-risk(OAR) volumes, as well as directly plan, optimize and adapt dose-distribution for each insertion. We sought to compare DVH of tumor-coverage and OARs to traditional Point-A, ICRU-38 bladder and rectum point-doses for four different planning-techniques. Methods: MRI based 3D-planning was performed on Nucletron-Oncentra-TPS for 3 selected patients with varying tumor-sizes and anatomy. GTV,high-risk-clinical-target-volume(HR-CTV), intermediate-risk-clinical-target-volume(IR-CTV) and OARs: rectum, bladder, sigmoid-colon, vaginal-mucosa were delineated. Three conventionally used techniques: mg-Radium-equivalent(RaEq),equal-dwell-weights(EDW), Medical-College-of-Wisconsin proposed points-optimization (MCWO) and a manual-graphical-optimization(MGO) volume-coverage based technique were applied for each patient. Prescription was 6Gy delivered to point-A in Conventional techniques (RaEq, EDW, MCWO). For MGO, goal was to achieve 90%-coverage (D90) to HR-CTV with prescription-dose. ICRU point doses for rectum and bladder, point-A doses, DVH-doses for HR-CTV-D90,0.1cc-volume(D0.1),1ccvolume( D1),2cc-volume(D2) were collected for all plans and analyzed . Results: Mean D90 for HR-CTV normalized to MGO were 0.89,0.84,0.9,1.0 for EDW, RaEq, MCWO, MGO respectively. Mean point-A doses were 21.7% higher for MGO. Conventional techniques with Point-A prescriptions under covered HR-CTV-D90 by average of 12% as compared to MGO. Rectum, bladder and sigmoid doses were highest in MGO-plans for ICRU points as well as D0.1,D1 and D2 doses. Among conventional-techniques, rectum and bladder ICRU and DVH doses(0.1,1,2cc) were not significantly different (within 7%).Rectum D0.1 provided good estimation of ICRU-rectum-point doses (within 3.9%),rectum D0.1 were higher from 0.8 to 3.9% while bladder D0
Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.
1990-10-01
The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.
2013-01-01
Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that
Sessions, J B; Roshau, J N; Tressler, M A; Hintenlang, D E; Arreola, M M; Williams, J L; Bouchet, L G; Bolch, W E
2002-06-01
Pediatric radiographic examinations yield medical benefits and/or diagnostic information that must be balanced against potential risk from patient radiation exposure. Consequently, clinical tools for measuring internal organ dose are needed for medical risk assessment. In this study, a physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulation model of the newborn patient were developed based upon their stylized mathematical expressions (ORNL and MIRD model series). The physical phantom was constructed using tissue equivalent substitutes for soft tissue, lung, and skeleton. Twenty metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were then inserted at three-dimensional positions representing the centroids of organs assigned in the ICRP's definition of the effective dose. MOSFET-derived point estimates of organ dose were shown to be in reasonable agreement with Monte Carlo estimates for representative newborn head, chest, and abdomen radiographic exams. Ratios of average organ dose assessed via MCNP simulations to the MOSFET-derived point doses (point-to-organ dose scaling factors, SF(POD)) are tabulated for subsequent use in clinical irradiations of the newborn phantom/MOSFET system. Values of SF(POD) indicate that MOSFET measurements of point dose for in-field exposures need to be adjusted only to within 10% to report volume-averaged organ dose. Larger adjustments to point doses are noted for organs out-of-field. For walled organs, point estimates of organ dose at the content centroid are shown to underestimate the average wall dose when the organ is within the primary field: SF(POD) of 1.19 for the stomach (AP chest exam), and SF(POD) of 1.15 for the urinary bladder (AP abdomen exam).
Yamanouchi, Tsuneaki; Horiuchi, Kenichi; Ishii, Kazunari; Mimura, Yasuhiko; Kato, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao
2014-01-01
The adsorption of Bevacizumab, Trastuzumab, Rituximab, Nedaplatin, Vincristine sulfate, Nogitecan hydrochloride, Actinomycin D and Ramosetron hydrochloride to 0.2 μm endotoxin-retentive in-line filters was evaluated with pediatric doses by UV spectrophotometry. The results indicated that some drug adsorption was shown with Nogitecan hydrochloride, Actinomycin D and Ramosetron hydrochloride, and good recovery was shown with the other five drugs. For the three drugs which showed some losses, drug recovery was investigated at multiple test doses. The approximation formula for each drug adsorption was recorded as Y=100-A/X (X: dose (mg), Y: recovery rate (%), A: a constant for individual drug). The results showed there was high correlation between the reciprocal of test drug dose and the recovery rate. Furthermore, in the cases where adsorption to the filter were observed, it was found that it was possible to determine the relationship between dose and the recovery rate from a filterability test with one point pediatric dose. Since the recovery rate obtained from the approximation formula with multiple doses and that calculated from the prediction formula with one point pediatric dose were almost the same, then it was concluded that it is not necessary to conduct the filterability tests with multiple doses. We have shown that using UV spectrophotometry and carrying out a filterability test using one point pediatric dose is relatively easy method and reduces the effort and expense. This method for analysis of drug adsorption is extremely useful when using in-line filters with infusion therapy.
Nakagawa, Akiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kubo, Nobuteru; Kuwako, Keiko; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Nakano, Takashi
2014-07-01
We investigated the rectal dose-sparing effect and tumor control of a point A dose-reduced plan in patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) arising from a small-sized uterus. Between October 2008 and August 2011, 19 patients with Stage I-II cervical cancer (≤4 cm) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the pelvis and CT-guided brachytherapy. Seven patients were treated with brachytherapy with standard loading of source-dwell positions and a fraction dose of 6 Gy at point A (conventional brachy-plan). The other 12 patients with a small uterus close to the rectum or small intestine were treated with brachytherapy with a point A dose-reduction to match D2cc of the rectum and <6 Gy as the dose constraint ('point A dose-reduced plan') instead of the 6-Gy plan at point A ('tentative 6-Gy plan'). The total doses from EBRT and brachytherapy were added up and normalized to a biological equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The median doses to the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 in the conventional brachy-plan, tentative 6-Gy plan and point A dose-reduced plan were 62 GyEQD2, 80 GyEQD2 and 64 GyEQD2, respectively. The median doses of rectal D2cc in the corresponding three plans were 42 GyEQD2, 62 GyEQD2 and 51 GyEQD2, respectively. With a median follow-up period of 35 months, three patients developed Grade-1 late rectal complications and no patients developed local recurrence. Our preliminary results suggested that CT-guided brachytherapy using an individualized point A dose-reduced plan might be useful for reducing late rectal complications while maintaining primary tumor control.
A Signal-to-Noise Crossover Dose as the Point of Departure for Health Risk Assessment
Portier, Christopher J.; Krewski, Daniel
2011-01-01
Background: The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay database provides an opportunity to compare both existing and new approaches to determining points of departure (PoDs) for establishing reference doses (RfDs). Objectives: The aims of this study were a) to investigate the risk associated with the traditional PoD used in human health risk assessment [the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)]; b) to present a new approach based on the signal-to-noise crossover dose (SNCD); and c) to compare the SNCD and SNCD-based RfD with PoDs and RfDs based on the NOAEL and benchmark dose (BMD) approaches. Methods: The complete NTP database was used as the basis for these analyses, which were performed using the Hill model. We determined NOAELs and estimated corresponding extra risks. Lower 95% confidence bounds on the BMD (BMDLs) corresponding to extra risks of 1%, 5%, and 10% (BMDL01, BMDL05, and BMDL10, respectively) were also estimated. We introduce the SNCD as a new PoD, defined as the dose where the additional risk is equal to the “background noise” (the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the two-sided 90% confidence interval on absolute risk) or a specified fraction thereof. Results: The median risk at the NOAEL was approximately 10%, and the default uncertainty factor (UF = 100) was considered most applicable to the BMDL10. Therefore, we chose a target risk of 1/1,000 (0.1/100) to derive an SNCD-based RfD by linear extrapolation. At the median, this approach provided the same RfD as the BMDL10 divided by the default UF. Conclusions: Under a standard BMD approach, the BMDL10 is considered to be the most appropriate PoD. The SNCD approach, which is based on the lowest dose at which the signal can be reliably detected, warrants further development as a PoD for human health risk assessment. PMID:21813365
Li, Jie; Li, Chao; Sun, Hong-Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Luo, Jun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q
2016-01-01
Different animals and biomarkers have been used to measure the relative bioavailability of arsenic (As-RBA) in contaminated soils. However, there is a lack of As-RBA comparison based on different animals (i.e., swine and mouse) and biomarkers [area under blood As concentration curve (AUC) after a single gavaged dose vs steady-state As urinary excretion (SSUE) and As accumulation in liver or kidney after multiple doses via diet]. In this study, As-RBA in 12 As-contaminated soils with known As-RBA via swine blood AUC model were measured by mouse blood AUC, SSUE, and liver and kidney analyses. As-RBA ranges for the four mouse assays were 2.8-61%, 3.6-64%, 3.9-74%, and 3.4-61%. Compared to swine blood AUC assay (7.0-81%), though well correlated (R(2) = 0.83), the mouse blood AUC assay yielded lower values (2.8-61%). Similarly, strong correlations of As-RBA were observed between mouse blood AUC and mouse SSUE (R(2) = 0.86) and between urine, liver, and kidney (R(2) = 0.75-0.89), suggesting As-RBA was congruent among different animals and end points. Different animals and biomarkers had little impact on the outcome of in vivo assays to validate in vitro assays. On the basis of its simplicity, mouse liver or kidney assay following repeated doses of soil-amended diet is recommended for future As-RBA studies. PMID:26595746
Economopoulos, A P
1991-01-01
A pollutant dispersion model is developed, allowing fast evaluation of the maximum credible 1-h average concentration on any given ground-level receptor, along with the corresponding critical meteorological conditions (wind speed and stability class) for stacks with buoyant plumes in urban or rural areas. Site-specific meteorological data are not required, as the computed concentrations are maximized against all credible combinations of wind speed, stability class, and mixing height. The analysis is based on the dispersion relations of Pasquill-Gifford and Briggs for rural and urban settings, respectively, the buoyancy induced dispersion correlation of Pasquill, the wind profile exponent values suggested by Irwin, the buoyant plume rise relations of Briggs, as well as the Benkley and Schulman's model for the minimum mixing heights. The model is particularly suited for air pollution management studies, as it allows fast screening of the maximum impact on any selected receptor and evaluation of the ways to have this impact reduced. It is also suited for regulatory purposes, as it can be used to define the minimum stack size requirements for a given source as a function of the exit gas volume and temperature, the pollutant emission rates and their hourly concentration standards, as well as the source location relative to sensitive receptors.
Spiegler, P.
1981-09-01
As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.
Sadasivam, Rajani S; Gathibandhe, Vaibhav; Tanik, Murat M; Willig, James H
2012-06-01
Medication dosing errors can greatly reduce HIV treatment effectiveness as incorrect dosing leads to drug resistance and non-adherence. In order to dose correctly, HIV therapy providers must balance several patient characteristics such as renal functions and weight. In developing countries and other resource-limited settings, dosing errors are more likely because treatment is provided by mid-level providers with only basic training in HIV therapy. These providers also typically lack electronic tools informing medical decisions. Widespread adoption of mobile phones in developing nations offers an opportunity to implement a point-of-care system to help providers reduce dosing errors. We discuss the development of the mHIV-Dr system prototype using the new Android mobile platform. mHIV-Dr is being designed to provide dosing recommendations for front-line providers in developing countries. We also discuss the additional challenges in the implementation of the mHIV-Dr system in a resource limited setting.
Basu, Partha; Bhatla, Neerja; Ngoma, Twalib; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy
2016-06-01
World Health Organization (WHO) recommended 2 doses of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls below 15 y on the basis of the immune-bridging studies demonstrating non-inferior immune response of 2 doses in the adolescent girls compared to 3 doses in the young adult women in whom the efficacy against disease is established. The biological nature of the antigens (virus-like particles) constituting the HPV vaccine is responsible for the vigorous antibody response that may make the third dose redundant. The protection offered by 2 doses has been demonstrated in non-randomized clinical trials to be comparable to that offered by 3 doses against incident and persistent infections of vaccine targeted HPV types. However, results emerging from the ecological and nested case-control studies embedded in the population based screening programs of different countries indicate reduced efficacy of 2 doses against virological and disease end points. Some recent studies observed the protective effect of single dose of the vaccine against incident and persistent infections of the vaccine targeted HPV types to be similar to 3 doses in spite of immunological inferiority. The sample size, duration of follow-ups and number of events were limited in these studies. Longer follow ups of the less than 3 doses cohorts in the ongoing studies as well as appropriately designed and ethically justifiable randomized studies are needed to establish the protection offered by the alternative schedules at least beyond 10 y of vaccination. PMID:26933961
Peck, George W; Kirkup, Benjamin C
2012-09-01
The larvae of calliphorid flies are used to debride wounds of patients with severe tissue destruction, often concurrently with antimicrobials. The current study evaluates the effects of ceftazidime, tobramycin, amikacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, doxycycline, paromomycin, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and miltefosine at 1, 10, and 100 x the Maximum Clinical Concentration (mg/kg/d) in raw liver assays. Effects on larvae were small and depended on dose and antimicrobial formulation, with hours in assay (24 or 48 h) having a significant effect on larval survival. Sodium stibgluconate had the strongest effect on maggot survival (80.0% at 48 h). These results suggest that the antimicrobials tested here may be used simultaneously with maggot debridement therapy, and may actually increase the effectiveness of maggot debridement therapy in certain applications where >1 x Maximum Clinical Concentration is indicated, such as topical creams for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Martin G. De Kauwe; Serbin, Shawn P.; Lin, Yan -Shih; Wright, Ian J.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ellsworth, David S.; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I. Colin; Atkin, Owen K.; et al
2015-12-31
Here, simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax). Estimating this parameter using A–Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a ‘one-point method’.
Zhen, Xin; Chen, Haibin; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Linghong; Mell, Loren K; Yashar, Catheryn M; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Cervino, Laura
2015-04-01
Deformable image registration (DIR) of fractional high-dose-rate (HDR) CT images is challenging due to the presence of applicators in the brachytherapy image. Point-to-point correspondence fails because of the undesired deformation vector fields (DVF) propagated from the applicator region (AR) to the surrounding tissues, which can potentially introduce significant DIR errors in dose mapping. This paper proposes a novel segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient DIR (named SPEED) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among HDR treatment fractions. In SPEED, a semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented fore/background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm, which is used to segment and remove the AR, leaving empty AR cavities in the HDR CT images. A feature-based 'thin-plate-spline robust point matching' algorithm is then employed for AR cavity surface points matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF defining on each voxel is estimated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the subsequent Demons-based DIR between the AR-free HDR CT images. The calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative analysis and visual inspection of the DIR results indicate that SPEED can suppress the impact of applicator on DIR, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses. PMID:25790059
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhen, Xin; Chen, Haibin; Yan, Hao; Zhou, Linghong; Mell, Loren K.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Jiang, Steve; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Cervino, Laura
2015-04-01
Deformable image registration (DIR) of fractional high-dose-rate (HDR) CT images is challenging due to the presence of applicators in the brachytherapy image. Point-to-point correspondence fails because of the undesired deformation vector fields (DVF) propagated from the applicator region (AR) to the surrounding tissues, which can potentially introduce significant DIR errors in dose mapping. This paper proposes a novel segmentation and point-matching enhanced efficient DIR (named SPEED) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among HDR treatment fractions. In SPEED, a semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented fore/background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm, which is used to segment and remove the AR, leaving empty AR cavities in the HDR CT images. A feature-based ‘thin-plate-spline robust point matching’ algorithm is then employed for AR cavity surface points matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF defining on each voxel is estimated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the subsequent Demons-based DIR between the AR-free HDR CT images. The calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative analysis and visual inspection of the DIR results indicate that SPEED can suppress the impact of applicator on DIR, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses.
Forette, F; Anand, R; Gharabawi, G
1999-07-01
Rivastigmine is a carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor with central selectivity. Early studies showed that daily doses up to 6 mg/day have some efficacy in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The present study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of rivastigmine at doses up to 12 mg/day. A total of 114 patients with mild-moderate DAT were randomly assigned to either rivastigmine (b.i.d. (twice daily) or t.i.d. (three times daily)) or placebo in a double-blind fashion titrated to their maximum tolerated dose over 10 weeks followed by an eight-week maintenance phase. The mean maximum tolerated dose was approximately 10 mg/day (b.i.d. or t.i.d.). Gastrointestinal complaints, the majority of which were mild to moderate, were the most frequently reported adverse events. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, haematology or organ function were detected. Significantly more patients taking rivastigmine b.i.d. were considered improved according to the Clinicians' Interview-Based Impression of Change-Plus (CIBIC-Plus) vs. placebo (57% vs. 16%, respectively; P = 0.027). The Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) (memory component) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) also improved in the rivastigmine b.i.d. group vs. placebo (mean change from baseline on NOSGER = -0.7 vs. +1.3, respectively; P = 0.037: mean change from baseline on ADAS-cog = -2.7 vs. +0.2, respectively; P = 0.054). Despite the relatively small size and limited duration of the study, the finding that rivastigmine induced changes in the same (positive) direction in all three dimensions measured suggests that rivastigmine at doses of up to 12 mg/day has useful efficacy in patients with mild-moderate DAT. Reports from larger phase III studies confirm this finding. The results of this study also suggest that b.i.d. is the more efficacious regimen and has comparable tolerability to the t.i.d. regimen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.
The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in Geo-stationary Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper
Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Sanuki, Naoko; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Aoki, Yousuke; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Kaneko, Takeshi; Nishimura, Shuichi; Kunieda, Etsuo
2014-09-01
We evaluated toxicity and outcomes for patients with peripheral lung tumors treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in a dose-escalation and dose-convergence study. A total of 15 patients were enrolled. SBRT was performed with 60 Gy in 5 fractions (fr.) prescribed to the 60% isodose line of maximum dose, which was 100 Gy in 5 fr., covering the planning target volume (PTV) surface (60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose)) using dynamic conformal multiple arc therapy (DCMAT). The primary endpoint was radiation pneumonitis (RP) ≥ Grade 2 within 6 months. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Using dose-volumetric analysis, the trial regimen of 60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose) was compared with our institutional conventional regimen of 50 Gy/5 fr. - (80%-isodose). The enrolled consecutive patients had either a solitary peripheral tumor or two ipsilateral tumors. The median follow-up duration was 22.0 (12.0-27.0) months. After 6 months post-SBRT, the respective number of RP Grade 0, 1 and 2 cases was 5, 9 and 1. In the Grade 2 RP patient, the image showed an organizing pneumonia pattern at 6.0 months post-SBRT. No other toxicity was found. At last follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence of the treated tumors. The target volumes of 60 Gy/ 5 fr. - (60%-isodose) were irradiated with a significantly higher dose than those of 50 Gy/5 fr. - (80%-isodose), while the former dosimetric parameters of normal lung were almost equivalent to the latter. SBRT with 60 Gy/5 fr. - (60%-isodose) using DCMAT allowed the delivery of very high and convergent doses to peripheral lung tumors with feasibility in the acute and subacute phases. Further follow-up is required to assess for late toxicity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datsenko, I.; Lozovenko, O.; Minaiev, Yu
2016-09-01
In their recent paper, Wang and Su (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 055010) acquainted readers with a solution to a problem about the optimal shape of an object for generating a maximum gravity field at a given point in space. After applying the variational principal and the Euler-Lagrange equation they obtained the shape for two-, three- and arbitrary n-dimensional cases. We are convinced that the problem is interesting enough to consider it with students. In this Comment we will try to present an easier way to solve it for the three-dimensional space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datsenko, I.; Lozovenko, O.; Minaiev, Yu
2016-09-01
In their recent paper, Wang and Su (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 055010) acquainted readers with a solution to a problem about the optimal shape of an object for generating a maximum gravity field at a given point in space. After applying the variational principal and the Euler–Lagrange equation they obtained the shape for two-, three- and arbitrary n-dimensional cases. We are convinced that the problem is interesting enough to consider it with students. In this Comment we will try to present an easier way to solve it for the three-dimensional space.
Martin G. De Kauwe; Serbin, Shawn P.; Lin, Yan -Shih; Wright, Ian J.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ellsworth, David S.; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I. Colin; Atkin, Owen K.; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ulo; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F.; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Evans, Bradley J.; Ishida, F. Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F.
2015-12-31
Here, simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (V_{cmax}). Estimating this parameter using A–C_{i} curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO_{2} concentration, C_{i}) is laborious, which limits availability of V_{cmax }data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO_{2} concentration (A_{sat}) measurements, from which V_{cmax} can be extracted using a ‘one-point method’.
Detector density and small field dosimetry: Integral versus point dose measurement schemes
Underwood, T. S. A. Hill, M. A.; Fenwick, J. D.
2013-08-01
Purpose: TheAlfonso et al. [Med. Phys.35, 5179–5186 (2008)] formalism for small field dosimetry proposes a set of correction factors (k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}) which account for differences between the detector response in nonstandard (clinical) and machine-specific-reference fields. In this study, the Monte Carlo method was used to investigate the viability of such small field correction factors for four different detectors irradiated under a variety of conditions. Because k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values for single detector position measurements are influenced by several factors, a new theoretical formalism for integrated-detector-position [dose area product (DAP)] measurements is also presented and was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: A BEAMnrc linac model was built and validated for a Varian Clinac iX accelerator. Using the egs++ geometry package, detailed virtual models were built for four different detectors: a PTW 60012 unshielded diode, a PTW 60003 Diamond detector, a PTW 31006 PinPoint (ionization chamber), and a PTW 31018 MicroLion (liquid-filled ionization chamber). The egs-chamber code was used to investigate the variation ofk{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} with detector type, detector construction, field size, off-axis position, and the azimuthal angle between the detector and beam axis. Simulations were also used to consider the DAP obtained by each detector: virtual detectors and water voxels were scanned through high resolution grids of positions extending far beyond the boundaries of the fields under consideration. Results: For each detector, the correction factor (k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s
Boockvar, John A.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Kovanlikaya, Ilham I; Fralin, Sherese; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Seedial, Stephen M.; Pannullo, Susan C.; Schwartz, Theodore H.; Stieg, Philip; Zimmerman, Robert D.; Knopman, Jared; Scheff, Ronald J.; Christos, Paul; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Riina, Howard A.
2013-01-01
Object The authors assessed the safety and maximum tolerated dose of superselective intraarterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of bevacizumab after osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with mannitol in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Methods A total of 30 patients with recurrent malignant glioma were included in the current study. Results The authors report no dose-limiting toxicity from a single dose of SIACI of bevacizumab up to 15 mg/kg after osmotic BBB disruption with mannitol. Two groups of patients were studied; those without prior bevacizumab exposure (naïve patients; Group I) and those who had received previous intravenous bevacizumab (exposed patients; Group II). Radiographic changes demonstrated on MR imaging were assessed at 1 month postprocedure. In Group I patients, MR imaging at 1 month showed a median reduction in the area of tumor enhancement of 34.7%, a median reduction in the volume of tumor enhancement of 46.9%, a median MR perfusion (MRP) reduction of 32.14%, and a T2-weighted/FLAIR signal decrease in 9 (47.4%) of 19 patients. In Group II patients, MR imaging at 1 month showed a median reduction in the area of tumor enhancement of 15.2%, a median volume reduction of 8.3%, a median MRP reduction of 25.5%, and a T2-weighted FLAIR decrease in 0 (0%) of 11 patients. Conclusions The authors conclude that SIACI of mannitol followed by bevacizumab (up to 15 mg/kg) for recurrent malignant glioma is safe and well tolerated. Magnetic resonance imaging shows that SIACI treatment with bevacizumab can lead to reduction in tumor area, volume, perfusion, and T2-weighted/FLAIR signal. PMID:20964595
Izadi, Hoda; Grundy, Jean E; Bose, Ranjan
2012-05-01
Repeated-dose studies received by the New Substances Assessment and Control Bureau (NSACB) of Health Canada are used to provide hazard information toward risk calculation. These studies provide a point of departure (POD), traditionally the NOAEL or LOAEL, which is used to extrapolate the quantity of substance above which adverse effects can be expected in humans. This project explored the use of benchmark dose (BMD) modeling as an alternative to this approach for studies with few dose groups. Continuous data from oral repeated-dose studies for chemicals previously assessed by NSACB were reanalyzed using U.S. EPA benchmark dose software (BMDS) to determine the BMD and BMD 95% lower confidence limit (BMDL(05) ) for each endpoint critical to NOAEL or LOAEL determination for each chemical. Endpoint-specific benchmark dose-response levels , indicative of adversity, were consistently applied. An overall BMD and BMDL(05) were calculated for each chemical using the geometric mean. The POD obtained from benchmark analysis was then compared with the traditional toxicity thresholds originally used for risk assessment. The BMD and BMDL(05) generally were higher than the NOAEL, but lower than the LOAEL. BMDL(05) was generally constant at 57% of the BMD. Benchmark provided a clear advantage in health risk assessment when a LOAEL was the only POD identified, or when dose groups were widely distributed. Although the benchmark method cannot always be applied, in the selected studies with few dose groups it provided a more accurate estimate of the real no-adverse-effect level of a substance.
Bhandare, N.
2014-06-01
Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7– 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy ± 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haibin; Zhong, Zichun; Liao, Yuliang; Pompoš, Arnold; Hrycushko, Brian; Albuquerque, Kevin; Zhen, Xin; Zhou, Linghong; Gu, Xuejun
2016-02-01
GEC-ESTRO guidelines for high dose rate cervical brachytherapy advocate the reporting of the D2cc (the minimum dose received by the maximally exposed 2cc volume) to organs at risk. Due to large interfractional organ motion, reporting of accurate cumulative D2cc over a multifractional course is a non-trivial task requiring deformable image registration and deformable dose summation. To efficiently and accurately describe the point-to-point correspondence of the bladder wall over all treatment fractions while preserving local topologies, we propose a novel graphic processing unit (GPU)-based non-rigid point matching algorithm. This is achieved by introducing local anatomic information into the iterative update of correspondence matrix computation in the ‘thin plate splines-robust point matching’ (TPS-RPM) scheme. The performance of the GPU-based TPS-RPM with local topology preservation algorithm (TPS-RPM-LTP) was evaluated using four numerically simulated synthetic bladders having known deformations, a custom-made porcine bladder phantom embedded with twenty one fiducial markers, and 29 fractional computed tomography (CT) images from seven cervical cancer patients. Results show that TPS-RPM-LTP achieved excellent geometric accuracy with landmark residual distance error (RDE) of 0.7 ± 0.3 mm for the numerical synthetic data with different scales of bladder deformation and structure complexity, and 3.7 ± 1.8 mm and 1.6 ± 0.8 mm for the porcine bladder phantom with large and small deformation, respectively. The RDE accuracy of the urethral orifice landmarks in patient bladders was 3.7 ± 2.1 mm. When compared to the original TPS-RPM, the TPS-RPM-LTP improved landmark matching by reducing landmark RDE by 50 ± 19%, 37 ± 11% and 28 ± 11% for the synthetic, porcine phantom and the patient bladders, respectively. This was achieved with a computational time of less than 15 s in all cases
De Kauwe, Martin G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Wright, Ian J; Medlyn, Belinda E; Crous, Kristine Y; Ellsworth, David S; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I Colin; Atkin, Owen K; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ülo; Serbin, Shawn P; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Evans, Bradley J; Ishida, F Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F
2016-05-01
Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 μmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation. PMID:26719951
Quiroz, Rene; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Kosowsky, Joshua M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Kucher, Nils; McKean, Sylvia C; Goldhaber, Samuel Z
2006-08-15
There remains considerable controversy regarding optimal initial warfarin dosing in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. Therefore, an open-label, randomized trial comparing 2 warfarin initiation nomograms (5 vs 10 mg) was conducted in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. All participants received fondaparinux for > or = 5 days as a "bridge" to warfarin. The primary end point was defined as the number of days necessary to achieve 2 consecutive international normalized ratio laboratory test values > 1.9. A total of 50 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to each of the treatment arms. The median time to 2 consecutive international normalized ratios was 5 days in the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference in achieving the primary end point using either the 5- or the 10-mg nomogram (p = 0.69). These results should provide clinicians with increased warfarin dosing options in patients presenting with acute venous thromboembolism.
