Science.gov

Sample records for maximus cingulata dasypodidae

  1. Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Chlamyphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Tracy S.; Superina, Mariella; Leslie, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792), called the giant armadillo, is monotypic and by far the largest extant armadillo. Average adult weight is about 30kg (in captivity, as high as 80kg). Its carapace extends about halfway down its sides, making it impossible to curl up tightly. It is dark brown to black dorsally, with a broad light band around the lower part of its carapace. It primarily digs to escape, enhanced by its 20-cm, sickle-shaped nail on its 3rd forefingers. P. maximus is widely distributed in South America but nowhere abundant. It is affected by habitat loss and fragmentation, agriculture, hunting, collection for museum specimens, and illegal animal trafficking. P. maximus is listed as “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  2. The correct name of the endemic Dasypus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2014-11-21

    We show that Dasypus mazzai Yepes 1933 is a senior synonym of Dasypus yepesi Vizcaíno 1995. We present morphological evidence that the holotype of D. mazzai is not a juvenile of Dasypus novemcinctus or any other species of this genus, but a distinct endemic species from northwestern Argentina undistinguishable from D. yepesi. Therefore, the correct name for the long-nosed armadillo of intermediate size occurring in the Argentinean provinces of Jujuy and Salta is Dasypus mazzai Yepes 1933.

  3. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Stanhope, Michael J; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2003-08-01

    The 30 living species of armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra) represent one of the three major clades of placentals. Armadillos (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) are the earliest and most speciose xenarthran lineage with 21 described species. The question of their tricky phylogeny was here studied by adding two mitochondrial genes (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [ND1] and 12S ribosomal RNA [12S rRNA]) to the three protein-coding nuclear genes (alpha2B adrenergic receptor [ADRA2B], breast cancer susceptibility exon 11 [BRCA1], and von Willebrand factor exon 28 [VWF]) yielding a total of 6869 aligned nucleotide sites for thirteen xenarthran species. The two mitochondrial genes were characterized by marked excesses of transitions over transversions-with a strong bias toward CT transitions for the 12S rRNA-and exhibited two- to fivefold faster evolutionary rates than the fastest nuclear gene (ADRA2B). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Dasypodinae, Tolypeutinae, and Euphractinae, with the latter two armadillo subfamilies strongly clustering together. Conflicting branching points between individual genes involved relationships within the subfamilies Tolypeutinae and Euphractinae. Owing to a greater number of informative sites, the overall concatenation favored the mitochondrial topology with the classical grouping of Cabassous and Priodontes within Tolypeutinae, and a close relationship between Euphractus and Chaetophractus within Euphractinae. However, low statistical support values associated with almost equal distributions of apomorphies among alternatives suggested that two parallel events of rapid speciation occurred within these two armadillo subfamilies.

  4. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the Dasypus kappleri complex, with revalidations of Dasypus pastasae (Thomas, 1901) and Dasypus beniensis Lönnberg, 1942 (Cingulata, Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-09-23

    Dasypus kappleri is the largest species of the genus Dasypus and is restricted to the Amazonian rainforest biome. Over the last century, related taxa have been described and synonymized without comprehensive analyses, and the current classification involving two subspecies, Dasypus k. kappleri and Dasypus k. pastasae, has never been revised. The aim of this work is to clarify the taxonomy of Dasypus kappleri through integrative morphological and morphometric analyses. We examined 70 specimens housed in scientific collections as well as photographs of the type specimens of five nominal taxa. Three methodologies (discrete characters, linear and geometric morphometrics) were employed. All results converged on the recognition of three allopatric groups, each with diagnostic qualitative and quantitative traits, that we recognize as full species: Dasypus kappleri Krauss, 1862, occurs in the Guiana shield; Dasypus pastasae (Thomas, 1901) is distributed from the eastern Andes of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela south of the Orinoco River into the western Brazilian Amazon; and Dasypus beniensis Lönnberg, 1942, occurs in the lowlands of Amazonian Brazil and Bolivia to the south of the Madre de Dios, Madeira, and lower Amazon rivers. This revision raises to nine the number of living species of Dasypus.

  6. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus.

  7. Site-saturation mutagenesis of Glomerella cingulata cutinase gene for enhanced enzyme thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanapi, Wan Nurhidayah Wan; Iuan-Sheau, Chin; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu

    2015-09-01

    Cutinase is an important biocatalyst for various industrial applications. This enzyme which has dual functionality comparable to esterases and lipases, is efficient in the hydrolysis of soluble esters and emulsified triacylglycerols. Naturally-occurring enzymes usually have disadvantages when applied in non-natural catalysis due to Glomerella cingulata cutinase enzyme thermostability. It is postulated that by increasing the rigidity at certain amino acid positions showing high mobility based on the three-dimensional structure of G. cingulata cutinase, the improvement in thermostability will be achieved. The amino acid N82 of G. cingulata cutinase was selected based on its high B-factor value determined via the B-FITTER program. Megaprimer PCR was employed to introduce mutations at the chosen site by randomization using NNK degenerate primers. About 300 transformants were selected for screening of positive cutinase variants. The N82_V14 cutinase variant was observed to be more thermostable at an almost 2-fold increase when exposed at 50°C for 1 hr as compared to the wild-type enzyme. This study may provide valuable information regarding thermal stability of cutinases denaturation at high temperatures.