Therriault-Proulx, François; Archambault, Louis; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, Sam
2013-01-01
Purpose The goal of this study was to develop a novel multi-point plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) capable of measuring the dose accurately at multiple positions simultaneously using a single optical transmission line. Methods A 2-point mPSD used a band-pass approach that included splitters, color filters, and an EMCCD camera. The 3-point mPSD was based on a new full-spectrum approach, in which a spectrograph was coupled to a CCD camera. Irradiations of the mPSDs and of an ion chamber were performed with a 6-MV photon beam at various depths and lateral positions in a water tank. Results For the 2-point mPSD, the average relative differences between mPSD and ion chamber measurements for the depth-dose were 2.4±1.6% and 1.3±0.8% for BCF-60 and BCF-12, respectively. For the 3-point mPSD, the average relative differences over all conditions were 2.3±1.1%, 1.6±0.4%, and 0.32±0.19% for BCF-60, BCF-12, and BCF-10, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates the practical feasibility of mPSDs. This type of detector could be very useful for pre-treatment quality assurance applications as well as an accurate tool for real-time in vivo dosimetry. PMID:23060069
Al-jarrah, A M; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Shahrim, Iskandar; Razak, Nik Noor Ashikin Nik Ab; Ababneh, Baker; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh
2016-01-01
Genipin gel dosimeters are hydrogels infused with a radiation-sensitive material which yield dosimetric information in three dimensions (3D). The effect of inorganic salts and glucose on the visible absorption dose-response, melting points and mass density of genipin gel dosimeters has been experimentally evaluated using 6-MV LINAC photons. As a result, the addition of glucose with optimum concentration of 10% (w/w) was found to improve the thermal stability of the genipin gel and increase its melting point (Tm) by 6 °C accompanied by a slight decrease of dose-response. Furthermore, glucose helps to adjust the gel mass density to obtain the desired tissue-equivalent properties. A drop of Tm was observed when salts were used as additives. As the salt concentration increased, gel Tm decreased. The mass density and melting point of the genipin gel could be adjusted using different amounts of glucose that improved the genipin gel suitability for 3D dose measurements without introducing additional toxicity to the final gel.
Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Fersino, Sergio; Giaj Levra, Niccolò; Mazzola, Rosario; Mancosu, Pietro; Scorsetti, Marta; Alongi, Filippo
2015-01-01
Objective: In volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) becomes challenging when the sparing of rectum, bladder and urethra is strictly pursued. Our current 35-Gy-in-five-fraction plans only assure 33.2 Gy to ≥95% PTV (V33.2PTV ≥ 95%). Looking for an improved V33.2PTV, increased near-maximum target dose (D2%) and prostate–rectum spacer insertion were tested. Methods: For 11 patients, two VMAT plans, with D2% ≤ 37.5 Gy (Hom) or D2% ≤ 40.2 Gy (Het), on each of two CT studies, before or after spacer insertion, were computed. All plans assured V33.2PTV ≥95%, and <1 cm3 of rectum, bladder and urethra receiving ≥35 Gy. By hypothesis testing, several dose–volume metrics for target coverage and rectal sparing were compared across the four groups of plans. The impact of spacer insertion on the fractions of rectum receiving more than 18, 28 and 32 Gy (VXr) was further tested by linear correlation analysis. Results: By hypothesis testing, the increased D2% was associated with improvements in target coverage, whereas spacer insertion was associated with improvements in both target coverage and rectal VXr. By linear correlation analysis, spacer insertion was related to the reductions in rectal VXr for X ≥ 28 Gy. Conclusion: A slightly increased D2% or the use of spacer insertion was each able to improve V33.2PTV. Their combined use assured V33.2PTV ≥ 98% to all our patients. Spacer insertion was further causative for improvements in rectal sparing. Advances in knowledge: For VMAT plans in prostate SBRT, the distinct dosimetric usefulness of increased D2% and of the use of spacer insertion were validated in terms of target coverage and rectal sparing. PMID:26235142
Cheng, Chee-Wai; Cho, Sang Hyun; Taylor, Michael; Das, Indra J
2007-08-01
In this study, zero-field percent depth dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for 6 MV x rays have been determined by extrapolation from dosimetric measurements over the field size range 1 x 1-10 x 10 cm2. The key to small field dosimetry is the selection of a proper dosimeter for the measurements, as well as the alignment of the detector with the central axis (CAX) of beam. The measured PDD results are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to examine the consistency and integrity of the measured data from which the zero-field PDD is extrapolated. Of the six most commonly used dosimeters in the clinic, the stereotactic diode field detector (SFD), the PTW Pinpoint, and the Exradin A14 are the most consistent and produce results within 2% of each other over the entire field size range 1 x 1-40 x 40 cm2. Although the diamond detector has the smallest sensitive volume, it is the least stable and tends to disagree with all other dosimeters by more than 10%. The zero-field PDD data extrapolated from larger field measurements obtained with the SFD are in good agreement with the MC results. The extrapolated and MC data agree within 2.5% over the clinical depth range (dmax-30 cm), when the MC data for the zero field are derived from a 1 X 1 cm2 field simulation using a miniphantom (1 x 1 x 48 cm3). The agreement between the measured PDD and the MC data based on a full phantom (48 x 48 x 48 cm3) simulation is fairly good within 1% at shallow depths to approximately 5% at 30 cm. Our results seem to indicate that zero-field TMR can be accurately calculated from PDD measurements with a proper choice of detector and a careful alignment of detector axis with the CAX. PMID:17879776
Zakariaee, R; Brown, C J; Hamarneh, G; Parsons, C A; Spadinger, I
2014-08-15
Dosimetric parameters based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) of contoured structures are routinely used to evaluate dose delivered to target structures and organs at risk. However, the DVH provides no information on the spatial distribution of the dose in situations of repeated fractions with changes in organ shape or size. The aim of this research was to develop methods to more accurately determine geometrically localized, cumulative dose to the bladder wall in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The CT scans and treatment plans of 20 cervical cancer patients were used. Each patient was treated with five high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy fractions of 600cGy prescribed dose. The bladder inner and outer surfaces were delineated using MIM Maestro software (MIM Software Inc.) and were imported into MATLAB (MathWorks) as 3-dimensional point clouds constituting the “bladder wall”. A point-set registration toolbox for MATLAB, Coherent Point Drift (CPD), was used to non-rigidly transform the bladder-wall points from four of the fractions to the coordinate system of the remaining (reference) fraction, which was chosen to be the emptiest bladder for each patient. The doses were accumulated on the reference fraction and new cumulative dosimetric parameters were calculated. The LENT-SOMA toxicity scores of these patients were studied against the cumulative dose parameters. Based on this study, there was no significant correlation between the toxicity scores and the determined cumulative dose parameters.
Výborný, P; Sičáková, S; Veselá Flórová, Z
2014-06-01
The author calculated the daily dose of Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) in eye drops used in glaucoma treatment from the patients point of view, which means the real amount of BAC applied in the conjunctival sac. The information about BAC concentration in 1 milliliter (mL) do not offer sufficient picture about real circumstances, because the size of the drop, especially after the introducing of the use of generic products in clinical practice in specific anti-glaucomatic drugs, differs significantly. The daily dose of BAC may have substantial significance in the patients treatment tolerance. The overview of BAC daily dose in single therapeutic groups and drugs follows: betablockers: Timo-COMOD 0, Arutimol 2.6, Vistagan 2.8, Timolol-POS 3.0, Arteoptic 3.7, Betoptic S 4.8, Timoptol MSD 6.3, Betoptic 10.0; alpha-mimetics: Alphagan 3.5, Luxfen 3.5, Aruclonin 7.1; derivates of prostaglandine, prostamides: Taflotan 0, Monopost 0, Lumigan 1.4, Unilat 3.1, Travatan 3.9, Latanoprost Apotex 4.3, Rescula 5.8, Latanoprost POS 5.9, Xalatan 6.0, Latanoprost Ratiopharm 6.0, Latanoprost Actavis 6.0, Latanoprost Arrow 6.0, Arulatan 5.4, Latalux 6.0, Glaucotens 6.0, Xaloptic 6.0, Solusin 6.1; carboanhydrase inhibitors: Batidor 3.8, Azopt 4.8, Trusopt 5.4, Oftidor 8.1; fixed combinations: Ganfort 1.4, Dorzolamid/timolol TEVA 2.8, Combigan 3.2, Duotrav 4.3, Cosopt 5.6, Xalacom 6.0, Glaucotima 6.0, Latanoprost/timolol Apotex 6.3, Azarga 6.4, Dorzogen Combi 6.5, and Dozotima 8.8 µl. PMID:25032794
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.
2003-01-01
Demonstrated, through simulation, that stationary autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models may be fitted readily when T>N, using normal theory raw maximum likelihood structural equation modeling. Also provides some illustrations based on real data. (SLD)
Yang, Shuying; De Angelis, Daniela
2013-01-01
The maximum likelihood method is a popular statistical inferential procedure widely used in many areas to obtain the estimates of the unknown parameters of a population of interest. This chapter gives a brief description of the important concepts underlying the maximum likelihood method, the definition of the key components, the basic theory of the method, and the properties of the resulting estimates. Confidence interval and likelihood ratio test are also introduced. Finally, a few examples of applications are given to illustrate how to derive maximum likelihood estimates in practice. A list of references to relevant papers and software for a further understanding of the method and its implementation is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Ryeojin
This dissertation aims to investigate two different applications in optics using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation. The first application of ML estimation is used in optical metrology. For this application, an innovative iterative search method called the synthetic phase-shifting (SPS) algorithm is proposed. This search algorithm is used for estimation of a wavefront that is described by a finite set of Zernike Fringe (ZF) polynomials. In this work, we estimate the ZF coefficient, or parameter values of the wavefront using a single interferogram obtained from a point-diffraction interferometer (PDI). In order to find the estimates, we first calculate the squared-difference between the measured and simulated interferograms. Under certain assumptions, this squared-difference image can be treated as an interferogram showing the phase difference between the true wavefront deviation and simulated wavefront deviation. The wavefront deviation is defined as the difference between the reference and the test wavefronts. We calculate the phase difference using a traditional phase-shifting technique without physical phase-shifters. We present a detailed forward model for the PDI interferogram, including the effect of the nite size of a detector pixel. The algorithm was validated with computational studies and its performance and constraints are discussed. A prototype PDI was built and the algorithm was also experimentally validated. A large wavefront deviation was successfully estimated without using null optics or physical phase-shifters. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm has great potential to provide an accurate tool for non-null testing. The second application of ML estimation is used in nuclear medical imaging. A high-resolution positron tomography scanner called BazookaPET is proposed. We have designed and developed a novel proof-of-concept detector element for a PET system called BazookaPET. In order to complete the PET configuration, at least
Dewji, Shaheen Azim; Bellamy, Michael B.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Sherbini, Sami; Saba, Mohammad S.; Eckerman, Keith F.
2015-09-01
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate radiation dose rates to members of the public that may result from exposure to patients recently administered iodine-131 (^{131}I) as part of medical therapy. The main purpose was to compare dose rate estimates based on a point source and target with values derived from more realistic simulations that considered the time-dependent distribution of ^{131}I in the patient and attenuation of emitted photons by the patient’s tissues. The external dose rate estimates were derived using Monte Carlo methods and two representations of the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs, previously developed by ORNL and the USNRC, to model the patient and a nearby member of the public. Dose rates to tissues and effective dose rates were calculated for distances ranging from 10 to 300 cm between the phantoms and compared to estimates based on the point-source method, as well as to results of previous studies that estimated exposure from ^{131}I patients. The point-source method overestimates dose rates to members of the public in very close proximity to an ^{131}I patient but is a broadly accurate method of dose rate estimation at separation distances of 300 cm or more at times closer to administration.
Dewji, Shaheen Azim; Bellamy, Michael B.; Hertel, Nolan E.; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Sherbini, Sami; Saba, Mohammad S.; Eckerman, Keith F.
2015-09-01
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate radiation dose rates to members of the public that may result from exposure to patients recently administered iodine-131 (131I) as part of medical therapy. The main purpose was to compare dose rate estimates based on a point source and target with values derived from more realistic simulations that considered the time-dependent distribution of 131I in the patient and attenuation of emitted photons by the patient’s tissues. The external dose rate estimates were derived using Monte Carlo methods and two representations of the Phantommore » with Movable Arms and Legs, previously developed by ORNL and the USNRC, to model the patient and a nearby member of the public. Dose rates to tissues and effective dose rates were calculated for distances ranging from 10 to 300 cm between the phantoms and compared to estimates based on the point-source method, as well as to results of previous studies that estimated exposure from 131I patients. The point-source method overestimates dose rates to members of the public in very close proximity to an 131I patient but is a broadly accurate method of dose rate estimation at separation distances of 300 cm or more at times closer to administration.« less
Kareva, Irina; Waxman, David J; Lakka Klement, Giannoula
2015-03-28
The administration of chemotherapy at reduced doses given at regular, frequent time intervals, termed 'metronomic' chemotherapy, presents an alternative to standard maximal tolerated dose (MTD) chemotherapy. The primary target of metronomic chemotherapy was originally identified as endothelial cells supporting the tumor vasculature, and not the tumor cells themselves, consistent with the emerging concept of cancer as a systemic disease involving both tumor cells and their microenvironment. While anti-angiogenesis is an important mechanism of action of metronomic chemotherapy, other mechanisms, including activation of anti-tumor immunity and a decrease in acquired therapeutic resistance, have also been identified. Here we present evidence supporting a mechanistic explanation for the improved activity of cancer chemotherapy when administered on a metronomic, rather than an MTD schedule and discuss the implications of these findings for further translation into the clinic.
Cheung, J; Held, M; Morin, O; Weethee, B; Chuang, C; Perez-Andujar, A; Sudhyadhom, A
2015-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the sensitivity of traditional gamma-index-based fluence measurements for patient-specific measurements in VMAT delivered spine SBRT. Methods: The ten most recent cases for spine SBRT were selected. All cases were planned with Eclipse RapidArc for a TrueBeam STx. The delivery was verified using a point dose measurement with a Pinpoint 3D micro-ion chamber in a Standard Imaging Stereotactic Dose Verification Phantom. Two points were selected for each case, one within the target in a low dose-gradient region and one in the spinal cord. Measurements were localized using on-board CBCT. Cumulative and separate arc measurements were acquired with the ArcCheck and assessed using the SNC patient software with a 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm gamma analysis with global normalization and a 10% dose threshold. Correlations between data were determined using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation. Results: For our cohort of patients, the measured doses were higher than calculated ranging from 2.2%–9.7% for the target and 1.0%–8.2% for the spinal cord. There was strong correlation between 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm passing rates (r=0.91). Moderate correlation was found between target and cord dose with a weak fit (r=0.67, R-Square=0.45). The cumulative ArcCheck measurements showed poor correlation with the measured point doses for both the target and cord (r=0.20, r=0.35). If the arcs are assessed separately with an acceptance criteria applied to the minimum passing rate between all arcs, a moderate negative correlation was found for the target and cord (r=−0.48, r= −0.71). The case with the highest dose difference (9.7%) received a passing rate of 97.2% for the cumulative arcs and 87.8% for the minimum with separate arcs. Conclusion: Our data suggest that traditional passing criteria using ArcCheck with cumulative measurements do not correlate well with dose errors. Separate arc analysis shows better correlation but may still miss large dose errors. Point dose
Zhen, X; Chen, H; Zhou, L; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Gu, X; Mell, L; Yashar, C; Cervino, L
2014-06-15
Purpose: To propose and validate a novel and accurate deformable image registration (DIR) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among treatment fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR) gynecological brachytherapy. Method: We have developed a method to adapt DIR algorithms to gynecologic anatomies with HDR applicators by incorporating a segmentation step and a point-matching step into an existing DIR framework. In the segmentation step, random walks algorithm is used to accurately segment and remove the applicator region (AR) in the HDR CT image. A semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented foreground and background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm. In the subsequent point-matching step, a feature-based thin-plate spline-robust point matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm is employed for AR surface point matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF characteristic of the deformation between the two AR surfaces is generated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the following Demons DIR between the two AR-free HDR CT images. Finally, the calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. Results: The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative results as well as the visual inspection of the DIR indicate that our proposed method can suppress the interference of the applicator with the DIR algorithm, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses. Conclusions: We have developed a novel and robust DIR scheme that can perform registration between HDR gynecological CT images and yield accurate registration results. This new DIR scheme has potential for accurate interfractional HDR dose accumulation. This work is supported in part by the National Natural ScienceFoundation of China (no 30970866 and no
Burgoon, Lyle D; Zacharewski, Timothy R
2008-08-01
Regulatory and homeland security agencies undertake safety and risk assessments to assess the potential hazards of radiation, chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical agents. By law, these assessments must be science-based to ensure public safety and environmental quality. These agencies use dose-response modeling and benchmark dose methods to identify points of departure across single end points elicited by the agent. Regulatory agencies have also begun to examine toxicogenomic data to identify novel biomarkers of exposure and assess potential toxicity. The ToxResponse Modeler streamlines analyses and point of departure (POD) calculations across hundreds of responses (e.g., differential gene expression, changes in metabolite levels) through an automated process capable of large-scale modeling and model selection. The application identifies the best-fit dose-response model utilizing particle swarm optimization and calculates the probabilistic POD. The application analyzed a publicly available 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin dose-response data set of hepatic gene expression data in C57BL/6 mice to identify putative biomarkers. The Gene Ontology mapped these responses to specific functions to differentiate adaptive effects from toxic responses. In principle, safety and risk assessors could use the automated ToxResponse Modeler to analyze any large dose-response data set including outputs from high-throughput screening assays to assist with the ranking and prioritization of compounds that warrant further investigation or development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singleton, B.
First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth gravity and death as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli
2015-12-01
The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.
Pessina, A; Albella, B; Bayo, M; Bueren, J; Brantom, P; Casati, S; Croera, C; Gagliardi, G; Foti, P; Parchment, R; Parent-Massin, D; Schoeters, G; Sibiril, Y; Van Den Heuvel, R; Gribaldo, L
2003-10-01
In a previous study of prevalidation, a standard operating procedure (SOP) for two independent in vitro tests (human and mouse) had been developed, to evaluate the potential hematotoxicity of xenobiotics from their direct and the adverse effects on granulocyte-macrophages (CFU-GM). A predictive model to calculate the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was set up, by adjusting a mouse-derived MTD for the differential interspecies sensitivity. In this paper, we describe an international blind trial designed to apply this model to the clinical neutropenia, by testing 20 drugs, including 14 antineoplastics (Cytosar-U, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Bleomycin, Methotrexate, Gemcitabine, Carmustine, Etoposide, Teniposide, Cytoxan, Taxol, Adriamycin); two antivirals (Retrovir, Zovirax,); three drugs for other therapeutic indications (Cyclosporin, Thorazine, Indocin); and one pesticide (Lindane). The results confirmed that the SOP developed generates reproducible IC90 values with both human and murine GM-CFU. For 10 drugs (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Etoposide, Fludarabine, 5-Fluorouracil, Myleran, Taxol, Teniposide, Thioguanine, and Thorazine), IC90 values were found within the range of the actual drug doses tested (defined as the actual IC90). For the other 10 drugs (Carmustine, Cyclosporin, Cytosar-U, Cytoxan, Gemcitabine, Indocin, Lindane, Methotrexate, Retrovir, and Zovirax) extrapolation on the regression curve out of the range of the actual doses tested was required to derive IC90 values (extrapolated IC90). The model correctly predicted the human MTD for 10 drugs out of 10 that had "actual IC90 values" and 7 drugs out of 10 for those having only an extrapolated IC90. Two of the incorrect predictions (Gemcitabine and Zovirax) were within 6-fold of the correct MTD, instead of the 4-fold range required by the model, whereas the prediction with Cytosar-U was approximately 10-fold in error. A possible explanation for the failure in the prediction of these
Liang, X; Morrill, S; Hardee, M; Han, E; Penagaricano, J; Zhang, X; Vaneerat, R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate the point dose variations between Ir-192 HDR treatments on two consecutive days using a single tandem-ovoid insertion without replanning in cervical cancer patients. Methods: This study includes eleven cervical cancer patients undergoing HDR brachytherapy with a prescribed dose of 28 Gy in 4 fractions. Each patient had two tandemovoid insertions one week apart. Each insertion was treated on consecutive days with rescanning and replanning prior to each treatment. To study the effect of no replanning for day 2 treatments, the day 1 plan dwell position and dwell time with decay were applied to the day 2 CT dataset. The point dose variations on the prescription point H (defined according to American Brachytherapy Society), and normal tissue doses at point B, bladder, rectum and vaginal mucosa (based on ICRU Report 38) were obtained. Results: Without replanning, the mean point H dose variation was 4.6 ± 10.7% on the left; 2.3 ± 2.9% on the right. The mean B point variation was 3.8 ± 4.9% on the left; 3.6 ± 4.7% on the right. The variation in the left vaginal mucosal point was 12.2 ± 10.7%; 9.5 ± 12.5% on the right; the bladder point 5.5 ± 7.4%; and the rectal point 7.9 ± 9.1%. Conclusion: Without replanning, there are variations both in the prescription point and the normal tissue point doses. The latter can vary as much as 10% or more. This is likely due to the steep dose gradient from brachytherapy compounded by shifts in the positions of the applicator in relationship to the patients anatomy. Imaging prior to each treatment and replanning ensure effective and safe brachytherapy are recommended.
Evaluation of Rectal Dose During High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinoma
Sha, Rajib Lochan; Reddy, Palreddy Yadagiri; Rao, Ramakrishna; Muralidhar, Kanaparthy R.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.
2011-01-01
High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix often results in high doses being delivered to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) such as the rectum and bladder. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine and closely monitor the dose delivered to these OARs. In this study, we measured the dose delivered to the rectum by intracavitary applications and compared this measured dose to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements rectal reference point dose calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). To measure the dose, we inserted a miniature (0.1 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber into the rectum of 86 patients undergoing radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. The response of the miniature chamber modified by 3 thin lead marker rings for identification purposes during imaging was also characterized. The difference between the TPS-calculated maximum dose and the measured dose was <5% in 52 patients, 5-10% in 26 patients, and 10-14% in 8 patients. The TPS-calculated maximum dose was typically higher than the measured dose. Our study indicates that it is possible to measure the rectal dose for cervical carcinoma patients undergoing HDR-ICBT. We also conclude that the dose delivered to the rectum can be reasonably predicted by the TPS-calculated dose.
Chen, H; Zhen, X; Zhou, L; Zhong, Z; Pompos, A; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Gu, X
2014-06-15
Purpose: To propose and validate a deformable point matching scheme for surface deformation to facilitate accurate bladder dose summation for fractionated HDR cervical cancer treatment. Method: A deformable point matching scheme based on the thin plate spline robust point matching (TPSRPM) algorithm is proposed for bladder surface registration. The surface of bladders segmented from fractional CT images is extracted and discretized with triangular surface mesh. Deformation between the two bladder surfaces are obtained by matching the two meshes' vertices via the TPS-RPM algorithm, and the deformation vector fields (DVFs) characteristic of this deformation is estimated by B-spline approximation. Numerically, the algorithm is quantitatively compared with the Demons algorithm using five clinical cervical cancer cases by several metrics: vertex-to-vertex distance (VVD), Hausdorff distance (HD), percent error (PE), and conformity index (CI). Experimentally, the algorithm is validated on a balloon phantom with 12 surface fiducial markers. The balloon is inflated with different amount of water, and the displacement of fiducial markers is benchmarked as ground truth to study TPS-RPM calculated DVFs' accuracy. Results: In numerical evaluation, the mean VVD is 3.7(±2.0) mm after Demons, and 1.3(±0.9) mm after TPS-RPM. The mean HD is 14.4 mm after Demons, and 5.3mm after TPS-RPM. The mean PE is 101.7% after Demons and decreases to 18.7% after TPS-RPM. The mean CI is 0.63 after Demons, and increases to 0.90 after TPS-RPM. In the phantom study, the mean Euclidean distance of the fiducials is 7.4±3.0mm and 4.2±1.8mm after Demons and TPS-RPM, respectively. Conclusions: The bladder wall deformation is more accurate using the feature-based TPS-RPM algorithm than the intensity-based Demons algorithm, indicating that TPS-RPM has the potential for accurate bladder dose deformation and dose summation for multi-fractional cervical HDR brachytherapy. This work is supported in part by
Kim, Hayeon; Beriwal, Sushil; Houser, Chris; Huq, M. Saiful
2011-07-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetric outcome of 3D image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer treatment and compare dose coverage of high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) to traditional Point A dose. Thirty-two patients with stage IA2-IIIB cervical cancer were treated using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-based image-guided HDR brachytherapy (IGBT). Brachytherapy dose prescription was 5.0-6.0 Gy per fraction for a total 5 fractions. The HRCTV and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated following the GYN GEC/ESTRO guidelines. Total doses for HRCTV, OARs, Point A, and Point T from external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy were summated and normalized to a biologically equivalent dose of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2). The total planned D90 for HRCTV was 80-85 Gy, whereas the dose to 2 mL of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid was limited to 85 Gy, 75 Gy, and 75 Gy, respectively. The mean D90 and its standard deviation for HRCTV was 83.2 {+-} 4.3 Gy. This is significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than the mean value of the dose to Point A (78.6 {+-} 4.4 Gy). The dose levels of the OARs were within acceptable limits for most patients. The mean dose to 2 mL of bladder was 78.0 {+-} 6.2 Gy, whereas the mean dose to rectum and sigmoid were 57.2 {+-} 4.4 Gy and 66.9 {+-} 6.1 Gy, respectively. Image-based 3D brachytherapy provides adequate dose coverage to HRCTV, with acceptable dose to OARs in most patients. Dose to Point A was found to be significantly lower than the D90 for HRCTV calculated using the image-based technique. Paradigm shift from 2D point dose dosimetry to IGBT in HDR cervical cancer treatment needs advanced concept of evaluation in dosimetry with clinical outcome data about whether this approach improves local control and/or decreases toxicities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Pukhkaya, V.; Ollier, N.; Trompier, F.
2014-09-28
P-related paramagnetic point defects were studied in irradiated Yb-doped phosphate glasses by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (X and Q-bands). A strong impact of the glass network type on the defect nature is shown. In all glasses, r-POHC defects formation is in strong correlation with Q{sup 2} tetrahedra amount supporting the structure of r-POHC. Ultra-phosphate glasses contain the larger defect type: Peroxy radicals, P{sub 1}, P{sub 2}, and P{sub 4} defects whose formation is linked to Q{sup 3} tetrahedra presence. In meta-phosphate and poly-phosphate glasses, peroxy radicals appear with r-POHC thermal recovery. In meta-phosphate glasses, a combination of P{sub 1} and P{sub 3} defects was evidenced for the first time, whereas in poly-phosphate glasses, only P{sub 3} defects were identified. Dose effect as well as defect recovery were analyzed.
Finite doses are employed in experimental toxicology studies. Under the traditional methodology, the point of departure (POD) value for low dose extrapolation is identified as one of these doses. Dose spacing necessarily precludes a more accurate description of the POD value. ...
In order to characterize the potential developmental effects of atrazine (ATR) metabolites at low doses, an environmentally-based mixture (EBM) of ATR and its metabolites hydroxyatrazine, diaminochlorotriazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine was formulated based on surv...