  8. A study of platelets in the armadillo chaetophractus villosus (xenarthra, dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Paula Mariela; Polini, Nélida Nora; Casanave, Emma Beatriz

    2004-08-01

    Nothing is known about haemostasis in Xenarthra, a widely distributed Order of American mammalians. Chaetophractus villosus, a member of the Dasypodidae family of this group, which is easily adapted to captivity, is of growing interest for biomedical research. In this work, we studied platelet number, MPV, ultrastructure of the platelets by SEM and TEM, and aggregation responses to ADP and ristocetin in this species. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture in 20 anaesthetised animals. Platelet count and MPV were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of a 3-year experimental period, to detect possible variations related to time of captivity. SEM and TEM were done by routine methods adapted to the material, and aggregation response to ADP and ristocetin were evaluated by the Born method. The parameters studied did not show any sex-related differences, nor did the platelet count change during captivity. Nevertheless, MPV decreased during this period. Platelets were ultrastructurally similar to those of other mammals and human beings and responded to proven agonists. Data provided in this study will contribute to the understanding of the haemostatic process in this species.

  9. Arthritic lesions and congenital fusion in foot bones of Panochthus sp. (Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique DE S; Porpino, Kleberson DE O; Rothschild, Bruce M; Cabral, Uiara G; Bergqvist, Lilian P

    2017-06-29

    A set of lesions are re-described and new pathological findings in foot bones of Panochthus sp. (Xenarthra, Cingulata) are presented. The material reexamined in fact presents enthesiophytes instead of osteoartrithis, as previously interpreted. Furthermore, Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (CPPD) was observed, a lesion absent in previous report. CPPD also was found in another set of foot bones and it was associated with a congenital fusion of two sesamoids. The material studied were collected in two natural tank deposits, one in Paraíba (material reexamined) and other in Rio Grande do Norte (new pathological findings) State.

  10. Behavioral responses of Rhagoletis cingulata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to GF-120 insecticidal bait enhanced with ammonium acetate.

    PubMed

    Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Gut, L J; Isaacs, R

    2006-08-01

    GF-120 is a baited formulation of the insecticide spinosad containing 1% ammonium acetate, developed for control of economically important fruit flies. The response of feral cherry fruit flies, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew, to GF-120 augmented with 0, 5, or 10% ammonium acetate was evaluated under orchard conditions. Significantly more flies were observed within 30 cm of bait droplets with 10% ammonium acetate added compared with standard bait or to a water control. These fly visits to GF-120 enhanced with 10 or 5% ammonium acetate lasted an average of 263.2 +/- 85.2 and 337.6 +/- 72.6 s, respectively, compared with 50.3 +/- 36.4 s for standard GF-120. Droplets containing additional ammonium acetate also were contacted by more flies, and more flies fed upon these droplets than on GF-120 or the water control. Furthermore, the duration of feeding on GF-120 bait enhanced with either level of additional ammonium acetate was significantly greater compared with standard GF-120 or water. Feeding events lasted between 61.5 +/- 30.7 and 73.4 +/- 21.0 s on enhanced GF-120 compared with 6.8 +/- 5.7 s on standard GF-120. Collectively, these results indicate that the interaction of feral R. cingulata with GF-120 droplets and the toxicant spinosad can be increased by addition of ammonium acetate.

  11. Chromosomal localization of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence in four species of Armadillo (Dasypodidae) from Argentina: an approach to explaining karyotype evolution in the Xenarthra.