Nose, Takayuki Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshida, Ken; Nishiyama, Kinji; Sasaki, Junichi; Ohnishi, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takuyo; Gomi, Kotaro; Oguchi, Masahiko; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Yamashita, Takashi
2008-02-01
Purpose: To perform the largest in vivo dosimetry study for interstitial brachytherapy yet to be undertaken using a new radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) in patients with pelvic malignancy and to study the limits of contemporary planning software based on the results. Patients and Methods: Sixty-six patients with pelvic malignancy were treated with high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy, including prostate (n = 26), gynecological (n = 35), and miscellaneous (n = 5). Doses for a total of 1004 points were measured by RPLGDs and calculated with planning software in the following locations: rectum (n = 549), urethra (n = 415), vagina (n = 25), and perineum (n = 15). Compatibility (measured dose/calculated dose) was analyzed according to dosimeter location. Results: The compatibility for all dosimeters was 0.98 {+-} 0.23, stratified by location: rectum, 0.99 {+-} 0.20; urethra, 0.96 {+-} 0.26; vagina, 0.91 {+-} 0.08; and perineum, 1.25 {+-} 0.32. Conclusions: Deviations between measured and calculated doses for the rectum and urethra were greater than 20%, which is attributable to the independent movements of these organs and the applicators. Missing corrections for inhomogeneity are responsible for the 9% negative shift near the vaginal cylinder (specific gravity = 1.24), whereas neglect of transit dose contributes to the 25% positive shift in the perineal dose. Dose deviation of >20% for nontarget organs should be taken into account in the planning process. Further development of planning software and a real-time dosimetry system are necessary to use the current findings and to achieve adaptive dose delivery.
Maximum thrust mode evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.
1995-01-01
Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Achasov, Mikhail; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Muchnoi, Nikolay; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua-Min; Wang, Yi-Fang; Wu, Jing-Min; Xu, Jin-Qiang; Yu, Bo-Xiang
2009-10-01
The technique details for measuring radiation dose are expounded. The results of gamma and neutron radiation levels are presented and the corresponding radiation shielding is discussed based on the simplified estimation. In addition, the photon radiation level move as background for future experiments is measured by a NaI(Tl) detector.
Cord Dose Specification and Validation for Stereotactic Body Radiosurgery of Spine
Li Shidong Liu Yan; Chen Qing; Jin Jianyue
2009-01-01
Effective dose to a portion of the spinal cord in treatment segment, rather than the maximum point dose in the cord surface, was set as the dose limit in stereotactic-body radiosurgery (SBRS) of spine. Such a cord dose specification is sensitive to the volume size and position errors. Thus, we used stereotactic image guidance to minimize phantom positioning errors and compared the results of a 0.6-cm{sup 3} Farmer ionization chamber and a 0.01-cm{sup 3} compact ionization chamber to determine the detector size effect on 9 SBRS cases. The experimental errors ranging from 2% to 7% were estimated by the deviation of the mean dose in plans to the chamber with spatial displacements of 0.5 mm. The mean and measured doses for the large chamber to individual cases were significantly ({approx}17%) higher than the doses with the compact chamber placed at the same point. Our experimental results shown that the mean doses to the volume of interest could represent the measured cord doses. For the 9 patients, the mean doses to 10% of the cord were about 10 Gy, while the maximum cord doses varied from 11.6 to 17.6 Gy. The mean dose, possibly correlated with the cord complication, provided us an alternative and reliable cord dose specification in SBRS of spine.
Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy
Wang Zhou; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.
2010-01-01
In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.
Zhang, Jingjing; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Miao; Basu, Ananda; Lu, Yi
2016-01-11
We report a discovery that personal glucose meters (PGMs) can give a dose-dependent response to nicotinamide coenzymes, such as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We have developed methods that take advantage of this discovery to perform one-step homogeneous assays of many non-glucose targets that are difficult to recognize by DNAzymes, aptamers, or antibodies, and without the need for conjugation and multiple steps of sample dilution, separation, or fluid manipulation. The methods are based on the target-induced consumption or production of NADH through cascade enzymatic reactions. Simultaneous monitoring of the glucose and L-lactate levels in human plasma from patients with diabetes is demonstrated and the results are comparable to those from current standard test methods. Since a large number of commercially available enzymatic assay kits utilize NADH in their detection, this discovery will allow the transformation of almost all of these clinical lab tests into POC tests that use a PGM.
Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M
2016-01-01
Introduction Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. Methods and analysis The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10 269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. Ethics and dissemination TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a
Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.
2009-01-01
We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.
Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall
2009-08-01
We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka.
Carchia, E; Porreca, I; Almeida, P J; D'Angelo, F; Cuomo, D; Ceccarelli, M; De Felice, M; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C
2015-01-01
Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions. PMID:26512966
Carchia, E; Porreca, I; Almeida, P J; D'Angelo, F; Cuomo, D; Ceccarelli, M; De Felice, M; Mallardo, M; Ambrosino, C
2015-10-29
Epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated changes of blood glucose homeostasis to Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. We took a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the mechanisms of low-dose (1 × 10(-9 )M) BPA toxicity in ex vivo cultures of primary murine pancreatic islets and hepatocytes. Twenty-nine inhibited genes were identified in islets and none in exposed hepatocytes. Although their expression was slightly altered, their impaired cellular level, as a whole, resulted in specific phenotypic changes. Damage of mitochondrial function and metabolism, as predicted by bioinformatics analyses, was observed: BPA exposure led to a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, to an increase of ROS cellular levels and, finally, to an induction of apoptosis, attributable to the bigger Bax/Bcl-2 ratio owing to activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data suggest a multifactorial mechanism for BPA toxicity in pancreatic islets with emphasis to mitochondria dysfunction and NF-κB activation. Finally, we assessed in vitro the viability of BPA-treated islets in stressing condition, as exposure to high glucose, evidencing a reduced ability of the exposed islets to respond to further damages. The result was confirmed in vivo evaluating the reduction of glycemia in hyperglycemic mice transplanted with control and BPA-treated pancreatic islets. The reported findings identify the pancreatic islet as the main target of BPA toxicity in impairing the glycemia. They suggest that the BPA exposure can weaken the response of the pancreatic islets to damages. The last observation could represent a broader concept whose consideration should lead to the development of experimental plans better reproducing the multiple exposure conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.
2001-09-01
In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural
Neural network modelling of dose distribution and dose uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiator.
Manai, K; Trabelsi, A
2013-11-01
In this paper an approach to model dose distributions, isodose curves and dose uniformity in the Tunisian Gamma Irradiation Facility using artificial neural networks (ANNs) are described. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at different points in the irradiation cell using polymethyl methacrylate dosemeters. The calculated and experimental results are compared and good agreement is observed showing that ANNs can be used as an efficient tool for modelling dose distribution in the gamma irradiation facility. Monte Carlo (MC) photon-transport simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the spatial dose distribution for extensive benchmarking. ANN approach appears to be a significant advance over the time-consuming MC or the less accurate regression methods for dose mapping. As a second application, a detailed dose mapping using two different product densities was carried out. The minimum and maximum dose locations and dose uniformity as a function of the irradiated volume for each product density were determined. Good agreement between ANN modelling and experimental results was achieved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rust, D. M.
1984-01-01
The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.
Mores, Robert
2016-08-01
Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745
Eye dose monitoring of PET/CT workers
O'Connor, U; O'Reilly, G
2014-01-01
Objective: The objective of the study was to measure eye dose [Hp(3)] to workers in a busy positron emission tomography (PET)/CT centre. Doses were compared with the proposed new annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Methods: We used a newly designed dosemeter to measure eye dose [Hp(3)]. Eye dosemeters were worn with an adjustable headband, with the dosemeter positioned adjacent to the left eye. The whole-body dose was also recorded using electronic personal dosemeter (EPD® Mk2; Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, MA). Exposed staff included radiographers, nurses and healthcare assistants. Results: The radiographers received the highest exposure of the staff groups studied, with one radiographer receiving an exposure of 0.5 mSv over the 3-month survey period. The estimated maximum eye dose for 1 year is approximately 2 mSv. The numeric value for eye dose was compared with the numeric value for personal dose equivalent to see if one could be used as an indicator for the other. From our data, a conservative estimate of eye dose Hp(3) (mSv) can be made as being up to approximately twice the numeric value for whole-body dose [Hp(10)] (mSv). Conclusion: Eye dose was found to be well within the new proposed annual limit at our PET/CT centre. Routine whole-body dose measurements may be a useful starting point for assessing whether eye dose monitoring should be prioritized in a PET facility. Advances in knowledge: Following the proposal of a reduced eye dose limit, this article provides new measurement data on staff eye doses for PET/CT workers. PMID:25109711
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Determination of maximum test speed. 94... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
Maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stehlik, Petr; Thompson, Bevan
2007-07-01
This paper establishes some new maximum principles for second order dynamic equations on time scales, including: a strong maximum principle; a generalized maximum principle; and a boundary point lemma. The new results include, as special cases, well-known ideas for ordinary differential equations and difference equations.
Francescon, Paolo Satariano, Ninfa; Beddar, Sam; Das, Indra J.
2014-10-15
Purpose: Evaluate the ability of different dosimeters to correctly measure the dosimetric parameters percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue-maximum ratio (TMR), and off-axis ratio (OAR) in water for small fields. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to estimate the variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} for several types of microdetectors as a function of depth and distance from the central axis for PDD, TMR, and OAR measurements. The variation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} enables one to evaluate the ability of a detector to reproduce the PDD, TMR, and OAR in water and consequently determine whether it is necessary to apply correction factors. The correctness of the simulations was verified by assessing the ratios between the PDDs and OARs of 5- and 25-mm circular collimators used with a linear accelerator measured with two different types of dosimeters (the PTW 60012 diode and PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber) and the PDDs and the OARs measured with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillator detector (PSD) and comparing those ratios with the corresponding ratios predicted by the MC simulations. Results: MC simulations reproduced results with acceptable accuracy compared to the experimental results; therefore, MC simulations can be used to successfully predict the behavior of different dosimeters in small fields. The Exradin W1 PSD was the only dosimeter that reproduced the PDDs, TMRs, and OARs in water with high accuracy. With the exception of the EDGE diode, the stereotactic diodes reproduced the PDDs and the TMRs in water with a systematic error of less than 2% at depths of up to 25 cm; however, they produced OAR values that were significantly different from those in water, especially in the tail region (lower than 20% in some cases). The microchambers could be used for PDD
Biological doses with template distribution patterns
Harrop, R.; Haymond, H.R.; Nisar, A.; Syed, A.N.M.; Feder, B.H.; Neblett, D.L.
1981-02-01
Consideration of radiation dose rate effects emphasizes advantages of the template method for lateral distribution of multiple sources in treatment of laterally infiltrating gynecologic cancer, when compared to a conventional technique with colpostats. Biological doses in time dose fractionation (TDF), ret and reu units are calculated for the two treatment methods. With the template method the lateral dose (point B) is raised without significantly increasing the doses to the rectum and bladder, that is, relatively, the calculated biological doses at point A and B are more nearly equivalent and the doses to the rectum and bladder are significantly lower than the dose to point B.
Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.
Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.
Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M
2014-01-01
Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.
A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry
Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.
2010-02-15
Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1
Minimizing the probable maximum flood
Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )
1994-06-01
This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.
3D Dose Verification Using Tomotherapy CT Detector Array
Sheng Ke; Jones, Ryan; Yang Wensha; Saraiya, Siddharth; Schneider, Bernard; Chen Quan; Sobering, Geoff; Olivera, Gustavo; Read, Paul
2012-02-01
Purpose: To evaluate a three-dimensional dose verification method based on the exit dose using the onboard detector of tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study included 347 treatment fractions from 24 patients, including 10 prostate, 5 head and neck (HN), and 9 spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases. Detector sonograms were retrieved and back-projected to calculate entrance fluence, which was then forward-projected on the CT images to calculate the verification dose, which was compared with ion chamber and film measurement in the QA plans and with the planning dose in patient plans. Results: Root mean square (RMS) errors of 2.0%, 2.2%, and 2.0% were observed comparing the dose verification (DV) and the ion chamber measured point dose in the phantom plans for HN, prostate, and spinal SBRT patients, respectively. When cumulative dose in the entire treatment is considered, for HN patients, the error of the mean dose to the planning target volume (PTV) varied from 1.47% to 5.62% with a RMS error of 3.55%. For prostate patients, the error of the mean dose to the prostate target volume varied from -5.11% to 3.29%, with a RMS error of 2.49%. The RMS error of maximum doses to the bladder and the rectum were 2.34% (-4.17% to 2.61%) and 2.64% (-4.54% to 3.94%), respectively. For the nine spinal SBRT patients, the RMS error of the minimum dose to the PTV was 2.43% (-5.39% to 2.48%). The RMS error of maximum dose to the spinal cord was 1.05% (-2.86% to 0.89%). Conclusions: An excellent agreement was observed between the measurement and the verification dose. In the patient treatments, the agreement in doses to the majority of PTVs and organs at risk is within 5% for the cumulative treatment course doses. The dosimetric error strongly depends on the error in multileaf collimator leaf opening time with a sensitivity correlating to the gantry rotation period.
Musha, Atsushi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Yokoo, Satoshi; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi
2015-01-01
Purpose To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM) using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model) in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for head and neck tumors. Methods Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks) according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE)] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient. Results The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2–3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE) and 54.3 Gy(RBE), respectively. Conclusions The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2–3 ARM. PMID:26512725
Li, Heng; Park, Peter; Liu, Wei; Matney, Jason; Balter, Peter; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, X. Ronald; Liao, Zhongxing; Li, Yupeng
2013-12-15
Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty at the planning stage for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an analytical technique.Methods: Ten patients with stage II/III lung cancer who had undergone a planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic scan and step-and-shoot IMRT planning were selected with a mix of motion and tumor size for this retrospective study. A step-and-shoot IMRT plan was generated for each patient. The maximum and minimum doses with respiratory motion were calculated for each plan, and the mean deviation from the 4D dose was calculated, taking delivery time, fractionation, and patient breathing cycle into consideration.Results: For all patients evaluated in this study, the mean deviation from the 4D dose in the planning target volume (PTV) was <2.5%, with a standard deviation <1.2%, and maximum point dose variation from the 4D dose was <6.2% in the PTV assuming delivery dose rate of 200 MU/min and patient breathing cycle of 8 s. The motion-induced dose uncertainty is a function of motion, fractionation, MU (plan modulation), dose rate, and patient breathing cycle.Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the dose uncertainty on a patient-specific basis, which could be useful for plan evaluation and treatment strategy determination for selected patients.
Li, Heng; Park, Peter; Liu, Wei; Matney, Jason; Liao, Zhongxing; Balter, Peter; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, X. Ronald
2013-01-01
Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty at the planning stage for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an analytical technique. Methods: Ten patients with stage II/III lung cancer who had undergone a planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic scan and step-and-shoot IMRT planning were selected with a mix of motion and tumor size for this retrospective study. A step-and-shoot IMRT plan was generated for each patient. The maximum and minimum doses with respiratory motion were calculated for each plan, and the mean deviation from the 4D dose was calculated, taking delivery time, fractionation, and patient breathing cycle into consideration. Results: For all patients evaluated in this study, the mean deviation from the 4D dose in the planning target volume (PTV) was <2.5%, with a standard deviation <1.2%, and maximum point dose variation from the 4D dose was <6.2% in the PTV assuming delivery dose rate of 200 MU/min and patient breathing cycle of 8 s. The motion-induced dose uncertainty is a function of motion, fractionation, MU (plan modulation), dose rate, and patient breathing cycle. Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the dose uncertainty on a patient-specific basis, which could be useful for plan evaluation and treatment strategy determination for selected patients. PMID:24320498
The maximum principle for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akysh, Abdigali Sh.
2016-08-01
New connections were established between extreme values of the velocity, the density of kinetic energy (in particular local maximum) and the pressure of the Navier-Stokes equations. Validity of the maximum principle was shown for nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations using these connections, that is fundamentally-key from the mathematical point of view.
AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...
NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, Christopher J.; Meier, Matthias M.; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B.; Xu, Xiaojing
2013-10-01
The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis suggests
Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag
2014-06-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ρ, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.
Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.
2013-07-01
The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilogpi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.
Determination of transit dose profile for a {sup 192}Ir HDR source
Fonseca, G. P.; Antunes, P. C. G.; Yoriyaz, H.
2013-05-15
Purpose: Several studies have reported methodologies to calculate and correct the transit dose component of the moving radiation source for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning systems. However, most of these works employ the average source speed, which varies significantly with the measurement technique used, and does not represent a realistic speed profile, therefore, providing an inaccurate dose determination. In this work, the authors quantified the transit dose component of a HDR unit based on the measurement of the instantaneous source speed to produce more accurate dose values. Methods: The Nucletron microSelectron-HDR Ir-192 source was characterized considering the Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) specifications. The transit dose component was considered through the calculation of the dose distribution using a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNP5, for each source position and correcting it by the source speed. The instantaneous source speed measurements were performed in a previous work using two optical fibers connected to a photomultiplier and an oscilloscope. Calculated doses were validated by comparing relative dose profiles with those obtained experimentally using radiochromic films. Results: TG-43U1 source parameters were calculated to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. These agreed with the literature, with differences below 1% for the majority of the points. Calculated dose profiles without transit dose were also validated by comparison with ONCENTRA{sup Registered-Sign} Brachy v. 3.3 dose values, yielding differences within 1.5%. Dose profiles obtained with MCNP5 corrected using the instantaneous source speed profile showed differences near dwell positions of up to 800% in comparison to values corrected using the average source speed, but they are in good agreement with the experimental data, showing a maximum discrepancy of approximately 3% of the maximum dose. Near a dwell position the transit dose is about 22% of the dwell dose delivered
Goraj, Andrew; Boer, Steven F. de
2012-01-01
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a powerful technique in planning the delivery of dose. The most common IMRT delivery requires the use of moving multileaf collimators (MLCs) to deliver the requested fluence pattern. A dynamic delivery IMRT field file will contain several control points that are defined MLC shapes at a marked fraction of the delivered monitor units. The size of this file and the fidelity of the deliverable fluence are proportional to the number of control points defined. This study investigates the effect of reducing the number of control points has on the resultant dose distribution quality in complex IMRT in efforts to reduce transfer times, loading times, check sum times and file storage. Analysis was performed with 6 head and neck patients on an Eclipse version 8.5 treatment planning system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). To ensure the quality of all treatments, Eclipse defines a minimum of 64 and a maximum of 320 control points per subfield (Eclipse Algorithms Reference guide). All 6 patients' plans were calculated with fixed 64, 166, and 320 control points using the sliding window technique. In addition, each plan was calculated in variable mode (Normal mode) in which the planning system determined the required number of control points. Each of the 4 plans for each patient was renormalized to provide the same mean planning target volume (PTV) 70 dose. Dose values for critical and target structures were examined for each patient. When examining the minimum, maximum, and mean doses to all target structures, it was noted that the greatest reduction in target dose coverage caused by reduced number of control points was 0.5%, which occurred for the minimum dose to the PTV56 structure in one plan.' Dose analysis for critical structures showed no clinically significant increase in dose when compared with the 320 control point plan.
Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worley, Bradley
2016-04-01
Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.
The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.
1992-01-01
This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.
The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing
Speich, D.M.; Nelson, J.J.; Licata, J.P.; Tolbert, A.K.
1991-06-01
Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.
The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.
1992-01-01
Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.
2015-09-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography
Mottershead, C.T.
1985-01-01
This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartibu, L. K.
2016-01-01
This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.
Maximum likelihood as a common computational framework in tomotherapy.
Olivera, G H; Shepard, D M; Reckwerdt, P J; Ruchala, K; Zachman, J; Fitchard, E E; Mackie, T R
1998-11-01
Tomotherapy is a dose delivery technique using helical or axial intensity modulated beams. One of the strengths of the tomotherapy concept is that it can incorporate a number of processes into a single piece of equipment. These processes include treatment optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage/megavoltage image reconstruction. A common computational technique that could be used for all of these processes would be very appealing. The maximum likelihood estimator, originally developed for emission tomography, can serve as a useful tool in imaging and radiotherapy. We believe that this approach can play an important role in the processes of optimization planning, dose reconstruction and kilovoltage and/or megavoltage image reconstruction. These processes involve computations that require comparable physical methods. They are also based on equivalent assumptions, and they have similar mathematical solutions. As a result, the maximum likelihood approach is able to provide a common framework for all three of these computational problems. We will demonstrate how maximum likelihood methods can be applied to optimization planning, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction in tomotherapy. Results for planning optimization, dose reconstruction and megavoltage image reconstruction will be presented. Strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are analysed. Future directions for this work are also suggested. PMID:9832016
Brown, Sheree; Vicini, Frank; Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith; Lyden, Maureen; Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P.
2012-07-01
Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate dose-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib dose data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any point after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib dose-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for maximum dose related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any point in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total dose received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any point after follow-up. The median maximum dose at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed dose versus 95% of the prescribed dose in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the maximum dose received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862
Nagataki, Shigenobu; Takamura, Noboru; Kamiya, Kenji; Akashi, Makoto
2013-11-01
At the outset of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the radiation doses experienced by residents were calculated from the readings at monitoring posts, with several assumptions being made from the point of view of protection and safety. However, health effects should also be estimated by obtaining measurements of the individual radiation doses. The individual external radiation doses, determined by a behavior survey in the "evacuation and deliberate evacuation area" in the first 4 months, were <5 mSv in 97.4% of residents (maximum: 15 mSv). Doses in Fukushima Prefecture were <3 mSv in 99.3% of 386,572 residents analyzed. External doses in Fukushima City determined by personal dosimeters were <1 mSv/3 months (September-November, 2011) in 99.7% of residents (maximum: 2.7 mSv). Thyroid radiation doses, determined in March using a NaI (TI) scintillation survey meter in children in the evacuation and deliberate evacuation area, were <10 mSv in 95.7% of children (maximum: 35 mSv). Therefore, all doses were less than the intervention level of 50 mSv proposed by international organizations. Internal radiation doses determined by cesium-134 ((134)C) and cesium-137 ((137)C) whole-body counters (WBCs) were <1 mSv in 99% of the residents, and the maximum thyroid equivalent dose by iodine-131 WBCs was 20 mSv. The exploratory committee of the Fukushima Health Management Survey mentions on its website that radiation from the accident is unlikely to be a cause of adverse health effects in the future. In any event, sincere scientific efforts must continue to obtain individual radiation doses that are as accurate as possible. However, observation of the health effects of the radiation doses described above will require reevaluation of the protocol used for determining adverse health effects. The dose-response relationship is crucial, and the aim of the survey should be to collect sufficient data to confirm the presence or absence of radiation health
Nagataki, Shigenobu; Takamura, Noboru; Kamiya, Kenji; Akashi, Makoto
2013-11-01
At the outset of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, the radiation doses experienced by residents were calculated from the readings at monitoring posts, with several assumptions being made from the point of view of protection and safety. However, health effects should also be estimated by obtaining measurements of the individual radiation doses. The individual external radiation doses, determined by a behavior survey in the "evacuation and deliberate evacuation area" in the first 4 months, were <5 mSv in 97.4% of residents (maximum: 15 mSv). Doses in Fukushima Prefecture were <3 mSv in 99.3% of 386,572 residents analyzed. External doses in Fukushima City determined by personal dosimeters were <1 mSv/3 months (September-November, 2011) in 99.7% of residents (maximum: 2.7 mSv). Thyroid radiation doses, determined in March using a NaI (TI) scintillation survey meter in children in the evacuation and deliberate evacuation area, were <10 mSv in 95.7% of children (maximum: 35 mSv). Therefore, all doses were less than the intervention level of 50 mSv proposed by international organizations. Internal radiation doses determined by cesium-134 ((134)C) and cesium-137 ((137)C) whole-body counters (WBCs) were <1 mSv in 99% of the residents, and the maximum thyroid equivalent dose by iodine-131 WBCs was 20 mSv. The exploratory committee of the Fukushima Health Management Survey mentions on its website that radiation from the accident is unlikely to be a cause of adverse health effects in the future. In any event, sincere scientific efforts must continue to obtain individual radiation doses that are as accurate as possible. However, observation of the health effects of the radiation doses described above will require reevaluation of the protocol used for determining adverse health effects. The dose-response relationship is crucial, and the aim of the survey should be to collect sufficient data to confirm the presence or absence of radiation health
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Mampuya, Wambaka A; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yoshinori; Kitsuda, Kenji; Ishigaki, Takashi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in dose-volumetric data between the analytical anisotropic algorithms (AAA) and the two dose reporting modes of the Acuros XB, namely, the dose to water (AXB_Dw) and dose to medium (AXB_Dm) in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Thirty-eight plans were generated using the AXB_Dm in Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) and then recalculated with the AXB_Dw and AAA, using identical beam setup. A dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions was prescribed to the isocenter and the planning target volume (PTV) D95%. The isocenter was always inside the PTV. The following dose-volumetric parameters were evaluated; D2%, D50%, D95%, and D98% for the internal target volume (ITV) and the PTV. Two-tailed paired Student's t-tests determined the statistical significance. Although for most of the parameters evaluated, the mean differences observed between the AAA, AXB_Dm, and AXB_Dw were statistically significant (p < 0.05), absolute differences were rather small, in general less than 5% points. The maximum mean difference was observed in the ITV D50% between the AXB_Dm and the AAA and was 1.7% points under the isocenter prescription and 3.3% points under the D95 prescription. AXB_Dm produced higher values than AXB_Dw with differences ranging from 0.4 to 1.1% points under isocenter prescription and 0.0 to 0.7% points under the PTV D95% prescription. The differences observed under the PTV D95% prescription were larger compared to those observed for the isocenter prescription between AXB_Dm and AAA, AXB_Dm and AXB_Dw, and AXB_Dw and AAA. Although statistically significant, the mean differences between the three algorithms are within 3.3% points. PMID:27685138
Mampuya, Wambaka A; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yoshinori; Kitsuda, Kenji; Ishigaki, Takashi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in dose-volumetric data between the analytical anisotropic algorithms (AAA) and the two dose reporting modes of the Acuros XB, namely, the dose to water (AXB_Dw) and dose to medium (AXB_Dm) in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Thirty-eight plans were generated using the AXB_Dm in Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) and then recalculated with the AXB_Dw and AAA, using identical beam setup. A dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions was prescribed to the isocenter and the planning target volume (PTV) D95%. The isocenter was always inside the PTV. The following dose-volumetric parameters were evaluated; D2%, D50%, D95%, and D98% for the internal target volume (ITV) and the PTV. Two-tailed paired Student's t-tests determined the statistical significance. Although for most of the parameters evaluated, the mean differences observed between the AAA, AXB_Dm, and AXB_Dw were statistically significant (p < 0.05), absolute differences were rather small, in general less than 5% points. The maximum mean difference was observed in the ITV D50% between the AXB_Dm and the AAA and was 1.7% points under the isocenter prescription and 3.3% points under the D95 prescription. AXB_Dm produced higher values than AXB_Dw with differences ranging from 0.4 to 1.1% points under isocenter prescription and 0.0 to 0.7% points under the PTV D95% prescription. The differences observed under the PTV D95% prescription were larger compared to those observed for the isocenter prescription between AXB_Dm and AAA, AXB_Dm and AXB_Dw, and AXB_Dw and AAA. Although statistically significant, the mean differences between the three algorithms are within 3.3% points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, J. S.; Ung, N. M.; Jamalludin, Z.; Malik, R. A.; Wong, J. H. D.; Liew, Y. M.; Ng, K. H.
2016-02-01
We investigated the dosimetric impact of applicator displacement on dose specification during high dose rate (HDR) Cobalt-60 (Co-60) brachytherapy for cervical cancer through a planning study. Eighteen randomly selected HDR full insertion plans were restrospectively studied. The tandem and ovoids were virtually shifted translationally and rotationally in the x-, y- and z-axis directions on the treatment planning system. Doses to reference points and volumes of interest in the plans with shifted applicators were compared with the original plans. The impact of dose displacement on 2D (point-based) and 3D (volume-based) treatment planning techniques was also assessed. A ±2 mm translational y-axis applicator shift and ±4° rotational x-axis applicator shift resulted in dosimetric changes of more than 5% to organs at risk (OAR) reference points. Changes to the maximum doses to 2 cc of the organ (D2cc) in 3D planning were statistically significant and higher than the reference points in 2D planning for both the rectum and bladder (p<0.05). Rectal D2cc was observed to be the most sensitive to applicator displacement among all dose metrics. Applicator displacement that is greater than ±2 mm translational y-axis and ±4° rotational x-axis resulted in significant dose changes to the OAR. Thus, steps must be taken to minimize the possibility of applicator displacement during brachytherapy.