    PubMed

    Lizarralde, M S; Bolzán, A D; Poljak, S; Pigozzi, M I; Bustos, J; Merani, M S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)(n) in four species of armadillos (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra), i.e. Chaetophractus villosus (2n = 60), Chaetophractus vellerosus (2n = 62), Dasypus hybridus (2n = 64) and Zaedyus pichiy (2n = 62) was examined by FISH with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Besides the expected telomeric hybridization, interstitial (centromeric) locations of the (TTAGGG)n sequence were observed in one chromosome pair of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Zaedyus pichiy, suggesting chromosome fusion of ancestral chromosomes occurring during the evolution of Dasypodidae. In addition, all the species analysed showed one to four apparently telocentric chromosomes, exhibiting only two telomeric signals. However, the immunodetection study of kinetochore proteins on synaptonemal complex spreads from C. villosus showed that the apparently telocentric chromosomes have a tiny short arm that can be resolved only in the more elongated pachytene bivalents. This finding suggests that none of the species of armadillos possess true telocentric chromosomes. Our present results support a reduction in the diploid number by fusion of acrocentrics with loss of chromosome material as a tendency in Dasypodidae.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the wood-degrading basidiomycete Trametes cingulata.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Sajeet; Gantt, J Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We present the 91,500 bp mitochondrial genome of the wood-degrading basidiomycete Trametes cingulata and compare it with the mitochondrial genomes of five additional Basidiomycota species. The Trametes mitochondrial genome encodes 15 proteins, 25 tRNAs and the small and large rRNAs. All of the genes, except one tRNA, are found on the same DNA strand. Several additional ORFs have also been identified; however, their sequences have not been conserved across the species we compared and they show no similarity to any known gene, suggesting that they may not correspond to authentic genes. The presence of endonuclease-like sequences in introns suggests a mechanism that explains the diversity of mitochondrial genome sizes that are unrelated to the gene content.

  13. Clinical and experimental keratitis caused by the Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata and Acrophialophora fusispora.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K; Khan, Z A; Lal, B; Agrawal, P K; Srivastava, O P

    1983-06-01

    Two cases of mycotic keratitis caused by the Colletotrichum state of Glomerella cingulata and Acrophialophora fusispora are reported for the first time. Both the isolates produced experimental corneal lesions in rabbit eyes but A. fusispora was more pathogenic. The experimental infection was more severe, with both the fungi, in rabbits pretreated with cortisone as compared with untreated animals. In vitro A. fusispora was most sensitive to miconazole and tolciclate followed by clotrimazole, amphotericin B and lactones while clotrimazole exerted maximum inhibitory effect on Colletotrichum followed by miconazole, lactones, amphotericin B and arnebins. Arnebins and tolciclate were inactive respectively against A. fusispora and Colletotrichum. Of the 3 drugs tested in vivo, against A. fusispora keratitis in rabbit, amphotericin B showed better results than tolciclate and miconazole.

  14. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Funke, Sebastian; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wesener, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra.

  15. The Evolutionary History of the Rediscovered Austrian Population of the Giant Centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Funke, Sebastian; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wesener, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra. PMID:25251436

  16. Selectable genes for transformation of the fungal plant pathogen Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R J; Yoder, O C

    1987-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli (Gcp) was transformed using either of two selectable markers: the amdS + gene of Aspergillus nidulans, which encodes acetamidase and permits growth on acetamide as the sole nitrogen source and the hygBR gene of Escherichia coli which encodes hygromycin B (Hy) phosphotransferase and permits growth in the presence of the antibiotic Hy. The amdS+ gene functioned in Gcp under control of A. nidulans regulatory signals and hygBR was expressed after fusion to a promoter from Cochliobolus heterostrophus, another filamentous ascomycete. Protoplasts to be transformed were generated with the digestive enzyme complex Novozym 234 and then were exposed to plasmid DNA in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and polyethylene glycol. Transformation occurred by integration of single or multiple copies of either the amdS+ or hygBR plasmid into the fungal genome. There was no evidence of autonomous plasmid replication. Transformants were mitotically stable on selective and nonselective media. However, transforming DNA in hygBR transformants was observed to occasionally rearrange during nonselective growth, resulting in fewer copies of the plasmid per genome. These transformants were capable of infecting bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the Gcp host plant, and after recovery from infected tissue were found to have retained both the transforming DNA unrearranged in their genomes and the Hy resistance phenotype. All single-conidial cultures derived from both amdS+ and hygBR transformants had the transplanted phenotype, suggesting that transformants were homokaryons.

  17. Osteoderm histology of the Pampatheriidae (Cingulata, Xenarthra, Mammalia): Implications for systematics, osteoderm growth, and biomechanical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dominik; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Sander, P Martin

    2012-04-01

    Pampatheres are extinct, large-bodied cingulates, which share morphological characters with both armadillos and glyptodonts but are considered to be more closely related to the latter. The osteoderm histology of six pampathere taxa was examined and compared to the histology of other cingulate osteoderms. This study investigates the development and functional adaptation of pampathere osteoderms as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the Pampatheriidae within the Cingulata. We found that pampathere osteoderms share a uniform histological organization based on a basic diploe-like structure. After initial stages of intramembranous growth, metaplastic ossification, that is, the direct incorporation and mineralization of pre-existing protein fibers, plays an important role in osteoderm development and provides information on various kinds of soft tissue otherwise not preserved. The latest stages of osteoderm growth are dominated by periosteal bone formation especially in the superficial cortex. Movable band osteoderms show regular arrangements of incorporated fibers that may increase the resistance of particularly weak areas against strain. The histological composition of pampathere osteoderms is plesiomorphic in its basic structure but shows a number of derived features. A unique array of Sharpey's fibers that are incorporated into the bone matrix at sutured osteoderm margins is interpreted as a synapomorphy of pampatheres. The arrangement of dermal fibers in the deep and superficial cortexes supports the close relationship between pampatheres and glyptodonts.