SU-E-T-113: Dose Distribution Using Respiratory Signals and Machine Parameters During Treatment
Imae, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Takeuchi, Y; Shiraki, T; Yano, K; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K
2014-06-01
Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. Treatment plans for lung tumors using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are calculated with planning computed tomography (CT) images only exhale phase. Purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution by reconstructing from only the data such as respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. Methods: Phantom and three patients with lung tumor underwent CT scans for treatment planning. They were treated by VMAT while acquiring projection images to derive their respiratory signals and machine parameters including positions of multi leaf collimators, dose rates and integrated monitor units. The respiratory signals were divided into 4 and 10 phases and machine parameters were correlated with the divided respiratory signals based on the gantry angle. Dose distributions of each respiratory phase were calculated from plans which were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and the machine parameters during treatment. The doses at isocenter, maximum point and the centroid of target were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Dose distributions during treatment were calculated using the machine parameters and the respiratory signals detected from projection images. Maximum dose difference between plan and in treatment distribution was −1.8±0.4% at centroid of target and dose differences of evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were no significant. Conclusion: The present method successfully evaluated dose distribution using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment. This method is feasible to verify the actual dose for moving target.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.
1991-01-01
Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, J.
2007-12-01
A climate tipping point, at least as I have used the phrase, refers to a situation in which a changing climate forcing has reached a point such that little additional forcing (or global temperature change) is needed to cause large, relatively rapid, climate change. Present examples include potential loss of all Arctic sea ice and instability of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Tipping points are characterized by ready feedbacks that amplify the effect of forcings. The notion that these may be runaway feedbacks is a misconception. However, present "unrealized" global warming, due to the climate system's thermal inertia, exacerbates the difficulty of avoiding global warming tipping points. I argue that prompt efforts to slow CO2 emissions and absolutely reduce non-CO2 forcings are both essential if we are to avoid tipping points that would be disastrous for humanity and creation, the planet as civilization knows it.
Estimation Of Organ Doses From Solar Particle Events For Future Space Exploration Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2006-01-01
Radiation protection practices define the effective dose as a weighted sum of equivalent dose over major organ sites for radiation cancer risks. Since a crew personnel dosimeter does not make direct measurement of the effective dose, it has been estimated with skin-dose measurements and radiation transport codes for ISS and STS missions. If sufficient protection is not provided near solar maximum, the radiation risk can be significant due to exposure to sporadic solar particle events (SPEs) as well as to the continuous galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) on future exploratory-class and long-duration missions. For accurate estimates of overall fatal cancer risks from SPEs, the specific doses at various blood forming organs (BFOs) were considered, because proton fluences and doses vary considerably across marrow regions. Previous estimates of BFO doses from SPEs have used an average body-shielding distribution for the bone marrow based on the computerized anatomical man model (CAM). With the development of an 82-point body-shielding distribution at BFOs, the mean and variance of SPE doses in the major active marrow regions (head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and thighs) will be presented. Consideration of the detailed distribution of bone marrow sites is one of many requirements to improve the estimation of effective doses for radiation cancer risks.
Dose Calculations for [131I] Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine-Induced Bystander Effects
Gow, M. D.; Seymour, C. B.; Boyd, M.; Mairs, R. J.; Prestiwch, W. V.; Mothersill, C. E.
2014-01-01
Targeted radiotherapy is a potentially useful treatment for some cancers and may be potentiated by bystander effects. However, without estimation of absorbed dose, it is difficult to compare the effects with conventional external radiation treatment. Methods: Using the Vynckier – Wambersie dose point kernel, a model for dose rate evaluation was created allowing for calculation of absorbed dose values to two cell lines transfected with the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene and treated with [131I]MIBG. Results: The mean doses required to decrease surviving fractions of UVW/NAT and EJ138/NAT cells, which received medium from [131I]MIBG-treated cells, to 25 – 30% were 1.6 and 1.7 Gy respectively. The maximum mean dose rates achieved during [131I]MIBG treatment were 0.09 – 0.75 Gy/h for UVW/NAT and 0.07 – 0.78 Gy/h for EJ138/NAT. These were significantly lower than the external beam gamma radiation dose rate of 15 Gy/h. In the case of control lines which were incapable of [131I]MIBG uptake the mean absorbed doses following radiopharmaceutical were 0.03 – 0.23 Gy for UVW and 0.03 – 0.32 Gy for EJ138. Conclusion: [131I]MIBG treatment for ICCM production elicited a bystander dose-response profile similar to that generated by external beam gamma irradiation but with significantly greater cell death. PMID:24659931
Huang, Long; Zhuang, Tingliang; Mastroianni, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik; Cui, Taoran; Xia, Ping
2016-05-08
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates. Ten patient datasets were planned for hippocampus sparing for whole brain irradiation. For each dataset, two VMAT plans were created with maximum dose rates of 600 MU/min (the maximum field size of 21 × 40 cm2) and 1000 MU/min (the maximum field size of 15 × 15 cm2) for a daily dose of 3 Gy. Without reoptimization, the daily dose of these plans was purposely reduced to 1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy while keeping the same total dose. Using the two dose rates and three different daily doses, six VMAT plans for each dataset were delivered to a physical phantom to investigate how the changes of dose rate and daily doses impact on delivery accuracy. Using the gamma index, we directly compared the delivered planar dose profiles with the reduced daily doses (1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy) to the delivered planar dose at 3 Gy daily dose, delivered at dose rate of 600 MU/min and 1000 MU/min, respectively. The average numbers of segments with MU/segment ≤ 1 were 35 ± 8, 87 ± 6 for VMAT-600 1.5 Gy, VMAT-600 1 Gy plans, and 30 ± 7 and 42 ± 6 for VMAT-1000 1.5 Gy and VMAT-1000 1 Gy plans, respectively. When delivered at 600 MU/min dose rate, the average gamma index passing rates (1%/1 mm criteria) of comparing delivered 1.5 Gy VMAT planar dose profiles to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose profiles was 98.28% ± 1.66%, and the average gamma index passing rate of comparing delivered 1.0 Gy VMAT planar dose to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose was 83.75% ± 4.86%. If using 2%/2mm
Discrimination networks for maximum selection.
Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz
2004-01-01
We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.
... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost weekly, we see ...
The Radiation Dose-Response of the Human Spinal Cord
Schultheiss, Timothy E.
2008-08-01
Purpose: To characterize the radiation dose-response of the human spinal cord. Methods and Materials: Because no single institution has sufficient data to establish a dose-response function for the human spinal cord, published reports were combined. Requisite data were dose and fractionation, number of patients at risk, number of myelopathy cases, and survival experience of the population. Eight data points for cervical myelopathy were obtained from five reports. Using maximum likelihood estimation correcting for the survival experience of the population, estimates were obtained for the median tolerance dose, slope parameter, and {alpha}/{beta} ratio in a logistic dose-response function. An adequate fit to thoracic data was not possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments involving the cervical cord were also analyzed. Results: The estimate of the median tolerance dose (cervical cord) was 69.4 Gy (95% confidence interval, 66.4-72.6). The {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy. At 45 Gy, the (extrapolated) probability of myelopathy is 0.03%; and at 50 Gy, 0.2%. The dose for a 5% myelopathy rate is 59.3 Gy. Graphical analysis indicates that the sensitivity of the thoracic cord is less than that of the cervical cord. There appears to be a sensitizing effect from hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} is smaller than usually quoted, but values this small were found in some studies. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 0.87 Gy, one would expect a considerable advantage by decreasing the dose/fraction to less than 2 Gy. These results were obtained from only single fractions/day and should not be applied uncritically to hyperfractionation.
Effect of Caffeine on Oxidative Stress During Maximum Incremental Exercise
Olcina, Guillermo J.; Muñoz, Diego; Timón, Rafael; Caballero, M. Jesús; Maynar, Juan I.; Córdova, Alfredo; Maynar, Marcos
2006-01-01
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is an habitual substance present in a wide variety of beverages and in chocolate-based foods and it is also used as adjuvant in some drugs. The antioxidant ability of caffeine has been reported in contrast with its pro- oxidant effects derived from its action mechanism such as the systemic release of catecholamines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on exercise oxidative stress, measuring plasma vitamins A, E, C and malonaldehyde (MDA) as markers of non enzymatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation respectively. Twenty young males participated in a double blind (caffeine 5mg·kg- 1 body weight or placebo) cycling test until exhaustion. In the exercise test, where caffeine was ingested prior to the test, exercise time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate, and oxygen uptake significantly increased, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased. Vitamins A and E decreased with exercise and vitamin C and MDA increased after both the caffeine and placebo tests but, regarding these particular variables, there were no significant differences between the two test conditions. The results obtained support the conclusion that this dose of caffeine enhances the ergospirometric response to cycling and has no effect on lipid peroxidation or on the antioxidant vitamins A, E and C. Key Points Caffeine ingestion may improve maximal aerobic performance in non trained men. Cellular oxidative damage is not altered by caffeine ingestion in maximal aerobic exercises. Antioxidant response to exercise, vitamins A, E and C, is not modified by caffeine action in maximal aerobic efforts. PMID:24357958
PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS
Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.
2012-06-05
For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.
Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T
1999-10-06
On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other
Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.
2004-12-01
Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its
The maximum drag reduction asymptote
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn
2015-11-01
Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].
Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2016-07-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Narayan, Samir Lehmann, Joerg; Coleman, Matthew A.; Vaughan, Andrew; Yang, Claus Chunli; Enepekides, Danny; Farwell, Gregory; Purdy, James A.; Laredo, Grace; Nolan, Kerry A.S.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan
2008-11-01
Purpose: We conducted a clinical study to correlate oral cavity dose with clinical mucositis, perform in vivo dosimetry, and determine the feasibility of obtaining buccal mucosal cell samples in patients undergoing head-and-neck radiation therapy. The main objective is to establish a quantitative dose response for clinical oral mucositis. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively studied. Four points were chosen in separate quadrants of the oral cavity. Calculated dose distributions were generated by using AcQPlan and Eclipse treatment planning systems. MOSFET dosimeters were used to measure dose at each sampled point. Each patient underwent buccal sampling for future RNA analysis before and after the first radiation treatment at the four selected points. Clinical and functional mucositis were assessed weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, Version 3. Results: Maximum and average doses for sampled sites ranged from 7.4-62.3 and 3.0-54.3 Gy, respectively. A cumulative point dose of 39.1 Gy resulted in mucositis for 3 weeks or longer. Mild severity (Grade {<=} 1) and short duration ({<=}1 week) of mucositis were found at cumulative point doses less than 32 Gy. Polymerase chain reaction consistently was able to detect basal levels of two known radiation responsive genes. Conclusions: In our sample, cumulative doses to the oral cavity of less than 32 Gy were associated with minimal acute mucositis. A dose greater than 39 Gy was associated with longer duration of mucositis. Our technique for sampling buccal mucosa yielded sufficient cells for RNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction.
Bayesian estimation of dose thresholds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groer, P. G.; Carnes, B. A.
2003-01-01
An example is described of Bayesian estimation of radiation absorbed dose thresholds (subsequently simply referred to as dose thresholds) using a specific parametric model applied to a data set on mice exposed to 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons. A Weibull based relative risk model with a dose threshold parameter was used to analyse, as an example, lung cancer mortality and determine the posterior density for the threshold dose after single exposures to 60Co gamma rays or fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The data consisted of survival, censoring times and cause of death information for male B6CF1 unexposed and exposed mice. The 60Co gamma whole-body doses for the two exposed groups were 0.86 and 1.37 Gy. The neutron whole-body doses were 0.19 and 0.38 Gy. Marginal posterior densities for the dose thresholds for neutron and gamma radiation were calculated with numerical integration and found to have quite different shapes. The density of the threshold for 60Co is unimodal with a mode at about 0.50 Gy. The threshold density for fission neutrons declines monotonically from a maximum value at zero with increasing doses. The posterior densities for all other parameters were similar for the two radiation types.
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...
Gupta, N; Niemkiewicz, J; Blue, T E; Gahbauer, R; Qu, T X
1993-01-01
The effect of head phantom size on the 10B and 1H[n,gamma]2H dose distributions for a broad epithermal neutron radiation field generated by an accelerator-based epithermal neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have been studied. Also two techniques for calculating the absorbed gamma dose from a measured gamma-ray source distribution are compared: a Monte Carlo technique, which is well accepted in the BNCT community, and a Point Kernel technique. The count-rate distribution in the central plane of three rectangular parallelopiped head water phantoms irradiated with an epithermal neutron field was measured with a boron trifluoride (BF3) detector. This epithermal neutron field was produced at the Ohio State University Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility. The 10B absorbed dose and the gamma-ray source have the same distribution in the head phantom as the BF3 count-rate distribution. The absorbed gamma dose from the measured source distribution was calculated using MCNP, a Monte Carlo code, and QAD-CGGP, a Point Kernel code. The most pronounced effect of phantom size on 10B absorbed dose was on the dose rate at the depth of maximum dose, dmax. An increase in dose rate at dmax was observed with a decrease in phantom size, the dose rate in the smallest phantom being larger by a factor of 1.4 than the dose rate in the largest phantom. Also, dmax for the phantoms shifted deeper with a decrease in phantom dimensions. The shift between the largest and the smallest phantoms was 6 mm. Finally, the smaller phantoms had lower entrance 10B dose as a percent of the dose at dmax, or better skin sparing. Our calculations for the gamma dose show that a Point Kernel technique can be used to calculate the dose distribution as accurately as a Monte Carlo technique, in much shorter computation times.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of appropriate assessment...
Stephans, Kevin L.; Djemil, Toufik; Diaconu, Claudiu; Reddy, Chandana A.; Xia, Ping; Woody, Neil M.; Greskovich, John; Makkar, Vinit; Videtic, Gregory M.M.
2014-09-01
Purpose: To identify factors associated with grade ≥3 treatment related late esophageal toxicity after lung or liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 52 patients with a planning target volume within 2 cm of the esophagus from a prospective registry of 607 lung and liver SBRT patients treated between 2005 and 2011. Patients were treated using a risk-adapted dose regimen to a median dose of 50 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 37.5-60 Gy in 3-10 fractions). Normal structures were contoured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) defined criteria. Results: The median esophageal point dose and 1-cc dose were 32.3 Gy (range, 8.9-55.4 Gy) and 24.0 Gy (range, 7.8-50.9 Gy), respectively. Two patients had an esophageal fistula at a median of 8.4 months after SBRT, with maximum esophageal point doses of 51.5 and 52 Gy, and 1-cc doses of 48.1 and 50 Gy, respectively. These point and 1-cc doses were exceeded by 9 and 2 patients, respectively, without a fistula. The risk of a fistula for point doses exceeding 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 9.5% (n=2/21), 10.5% (n=2/19), and 12.5% (n=2/16), respectively. The risk of fistula for 1-cc doses exceeding 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 25% (n=2/9), 50% (n=2/4), and 50% (n=2/4), respectively. Eighteen patients received systemic therapy after SBRT (11 systemic chemotherapy, and 6 biologic agents, and 1 both). Both patients with fistulas had received adjuvant anti-angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) agents within 2 months of completing SBRT. No patient had a fistula in the absence of adjuvant VEGF-modulating agents. Conclusions: Esophageal fistula is a rare complication of SBRT. In this series, fistula was seen with esophageal point doses exceeding 51 Gy and 1-cc doses greater than 48 Gy. Notably, however, fistula was seen only in those patients who also received adjuvant VEGF-modulating agents after SBRT. The potential interaction of dose and adjuvant therapy
Yi, Jianbing; Yang, Xuan Li, Yan-Ran; Chen, Guoliang
2015-10-15
3000 landmark points of ten cases by the authors’ method are 1.21 and 1.04 mm. In the EMPIRE10 lung registration challenge, the authors’ method ranks 24 of 39. According to the index of the maximum shear stretch, the authors’ method is also efficient to describe the discontinuous motion at the lung boundaries. Conclusions: By establishing the correspondence of the landmark points in the source phase and the other target phases combining shape matching and image intensity matching together, the mismatching issue in the robust point matching algorithm is adequately addressed. The target registration errors are statistically reduced by shifting the virtual target points and target points. The authors’ method with consideration of sliding conditions can effectively estimate the discontinuous motion, and the estimated motion is natural. The primary limitation of the proposed method is that the temporal constraints of the trajectories of voxels are not introduced into the motion model. However, the proposed method provides satisfactory motion information, which results in precise tumor coverage by the radiation dose during radiotherapy.
Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A
2012-01-01
Residents of the Techa riverside villages chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (the average dose rate in 1951-1956 was 0.047 Gy/year, the maximum reached 2.44 Gy/year) developed marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood. The maximum reduction of peripheral blood counts occurred in the years 1951-1953, after which the beginning of the restoration of cellularity to the control level was observed. The dose rate at this point (1956) was about 0.02 Gy/year. The factors of radiation and non-radiation nature (gender, the age at the onset of exposure, health related disorders) in different combinations affect the number of peripheral blood cells. The influence of dose rate of a chronic radiation exposure on a platelet count takes precedence over other factors. The factors of gender and dose rate determine the number of erythrocytes in exposed persons. The changes accompanying the health status and dose rate significantly affect the number of neutrophils. The influence of comorbidity, age and dose rate on the number of monocytes was noted. A lymphocyte count was mainly determined by the age at the onset of exposure and concomitant diseases. A joint influence of chronic radiation exposure and concomitant diseases increases a mutual action on erythro- and thrombocytopoiesis. The decrease of the dose rate was followed by a gradual predominance of the somatic disease influence on leukocyte (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) counts.
Maximum entropy principal for transportation
Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.
2008-11-06
In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.
Calculation of Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations.
1980-12-08
Version: 00 MILDOS estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This is a multi-purpose code system, within the range of its proper application, and can be used to evaluate population doses formore » NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. The MILDOS package includes models for both point sources (stacks, vents) and area sources (ore pads, tailings areas). Gaseous releases are limited to consideration of 222Rn plus ingrowth of daughters. Exposure pathways of concern are assumed to be inhalation of airborne radioactive material, ingestion of vegetables, meat, and milk contaminated via deposition, and external exposure to radiation emitted by airborne activity and activity deposited on ground surfaces. Liquid exposure pathways are not treated by MILDOS.« less
Kelly, Geraldine; Laxton, Carl; Garelnabi, Mariam; Alton, Brian; Addan, Fatima; Catchpole, Andrew; Thomas, Elaine; Borley, Daryl; Dee, Kieran; Boyers, Alison; Bringas, Erica; Noulin, Nicolas; Lambkin-Williams, Rob; Murray, Edward J
2015-11-01
Retroscreen (hVIVO) have developed an RSV human viral challenge model (hVCM) for testing the efficacy of novel antiviral therapies by monitoring changes in viral load and symptoms. The integrated cycler technology and Simplexa™ kits (Focus Diagnostics) currently provide fast, qualitative and sensitive diagnostic testing in hospitals and other healthcare facilities for patients with well-established respiratory illness. We have developed a novel use of qualitative integrated cycler PCR (qicPCR) technology to identify onset of RSV infection enabling an informed dosing clinical protocol in the RSV hVCM. We have validated qicPCR detection of RSV in spiked nasal wash aspirates and demonstrate that the qicPCR assay is 94% concordant with RSV plaque assay data in nasal wash samples from 53 RSV inoculated human volunteers in the hVCM. The use of qicPCR for informed dosing was successfully implemented in a recent clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of the RSV entry inhibitor GS-5806 in the hVCM (NCT01756482). Comparison of qicPCR positivity in relation to nasal wash viral load measured by both RT-qPCR and plaque assay shows that the therapeutic exposure was correctly initiated prior to onset and peak of RSV viral shedding and symptoms in the majority of volunteers.
Aircraft as adaptive nonlinear system which must be in the adaptational maximum zone for safety
Ignative, M.; Simatos, N.; Sivasundaram, S.
1994-12-31
Safety is a main problem in aircraft. We are considering this problem from the point of view related to existence of the adaptational maximum in complex developing systems. Safety space of aircraft parameters are determined. This space is transformed to different regimes of flight, when one engine malfunctions etc., are considered. Also it is shown that maximum safety is in adaptational maximum zone.
Gadan, M; Crawley, V; Thorp, S; Miller, M
2009-07-01
As a part of the project concerning the irradiation of a section of the human liver left lobe, a preliminary estimation of the expected dose was performed. To obtain proper input values for the calculation, neutron flux and gamma dose rate characterization were carried out using adequate portions of cow or pig liver covered with demineralized water simulating the preservation solution. Irradiations were done inside a container specially designed to fulfill temperature preservation of the organ and a reproducible irradiation position (which will be of importance for future planification purposes). Implantable rhodium based self-powered neutron detectors were developed to obtain neutron flux profiles both external and internal. Implantation of SPND was done along the central longitudinal axis of the samples, where lowest flux is expected. Gamma dose rate was obtained using a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber moved along external surfaces of the samples. The internal neutron profile resulted uniform enough to allow for a single and static irradiation of the liver. For dose estimation, irradiation condition was set in order to obtain a maximum of 15 Gy-eq in healthy tissue. Additionally, literature reported boron concentrations of 47 ppm in tumor and 8 ppm in healthy tissue and a more conservative relationship (30/10 ppm) were used. To make a conservative estimation of the dose the following considerations were done: i). Minimum measured neutron flux inside the sample (approximately 5 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1) was considered to calculate dose in tumor. (ii). Maximum measured neutron flux (considering both internal as external profiles) was used to calculate dose in healthy tissue (approximately 8.7 x 10(9) n cm-2 s-1). (iii). Maximum measured gamma dose rate (approximately 13.5 Gy h-1) was considered for both tumor and healthy tissue. Tumor tissue dose was approximately 69 Gy-eq for 47 ppm of (10)B and approximately 42 Gy-eq for 30 ppm, for a maximum dose of 15 Gy
Distribution of maximum velocities in avalanches near the depinning transition.
LeBlanc, Michael; Angheluta, Luiza; Dahmen, Karin; Goldenfeld, Nigel
2012-09-01
We report exact predictions for universal scaling exponents and scaling functions associated with the distribution of the maximum collective avalanche propagation velocities v(m) in the mean field theory of the interface depinning transition. We derive the extreme value distribution P(v(m)|T) for the maximum velocities in avalanches of fixed duration T and verify the results by numerical simulation near the critical point. We find that the tail of the distribution of maximum velocity for an arbitrary avalanche duration, v(m), scales as P(v(m))~v(m)(-2) for large v(m). These results account for the observed power-law distribution of the maximum amplitudes in acoustic emission experiments of crystal plasticity and are also broadly applicable to other systems in the mean-field interface depinning universality class, ranging from magnets to earthquakes.
Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks
2012-01-01
Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are
Absorbed dose water calorimeter
Domen, S.R.
1982-01-26
An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.
Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix
Shrotriya, D. Srivastava, R. N. L.; Kumar, S.
2015-06-24
The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.
Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, R. N. L.
2015-06-01
The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.
MSClique: Multiple Structure Discovery through the Maximum Weighted Clique Problem.
Sanroma, Gerard; Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Alquézar, René; Serratosa, Francesc; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel
2016-01-01
We present a novel approach for feature correspondence and multiple structure discovery in computer vision. In contrast to existing methods, we exploit the fact that point-sets on the same structure usually lie close to each other, thus forming clusters in the image. Given a pair of input images, we initially extract points of interest and extract hierarchical representations by agglomerative clustering. We use the maximum weighted clique problem to find the set of corresponding clusters with maximum number of inliers representing the multiple structures at the correct scales. Our method is parameter-free and only needs two sets of points along with their tentative correspondences, thus being extremely easy to use. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in multiple-structure fitting experiments in both publicly available and in-house datasets. As shown in the experiments, our approach finds a higher number of structures containing fewer outliers compared to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26766071
MSClique: Multiple Structure Discovery through the Maximum Weighted Clique Problem.
Sanroma, Gerard; Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Alquézar, René; Serratosa, Francesc; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel
2016-01-01
We present a novel approach for feature correspondence and multiple structure discovery in computer vision. In contrast to existing methods, we exploit the fact that point-sets on the same structure usually lie close to each other, thus forming clusters in the image. Given a pair of input images, we initially extract points of interest and extract hierarchical representations by agglomerative clustering. We use the maximum weighted clique problem to find the set of corresponding clusters with maximum number of inliers representing the multiple structures at the correct scales. Our method is parameter-free and only needs two sets of points along with their tentative correspondences, thus being extremely easy to use. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in multiple-structure fitting experiments in both publicly available and in-house datasets. As shown in the experiments, our approach finds a higher number of structures containing fewer outliers compared to state-of-the-art methods.
MSClique: Multiple Structure Discovery through the Maximum Weighted Clique Problem
Alquézar, René; Serratosa, Francesc; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; González Ballester, Miguel Ángel
2016-01-01
We present a novel approach for feature correspondence and multiple structure discovery in computer vision. In contrast to existing methods, we exploit the fact that point-sets on the same structure usually lie close to each other, thus forming clusters in the image. Given a pair of input images, we initially extract points of interest and extract hierarchical representations by agglomerative clustering. We use the maximum weighted clique problem to find the set of corresponding clusters with maximum number of inliers representing the multiple structures at the correct scales. Our method is parameter-free and only needs two sets of points along with their tentative correspondences, thus being extremely easy to use. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in multiple-structure fitting experiments in both publicly available and in-house datasets. As shown in the experiments, our approach finds a higher number of structures containing fewer outliers compared to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26766071
NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation
Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing
2013-01-01
[1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis
Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations
Turcotte, M.D.S.
1983-03-28
Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. A fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr should be used to recalculate dose to the average individual from L-Reactor restart. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr.
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Spline-based procedures for dose-finding studies with active control
Helms, Hans-Joachim; Benda, Norbert; Zinserling, Jörg; Kneib, Thomas; Friede, Tim
2015-01-01
In a dose-finding study with an active control, several doses of a new drug are compared with an established drug (the so-called active control). One goal of such studies is to characterize the dose–response relationship and to find the smallest target dose concentration d*, which leads to the same efficacy as the active control. For this purpose, the intersection point of the mean dose–response function with the expected efficacy of the active control has to be estimated. The focus of this paper is a cubic spline-based method for deriving an estimator of the target dose without assuming a specific dose–response function. Furthermore, the construction of a spline-based bootstrap CI is described. Estimator and CI are compared with other flexible and parametric methods such as linear spline interpolation as well as maximum likelihood regression in simulation studies motivated by a real clinical trial. Also, design considerations for the cubic spline approach with focus on bias minimization are presented. Although the spline-based point estimator can be biased, designs can be chosen to minimize and reasonably limit the maximum absolute bias. Furthermore, the coverage probability of the cubic spline approach is satisfactory, especially for bias minimal designs. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25319931
SU-E-T-199: How Number of Control Points Influences the Dynamic IMRT Plan Quality and Deliverability
Sharma, S; Manigandan, D; Chander, S; Subramani, V; Julka, P; Rath, G
2014-06-01
Purpose: To study the influence of number of control points on plan quality and deliverability. Methods: Five previously treated patients of carcinoma of rectum were selected. Planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) i.e. bladder and bowel were contoured. Dynamic IMRT plans (6MV, 7-fields, 45Gy/25 fractions and prescribed at 95% isodose) were created in Eclipse (Varian medical system, Palo Alto, CA) treatment planning system (TPS) for Varian CL2300C/D linear-accelerator. Base plan was calculated with 166 control points, variable mode (Eclipse Default). For generating other plans, all parameters were kept constant, only number of control points (Fixed mode) was varied as follows: 100, 166 and 200. Then, plan quality was analyzed in terms of maximum and mean dose received by the PTV and OARs. For plan deliverability, TPS calculated fluence was verified with I’matriXX (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) array and compared with TPS dose-plane using gamma index criteria of 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement (DTA). Total number of monitor units (MU) required to deliver a plan was also noted. Results: The maximum variation for the PTV maximum with respect to eclipse default control point (166) was 0.28% (0.14Gy). Similarly, PTV mean varied only up to 0.22 %( 0.11Gy). Bladder maximum and bladder mean varied up to 0.51% (0.24Gy) and 0.16% (0.06Gy). The variation for the bowel maximum and bowel mean was also only 0.39% (0.19Gy) and 0.33% (0.04Gy). Total MU was within 0.32 % (4MU). Average gamma pass rate using different control points for five patients are 98.75±0.33%, 99.37±0.09%, 99.29±0.12%, 98.14±0.13% and 99.25±0.14% respectively. Conclusion: Slight variation (<1%) in PTV and OARs maximum and mean doses was observed with varying number of control points. Monitor unit was also not varied much. Reducing number of control points did not showed any comprise in plan deliverability in terms of gamma index pass rate.
The myth of mean dose as a surrogate for radiation risk?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samei, Ehsan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Baiyu; Reiman, Robert
2010-04-01
The current estimations of risk associated with medical imaging procedures rely on assessing the organ dose via direct measurements or simulation. Each organ dose is assumed to be homogeneous, a representative sample or mean of which is weighted by a corresponding tissue weighting factor provided by ICRP publication 103. The weighted values are summed to provide Effective Dose (ED), the most-widely accepted surrogate for population radiation risk. For individual risk estimation, one may employ Effective Risk (ER), which further incorporates gender- and age-specific risk factors. However, both the tissue-weighting factors (as used by ED) and the risk factors (as used by ER) were derived (mostly from the atomic bomb survivor data) under the assumption of a homogeneous dose distribution within each organ. That assumption is significantly violated in most medical imaging procedures. In chest CT, for example, superficial organs (eg, breasts) demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution while organs on the peripheries of the irradiation field (eg, liver) possess a nearly discontinuous dose profile. Projection radiography and mammography involve an even wider range of organ dose heterogeneity spanning up to two orders of magnitude. As such, mean dose or point measured dose values do not reflect the maximum energy deposited per unit volume of the organ, and therefore, effective dose or effective risk, as commonly computed, can misrepresent irradiation risk. In this paper, we report the magnitude of the dose heterogeneity in both CT and projection x-ray imaging, provide an assessment of its impact on irradiation risk, and explore an alternative model-based approach for risk estimation for imaging techniques involving heterogeneous organ dose distributions.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...
14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...
49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...
49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...
20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum... the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except for the.... The maximum is computed as follows: (i) 150 percent of the first $230 of the individual's...
49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon
2016-10-01
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah
2008-01-01
Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.
1981-01-01
The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.
Low-dose metronomic chemotherapy: a systematic literature analysis.
Lien, K; Georgsdottir, S; Sivanathan, L; Chan, K; Emmenegger, U
2013-11-01
Low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy, the frequent and continuous use of low doses of conventional chemotherapeutics, is an emerging alternative to conventional chemotherapy. While promising tumour control rates and excellent safety profiles have been observed, there are no definitive phase III trial results. Furthermore, the selection of patients, drug dosages and dosing intervals is empirical. To systematically review the current state of knowledge regarding LDM chemotherapy, we searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PubMed databases for fully published LDM chemotherapy trials. We calculated the relative dose-intensity (RDI, mg/m(2)/week) of each LDM regimen as compared to conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) dosages and the 'dosing-density' (DD, % of days with chemotherapy administration per cycle). Meta-regression was performed to examine factors associated with disease control rate (DCR; complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)+stable disease (SD)). Eighty studies involving mainly pretreated patients with advanced/metastatic breast (26.25%) and prostate (11.25%) cancers were retrieved. The most commonly used drug was cyclophosphamide (43%). LDM chemotherapy was frequently combined with other therapies (64.5%). Response rate (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the most frequent primary end-points (24% and 19%). Mean RR was 26.03% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.4-30.7), median PFS was 4.6months (interquartile range (IQR): 2.9-7.0) and mean DCR was 56.3% (95% CI: 50.9-61.6). RDI, DD and metronomic drug used were not associated with DCR. Grade 3/4 adverse events were rare (anaemia 7.78%, fatigue 13.4%). Thus, LDM therapy appears to be clinically beneficial and safe in a broad range of tumors. However, meta-regression analysis did not identify predictive factors of response.
Haney, J
2015-07-01
Dose-dependent changes in target tissue absorption have important implications for determining the most defensible approach for developing a cancer-based oral toxicity factor for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). For example, mouse target tissue absorption per unit dose is an estimated 10-fold lower at the CrVI dose corresponding to the federal maximum contaminant level (MCL) than at the USEPA draft oral slope factor (SFo) point of departure dose. This decreasing target tissue absorption as doses decrease to lower, more environmentally-relevant doses is inconsistent with linear low-dose extrapolation. The shape of the dose-response curve accounting for this toxicokinetic phenomenon would clearly be non-linear. Furthermore, these dose-dependent differences in absorption indicate that the magnitude of risk overestimation by a linear low-dose extrapolation approach (e.g., SFo) increases and is likely to span one or perhaps more orders of magnitude as it is used to predict risk at progressively lower, more environmentally-relevant doses. An additional apparent implication is that no single SFo can reliably predict risk across potential environmental doses (e.g., doses corresponding to water concentrations⩽the federal MCL). A non-linear approach, consistent with available mode of action data, is most scientifically defensible for derivation of an oral toxicity factor for CrVI-induced carcinogenesis.
Maximum-likelihood registration of range images with missing data.
Sharp, Gregory C; Lee, Sang W; Wehe, David K
2008-01-01
Missing data are common in range images, due to geometric occlusions, limitations in the sensor field of view, poor reflectivity, depth discontinuities, and cast shadows. Using registration to align these data often fails, because points without valid correspondences can be incorrectly matched. This paper presents a maximum likelihood method for registration of scenes with unmatched or missing data. Using ray casting, correspondences are formed between valid and missing points in each view. These correspondences are used to classify points by their visibility properties, including occlusions, field of view, and shadow regions. The likelihood of each point match is then determined using statistical properties of the sensor, such as noise and outlier distributions. Experiments demonstrate a high rates of convergence on complex scenes with varying degrees of overlap. PMID:18000329
Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.
1990-01-01
The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.
Amini, Arya; Westerly, David C; Waxweiler, Timothy V; Ryan, Nicole; Raben, David
2015-01-01
Targeted focal therapy strategies for treating single-lobe prostate cancer are under investigation. In this planning study, we investigate the feasibility of treating a portion of the prostate to full-dose external beam radiation with reduced dose to the opposite lobe, compared with full-dose radiation delivered to the entire gland using hypofractionated radiation. For 10 consecutive patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, 2 hypofractionated, single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were designed. The first plan (standard hypofractionation regimen [STD]) included the entire prostate gland, treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions. The second dose painting plan (DP) encompassed the involved lobe treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions, whereas the opposing, uninvolved lobe received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Mean dose to the opposing neurovascular bundle (NVB) was considerably lower for DP vs STD, with a mean dose of 53.9 vs 72.3 Gy (p < 0.001). Mean penile bulb dose was 18.6 Gy for DP vs 19.2 Gy for STD (p = 0.880). Mean rectal dose was 21.0 Gy for DP vs 22.8 Gy for STD (p = 0.356). Rectum V70 (the volume receiving ≥70 Gy) was 2.01% for DP vs 2.74% for STD (p = 0.328). Bladder V70 was 1.69% for DP vs 2.78% for STD (p = 0.232). Planning target volume (PTV) maximum dose points were 76.5 and 76.3 Gy for DP and STD, respectively (p = 0.760). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using VMAT for partial-lobe prostate radiation in patients with prostate cancer involving 1 lobe. Partial-lobe prostate plans appeared to spare adjacent critical structures including the opposite NVB.
Amini, Arya; Westerly, David C.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Ryan, Nicole; Raben, David
2015-10-01
Targeted focal therapy strategies for treating single-lobe prostate cancer are under investigation. In this planning study, we investigate the feasibility of treating a portion of the prostate to full-dose external beam radiation with reduced dose to the opposite lobe, compared with full-dose radiation delivered to the entire gland using hypofractionated radiation. For 10 consecutive patients with low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, 2 hypofractionated, single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were designed. The first plan (standard hypofractionation regimen [STD]) included the entire prostate gland, treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions. The second dose painting plan (DP) encompassed the involved lobe treated to 70 Gy delivered in 28 fractions, whereas the opposing, uninvolved lobe received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Mean dose to the opposing neurovascular bundle (NVB) was considerably lower for DP vs STD, with a mean dose of 53.9 vs 72.3 Gy (p < 0.001). Mean penile bulb dose was 18.6 Gy for DP vs 19.2 Gy for STD (p = 0.880). Mean rectal dose was 21.0 Gy for DP vs 22.8 Gy for STD (p = 0.356). Rectum V{sub 70} (the volume receiving ≥70 Gy) was 2.01% for DP vs 2.74% for STD (p = 0.328). Bladder V{sub 70} was 1.69% for DP vs 2.78% for STD (p = 0.232). Planning target volume (PTV) maximum dose points were 76.5 and 76.3 Gy for DP and STD, respectively (p = 0.760). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using VMAT for partial-lobe prostate radiation in patients with prostate cancer involving 1 lobe. Partial-lobe prostate plans appeared to spare adjacent critical structures including the opposite NVB.
Chiu-Tsao, S-T; Chan, MF
2009-01-01
The authors have studied the feasibility of using three new high-sensitivity radiochromic devices in measuring the doses to peripheral points outside the primary megavoltage photon beams. The three devices were GAFCHROMIC® EBT film, prototype Low Dose (LD) Film, and prototype LD Card. The authors performed point dosimetry using these three devices in water-equivalent solid phantoms at x = 3,5,8,10, and 15 cm from the edge of 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams of 10x10 cm2, and at depths of 0, 0.5 cm, and depth of maximum dose. A full sheet of EBT film was exposed with 5000 MU. The prototype LD film pieces were 1.5x2 cm2 in size. Some LD films were provided in the form of a card in 1.8x5 cm2 holding an active film in 1.8x2 cm2. These are referred to as “LD dosimeter cards”. The small LD films and cards were exposed with 500 MU. For each scanned film, a 6 mm circular area centered at the measurement point was sampled and the mean pixel value was obtained. The calibration curves were established from the calibration data for each combination of film/cards and densitometer/scanner. The doses at the peripheral points determined from the films were compared with those obtained using ion chamber at respective locations in a water phantom and general agreements were found. It is feasible to accurately measure peripheral doses of megavoltage photon beams using the new high-sensitivity radiochromic devices. This near real-time and inexpensive method can be applied in a clinical setting for dose measurements to critical organs and sensitive patient implant devices. PMID:21610987
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik
2015-03-01
Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support
Holmes, W.G.
2001-08-16
The offsite radiological effects from high velocity straight winds, tornadoes, and earthquakes have been estimated for a proposed facility for manufacturing enriched uranium fuel cores by powder metallurgy. Projected doses range up to 30 mrem/event to the maximum offsite individual for high winds and up to 85 mrem/event for very severe earthquakes. Even under conservative assumptions on meteorological conditions, the maximum offsite dose would be about 20 per cent of the DOE limit for accidents involving enriched uranium storage facilities. The total dose risk is low and is dominated by the risk from earthquakes. This report discusses this test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Runqing
uniform dose per fraction (EUDf) and NTCP. The dose distribution including geometric uncertainties was determined from integration of the convolution of the static dose gradient with the PDF. Integration of the convolution of the static dose and derivative of the PDF can also be used to determine the dose including geometric uncertainties although this method was not investigated in detail. Local maximum dose gradient (LMDG) was determined via optimization of dose objective function by manually adjusting DVH control points or selecting beam numbers and directions during IMRT treatment planning. Minimum SD (SDmin) is used when geometric uncertainty is corrected with verification imaging. Maximum SD (SDmax) is used when the geometric uncertainty is known to be large and difficult to manage. SDmax was 4.38 mm in anterior-posterior (AP) direction, 2.70 mm in left-right (LR) direction and 4.35 mm in superior-inferior (SI) direction; SDmin was 1.1 mm in all three directions if less than 2 mm threshold was used for uncorrected fractions in every direction. EUDf is a useful QA parameter for interpreting the biological impact of geometric uncertainties on the static dose distribution. The EUD f has been used as the basis for the time-course NTCP evaluation in the thesis. Relative NTCP values are useful for comparative QA checking by normalizing known complications (e.g. reported in the RTOG studies) to specific DVH control points. For prostate cancer patients, rectal complications were evaluated from specific RTOG clinical trials and detailed evaluation of the treatment techniques (e.g. dose prescription, DVH, number of beams, bean angles). Treatment plans that did not meet DVH constraints represented additional complication risk. Geometric uncertainties improved or worsened rectal NTCP depending on individual internal organ motion within patient.
50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time... Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. (a... than prescribed herein: Provided, The party demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction...
Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.
1981-04-01
The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.
2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources
Sturgeon, Richard W.
2012-06-27
organized. The RMUS Interview Form with the attached RMUS Process Form(s) provides the radioactive materials survey data by technical area (TA) and building number. The survey data for each release point includes information such as: exhaust stack identification number, room number, radioactive material source type (i.e., potential source or future potential source of air emissions), radionuclide, usage (in curies) and usage basis, physical state (gas, liquid, particulate, solid, or custom), release fraction (from Appendix D to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H), and process descriptions. In addition, the interview form also calculates emissions (in curies), lists mrem/Ci factors, calculates PEDEs, and states the location of the critical receptor for that release point. [The critical receptor is the maximum exposed off-site member of the public, specific to each individual facility.] Each of these data fields is described in this section. The Tier classification of release points, which was first introduced with the 1999 usage survey, is also described in detail in this section. Section 4 includes a brief discussion of the dose estimate methodology, and includes a discussion of several release points of particular interest in the CY 2011 usage survey report. It also includes a table of the calculated PEDEs for each release point at its critical receptor. Section 5 describes ES's approach to Quality Assurance (QA) for the usage survey. Satisfactory completion of the survey requires that team members responsible for Rad-NESHAP (National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) compliance accurately collect and process several types of information, including radioactive materials usage data, process information, and supporting information. They must also perform and document the QA reviews outlined in Section 5.2.6 (Process Verification and Peer Review) of ES-RN, 'Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Rad-NESHAP Compliance Project' to verify that all information is complete and
5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum contributions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum contributions. 1600.22 Section 1600.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Program of Contributions § 1600.22 Maximum contributions. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
Maximum entropy image reconstruction from projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bara, N.; Murata, K.
1981-07-01
The maximum entropy method is applied to image reconstruction from projections, of which angular view is restricted. The relaxation parameters are introduced to the maximum entropy reconstruction and after iteration the median filtering is implemented. These procedures improve the quality of the reconstructed image from noisy projections
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...
49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...
49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...
Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans.
Mackeprang, P-H; Volken, W; Terribilini, D; Frauchiger, D; Zaugg, K; Aebersold, D M; Fix, M K; Manser, P
2016-04-21
Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within ±0.4 s and doses ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min(-1) for conventional fractionation
Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew
2012-06-01
A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple doses that a prior dose has been absorbed nearly completely when the next dose is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the dose superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, dose superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the maximum number of the doses that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform dose superimposition to remove the restriction that the maximum number of doses must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854
Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M
2014-06-15
Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c
Valakh, Vladimir; Kim, Yongbok; Werts, E. Day; Trombetta, Mark G.
2012-04-01
Purpose: To investigate radiation dose to the heart in 60 patients with left-sided breast cancer who were treated with balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy using MammoSite or Contura applicators. Methods and Materials: We studied 60 consecutive women with breast cancer who were treated with 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions using MammoSite (n = 37) or Contura (n = 23) applicators. The whole heart and the left and right ventricles were retrospectively delineated, and dose-volume histograms were analyzed. Multiple dosimetrics were reported, such as mean dose (D{sub mean}); relative volume receiving 1.7, 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V1.7, V5, V10, and V20, respectively); dose to 1 cc (D{sub 1cc}); and maximum point dose (D{sub max}). Biologic metrics, biologically effective dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose were computed. The impact of lumpectomy cavity location on cardiac dose was investigated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation of D{sub mean} was 2.45 {+-} 0.94 Gy (range, 0.56-4.68) and 3.29 {+-} 1.28 Gy (range, 0.77-6.35) for the heart and the ventricles, respectively. The average whole heart V5 and V10 values were 10.2% and 1.3%, respectively, and the heart D{sub max} was >20 Gy in 7 of 60 (11.7%) patients and >25 Gy in 3 of 60 (5%) patients. No cardiac tissue received {>=}30 Gy. The V1.7, V5, V10, V20, and D{sub mean} values were all higher for the ventricles than for the whole heart. For balloons located in the upper inner quadrant of the breast, the average whole heart D{sub mean} was highest. The D{sub mean}, biologically effective dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose values for heart and ventricles decreased with increasing minimal distance from the surface of the balloon. Conclusions: On the basis of these comprehensive cardiac dosimetric data, we recommend that cardiac dose be routinely reported and kept as low as possible in balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning for patients with left-sided breast cancer so
Technical basis for dose reconstruction
Anspaugh, L.R.
1996-01-31
The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.
Dose and dose rate effectiveness of space radiation.
Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A
2006-01-01
Dose and dose rate effectiveness factors (DDREF), in conjunction with other weighting factors, are commonly used to scale atomic bomb survivor data in order to establish limits for occupational radiation exposure, including radiation exposure in space. We use some well-known facts about the microscopic pattern of energy deposition of high-energy heavy ions, and about the dose rate dependence of chemical reactions initiated by radiation, to show that DDREF are likely to vary significantly as a function of particle type and energy, cell, tissue, and organ type, and biological end point. As a consequence, we argue that validation of DDREF by conventional methods, e.g. irradiating animal colonies and compiling statistics of cancer mortality, is not appropriate. However, the use of approaches derived from information theory and thermodynamics is a very wide field, and the present work can only be understood as a contribution to an ongoing discussion. PMID:17169950
Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B
2014-06-01
Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea
Estimation of External Dose by Car-Borne Survey in Kerala, India
Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi
2015-01-01
A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7–2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y. PMID:25885680
Estimation of external dose by car-borne survey in Kerala, India.
Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Akiba, Suminori; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Nair, Raghu Ram; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Iwaoka, Kazuki; Akata, Naofumi; Kudo, Hiromi
2015-01-01
A car-borne survey was carried out in Kerala, India to estimate external dose. Measurements were made with a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer from September 23 to 27, 2013. The routes were selected from 12 Panchayats in Karunagappally Taluk which were classified into high level, mid-level and low level high background radiation (HBR) areas. A heterogeneous distribution of air kerma rates was seen in the dose rate distribution map. The maximum air kerma rate, 2.1 μGy/h, was observed on a beach sand surface. 232Th activity concentration for the beach sand was higher than that for soil and grass surfaces, and the range of activity concentration was estimated to be 0.7-2.3 kBq/kg. The contribution of 232Th to air kerma rate was over 70% at the measurement points with values larger than 0.34 μGy/h. The maximum value of the annual effective dose in Karunagappally Taluk was observed around coastal areas, and it was estimated to be 13 mSv/y. More than 30% of all the annual effective doses obtained in this survey exceeded 1 mSv/y.
Carver, R; Popple, R; Benhabib, S; Antolak, J; Sprunger, C; Hogstrom, K
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×10{sup 9}), resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.
Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors
Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald
2012-12-15
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference
Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutaria, Minda C.
1990-06-01
The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.
Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.
2016-04-01
Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within ±0.4 s and doses ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional
Mazonakis, Michalis; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John
2008-10-15
Peripheral dose (PD) to critical structures outside treatment volume is of clinical importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate PD on a linear accelerator equipped with multileaf collimator (MLC). Dose measurements were carried out using an ionization chamber embedded in a water phantom for 6 and 18 MV photon beams. PD values were acquired for field sizes from 5x5 to 20x20 cm{sup 2} in increments of 5 cm at distances up to 24 cm from the field edge. Dose data were obtained at two collimator orientations where the measurement points are shielded by MLC and jaws. The variation of PD with the source to skin distance (SSD), depth, and lateral displacement of the measurement point was evaluated. To examine the dependence of PD upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam, scattered dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on three anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 5- and 10-year-old children and an average adult patient. PD from 6 MV photons varied from 0.13% to 6.75% of the central-axis maximum dose depending upon the collimator orientation, extent of irradiated area, and distance from the treatment field. The corresponding dose range from 18 MV x rays was 0.09% to 5.61%. The variation of PD with depth and with lateral displacements up to 80% of the field dimension was very small. The scattered dose from both photon beams increased with the increase of SSD or tissue thickness along beam axis. The presented dosimetric data set allows the estimation of scattered dose outside the primary beam.
Case Example of Dose Optimization Using Data From Bortezomib Dose-Finding Clinical Trials
Backenroth, Daniel; Cheung, Ying Kuen Ken; Hershman, Dawn L.; Vulih, Diana; Anderson, Barry; Ivy, Percy; Minasian, Lori
2016-01-01
Purpose The current dose-finding methodology for estimating the maximum tolerated dose of investigational anticancer agents is based on the cytotoxic chemotherapy paradigm. Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) have different toxicity profiles, which may lead to more long-lasting mild or moderate toxicities as well as to late-onset and cumulative toxicities. Several approved MTAs have been poorly tolerated during long-term administration, leading to postmarketing dose optimization studies to re-evaluate the optimal treatment dose. Using data from completed bortezomib dose-finding trials, we explore its toxicity profile, optimize its dose, and examine the appropriateness of current designs for identifying an optimal dose. Patients and Methods We classified the toxicities captured from 481 patients in 14 bortezomib dose-finding studies conducted through the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, computed the incidence of late-onset toxicities, and compared the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) among groups of patients receiving different doses of bortezomib. Results A total of 13,008 toxicities were captured: 46% of patients’ first DLTs and 88% of dose reductions or discontinuations of treatment because of toxicity were observed after the first cycle. Moreover, for the approved dose of 1.3 mg/m2, the estimated cumulative incidence of DLT was > 50%, and the estimated cumulative incidence of dose reduction or treatment discontinuation because of toxicity was nearly 40%. Conclusions When considering the entire course of treatment, the approved bortezomib dose exceeds the conventional ceiling DLT rate of 20% to 33%. Retrospective analysis of trial data provides an opportunity for dose optimization of MTAs. Future dose-finding studies of MTAs should take into account late-onset toxicities to ensure that a tolerable dose is identified for future efficacy and comparative trials. PMID:26926682
Absorbed Dose and Dose Equivalent Calculations for Modeling Effective Dose
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welton, Andrew; Lee, Kerry
2010-01-01
While in orbit, Astronauts are exposed to a much higher dose of ionizing radiation than when on the ground. It is important to model how shielding designs on spacecraft reduce radiation effective dose pre-flight, and determine whether or not a danger to humans is presented. However, in order to calculate effective dose, dose equivalent calculations are needed. Dose equivalent takes into account an absorbed dose of radiation and the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. This is important in preventing long-term, stochastic radiation effects in humans spending time in space. Monte carlo simulations run with the particle transport code FLUKA, give absorbed and equivalent dose data for relevant shielding. The shielding geometry used in the dose calculations is a layered slab design, consisting of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. Water is used to simulate the soft tissues that compose the human body. The results obtained will provide information on how the shielding performs with many thicknesses of each material in the slab. This allows them to be directly applicable to modern spacecraft shielding geometries.
Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis.
Donovan, Therese M; Warrington, Gregory S; Schwenk, W Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H
2012-12-01
Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be
Dose uncertainties in photon pencil kernel calculations at off-axis positions
Olofsson, Joergen; Nyholm, Tufve; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael
2006-09-15
The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific problems associated with photon dose calculations in points located at a distance from the central beam axis. These problems are related to laterally inhomogeneous energy fluence distributions and spectral variations causing a lateral shift in the beam quality, commonly referred to as off-axis softening (OAS). We have examined how the dose calculation accuracy is affected when enabling and disabling explicit modeling of these two effects. The calculations were performed using a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm that facilitates modeling of OAS through laterally varying kernel properties. Together with a multisource model that provides the lateral energy fluence distribution this generates the total dose output, i.e., the dose per monitor unit, at an arbitrary point of interest. The dose calculation accuracy was evaluated through comparisons with 264 measured output factors acquired at 5, 10, and 20 cm depth in four different megavoltage photon beams. The measurements were performed up to 18 cm from the central beam axis, inside square fields of varying size and position. The results show that calculations including explicit modeling of OAS were considerably more accurate, up to 4%, than those ignoring the lateral beam quality shift. The deviations caused by simplified head scatter modeling were smaller, but near the field edges additional errors close to 1% occurred. When enabling full physics modeling in the dose calculations the deviations display a mean value of -0.1%, a standard deviation of 0.7%, and a maximum deviation of -2.2%. Finally, the results were analyzed in order to quantify and model the inherent uncertainties that are present when leaving the central beam axis. The off-axis uncertainty component showed to increase with both off-axis distance and depth, reaching 1% (1 standard deviation) at 20 cm depth.
On the efficiency at maximum cooling power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.
2013-08-01
The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.
Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J
1983-08-01
The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645
Maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, B. N.; Dimashko, Iu. A.; Kryzhanovskii, V. G.
1985-10-01
Formulas are presented for the maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT. It is shown that the maximum efficiency is determined by the ohmic-loss coefficient and is achieved through a successive application of the isoadiabatic-amplification mode and the isoacceptance mode. The efficiency can reach a value of 75-80 percent; further increases may be achieved through an improvement of the capture quality.
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law. PMID:21055440
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Dae-chul
2013-05-01
This study investigated differences between the physical wedge and the dynamic wedge distributions of radiation by using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ImRT) MatriXX. The linear accelerator used X-rays with energy levels of 6 MV and 10 MV to adjust the collimator by motoring the independent jaws (X1, X2, Y1, Y2) for setting wedge angles of 15, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The collimator field size was set as 10 × 10 cm2 or 20 × 20 cm2 at the maximum dose point. The dose distribution for each wedge had ±5% and ±11% errors for field sizes of 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2, respectively. The error was greatest at a wedge angle of 45 degrees and was pronounced at the end of the dynamic wedge where Y1 and Y2 met. Consequently, concluded that the dose distributions were similar for both wedges for the field size of a small beam profile. The beam dose was greatly increased at the end of the dynamic wedge. A more precise estimate of the therapeutic dose of radiation for a dynamic wedge that nearly matches that of the physical wedge can be achieved by correcting of the increasing part of the beam dose. The findings imply that a heavy wedge filter should not be used when calculating the isodose distribution and the therapeutic dose.
Issues in carcinogenicity testing: dose selection.
Haseman, J K
1985-02-01
Dose selection in testing chemicals for possible carcinogenicity in rodents continues to be an area of scientific debate. In this paper the definition of "maximum tolerated dose" (MTD) is considered, and the advantages and disadvantages of using MTDs are given. There is no universally accepted definition of an MTD, and as a result, objections to utilizing high doses in carcinogenicity testing may reflect differing definitions of an MTD rather than basic disagreements in dose selection philosophy. Data from 52 National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenicity studies indicate that while dose selection has caused difficulties in certain studies using the gavage route of chemical administration, there is little evidence that this has been a problem in NTP studies using the dietary (feed) route of exposure. These data also indicate that more than two-thirds of the carcinogenic effects detected in feeding studies would have been missed had the high dose been reduced from the estimated MTD to 1/2 MTD. The inherent insensitivity of laboratory animal studies for detecting weak-to-moderate carcinogenic responses also argues against reducing the highest dose level. The addition of a third, lower-dosed group provides for a margin of safety against the possibility of over-estimating the MTD. Primary emphasis should be given to improving procedures for estimating the MTD, particularly for gavage studies. Efforts should also be increased to obtain pharmacokinetic and metabolism data for the test chemical that might be factored into the dose selection and study evaluation processes.
Lasseter, K; Dilzer, S; Jansat, J M; Garcia Gil, E; Caracta, C F; Ortiz, S
2012-04-01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airway obstruction and increased cholinergic tone. The global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) guidelines recommend long-acting anticholinergics for COPD maintenance treatment. Aclidinium bromide is a novel, long-acting muscarinic antagonist developed for the treatment of COPD. A phase I, randomized, single-blind, multiple-dose clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of multiple doses of twice-daily (BID) aclidinium in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy male and female subjects received aclidinium 200 μg, 400 μg, 800 μg, or placebo twice daily for 7 days. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 cohorts and 10 subjects in each cohort were randomized (8:2) to either aclidinium or placebo groups. Safety was assessed via adverse events (AEs), laboratory evaluations, vital signs, and ECGs. Plasma samples were obtained at multiple time points throughout the study and analyzed for aclidinium and its inactive acid and alcohol metabolites using a fully validated method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 9 treatment-emergent AEs were reported (1, placebo; 3, aclidinium 400 μg; 5, aclidinium 800 μg), all of which were mild in severity. No serious AEs were reported. There were no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory parameters or vital signs. PK parameters on Day 7 following BID dosing of aclidinium showed that steady state was achieved for aclidinium and its metabolites. On Days 1 and 7, maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of aclidinium were generally observed at the first PK time point (5 min postdose) and rapidly declined, with plasma concentrations generally less than 10% of Cmax by 6 h postdose in all aclidinium groups. Mean effective t(½) after the evening dose on Day 7 ranged from 4.6 to 7.0 h for aclidinium 400 μg and 800 μg, similar to the terminal t(½) observed on Day 1 (4.5-5.9 h
Measurement verification of dose distributions in pulsed-dose rate brachytherapy in breast cancer
Mantaj, Patrycja; Zwierzchowski, Grzegorz
2013-01-01
Aim The aim of the study was to verify the dose distribution optimisation method in pulsed brachytherapy. Background The pulsed-dose rate brachytherapy is a very important method of breast tumour treatment using a standard brachytheraphy equipment. The appropriate dose distribution round an implant is an important issue in treatment planning. Advanced computer systems of treatment planning are equipped with algorithms optimising dose distribution. Materials and methods The wax-paraffin phantom was constructed and seven applicators were placed within it. Two treatment plans (non-optimised, optimised) were prepared. The reference points were located at a distance of 5 mm from the applicators’ axis. Thermoluminescent detectors were placed in the phantom at suitable 35 chosen reference points. Results The dosimetry verification was carried out in 35 reference points for the plans before and after optimisation. Percentage difference for the plan without optimisation ranged from −8.5% to 1.4% and after optimisation from −8.3% to 0.01%. In 16 reference points, the calculated percentage difference was negative (from −8.5% to 1.3% for the plan without optimisation and from −8.3% to 0.8% for the optimised plan). In the remaining 19 points percentage difference was from 9.1% to 1.4% for the plan without optimisation and from 7.5% to 0.01% for the optimised plan. No statistically significant differences were found between calculated doses and doses measured at reference points in both dose distribution non-optimised treatment plans and optimised treatment plans. Conclusions No statistically significant differences were found in dose values at reference points between doses calculated by the treatment planning system and those measured by TLDs. This proves the consistency between the measurements and the calculations. PMID:24416545
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information
Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.
2014-01-01
Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Probable maximum floods at the Yucca Mountain exploration shafts
Cardle, J.A.; Lim, S.T.
1990-10-01
This paper presents an analysis of flood flows in the Coyote Wash at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Estimates of the hydrographs at various points in this wash resulting from the 100 year storm and from the probable maximum storms are developed and compared with other results. Flows in this particular wash are particularly critical due to the adjacent location of the proposed exploratory shafts. The resulting hydrographs at the site of the exploratory shaft pad are delineated.
The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells
Crăciunescu, Aurelian; Pătularu, Laurenţiu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena
2015-03-10
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.
The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.
2012-12-01
Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.
Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi
2000-07-01
The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.
Pizzo, Fabiola; Benfenati, Emilio
2016-01-01
The preclinical stage in drug development requires the determination of repeated-dose toxicity (RDT) in animal models. The main outcome of RDT studies is the determination of the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). NOAEL is important since it serves to calculate the maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) which is the safe starting dose for clinical studies in human beings. Since in vivo RDT studies are expensive and time-consuming, in silico approaches could offer a valuable alternative. However, NOAEL and LOAEL modeling suffer some limitations since they do not refer to a single end point but to several different effects and the doses used in experimental studies strongly influence the final results. Few attempts to model NOAEL and LOAEL have been reported. The available database and models for the prediction of NOAEL and LOAEL are reviewed here. PMID:27311467
From cellular doses to average lung dose.
Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R
2015-11-01
Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions.
Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.
1981-04-01
The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based
Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT
Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David
2006-07-15
Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields ({>=}10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10{sup -10} scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged
Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Summhammer, Johann
1994-01-01
In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.
Saghir, Shakil A; Marty, Mary S; Zablotny, Carol L; Passage, Julie K; Perala, Adam W; Neal, Barbara H; Hammond, Larry; Bus, James S
2013-12-01
Life-stage-dependent toxicity and dose-dependent toxicokinetics (TK) were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats following dietary exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-D renal clearance is impacted by dose-dependent saturation of the renal organic anion transporter; thus, this study focused on identifying inflection points of onset of dietary nonlinear TK to inform dose selection decisions for toxicity studies. Male and female rats were fed 2,4-D-fortified diets at doses to 1600 ppm for 4-weeks premating, <2 weeks during mating, and to test day (TD) 71 to parental (P1) males and to P1 females through gestation/lactation to TD 96. F1 offspring were exposed via milk with continuing diet exposure until postnatal day (PND) 35. As assessed by plasma area under the curve for the time-course plasma concentration, nonlinear TK was observed ≥ 1200 ppm (63 mg/kg/day) for P1 males and between 200 and 400 ppm (14-27 mg/kg/day) for P1 females. Dam milk and pup plasma levels were higher on lactation day (LD) 14 than LD 4. Relative to P1 adults, 2,4-D levels were higher in dams during late gestation/lactation and postweaning pups (PND 21-35) and coincided with elevated intake of diet/kg body weight. Using conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) criteria based on body weight changes for dose selection would have resulted in excessive top doses approximately 2-fold higher than those identified incorporating critical TK data. These data indicate that demonstration of nonlinear TK, if present at dose levels substantially above real-world human exposures, is a key dose selection consideration for improving the human relevance of toxicity studies compared with studies employing conventional MTD dose selection strategies.
DICOM organ dose does not accurately represent calculated dose in mammography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suleiman, Moayyad E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.
2016-03-01
This study aims to analyze the agreement between the mean glandular dose estimated by the mammography unit (organ dose) and mean glandular dose calculated using Dance et al published method (calculated dose). Anonymised digital mammograms from 50 BreastScreen NSW centers were downloaded and exposure information required for the calculation of dose was extracted from the DICOM header along with the organ dose estimated by the system. Data from quality assurance annual tests for the included centers were collected and used to calculate the mean glandular dose for each mammogram. Bland-Altman analysis and a two-tailed paired t-test were used to study the agreement between calculated and organ dose and the significance of any differences. A total of 27,869 dose points from 40 centers were included in the study, mean calculated dose and mean organ dose (+/- standard deviation) were 1.47 (+/-0.66) and 1.38 (+/-0.56) mGy respectively. A statistically significant 0.09 mGy bias (t = 69.25; p<0.0001) with 95% limits of agreement between calculated and organ doses ranging from -0.34 and 0.52 were shown by Bland-Altman analysis, which indicates a small yet highly significant difference between the two means. The use of organ dose for dose audits is done at the risk of over or underestimating the calculated dose, hence, further work is needed to identify the causal agents for differences between organ and calculated doses and to generate a correction factor for organ dose.
Azcona, J; Burguete, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: To obtain the pencil beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a FFF linac by experimental measurements, and to apply them for dose calculation in modulated fields. Methods: Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from a Varian True Beam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) linac, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50 mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. Measured dose leads to the kernel characterization, assuming that the energy fluence exiting the linac head and further collimated is originated on a point source. The three-dimensional kernel was obtained by deconvolution at each depth using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. The kernels were used to calculate modulated dose distributions in six modulated fields and compared through the gamma index to their absolute dose measured by film in the RW3 phantom. Results: The resulting kernels properly characterize the global beam penumbra. The output factor-based correction was carried out adding the amount of signal necessary to reproduce the experimental output factor in steps of 2mm, starting at a radius of 4mm. There the kernel signal was in all cases below 10% of its maximum value. With this correction, the number of points that pass the gamma index criteria (3%, 3mm) in the modulated fields for all cases are at least 99.6% of the total number of points. Conclusion: A system for independent dose calculations in modulated fields from FFF beams has been developed. Pencil beam kernels were obtained and their ability to accurately calculate dose in homogeneous media was demonstrated.
A maximum likelihood approach to estimating correlation functions
Baxter, Eric Jones; Rozo, Eduardo
2013-12-10
We define a maximum likelihood (ML for short) estimator for the correlation function, ξ, that uses the same pair counting observables (D, R, DD, DR, RR) as the standard Landy and Szalay (LS for short) estimator. The ML estimator outperforms the LS estimator in that it results in smaller measurement errors at any fixed random point density. Put another way, the ML estimator can reach the same precision as the LS estimator with a significantly smaller random point catalog. Moreover, these gains are achieved without significantly increasing the computational requirements for estimating ξ. We quantify the relative improvement of the ML estimator over the LS estimator and discuss the regimes under which these improvements are most significant. We present a short guide on how to implement the ML estimator and emphasize that the code alterations required to switch from an LS to an ML estimator are minimal.
Berge, T.I.; Wohni, T.
1984-02-01
Phantom measurements of red bone marrow (RBM) doses, integral absorbed doses, and somatically effective dose equivalent (SEDE) from four different maxillary occlusal projections are presented. For each projection, different combinations of focus-skin distances and tube potentials were compared with regard to the patient's radiation load. The axial incisal view produced the highest patient exposures, with a maximum red bone marrow dose of 122.5 microGy/exposure, integral absorbed dose of 8.6 mJ/exposure, and SEDE values of 39.6 microSv/exposure. The corresponding values from the frontal, lateral occlusal, and tuber views ranged between 4% and 44% of the axial incisal view values for the integral absorbed dose and SEDE values, and between 0.3% and 3% for the red bone marrow doses. Increasing the focus-skin distance from 17.5 cm to 27 cm is accompanied by a 24% to 30% reduction in integral absorbed dose. Increasing the tube potential from 50 kV to 65 kV likewise results in a 23% reduction in absorbed energy.
Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila
2016-03-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.
Gong, J; Sarwan, R; Pavord, D
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantitatively compare low dose spillage outside of PTV edge in arc therapy modalities Methods: The machines used in the study are Tomotherapy Hi-Arc and Varian 21EX with millennium120 MLC. TPS are TomoPlaning and RayStation for VMAT, respectively. The phantom is a 30cm diameter cylindrical solid water (TOMOTHERAPY, TOMOPHANTOM ASSY). The PTV is 4cm length with ellipsoidal sectional shape with major axis=5cm, minor axis=3cm in the axial plane and reversed in the coronal plane. The PTV volume is created with interpolation. It is located at the center of the phantom. The prescribed dose is 1000x5 cGy to 95% the PTV. The isocenter is set co-centered with the PTV. EBT-3 film was used to measure iso-dose lines at the center plane. Film dosimetry is performed with the RIT, v6.2. Results: the study shows: (1) dose falloff gradient is usually uneven, depending on the PTV shape in the gantry rotation plane. For an elliptical shape, the low dose spillage is wider in the minor axis direction than that in the major axis direction. The more a shape is closer to circular, the more even gradient is all directions; (2)for a circular shape (CAX plane in this study), the maximum dose in % of Rx dose at 2cm from PTV is 55% for Tomo, vs. 70% for VMAT (3) the most rapid dose falloff rang is between 95%–80% IDL for both modalities. Conclusion: Tomo has more rapid dose falloff outside of PTV. In some areas, the gradient is double for Tomo helical than that for LINAC VMAT at same points. Future work will examine the differences between optimization of doses and inherent delivery limitations.
Understanding and using fluoroscopic dose display information.
Weinberg, Brent D; Guild, Jeffrey B; Arbique, Gary M; Chason, David P; Anderson, Jon A
2015-01-01
Fluoroscopically guided procedures are an area of radiology in which radiation exposure to the patient is highly operator dependent. Modern fluoroscopy machines display a variety of information, including technique factors, field of view, operating geometry, exposure mode, fluoroscopic time, air kerma at the reference point (RAK), and air kerma area-product. However, the presentation of this information is highly vendor specific, and many users are unaware of how to interpret this information and use it to perform a study with the minimum necessary dose. A conceptual framework for understanding the radiation dose readout during a procedure is to compare it to the dashboard of an automobile, where the rate at which radiation is being applied (the RAK rate [mGy/min]) is the dose "speed" and the cumulative amount of radiation applied (cumulative RAK [mGy]) is the dose "odometer." This analogy can be used as a starting point to improve knowledge of these parameters, including how RAK is measured, how RAK correlates with skin dose, and how parameters are displayed differently during fluoroscopy and fluorography. Awareness of these factors is critical to understanding how dose parameters translate to patient risk and the consequences of high-dose studies. With this increased awareness, physicians performing fluoroscopically guided procedures can understand how to use built-in features of the fluoroscopic equipment (pulse rate, beam filtration, and automatic exposure control) and fluoroscopic techniques (procedure planning, patient positioning, proper collimation, and magnification) to reduce patient radiation dose, thereby improving patient safety. PMID:25442356
Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...
Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...
Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations. Revision 1
Turcotte, M.D.S.
1983-08-05
Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with a site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average adult fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum adult fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr. Consumption values for the teen and child age groups should be increased proportionally: (1) teen average = 8.5; maximum = 25.9 kg/yr; and (2) child average = 3.6; maximum = 11.2 kg/yr. 8 refs.
Planning Consequences of the Maximum dB(A) CONCEPT—A Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
RYLANDER, R.; BJÖRKMAN, M.
2002-02-01
The maximum noise concept based on the noisiest event represents a new principle to control the effects of an environmental pollutant in the urban area. The report describes these newly developed dose descriptors for the relation between exposure and effects and presents examples for practical actions to control noise exposure.
OCCUPATIONAL DOSE ASSESSMENT IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY IN SERBIA.
Kaljevic, J; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Bozovic, P; Antic, V
2016-09-01
The objective of this work is to assess the occupational dose in interventional cardiology in a large hospital in Belgrade, Serbia. A double-dosimetry method was applied for the estimation of whole-body dose, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, calibrated in terms of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Besides the double-dosimetry method, eye dose was also estimated by means of measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and doses per procedure were reported. Doses were assessed for 13 physicians, 6 nurses and 10 radiographers, for 2 consequent years. The maximum annual effective dose assessed was 4.3, 2.1 and 1.3 mSv for physicians, nurses and radiographers, respectively. The maximum doses recorded by the dosemeter worn at the collar level (over the apron) were 16.8, 11.9 and 4.5 mSv, respectively. This value was used for the eye lens dose assessment. Estimated doses are in accordance with or higher than annual dose limits for the occupational exposure. PMID:26464526
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...
Universality of efficiency at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2009-04-01
We investigate the efficiency of power generation by thermochemical engines. For strong coupling between the particle and heat flows and in the presence of a left-right symmetry in the system, we demonstrate that the efficiency at maximum power displays universality up to quadratic order in the deviation from equilibrium. A maser model is presented to illustrate our argument.
Teaching Media Studies in Maximum Security Prisons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corcoran, Farrel
Some of the difficulties involved in teaching inside maximum security prisons, and ways a media studies teacher met these challenges, are described in this paper. The first section of the paper deals with the prison security system and the stresses it can cause for both teacher and student, while the second section discusses the influence of the…
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael
2014-12-01
A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.
5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...
Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M
1922-01-01
Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...
Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Medhekar, Sarang
1991-01-01
Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)
24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...
Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars
Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )
1990-07-15
Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.
Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.
1996-01-01
Additive dose methods commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry are time consuming and labor intensive. We have developed a mathematical approach for determining optimal spacing of applied doses and the number of spectra which should be taken at each dose level. Expected uncertainitites in the data points are assumed to be normally distributed with a fixed standard deviation and linearity of dose response is also assumed. The optimum spacing and number of points necessary for the minimal error can be estimated, as can the likely error in the resulting estimate. When low doses are being estimated for tooth enamel samples the optimal spacing is shown to be a concentration of points near the zero dose value with fewer spectra taken at a single high dose value within the range of known linearity. Optimization of the analytical process results in increased accuracy and sample throughput.
An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island
Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.
1994-07-01
We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).
Maximum Aerodynamic Force on an Ascending Space Vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backman, Philip
2012-03-01
The March 2010 issue of The Physics Teacher includes a great article by Metz and Stinner on the kinematics and dynamics of a space shuttle launch. Within those pages is a brief mention of an event known in the language of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as "maximum dynamic pressure" (called simply "Max.AirPressure" in the article), where the combined effect of air density and the shuttles speed produce the greatest aerodynamic stress on the vehicle as it ascends through the atmosphere toward orbit. Official commentary during a launch2 refers to this point in the ascent with language such as "space shuttle main engines throttling back as vehicle enters area of maximum dynamic pressure" and occurs in a range between 45 and 60 s after launch. (In dealing with this stress, the space shuttles main engines reduce their thrust at approximately 45 s to reduce acceleration, and return to normal levels again some 15 s later as maximum dynamic pressure is traversed.) This paper presents an analysis, accessible to introductory-level students, that predicts the time of Max. AirPressure for a given ascending spacecraft.
Random walk with random resetting to the maximum position
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, Satya N.; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory
2015-11-01
We study analytically a simple random walk model on a one-dimensional lattice, where at each time step the walker resets to the maximum of the already visited positions (to the rightmost visited site) with a probability r , and with probability (1 -r ) , it undergoes symmetric random walk, i.e., it hops to one of its neighboring sites, with equal probability (1 -r )/2 . For r =0 , it reduces to a standard random walk whose typical distance grows as √{n } for large n . In the presence of a nonzero resetting rate 0
Random walk with random resetting to the maximum position.
Majumdar, Satya N; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Schehr, Grégory
2015-11-01
We study analytically a simple random walk model on a one-dimensional lattice, where at each time step the walker resets to the maximum of the already visited positions (to the rightmost visited site) with a probability r, and with probability (1-r), it undergoes symmetric random walk, i.e., it hops to one of its neighboring sites, with equal probability (1-r)/2. For r=0, it reduces to a standard random walk whose typical distance grows as √n for large n. In the presence of a nonzero resetting rate 0
10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... equivalent is maximum in a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom. b Monoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom. ... measured tissue dose in rads to dose equivalent in rems. Table 1004(b).2—Mean Quality Factors, Q,...
10 CFR 20.1004 - Units of radiation dose.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... equivalent is maximum in a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom. b Monoenergetic neutrons incident normally on a 30-cm diameter cylinder tissue-equivalent phantom. ... measured tissue dose in rads to dose equivalent in rems. Table 1004(b).2—Mean Quality Factors, Q,...
Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R
2016-06-01
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group. PMID:26980800
Harrison, J D; Balonov, M; Martin, C J; Ortiz Lopez, P; Menzel, H-G; Simmonds, J R; Smith-Bindman, R; Wakeford, R
2016-06-01
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 provided a detailed explanation of the purpose and use of effective dose and equivalent dose to individual organs and tissues. Effective dose has proven to be a valuable and robust quantity for use in the implementation of protection principles. However, questions have arisen regarding practical applications, and a Task Group has been set up to consider issues of concern. This paper focusses on two key proposals developed by the Task Group that are under consideration by ICRP: (1) confusion will be avoided if equivalent dose is no longer used as a protection quantity, but regarded as an intermediate step in the calculation of effective dose. It would be more appropriate for limits for the avoidance of deterministic effects to the hands and feet, lens of the eye, and skin, to be set in terms of the quantity, absorbed dose (Gy) rather than equivalent dose (Sv). (2) Effective dose is in widespread use in medical practice as a measure of risk, thereby going beyond its intended purpose. While doses incurred at low levels of exposure may be measured or assessed with reasonable reliability, health effects have not been demonstrated reliably at such levels but are inferred. However, bearing in mind the uncertainties associated with risk projection to low doses or low dose rates, it may be considered reasonable to use effective dose as a rough indicator of possible risk, with the additional consideration of variation in risk with age, sex and population group.
Li, H; Mager, D E; Sandmaier, B M; Maloney, D G; Bemer, M J; McCune, J S
2012-01-01
We sought to create a population pharmacokinetic model for total mycophenolic acid (MPA), to study the effects of different covariates on MPA pharmacokinetics, to create a limited sampling schedule (LSS) to characterize MPA exposure (i.e., area under the curve or AUC) with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation, and to simulate an optimized dosing scheme for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. 4,496 MPA concentration-time points from 408 HCT recipients were analyzed retrospectively using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. MPA pharmacokinetics was characterized with a two-compartment model with first-order elimination and a time-lagged first-order absorption process. Concomitant cyclosporine and serum albumin were significant covariates. The median MPA clearance and volume of the central compartment were 24.2 L/hr and 36.4 L, respectively, for a 70 kg patient receiving tacrolimus with a serum albumin of 3.4 g/dL. Dosing simulations indicated that higher oral MMF doses are needed with concomitant cyclosporine, which increases MPA clearance by 33.8%. The optimal LSS was immediately before and at 0.25, 1.25, 2, and 4hr after oral MMF administration. MPA AUC in an individual HCT recipient can be accurately estimated using a five-sample LSS and maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation. PMID:23382105
Li, H; Mager, D E; Sandmaier, B M; Maloney, D G; Bemer, M J; McCune, J S
2013-04-01
We sought to create a population pharmacokinetic model for total mycophenolic acid (MPA), to study the effects of different covariates on MPA pharmacokinetics, to create a limited sampling schedule (LSS) to characterize MPA exposure (i.e., area under the curve or AUC) with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation, and to simulate an optimized dosing scheme for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Four thousand four hundred ninety-six MPA concentration-time points from 408 HCT recipients were analyzed retrospectively using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. MPA pharmacokinetics was characterized with a two-compartment model with first-order elimination and a time-lagged first-order absorption process. Concomitant cyclosporine and serum albumin were significant covariates. The median MPA clearance (CL) and volume of the central compartment were 24.2 L/hour and 36.4 L, respectively, for a 70 kg patient receiving tacrolimus with a serum albumin of 3.4 g/dL. Dosing simulations indicated that higher oral MMF doses are needed with concomitant cyclosporine, which increases MPA CL by 33.8%. The optimal LSS was immediately before and at 0.25 hours, 1.25 hours, 2 hours, and 4 hours after oral mycophenolate mofetil administration. MPA AUC in an individual HCT recipient can be accurately estimated using a five-sample LSS and maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation.
Li, H; Mager, D E; Sandmaier, B M; Maloney, D G; Bemer, M J; McCune, J S
2013-04-01
We sought to create a population pharmacokinetic model for total mycophenolic acid (MPA), to study the effects of different covariates on MPA pharmacokinetics, to create a limited sampling schedule (LSS) to characterize MPA exposure (i.e., area under the curve or AUC) with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation, and to simulate an optimized dosing scheme for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Four thousand four hundred ninety-six MPA concentration-time points from 408 HCT recipients were analyzed retrospectively using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach. MPA pharmacokinetics was characterized with a two-compartment model with first-order elimination and a time-lagged first-order absorption process. Concomitant cyclosporine and serum albumin were significant covariates. The median MPA clearance (CL) and volume of the central compartment were 24.2 L/hour and 36.4 L, respectively, for a 70 kg patient receiving tacrolimus with a serum albumin of 3.4 g/dL. Dosing simulations indicated that higher oral MMF doses are needed with concomitant cyclosporine, which increases MPA CL by 33.8%. The optimal LSS was immediately before and at 0.25 hours, 1.25 hours, 2 hours, and 4 hours after oral mycophenolate mofetil administration. MPA AUC in an individual HCT recipient can be accurately estimated using a five-sample LSS and maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation. PMID:23382105
Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.
Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K
2011-10-01
In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Titze, Ingo R.
2006-01-01
Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…
50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. 259.34 Section 259.34 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES...
Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium
McDowell-Boyer, L M
1980-01-01
Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 ..mu..Sv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed.
Radiation dose to the global flying population.
Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H
2016-03-01
Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. PMID:26769857
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Maximum constrained sparse coding for image representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Danpei; Jiang, Zhiguo
2015-12-01
Sparse coding exhibits good performance in many computer vision applications by finding bases which capture highlevel semantics of the data and learning sparse coefficients in terms of the bases. However, due to the fact that bases are non-orthogonal, sparse coding can hardly preserve the samples' similarity, which is important for discrimination. In this paper, a new image representing method called maximum constrained sparse coding (MCSC) is proposed. Sparse representation with more active coefficients means more similarity information, and the infinite norm is added to the solution for this purpose. We solve the optimizer by constraining the codes' maximum and releasing the residual to other dictionary atoms. Experimental results on image clustering show that our method can preserve the similarity of adjacent samples and maintain the sparsity of code simultaneously.
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood
Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.
2016-01-01
Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136
Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.
Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian
2013-04-01
In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097
Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program
Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph
1983-01-01
This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum hydrocarbon window determination in South Louisiana
Leach, W.G. )
1993-03-29
This is the third and final part of a three part article about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Based on many individual plots, it was found that hydrocarbon distribution will vary according to the depth of abnormal pressure and lithology. The relation of maximum hydrocarbon distribution to formation fracture strength or depth opens the door to the use of a maximum hydrocarbon window (MHW) technique. This MHW technique can be used as a decision making tool on how deep to drill a well, particularly how deep to drill a well below the top of abnormal pressure. The paper describes the benefits of the MHW technique and its future potential for exploration and development operations.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS
Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael
2014-01-01
A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259
Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Schaaf, Larry J.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Lucas, David M.; Young, Donn C.; Ruppert, Amy S.; Byrd, John C.; Culler, Kristy; Wilkins, Diedre; Wright, John J.; Grever, Michael R.; Shapiro, Charles L.
2012-01-01
Purpose A phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of bortezomib (B) when combined with weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients and methods Eligible patients received escalating doses of intravenous (IV) bortezomib (0.6–2 mg/m2) on days 2 and 9 and IV paclitaxel at 100 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. Dose escalation was based on two end-points: not exceeding 80% 20S-proteasome inhibition (20-S PI) and the development of dose-limiting toxicity defined as grade 3 or greater non-hematologic or grade 4 hematologic toxicities. Results Forty-five patients with advanced solid tumors and a median of 3 prior chemotherapy regimens (range 0– 9), received 318 doses (median 5, range 1–34) of bortezomib and paclitaxel. Dose-related inhibition of 20-S PI was observed with a maximum inhibition of 70–80% at the MTD of 1.8 mg/m2 of bortezomib. At the MTD (N = 9) the following toxicities were observed: grade 4 neutropenia without fever (n = 2) and cerebrovascular ischemia (n = 1); grade 3 neutropenia (n = 3), diarrhea (n = 2), nausea (n = 1), and fatigue (n = 1); grade 2 fatigue (n = 5), diarrhea (n = 4), and dyspnea (n = 2). There was one partial response in a patient with an eccrine porocarcinoma. Stabilization of disease was observed in 7 (16%) patients, 3 of whom had advanced pancreatic cancer. Conclusion Sequential paclitaxel and bortezomib in previously treated patients with advanced solid tumors resulted in acceptable toxicity and no evidence of interaction. The recommended phase II dose of bortezomib in combination with weekly paclitaxel was 1.8 mg/m2. PMID:19774377
Influence of maximum bite force on jaw movement during gummy jelly mastication.
Kuninori, T; Tomonari, H; Uehara, S; Kitashima, F; Yagi, T; Miyawaki, S
2014-05-01
It is known that maximum bite force has various influences on chewing function; however, there have not been studies in which the relationships between maximum bite force and masticatory jaw movement have been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximum bite force on masticatory jaw movement in subjects with normal occlusion. Thirty young adults (22 men and 8 women; mean age, 22.6 years) with good occlusion were divided into two groups based on whether they had a relatively high or low maximum bite force according to the median. The maximum bite force was determined according to the Dental Prescale System using pressure-sensitive sheets. Jaw movement during mastication of hard gummy jelly (each 5.5 g) on the preferred chewing side was recorded using a six degrees of freedom jaw movement recording system. The motion of the lower incisal point of the mandible was computed, and the mean values of 10 cycles (cycles 2-11) were calculated. A masticatory performance test was conducted using gummy jelly. Subjects with a lower maximum bite force showed increased maximum lateral amplitude, closing distance, width and closing angle; wider masticatory jaw movement; and significantly lower masticatory performance. However, no differences in the maximum vertical or maximum anteroposterior amplitudes were observed between the groups. Although other factors, such as individual morphology, may influence masticatory jaw movement, our results suggest that subjects with a lower maximum bite force show increased lateral jaw motion during mastication.
5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...
5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...
5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...
5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-01
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature. PMID:21230944
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy
Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-01
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
"SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Raymond
2014-05-01
The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.
Melting point, boiling point, and symmetry.
Abramowitz, R; Yalkowsky, S H
1990-09-01
The relationship between the melting point of a compound and its chemical structure remains poorly understood. The melting point of a compound can be related to certain of its other physical chemical properties. The boiling point of a compound can be determined from additive constitutive properties, but the melting point can be estimated only with the aid of nonadditive constitutive parameters. The melting point of some non-hydrogen-bonding, rigid compounds can be estimated by the equation MP = 0.772 * BP + 110.8 * SIGMAL + 11.56 * ORTHO + 31.9 * EXPAN - 240.7 where MP is the melting point of the compound in Kelvin, BP is the boiling point, SIGMAL is the logarithm of the symmetry number, EXPAN is the cube of the eccentricity of the compound, and ORTHO indicates the number of groups that are ortho to another group.
Differential dose contributions on total dose distribution of (125)I brachytherapy source.
Camgöz, B; Yeğin, G; Kumru, M N
2010-01-01
This work provides an improvement of the approach using Monte Carlo simulation for the Amersham Model 6711 (125)I brachytherapy seed source, which is well known by many theoretical and experimental studies. The source which has simple geometry was researched with respect to criteria of AAPM Tg-43 Report. The approach offered by this study involves determination of differential dose contributions that come from virtual partitions of a massive radioactive element of the studied source to a total dose at analytical calculation point. Some brachytherapy seeds contain multi-radioactive elements so the dose at any point is a total of separate doses from each element. It is momentous to know well the angular and radial dose distributions around the source that is located in cancerous tissue for clinical treatments. Interior geometry of a source is effective on dose characteristics of a distribution. Dose information of inner geometrical structure of a brachytherapy source cannot be acquired by experimental methods because of limits of physical material and geometry in the healthy tissue, so Monte Carlo simulation is a required approach of the study. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation software was used. In the design of a simulation, the radioactive source was divided into 10 rings, partitioned but not separate from each other. All differential sources were simulated for dose calculation, and the shape of dose distribution was determined comparatively distribution of a single-complete source. In this work anisotropy function was examined also mathematically.
Differential dose contributions on total dose distribution of (125)I brachytherapy source.
Camgöz, B; Yeğin, G; Kumru, M N
2010-01-01
This work provides an improvement of the approach using Monte Carlo simulation for the Amersham Model 6711 (125)I brachytherapy seed source, which is well known by many theoretical and experimental studies. The source which has simple geometry was researched with respect to criteria of AAPM Tg-43 Report. The approach offered by this study involves determination of differential dose contributions that come from virtual partitions of a massive radioactive element of the studied source to a total dose at analytical calculation point. Some brachytherapy seeds contain multi-radioactive elements so the dose at any point is a total of separate doses from each element. It is momentous to know well the angular and radial dose distributions around the source that is located in cancerous tissue for clinical treatments. Interior geometry of a source is effective on dose characteristics of a distribution. Dose information of inner geometrical structure of a brachytherapy source cannot be acquired by experimental methods because of limits of physical material and geometry in the healthy tissue, so Monte Carlo simulation is a required approach of the study. EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation software was used. In the design of a simulation, the radioactive source was divided into 10 rings, partitioned but not separate from each other. All differential sources were simulated for dose calculation, and the shape of dose distribution was determined comparatively distribution of a single-complete source. In this work anisotropy function was examined also mathematically. PMID:24376927
Farhood, Bagher
2014-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of diameter of 10B nanoparticles and various neutron capture cross-section libraries on macroscopic dose enhancement in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of a 252Cf source, a soft tissue phantom and a tumor containing 10B nanoparticles. Using 252Cf as a neutron source, macroscopic dose enhancement factor (MDEF) and total dose rate in tumor in the presence of 100, 200, and 500 ppm of 10B nanoparticles with 25 nm, 50 nm, and 100 nm diameters were calculated. Additionally, the effect of ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, and CENDL neutron capture cross-section libraries on MDEF was evaluated. Results There is not a linear relationship between the average MDEF value and nanoparticles’ diameter but the average MDEF grows with increased concentration of 10B nanoparticles. There is an increasing trend for average MDEF with the tumor distance. The average MDEF values were obtained the same for various neutron capture cross-section libraries. The maximum and minimum doses that effect on the total dose in tumor were neutron and secondary photon doses, respectively. Furthermore, the boron capture related dose component reduced in some extent with increase of diameter of 10B nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that from physical point of view, various nanoparticle diameters have no dominant effect on average MDEF value in tumor. Furthermore, it is concluded that various neutron capture cross-section libraries are resulted to the same macroscopic dose enhancements. However, it is predicted that taking into account the biological effects for various nanoparticle diameters will result in different dose enhancements. PMID:25834582
Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.
2015-12-01
A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.
Veiga, Catarina Royle, Gary; Lourenço, Ana Mónica; Mouinuddin, Syed; Herk, Marcel van; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien; McClelland, Jamie R.
2015-02-15
Purpose: The aims of this work were to evaluate the performance of several deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms implemented in our in-house software (NiftyReg) and the uncertainties inherent to using different algorithms for dose warping. Methods: The authors describe a DIR based adaptive radiotherapy workflow, using CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The transformations that mapped the anatomy between the two time points were obtained using four different DIR approaches available in NiftyReg. These included a standard unidirectional algorithm and more sophisticated bidirectional ones that encourage or ensure inverse consistency. The forward (CT-to-CBCT) deformation vector fields (DVFs) were used to propagate the CT Hounsfield units and structures to the daily geometry for “dose of the day” calculations, while the backward (CBCT-to-CT) DVFs were used to remap the dose of the day onto the planning CT (pCT). Data from five head and neck patients were used to evaluate the performance of each implementation based on geometrical matching, physical properties of the DVFs, and similarity between warped dose distributions. Geometrical matching was verified in terms of dice similarity coefficient (DSC), distance transform, false positives, and false negatives. The physical properties of the DVFs were assessed calculating the harmonic energy, determinant of the Jacobian, and inverse consistency error of the transformations. Dose distributions were displayed on the pCT dose space and compared using dose difference (DD), distance to dose difference, and dose volume histograms. Results: All the DIR algorithms gave similar results in terms of geometrical matching, with an average DSC of 0.85 ± 0.08, but the underlying properties of the DVFs varied in terms of smoothness and inverse consistency. When comparing the doses warped by different algorithms, we found a root mean square DD of 1.9% ± 0.8% of the prescribed dose (pD) and that an average of 9% ± 4% of
Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.
1991-01-01
A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.
Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas
2016-01-01
Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531
Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator
Chen, L.; Sun, F.; Wu, C.
1996-12-01
The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans
Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Liu, Tianyu; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob
2014-01-01
Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the
In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans
Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George
2014-09-15
Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling the
Melchert, Corinna; Kovács, György
2016-01-01
Purpose This study aims to compare the dosimetric data of local tumor's bed dose escalation (boost) with photon beams (external beam radiation therapy – EBRT) versus high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) after breast-conserving treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer. Material and methods We analyzed the treatment planning data of 136 irradiated patients, treated between 2006 and 2013, who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation (WBI; 50.4 Gy) and boost (HDR-BT: 10 Gy in one fraction [n = 36]; EBRT: 10 Gy in five fractions [n = 100]). Organs at risk (OAR; heart, ipsilateral lung, skin, most exposed rib segment) were delineated. Dosimetric parameters were calculated with the aid of dose-volume histograms (DVH). A non-parametric test was performed to compare the two different boost forms. Results There was no difference for left-sided cancers regarding the maximum dose to the heart (HDR-BT 29.8% vs. EBRT 29.95%, p = 0.34). The maximum doses to the other OAR were significantly lower for HDR-BT (Dmax lung 47.12% vs. 87.7%, p < 0.01; rib 61.17% vs. 98.5%, p < 0.01; skin 57.1% vs. 94.75%, p < 0.01; in the case of right-sided breast irradiation, dose of the heart 6.00% vs. 16.75%, p < 0.01). Conclusions Compared to EBRT, local dose escalation with HDR-BT presented a significant dose reduction to the investigated OAR. Only left-sided irradiation showed no difference regarding the maximum dose to the heart. Reducing irradiation exposure to OAR could result in a reduction of long-term side effects. Therefore, from a dosimetric point of view, an interstitial boost complementary to WBI via EBRT seems to be more advantageous in the adjuvant radiotherapy of breast cancer.
Melchert, Corinna; Kovács, György
2016-01-01
Purpose This study aims to compare the dosimetric data of local tumor's bed dose escalation (boost) with photon beams (external beam radiation therapy – EBRT) versus high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) after breast-conserving treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer. Material and methods We analyzed the treatment planning data of 136 irradiated patients, treated between 2006 and 2013, who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation (WBI; 50.4 Gy) and boost (HDR-BT: 10 Gy in one fraction [n = 36]; EBRT: 10 Gy in five fractions [n = 100]). Organs at risk (OAR; heart, ipsilateral lung, skin, most exposed rib segment) were delineated. Dosimetric parameters were calculated with the aid of dose-volume histograms (DVH). A non-parametric test was performed to compare the two different boost forms. Results There was no difference for left-sided cancers regarding the maximum dose to the heart (HDR-BT 29.8% vs. EBRT 29.95%, p = 0.34). The maximum doses to the other OAR were significantly lower for HDR-BT (Dmax lung 47.12% vs. 87.7%, p < 0.01; rib 61.17% vs. 98.5%, p < 0.01; skin 57.1% vs. 94.75%, p < 0.01; in the case of right-sided breast irradiation, dose of the heart 6.00% vs. 16.75%, p < 0.01). Conclusions Compared to EBRT, local dose escalation with HDR-BT presented a significant dose reduction to the investigated OAR. Only left-sided irradiation showed no difference regarding the maximum dose to the heart. Reducing irradiation exposure to OAR could result in a reduction of long-term side effects. Therefore, from a dosimetric point of view, an interstitial boost complementary to WBI via EBRT seems to be more advantageous in the adjuvant radiotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:27648082
Gargett, Maegan Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Oborn, Brad; Metcalfe, Peter
2015-02-15
Purpose: MRI-guided radiation therapy systems (MRIgRT) are being developed to improve online imaging during treatment delivery. At present, the operation of single point dosimeters and an ionization chamber array have been characterized in such systems. This work investigates a novel 2D diode array, named “magic plate,” for both single point calibration and 2D positional performance, the latter being a key element of modern radiotherapy techniques that will be delivered by these systems. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo methods have been employed to study the dose response of a silicon diode array to 6 MV photon beams, in the presence of in-line and perpendicularly aligned uniform magnetic fields. The array consists of 121 silicon diodes (dimensions 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.38 mm{sup 3}) embedded in kapton substrate with 1 cm pitch, spanning a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} area in total. A geometrically identical, water equivalent volume was simulated concurrently for comparison. The dose response of the silicon diode array was assessed for various photon beam field shapes and sizes, including an IMRT field, at 1 T. The dose response was further investigated at larger magnetic field strengths (1.5 and 3 T) for a 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} photon field size. Results: The magic plate diode array shows excellent correspondence (< ± 1%) to water dose in the in-line orientation, for all beam arrangements and magnetic field strengths investigated. The perpendicular orientation, however, exhibits a dose shift with respect to water at the high-dose-gradient beam edge of jaw-defined fields [maximum (4.3 ± 0.8)% over-response, maximum (1.8 ± 0.8)% under-response on opposing side for 1 T, uncertainty 1σ]. The trend is not evident in areas with in-field dose gradients typical of IMRT dose maps. Conclusions: A novel 121 pixel silicon diode array detector has been characterized by Monte Carlo simulation for its performance inside magnetic fields representative of current prototype and proposed MRI
Maximum a posteriori resampling of noisy, spatially correlated data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goff, John A.; Jenkins, Chris; Calder, Brian
2006-08-01
In any geologic application, noisy data are sources of consternation for researchers, inhibiting interpretability and marring images with unsightly and unrealistic artifacts. Filtering is the typical solution to dealing with noisy data. However, filtering commonly suffers from ad hoc (i.e., uncalibrated, ungoverned) application. We present here an alternative to filtering: a newly developed method for correcting noise in data by finding the "best" value given available information. The motivating rationale is that data points that are close to each other in space cannot differ by "too much," where "too much" is governed by the field covariance. Data with large uncertainties will frequently violate this condition and therefore ought to be corrected, or "resampled." Our solution for resampling is determined by the maximum of the a posteriori density function defined by the intersection of (1) the data error probability density function (pdf) and (2) the conditional pdf, determined by the geostatistical kriging algorithm applied to proximal data values. A maximum a posteriori solution can be computed sequentially going through all the data, but the solution depends on the order in which the data are examined. We approximate the global a posteriori solution by randomizing this order and taking the average. A test with a synthetic data set sampled from a known field demonstrates quantitatively and qualitatively the improvement provided by the maximum a posteriori resampling algorithm. The method is also applied to three marine geology/geophysics data examples, demonstrating the viability of the method for diverse applications: (1) three generations of bathymetric data on the New Jersey shelf with disparate data uncertainties; (2) mean grain size data from the Adriatic Sea, which is a combination of both analytic (low uncertainty) and word-based (higher uncertainty) sources; and (3) side-scan backscatter data from the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory which are, as
Targeted Maximum Likelihood Based Causal Inference: Part I
van der Laan, Mark J.
2010-01-01
Given causal graph assumptions, intervention-specific counterfactual distributions of the data can be defined by the so called G-computation formula, which is obtained by carrying out these interventions on the likelihood of the data factorized according to the causal graph. The obtained G-computation formula represents the counterfactual distribution the data would have had if this intervention would have been enforced on the system generating the data. A causal effect of interest can now be defined as some difference between these counterfactual distributions indexed by different interventions. For example, the interventions can represent static treatment regimens or individualized treatment rules that assign treatment in response to time-dependent covariates, and the causal effects could be defined in terms of features of the mean of the treatment-regimen specific counterfactual outcome of interest as a function of the corresponding treatment regimens. Such features could be defined nonparametrically in terms of so called (nonparametric) marginal structural models for static or individualized treatment rules, whose parameters can be thought of as (smooth) summary measures of differences between the treatment regimen specific counterfactual distributions. In this article, we develop a particular targeted maximum likelihood estimator of causal effects of multiple time point interventions. This involves the use of loss-based super-learning to obtain an initial estimate of the unknown factors of the G-computation formula, and subsequently, applying a target-parameter specific optimal fluctuation function (least favorable parametric submodel) to each estimated factor, estimating the fluctuation parameter(s) with maximum likelihood estimation, and iterating this updating step of the initial factor till convergence. This iterative targeted maximum likelihood updating step makes the resulting estimator of the causal effect double robust in the sense that it is
Dose characterization in the near-source region for two high dose rate brachytherapy sources.
Wang, Ruqing; Li, X Allen
2002-08-01
High dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources are currently used in intravascular brachytherapy (IVB) for the peripheral arterial system. This poses a demand on evaluating accurate dose parameters in the near-source region for such sources. The purpose of this work is to calculate the dose parameters for the old VariSource HDR 192Ir source and the new microSelectron HDR 192Ir source, using Monte Carlo electron and photon transport simulation. The two-dimensional (2D) dose rate distributions and the air kerma strengths for the two HDR sources were calculated by EGSnrc and EGS4 Monte Carlo codes. Based on these data, the dose parameters proposed in the AAPM TG-60 protocol were derived. The dose rate constants obtained are 13.119+/-0.028 cGy h(-1) U(-1) for the old VariSource source, and 22.751+/-0.031 cGy h(-1) U(-1) for the new microSelectron source at the reference point (r0 = 2 mm, theta = pi/2). The 2D dose rate distributions, the radial dose functions, and the anisotropy functions presented for the two sources cover radial distances ranging from 0.5 to 10 mm. In the near-source region on the transverse plane, the dose effects of the charged particle nonequilibrium and the beta-particle dose contribution were studied. It is found that at radial distances ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm, these effects increase the calculated dose rates by up to 29% for the old VariSource source, and by up to 12% for the new microSelectron source, which, in turn, change values of the radial dose function and the anisotropy function. The present dose parameters, which account for the charged particle nonequilibrium and the beta particle contribution, may be used for accurate IVB dose calculation. PMID:12201413
Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony
1996-01-01
A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.
Maximum neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin
2009-04-01
Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, maximum marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely maximum neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
Physically constrained maximum likelihood mode filtering.
Papp, Joseph C; Preisig, James C; Morozov, Andrey K
2010-04-01
Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shapes or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 1813-1824 (1998)] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the MAP algorithm requires that the signal and noise statistics be known a priori. Adaptive array processing algorithms are candidates for improving performance without the need for a priori signal and noise statistics. A variant of the physically constrained, maximum likelihood (PCML) algorithm [A. L. Kraay and A. B. Baggeroer, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 4048-4063 (2007)] is developed for mode filtering that achieves the same performance as the MAP mode filter yet does not need a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics. The central innovation of this adaptive mode filter is that the received signal's sample covariance matrix, as estimated by the algorithm, is constrained to be that which can be physically realized given a modal propagation model and an appropriate noise model. Shallow water simulation results are presented showing the benefit of using the PCML method in adaptive mode filtering.
Probably maximum flood of the Sava River
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.
2010-05-01
The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.
Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition.
He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Hu, Bao-Gang
2011-08-01
In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l(1)norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to develop a more tractable and practical approach, we in particular impose nonnegativity constraint on the variables in the maximum correntropy criterion and develop a half-quadratic optimization technique to approximately maximize the objective function in an alternating way so that the complex optimization problem is reduced to learning a sparse representation through a weighted linear least squares problem with nonnegativity constraint at each iteration. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust and efficient in dealing with the occlusion and corruption problems in face recognition as compared to the related state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it shows that the proposed method can improve both recognition accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, while the computational cost is much lower than the SRC algorithms.
Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng
2004-12-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, G.; Besson, R.; Nanz, A.; Safai, S.; Lomax, A. J.
2015-04-01
Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload. In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures. The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations. The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow.
Meier, G; Besson, R; Nanz, A; Safai, S; Lomax, A J
2015-04-01
Pencil beam scanning proton therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions by delivering several thousand pencil beams. These beams have to be individually optimised and accurately delivered requiring a significant quality assurance workload. In this work we describe a toolkit for independent dose calculations developed at Paul Scherrer Institut which allows for dose reconstructions at several points in the treatment workflow. Quality assurance based on reconstructed dose distributions was shown to be favourable to pencil beam by pencil beam comparisons for the detection of delivery uncertainties and estimation of their effects. Furthermore the dose reconstructions were shown to have a sensitivity of the order of or higher than the measurements currently employed in the clinical verification procedures. The design of the independent dose calculation tool allows for a high modifiability of the dose calculation parameters (e.g. depth dose profiles, angular spatial distributions) allowing for a safe environment outside of the clinical treatment planning system for investigating the effect of such parameters on the resulting dose distributions and thus distinguishing between different contributions to measured dose deviations. The presented system could potentially reduce the amount of patient-specific quality assurance measurements which currently constitute a bottleneck in the clinical workflow. PMID:25779992
Jin Hosang; Palta, Jatinder R.; Kim, You-Hyun; Kim, Siyong
2010-11-01
Purpose: To analyze dose uncertainty using a previously published dose-uncertainty model, and to assess potential dosimetric risks existing in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The dose-uncertainty model provides a three-dimensional (3D) dose-uncertainty distribution in a given confidence level. For 8 retrospectively selected patients, dose-uncertainty maps were constructed using the dose-uncertainty model at the 95% CL. In addition to uncertainties inherent to the radiation treatment planning system, four scenarios of spatial errors were considered: machine only (S1), S1 + intrafraction, S1 + interfraction, and S1 + both intrafraction and interfraction errors. To evaluate the potential risks of the IMRT plans, three dose-uncertainty-based plan evaluation tools were introduced: confidence-weighted dose-volume histogram, confidence-weighted dose distribution, and dose-uncertainty-volume histogram. Results: Dose uncertainty caused by interfraction setup error was more significant than that of intrafraction motion error. The maximum dose uncertainty (95% confidence) of the clinical target volume (CTV) was smaller than 5% of the prescribed dose in all but two cases (13.9% and 10.2%). The dose uncertainty for 95% of the CTV volume ranged from 1.3% to 2.9% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: The dose uncertainty in prostate IMRT could be evaluated using the dose-uncertainty model. Prostate IMRT plans satisfying the same plan objectives could generate a significantly different dose uncertainty because a complex interplay of many uncertainty sources. The uncertainty-based plan evaluation contributes to generating reliable and error-resistant treatment plans.
Test images for the maximum entropy image restoration method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, James E.
1990-01-01
One of the major activities of any experimentalist is data analysis and reduction. In solar physics, remote observations are made of the sun in a variety of wavelengths and circumstances. In no case is the data collected free from the influence of the design and operation of the data gathering instrument as well as the ever present problem of noise. The presence of significant noise invalidates the simple inversion procedure regardless of the range of known correlation functions. The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) attempts to perform this inversion by making minimal assumptions about the data. To provide a means of testing the MEM and characterizing its sensitivity to noise, choice of point spread function, type of data, etc., one would like to have test images of known characteristics that can represent the type of data being analyzed. A means of reconstructing these images is presented.
Energy and maximum norm estimates for nonlinear conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsson, Pelle; Oliger, Joseph
1994-01-01
We have devised a technique that makes it possible to obtain energy estimates for initial-boundary value problems for nonlinear conservation laws. The two major tools to achieve the energy estimates are a certain splitting of the flux vector derivative f(u)(sub x), and a structural hypothesis, referred to as a cone condition, on the flux vector f(u). These hypotheses are fulfilled for many equations that occur in practice, such as the Euler equations of gas dynamics. It should be noted that the energy estimates are obtained without any assumptions on the gradient of the solution u. The results extend to weak solutions that are obtained as point wise limits of vanishing viscosity solutions. As a byproduct we obtain explicit expressions for the entropy function and the entropy flux of symmetrizable systems of conservation laws. Under certain circumstances the proposed technique can be applied repeatedly so as to yield estimates in the maximum norm.
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....
Condensing heat exchangers for maximum boiler efficiency
Johnson, D.W.; DiVitto, J.G.; Rakocy, M.E.
1994-12-31
Until now, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense out, rapid deterioration, due to acid corrosion, of the outlet duct and stack would result. With the development of the condensing heat exchanger, boiler efficiency can now exceed 90%. Approximately 1% gain in boiler efficiency can be expected for every 40 F (4.5 C) reduction in flue gas stack temperature. In the CHX{reg_sign} condensing heat exchanger, all gas wetted surfaces are covered with DuPont Teflon{reg_sign}. The Teflon covered heat exchanger surfaces are impervious to all acids normally resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. This allows the flue gas to be cooled to below the water vapor dew point with no subsequent corrosion of the heat exchanger surfaces.
Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.
2011-12-01
Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water
Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.
2006-08-01
Detecting cancerous lesions is one major application in emission tomography. In this paper, we study penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for this important clinical task. Compared to analytical reconstruction methods, statistical approaches can improve the image quality by accurately modelling the photon detection process and measurement noise in imaging systems. To explore the full potential of penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection, we derived simplified theoretical expressions that allow fast evaluation of the detectability of a random lesion. The theoretical results are used to design the regularization parameters to improve lesion detectability. We conducted computer-based Monte Carlo simulations to compare the proposed penalty function, conventional penalty function, and a penalty function for isotropic point spread function. The lesion detectability is measured by a channelized Hotelling observer. The results show that the proposed penalty function outperforms the other penalty functions for lesion detection. The relative improvement is dependent on the size of the lesion. However, we found that the penalty function optimized for a 5 mm lesion still outperforms the other two penalty functions for detecting a 14 mm lesion. Therefore, it is feasible to use the penalty function designed for small lesions in image reconstruction, because detection of large lesions is relatively easy.
Control strategy for maximum anaerobic co-digestion performance.
García-Gen, Santiago; Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M
2015-09-01
A control strategy for optimising the performance of anaerobic co-digestion in terms of methane productivity, digestate quality and process stability is presented. A linear programming approach is adopted to calculate the feeding of multiple substrates for maximum methane productivity, subjected to restrictions based on experimental and heuristic knowledge. Process stability is quantitatively assessed by an empirical diagnosis function comparing alkalinity ratio measurements against reference values (outputs between (-1,1]). A second empirical diagnosis function is defined to compare methane flow rate measurements against a reference value of maximum capacity (outputs between (0,1]). A variable-gain control function (outputs between (-1,1]), derived from the diagnosis functions, is defined to determine the quantitative change applied to the most active constraint of the substrate blend optimisation problem leading to a new set-point of feeding substrates blend. The control strategy works in a closed-loop architecture under which the process performance for each blend of substrates is continuously assessed. The system was successfully validated in a 1 m(3) hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket - Anaerobic Filter (UASB-AF) reactor, treating blends of substrates (gelatine, glycerine and pig manure supernatant) at OLR values between 0.71 and 6.33 gCOD/L d over a period of 210 days at mesophilic conditions. PMID:26001824
Maximum mass, moment of inertia and compactness of relativistic stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breu, Cosima; Rezzolla, Luciano
2016-06-01
A number of recent works have highlighted that it is possible to express the properties of general-relativistic stellar equilibrium configurations in terms of functions that do not depend on the specific equation of state employed to describe matter at nuclear densities. These functions are normally referred to as `universal relations' and have been found to apply, within limits, both to static or stationary isolated stars, as well as to fully dynamical and merging binary systems. Further extending the idea that universal relations can be valid also away from stability, we show that a universal relation is exhibited also by equilibrium solutions that are not stable. In particular, the mass of rotating configurations on the turning-point line shows a universal behaviour when expressed in terms of the normalized Keplerian angular momentum. In turn, this allows us to compute the maximum mass allowed by uniform rotation, Mmax, simply in terms of the maximum mass of the non-rotating configuration, M_{_TOV}, finding that M_max ≃ (1.203 ± 0.022) M_{_TOV} for all the equations of state we have considered. We further introduce an improvement to previously published universal relations by Lattimer & Schutz between the dimensionless moment of inertia and the stellar compactness, which could provide an accurate tool to constrain the equation of state of nuclear matter when measurements of the moment of inertia become available.
Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.
Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi
2004-12-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.
Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.
Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine
2016-05-01
Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-01-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisler, G. Richard; Hull, David G.
An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.
Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude
Eisler, G.R.; Hull, D.G.
1987-01-01
An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.
Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, P. B.
1975-01-01
A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Weert, Ch. G.
1982-04-01
A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.
Maximum efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslavskii, O. B.
2016-09-01
We consider the collision of two particles that move in the equatorial plane near a general stationary rotating axially symmetric extremal black hole. One of the particles is critical (with fine-tuned parameters) and moves in the outward direction. The second particle (usual, not fine-tuned) comes from infinity. We examine the efficiency η of the collisional Penrose process. There are two relevant cases here: a particle falling into a black hole after collision (i) is heavy or (ii) has a finite mass. We show that the maximum of η in case (ii) is less than or equal to that in case (i). It is argued that for superheavy particles, the bound applies to nonequatorial motion as well. As an example, we analyze collision in the Kerr-Newman background. When the bound is the same for processes (i) and (ii), η =3 for this metric. For the Kerr black hole, recent results in the literature are reproduced.
A general optimization for maximum terminal velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vulpetti, G.
1982-09-01
A numerical model is developed to determine the maximum velocity which can be attained by a rocket propulsion system. Particular attention is given to the ratio of active mass, that which can be converted to propulsive energy, to inert mass, which remains after the propulsive energy is expended. Calculations are based on the law of conservation of energy applied to a spaceship with chemical, laser-sail, interstellar ramjet, and annihilation engines. Limits on the exhaust velocity of the thrust system are neglected. Specific attention is given to relativistic calculations involving the annihilation reactions, noting that classical propulsion systems have critical mass values significantly lower than the propulsion required by extra-solar system flight. Numerical results are presented of critical values of propellant which produce an optimal jet speed, which is determined to be a constant.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase
Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin
2012-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730
Floating Point Control Library
2007-08-02
Floating Point Control is a Library that allows for the manipulation of floating point unit exception masking funtions control exceptions in both the Streaming "Single Instruction, Multiple Data" Extension 2 (SSE2) unit and the floating point unit simultaneously. FPC also provides macros to set floating point rounding and precision control.
ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY
Smith, F.; Phifer, M.
2014-04-10
A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the
Gonzales, Nicole R; Shah, Jharna; Sangha, Navdeep; Sosa, Lenis; Martinez, Rebecca; Shen, Loren; Kasam, Mallikarjunarao; Morales, Miriam M; Hossain, M Monir; Barreto, Andrew D; Savitz, Sean I; Lopez, George; Misra, Vivek; Wu, Tzu-Ching; El Khoury, Ramy; Sarraj, Amrou; Sahota, Preeti; Hicks, William; Acosta, Indrani; Sline, M Rick; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Zhao, Xiurong; Aronowski, Jaroslaw; Grotta, James C
2013-07-01
RATIONALE : Preclinical work demonstrates that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma plays an important role in augmenting phagocytosis while modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. We propose that targeted stimulation of phagocytosis to promote efficient removal of the hematoma without harming surrounding brain cells may be a therapeutic option for intracerebral hemorrhage. AIMS : The primary objective is to assess the safety of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, in increasing doses for three-days followed by a maintenance dose, when administered to patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 24 h of symptom onset compared with standard care. We will determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. STUDY DESIGN : This is a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation safety trial in which patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are randomly allocated to placebo or treatment. The Continual Reassessment Method for dose finding is used to determine the maximum tolerated dose of pioglitazone. Hematoma and edema resolution is evaluated with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at specified time points. Functional outcome will be evaluated at three- and six-months. OUTCOMES : The primary safety outcome is mortality at discharge. Secondary safety outcomes include mortality at three-months and six-months, symptomatic cerebral edema, clinically significant congestive heart failure, edema, hypoglycemia, anemia, and hepatotoxicity. Radiographic outcomes will explore the time frame for resolution of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the hematoma. Clinical outcomes are measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Barthel Index, modified Rankin Scale, Stroke Impact Scale-16, and EuroQol at three- and six-months.
Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, John T.
2008-01-01
The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, J. C.
1980-01-01
The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.
Low Dose Effects: Benefit or Harm?
Woloschak, Gayle E
2016-03-01
This forum article discusses issues related to the effects of low dose radiation, an area that is under intense study but difficult to assess. Experiments with large-scale animal studies are included in this paper; these studies point to the need for international consortia to examine and balance the results of these large-scale studies and databases. PMID:26808889
Doses from radiation exposure.
Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J D
2012-01-01
Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.
Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates
Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.
1996-10-01
This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.
Liu, C; Abate, B; Reyes, M; Gonik, B
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVE: We compared the pharmacokinetics of two methods for dosing gentamicin for the treatment of postpartum endometritis with the goal of achieving adequate peak serum concentrations (>12 mg/L) and prolonged trough levels below 2 mg/L. METHODS: Group-I subjects (n = 5) received intravenous gentamicin, 5 mg/kg per total body weight over 60 min., with a maximum dose of 500 mg. Group-II subjects (n = 17) were dosed intravenously according to the following formula: Dose = desired peak concentration (fixed at 14 mg/L) * (volume of distribution, i.e., 0.35 L/kg) * adjusted body weight (in kilograms). Serum gentamicin levels were obtained 1 hr. and 8-12 hr. after infusion of the second dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the subjects in each group were calculated according to standard formulas. RESULTS: Subjects in Group I had significantly higher doses and peak drug concentrations (P < 0.01), while in Group II, 76% of patients had peak levels less than desired (<12 mg/L). Both groups maintained trough levels of <2 mg/L in excess of 12 hr. CONCLUSIONS: Changing to the adjusted body weight formula for Group I, while maintaining a dose between 4 and 5 mg/kg, would reduce excessive peak concentrations. Using a calculated volume of distribution of 0.4 L/kg in Group II would improve peak serum concentrations to the desired levels. Both dosing regimens ensure adequate aminoglycoside pharmacokinetic parameters and avoid the need for monitoring serial serum drug concentrations, provided the expected clinical response is also achieved. While the first dosing formula is simpler to calculate, the second dosing formula allows for more individualized dosing considerations. PMID:10371471
Determinants of thiopental induction dose requirements.
Avram, M J; Sanghvi, R; Henthorn, T K; Krejcie, T C; Shanks, C A; Fragen, R J; Howard, K A; Kaczynski, D A
1993-01-01
Dose requirements for thiopental anesthetic induction have significant age- and gender-related variability. We studied the association of the patient characteristics age, gender, weight, lean body mass, and cardiac output with thiopental requirements. Doses of thiopental, infused at 150 mg/min, required to reach both a clinical end-point and an electroencephalographic (EEG) end-point were determined in 30 males and 30 females, aged 18-83 yr. Univariate least squares linear regression analysis revealed outliers in the relationships of age, weight, lean body mass, and cardiac output to thiopental dose at clinical and EEG endpoints. Differential weighting of data points minimized the effect of outliers in the construction of a robust multiple linear regression model of the relationship between several selected independent variables and the dependent variables thiopental dose at clinical and EEG endpoints. The multiple linear regression model for thiopental dose at the clinical end-point selecting the regressor variables age, weight, and gender (R2 = 0.76) was similar to that for age, lean body mass, and gender (R2 = 0.75). Thiopental dose at the EEG endpoint was better described by models selecting the variables age, weight, and cardiac output (R2 = 0.88) or age, lean body mass, and cardiac output (R2 = 0.87). Although cardiac output varied with age, age always remained a selected variable. Because weight and lean body mass differed with gender, their selection as variables in the model eliminated gender as a selected variable or minimized its importance.
Determinants of thiopental induction dose requirements.
Avram, M J; Sanghvi, R; Henthorn, T K; Krejcie, T C; Shanks, C A; Fragen, R J; Howard, K A; Kaczynski, D A
1993-01-01
Dose requirements for thiopental anesthetic induction have significant age- and gender-related variability. We studied the association of the patient characteristics age, gender, weight, lean body mass, and cardiac output with thiopental requirements. Doses of thiopental, infused at 150 mg/min, required to reach both a clinical end-point and an electroencephalographic (EEG) end-point were determined in 30 males and 30 females, aged 18-83 yr. Univariate least squares linear regression analysis revealed outliers in the relationships of age, weight, lean body mass, and cardiac output to thiopental dose at clinical and EEG endpoints. Differential weighting of data points minimized the effect of outliers in the construction of a robust multiple linear regression model of the relationship between several selected independent variables and the dependent variables thiopental dose at clinical and EEG endpoints. The multiple linear regression model for thiopental dose at the clinical end-point selecting the regressor variables age, weight, and gender (R2 = 0.76) was similar to that for age, lean body mass, and gender (R2 = 0.75). Thiopental dose at the EEG endpoint was better described by models selecting the variables age, weight, and cardiac output (R2 = 0.88) or age, lean body mass, and cardiac output (R2 = 0.87). Although cardiac output varied with age, age always remained a selected variable. Because weight and lean body mass differed with gender, their selection as variables in the model eliminated gender as a selected variable or minimized its importance. PMID:8418708
SU-E-T-162: Evaluation of Dose Calculation of RayStation Planning System in Heterogeneous Media
Xu, H; Yi, B; Chung, H; Prado, K; Chen, S
2014-06-01
Purpose: To investigate the clinical reliability of heterogeneity-based dose algorithm using RayStation treatment planning system v.4.0. Methods: The collapsed cone dose calculations in RayStation (RaySearch, Sweden) were compared with the measurements (ion chamber and EBT2 film) and with an in-house Monte Carlo algorithm. A heterogeneous multi-layer phantom and CT images of 4 lung cancer patients were used here. The phantom, composed of multiple solid water slabs and Styrofoams, was irradiated with 6MV beams perpendicular to the layers. The MLC-defined field sizes were 5×5, 10×10, 15×15 and 20×20cm{sup 2}. The chamber was positioned at center of central solid water layer, and the films were placed at interfaces of solid water and Styrofoam. The RayStation dose and Monte Carlo dose were compared by performing absolute gamma analysis (3mm/3%): 1D gamma for PDD in the phantom and 3D gamma for patient volumes receiving dose above 10% of maximum dose. Results: The point dose differences between RayStation and ion chamber measurement were smaller than 1% for all of the field sizes. Between RayStation and film measurement, 5×5cm2 field had the maximum differences : <4mm for the penumbra and <0.3mm for the field width at all Styrofoam-and-solid-water interfaces. The absolute gamma analysis showed good agreement between RayStation and Monte Carlo. For PDD along beam axis in the phantom, the 1D gamma was 95.4, 98.6, 99.6 and 99.3% for field size 5×5, 10×10, 15×15 and 20×202 respectively. For dose comparison using patient CT images, 3D gamma was > 95% for all the patients. Conclusion: With respect to ion chamber/film measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, the collapsed cone algorithm in RayStation computed reasonable dose in both phantom and patient cases. Heterogeneity-based dose calculation of RayStation is clinically acceptable in heterogeneous media.
REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.
UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.
2005-07-25
We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.
Sullivan, Terry
2014-12-02
ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.
Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity at Ultra-Low Dose Rates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Dakai; Pease, Ronald; Forney, James; Carts, Martin; Phan, Anthony; Cox, Stephen; Kruckmeyer, Kriby; Burns, Sam; Albarian, Rafi; Holcombe, Bruce; Little, Bradley; Salzman, James; Chaumont, Geraldine; Duperray, Herve; Ouellet, Al; Buchner, Stephen; LaBel, Kenneth
2011-01-01
We have presented results of ultra-low dose rate irradiations (< or = 10 mrad(Si)/s) for a variety of radiation hardened and commercial linear bipolar devices. We observed low dose rate enhancement factors exceeding 1.5 in several parts. The worst case of dose rate enhancement resulted in functional failures, which occurred after 10 and 60 krad(Si), for devices irradiated at 0.5 and 10 mrad(Si)/s, respectively. Devices fabricated with radiation hardened processes and designs also displayed dose rate enhancement at below 10 mrad(Si)/s. Furthermore, the data indicated that these devices have not reached the damage saturation point. Therefore the degradation will likely continue to increase with increasing total dose, and the low dose rate enhancement will further magnify. The cases presented here, in addition to previous examples, illustrate the significance and pervasiveness of low dose rate enhancement at dose rates lower than 10 mrad(Si). These results present further challenges for radiation hardness assurance of bipolar linear circuits, and raise the question of whether the current standard test dose rate is conservative enough to bound degradations due to ELDRS.
Quantum entanglement and fixed-point bifurcations
Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, G.J.
2005-04-01
How does the classical phase-space structure for a composite system relate to the entanglement characteristics of the corresponding quantum system? We demonstrate how the entanglement in nonlinear bipartite systems can be associated with a fixed-point bifurcation in the classical dynamics. Using the example of coupled giant spins we show that when a fixed point undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, the corresponding quantum state--the ground state--achieves its maximum amount of entanglement near the critical point. We conjecture that this will be a generic feature of systems whose classical limit exhibits such a bifurcation.
Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar
2013-11-01
Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.
Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction
Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.
2007-01-15
Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined.
Curtailing patient-specific IMRT QA procedures from 2D dose error distribution
Kurosu, Keita; Sumida, Iori; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Otani, Yuki; Oda, Michio; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko
2016-01-01
A patient-specific quality assurance (QA) test is conducted to verify the accuracy of dose delivery. It generally consists of three verification processes: the absolute point dose difference, the planar dose differences at each gantry angle, and the planar dose differences by 3D composite irradiation. However, this imposes a substantial workload on medical physicists. The objective of this study was to determine whether our novel method that predicts the 3D delivered dose allows certain patient-specific IMRT QAs to be curtailed. The object was IMRT QA for the pelvic region with regard to point dose and composite planar dose differences. We compared measured doses, doses calculated in the treatment planning system, and doses predicted by in-house software. The 3D predicted dose was reconstructed from the per-field measurement by incorporating the relative dose error distribution into the original dose grid of each beam. All point dose differences between the measured and the calculated dose were within ±3%, whereas 93.3% of them between the predicted and the calculated dose were within ±3%. As for planar dose differences, the gamma passing rates between the calculated and the predicted dose were higher than those between the calculated and the measured dose. Comparison and statistical analysis revealed a correlation between the predicted and the measured dose with regard to both point dose and planar dose differences. We concluded that the prediction-based approach is an accurate substitute for the conventional measurement-based approach in IMRT QA for the pelvic region. Our novel approach will help medical physicists save time on IMRT QA. PMID:26661854
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-01-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
Uncertainty analysis for Probable Maximum Precipitation estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micovic, Zoran; Schaefer, Melvin G.; Taylor, George H.
2015-02-01
An analysis of uncertainty associated with Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimates is presented. The focus of the study is firmly on PMP estimates derived through meteorological analyses and not on statistically derived PMPs. Theoretical PMP cannot be computed directly and operational PMP estimates are developed through a stepwise procedure using a significant degree of subjective professional judgment. This paper presents a methodology for portraying the uncertain nature of PMP estimation by analyzing individual steps within the PMP derivation procedure whereby for each parameter requiring judgment, a set of possible values is specified and accompanied by expected probabilities. The resulting range of possible PMP values can be compared with the previously derived operational single-value PMP, providing measures of the conservatism and variability of the original estimate. To our knowledge, this is the first uncertainty analysis conducted for a PMP derived through meteorological analyses. The methodology was tested on the La Joie Dam watershed in British Columbia. The results indicate that the commonly used single-value PMP estimate could be more than 40% higher when possible changes in various meteorological variables used to derive the PMP are considered. The findings of this study imply that PMP estimates should always be characterized as a range of values recognizing the significant uncertainties involved in PMP estimation. In fact, we do not know at this time whether precipitation is actually upper-bounded, and if precipitation is upper-bounded, how closely PMP estimates approach the theoretical limit.
Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.
Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay
2014-11-18
Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173
Maximum windmill efficiency in finite time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huleihil, Mahmoud
2009-05-01
The fraction of the kinetic energy of the wind impinging on the rotor-swept area that a wind turbine can convert to useful power has been shown by Betz in an idealized laminar-flow model to have an upper limit of 16/27 or 59% approximately [I. H. Shames, Mechanics of Fluids, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), pp. A26-A31]. This figure is known as Betz number. Other studies [A. Rauh and W. Seelret, Appl. Energy 17, 15 (1984)] suggested that this figure should be considered as a guideline. In this paper, a new model is introduced and its efficiency at maximum power output is derived. The derived value is shown to be a function of the Betz number B and given by the formula ηmp=1-√1-B . This value is 36.2%, which agrees well with those of actually operating wind turbines. As a guideline, the wind turbine efficiency can be considered to be within the range of the two numbers of merit, the Betz number and ηmp.
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS
Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M
2007-11-12
Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.
PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.
Yang, Ziheng
2007-08-01
PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).
Visual tracking by separability-maximum boosting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Jie; Mao, Yao-bin; Sun, Jin-sheng
2013-10-01
Recently, visual tracking has been formulated as a classification problem whose task is to detect the object from the scene with a binary classifier. Boosting based online feature selection methods, which adopt the classifier to appearance changes by choosing the most discriminative features, have been demonstrated to be effective for visual tracking. A major problem of such online feature selection methods is that an inaccurate classifier may give imprecise tracking windows. Tracking error accumulates when the tracker trains the classifier with misaligned samples and finally leads to drifting. Separability-maximum boosting (SMBoost), an alternative form of AdaBoost which characterizes the separability between the object and the scene by their means and covariance matrices, is proposed. SMBoost only needs the means and covariance matrices during training and can be easily adopted to online learning problems by estimating the statistics incrementally. Experiment on UCI machine learning datasets shows that SMBoost is as accurate as offline AdaBoost, and significantly outperforms Oza's online boosting. Accurate classifier stabilizes the tracker on challenging video sequences. Empirical results also demonstrate improvements in term of tracking precision and speed, comparing ours to those state-of-the-art ones.
Approach trajectory planning system for maximum concealment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warner, David N., Jr.
1986-01-01
A computer-simulation study was undertaken to investigate a maximum concealment guidance technique (pop-up maneuver), which military aircraft may use to capture a glide path from masked, low-altitude flight typical of terrain following/terrain avoidance flight enroute. The guidance system applied to this problem is the Fuel Conservative Guidance System. Previous studies using this system have concentrated on the saving of fuel in basically conventional land and ship-based operations. Because this system is based on energy-management concepts, it also has direct application to the pop-up approach which exploits aircraft performance. Although the algorithm was initially designed to reduce fuel consumption, the commanded deceleration is at its upper limit during the pop-up and, therefore, is a good approximation of a minimum-time solution. Using the model of a powered-lift aircraft, the results of the study demonstrated that guidance commands generated by the system are well within the capability of an automatic flight-control system. Results for several initial approach conditions are presented.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Paithankar, Karthik S.; Garman, Elspeth F.
2010-01-01
The program RADDOSE is widely used to compute the dose absorbed by a macromolecular crystal during an X-ray diffraction experiment. A number of factors affect the absorbed dose, including the incident X-ray flux density, the photon energy and the composition of the macromolecule and of the buffer in the crystal. An experimental dose limit for macromolecular crystallography (MX) of 30 MGy at 100 K has been reported, beyond which the biological information obtained may be compromised. Thus, for the planning of an optimized diffraction experiment the estimation of dose has become an additional tool. A number of approximations were made in the original version of RADDOSE. Recently, the code has been modified in order to take into account fluorescent X-ray escape from the crystal (version 2) and the inclusion of incoherent (Compton) scattering into the dose calculation is now reported (version 3). The Compton cross-section, although negligible at the energies currently commonly used in MX, should be considered in dose calculations for incident energies above 20 keV. Calculations using version 3 of RADDOSE reinforce previous studies that predict a reduction in the absorbed dose when data are collected at higher energies compared with data collected at 12.4 keV. Hence, a longer irradiation lifetime for the sample can be achieved at these higher energies but this is at the cost of lower diffraction intensities. The parameter ‘diffraction-dose efficiency’, which is the diffracted intensity per absorbed dose, is revisited in an attempt to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of data collection using higher and lower energy radiation, particularly for thin crystals. PMID:20382991
Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Eccles, Cynthia L.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Dawson, Laura A.; Brock, Kristy K.
2011-05-01
Purpose: To investigate the effect of breathing motion and dose accumulation on the planned radiotherapy dose to liver tumors and normal tissues using deformable image registration. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one free-breathing stereotactic liver cancer radiotherapy patients, planned on static exhale computed tomography (CT) for 27-60 Gy in six fractions, were included. A biomechanical model-based deformable image registration algorithm retrospectively deformed each exhale CT to inhale CT. This deformation map was combined with exhale and inhale dose grids from the treatment planning system to accumulate dose over the breathing cycle. Accumulation was also investigated using a simple rigid liver-to-liver registration. Changes to tumor and normal tissue dose were quantified. Results: Relative to static plans, mean dose change (range) after deformable dose accumulation (as % of prescription dose) was -1 (-14 to 8) to minimum tumor, -4 (-15 to 0) to maximum bowel, -4 (-25 to 1) to maximum duodenum, 2 (-1 to 9) to maximum esophagus, -2 (-13 to 4) to maximum stomach, 0 (-3 to 4) to mean liver, and -1 (-5 to 1) and -2 (-7 to 1) to mean left and right kidneys. Compared to deformable registration, rigid modeling had changes up to 8% to minimum tumor and 7% to maximum normal tissues. Conclusion: Deformable registration and dose accumulation revealed potentially significant dose changes to either a tumor or normal tissue in the majority of cases as a result of breathing motion. These changes may not be accurately accounted for with rigid motion.
46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...
46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...
14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...
14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...
14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum operating altitude. 23.1527 Section... Information § 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude. (a) The maximum altitude up to which operation is allowed... established. (b) A maximum operating altitude limitation of not more than 25,000 feet must be established...
14 CFR 23.1527 - Maximum operating altitude.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
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21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
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20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
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24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost represents the total amount of public...
24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum project cost. 941.306... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT Application and Proposal § 941.306 Maximum project cost. (a) Calculation of maximum project cost. The maximum project cost represents the total amount of public...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the...
Effect of jaw size in megavoltage CT on image quality and dose
Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Moon, Seong Kwon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Seog; Chang, Ah Ram; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Huh, Hyun Do
2012-08-15
Purpose: Recently, the jaw size for the TomoTherapy Hi-Art II{sup Registered-Sign} (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI) was reduced from 4 mm (J4) to 1 mm (J1) to improve the longitudinal (IEC-Y) resolution in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images. This study evaluated the effect of jaw size on the image quality and dose, as well as the dose delivered to the lens of the eye, which is a highly radiosensitive tissue. Methods: MVCT image quality (image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, high-contrast resolution, and full width at half-maximum) and multiple scan average dose (MSAD) were measured at different jaw sizes. A head phantom and photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs) were used to measure the exposed lens dose (cGy). Different MVCT scan modes (pitch = 1, 2, and 3) and scan lengths (108 mm, 156 mm, and 204 mm) were applied in the MSAD and PLDs measurements. Results: The change in jaw size from J4 to J1 produced no change or only a slight improvement in image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, and high-contrast resolution. However, the full-width at half-maximum reduced from approximately 7.2 at J4 to 4.5 mm at J1, which represents an enhancement in the longitudinal resolution. The MSAD at the center point changed from approximately 0.69-2.32 cGy (peripheral: 0.83-2.49 cGy) at J4 to 0.85-2.81 cGy (peripheral: 1.05-2.86 cGy) at J1. The measured lens dose increased from 0.92-3.36 cGy at J4 to 1.06-3.91 cGy at J1. Conclusions: The change in jaw size improved longitudinal resolution. The MVCT imaging dose of approximately 3.86 cGy, 1.92 cGy, and 1.22 cGy was delivered at a pitch of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, per fraction in the head and neck treatment plans. Therefore, allowance for an approximately 15% increase in lens dose over that with J4 should be provided with J1.
A Maximum-Likelihood Approach to Force-Field Calibration.
Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jagieła, Dawid; Czaplewski, Cezary; Hałabis, Anna; Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Żmudzińska, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Karczyńska, Agnieszka; Omieczynski, Christian; Wirecki, Tomasz; Liwo, Adam
2015-09-28
); and optimization of the energy-term weights and the coefficients of the torsional and multibody energy terms and use of experimental ensembles at all three temperatures (run 3). The force fields were subsequently tested with a set of 14 α-helical and two α + β proteins. Optimization run 1 resulted in better agreement with the experimental ensemble at T = 280 K compared with optimization run 2 and in comparable performance on the test set but poorer agreement of the calculated folding temperature with the experimental folding temperature. Optimization run 3 resulted in the best fit of the calculated ensembles to the experimental ones for the tryptophan cage but in much poorer performance on the training set, suggesting that use of a small α-helical protein for extensive force-field calibration resulted in overfitting of the data for this protein at the expense of transferability. The optimized force field resulting from run 2 was found to fold 13 of the 14 tested α-helical proteins and one small α + β protein with the correct topologies; the average structures of 10 of them were predicted with accuracies of about 5 Å C(α) root-mean-square deviation or better. Test simulations with an additional set of 12 α-helical proteins demonstrated that this force field performed better on α-helical proteins than the previous parametrizations of UNRES. The proposed approach is applicable to any problem of maximum-likelihood parameter estimation when the contributions to the maximum-likelihood function cannot be evaluated at the experimental points and the dimension of the configurational space is too high to construct histograms of the experimental distributions.
Klüter, Sebastian Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon
2014-08-15
Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local
Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.
Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias
2014-05-01
Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326).
Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.
Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias
2014-05-01
Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326). PMID:24497031
Preliminary investigation on the relation between maximum wave height and wave spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Aifeng; Wen, Cheng; Wu, Yuqing; Wu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Cao, Guangsui
2016-04-01
The maximum wave height is important not only for the determination of design wave parameters but also for the marine disaster defense. While it cannot be predicted straightforwardly at present, since the general numerical models for wave forecasting are all based on phase averaged spectra model. Then it becomes very useful to make clear the relationship between the maximum wave height and wave spectra parameters, such as average wave steepness, spectra width and spectra type, such as one single peak spectra or multi peaks spectra. In order to perform this research procedure, plenty of observed wave data are required. We collected ten years wave data measured from a ship in North Sea, one year wave pressure data from nine points around Korea, four years buoy data from three points along Chinese coast. The preliminary investigation results on the relations between maximum waves and spectra via the mention observed data will be present here.
Paleofield of early space, maximum estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kletetschka, G.; Wasilewski, P. J.
2001-12-01
Magnetic records in meteorites have been used by many to estimate paleofield in early history of our solar system. Modified Thellier-Thellier analyses provided paleofield intensities in broad range of values (10,000-200,000nT). However, in meteorites we can never assume that the NRM is a TRM. In fact any meteorite with plessite or grains with the "M" shaped diffusion profiles will contain, anisotropic and interacting mineralogies for which we do not have a physical model. The carbonaceous chondrites that are likely to have their useful NRM's associated with hydrothermal events against a thermochemical remanence are very difficult to deal with since even if a non-thermal paleofield is applied there is no calibration basis. We are essentially addressing these issues since the ultimate goal of meteorite studies is to provide confident estimates of early solar system magnetic fields. Modes of remanence other than thermal are considered to drive the estimated paleofield values even higher and thus the paleofield value estimate commonly serves as a minimum estimate. Using the strict assumptions in the Thellier-Thellier method and considering the presence of multiple kinds of remanence we show that the estimated paleofield values are not minima but maxima. In the key equation for paleofield estimates: Mt/Hu=Mtlab/Hlab, Mt is natural remanence of thermal origin and is contained within natural remanent magnetization Mnrm that contains additional modes of remanence (M1+.+Mn), Hu is an unknown paleofield intensity, Mtlab is a thermoremanence acquired in laboratory field Hlab. Thus Mt=Mnrm-(M1+.+Mn). Therefore the unknown field has a form: Hu=(Mnrm- (M1+.+Mn)) Hlab/Mtlab. This equation clearly shows that if none of the remanence is thermal, the Hu approaches zero. Thus the estimated values of paleofield that are derived using the Thellier-Thellier approach are not minimum but maximum estimates.
2016-09-01
Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351
Motrin; Advil ... Ibuprofen is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It can help: Reduce aches, pain, sore ... Ibuprofen can be taken as liquid or chewable tablets. To give the correct dose, you need to ...
Mars surface radiation exposure for solar maximum conditions and 1989 solar proton events
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.
1992-01-01
The Langley heavy-ion/nucleon transport code, HZETRN, and the high-energy nucleon transport code, BRYNTRN, are used to predict the propagation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar flare protons through the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. Particle fluences and the resulting doses are estimated on the surface of Mars for GCR's during solar maximum conditions and the Aug., Sep., and Oct. 1989 solar proton events. These results extend previously calculated surface estimates for GCR's at solar minimum conditions and the Feb. 1956, Nov. 1960, and Aug. 1972 solar proton events. Surface doses are estimated with both a low-density and a high-density carbon dioxide model of the atmosphere for altitudes of 0, 4, 8, and 12 km above the surface. A solar modulation function is incorporated to estimate the GCR dose variation between solar minimum and maximum conditions over the 11-year solar cycle. By using current Mars mission scenarios, doses to the skin, eye, and blood-forming organs are predicted for short- and long-duration stay times on the Martian surface throughout the solar cycle.
Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points
Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank
2014-06-15
Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric (CTV mean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeo, Inhwan Jason; Jung, Jae Won; Chew, Meng; Kim, Jong Oh; Wang, Brian; Di Biase, Steven; Zhu, Yunping; Lee, Dohyung
2009-09-01
A straightforward and accurate method was developed to verify the delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to reconstruct the dose in a patient. The method is based on a computational algorithm that linearly describes the physical relationship between beamlets and dose-scoring voxels in a patient and the dose image from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The relationship is expressed in the form of dose response functions (responses) that are quantified using Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport techniques. From the dose information measured by the EPID the received patient dose is reconstructed by inversely solving the algorithm. The unique and novel non-iterative feature of this algorithm sets it apart from many existing dose reconstruction methods in the literature. This study presents the algorithm in detail and validates it experimentally for open and IMRT fields. Responses were first calculated for each beamlet of the selected fields by MC simulation. In-phantom and exit film dosimetry were performed on a flat phantom. Using the calculated responses and the algorithm, the exit film dose was used to inversely reconstruct the in-phantom dose, which was then compared with the measured in-phantom dose. The dose comparison in the phantom for all irradiated fields showed a pass rate of higher than 90% dose points given the criteria of dose difference of 3% and distance to agreement of 3 mm.