  18. Osteoderm morphology and development in the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Vickaryous, Matthew K; Hall, Brian K

    2006-11-01

    Among modern mammals, armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata) are the only group that possesses osteoderms, bony inclusions within the integument. Along the body, osteoderms are organized into five discrete assemblages: the head, pectoral, banded, pelvic, and tail shields. The pectoral, banded, and pelvic shields articulate to form the carapace. We examined osteoderm skeletogenesis in the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus using serial and whole-mount histochemistry. Compared with the rest of the skeleton, osteoderms have a delayed onset of development. Skeletogenesis begins as condensations of osteoblasts secreting osteoid, localized within the papillary layer of the dermis. Osteoderm formation is asynchronous both within each shield and across the body. The first osteoderms to mineralize are situated within the pectoral shield of the carapace, followed by elements within the banded, head, pelvic, and tail shields. In general, within each shield ossification begins craniomedially and proceeds caudally and laterally, except over the head, where the earliest elements form over the frontal and parietal bones. The absence of cartilage precursors indicates that osteoderms are dermal elements, possibly related to the all-encompassing vertebrate dermal skeleton (exoskeleton). The mode of development of D. novemcinctus osteoderms is unlike that described for squamate osteoderms, which arise via bone metaplasia, and instead is comparable with intramembranously derived elements of the skull.

  19. The human gluteus maximus and its role in running.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Raichlen, David A; Pontzer, Herman; Bramble, Dennis M; Cutright-Smith, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other non-human primates. Here we employ electromyographic and kinematic analyses of human subjects to test the hypothesis that the human gluteus maximus plays a more important role in running than walking. The results indicate that the gluteus maximus is mostly quiescent with low levels of activity during level and uphill walking, but increases substantially in activity and alters its timing with respect to speed during running. The major functions of the gluteus maximus during running are to control flexion of the trunk on the stance-side and to decelerate the swing leg; contractions of the stance-side gluteus maximus may also help to control flexion of the hip and to extend the thigh. Evidence for when the gluteus maximus became enlarged in human evolution is equivocal, but the muscle's minimal functional role during walking supports the hypothesis that enlargement of the gluteus maximus was likely important in the evolution of hominid running capabilities.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Ya; Tao, Jian-Jun; Gui, Lang; Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Ruan, Hong-Mei; Li, Zhen-Qiu; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2007-02-28

    A rhabdovirus associated with a lethal hemorrhagic disease in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus was isolated. The virus induced typical cytopathogenic effects (CPE) in 9 of 15 fish cell lines examined and was then propagated and isolated from infected carp leucocyte cells (CLC). Electron microscopy observations revealed that the negatively stained virions had a typical bullet-shaped morphology with one rounded end and one flat base end. The bullet-shaped morphology was more obvious and clear in ultrathin sections of infected cells. Experimental infections also indicated that the S. maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) was not only a viral pathogen for cultured turbot, but also had the ability to infect other fish species, such as freshwater grass carp. A partial nucleotide sequence of the SMRV polymerase gene was determined by RT-PCR using 2 pairs of degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences of rhabdovirus polymerase genes. Homology analysis, amino acid sequence alignment, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the partial SMRV polymerase sequence indicated that SMRV was genetically distinct from other rhabdoviruses. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the purified SMRV revealed 5 major structural proteins, and their molecular masses were estimated to be about 250, 58, 47, 42, and 28 kDa. Significant serological reactivity differences were also observed between SMRV and its nearest neighbor, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). The data suggest that SMRV is likely a novel fish rhabdovirus, although it is closely related to rhabdoviruses in the genus Vesiculovirus.

  1. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  2. A novel organic solvent- and detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Trametes cingulata strain CTM10101.

    PubMed

    Omrane Benmrad, Maroua; Moujehed, Emna; Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Mechri, Sondes; Rekik, Hatem; Kourdali, Sidali; El Hattab, Mohamed; Badis, Abdelmalek; Sayadi, Sami; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2016-10-01

    A protease-producing fungus was isolated from an alkaline wastewater of chemical industries and identified as Trametes cingulata strain CTM10101 on the basis of the ITS rDNA gene-sequencing. It was observed that the fungus strongly produce extracellular protease grown at 30°C in potato-dextrose-broth (PDB) optimized media (13500U/ml). The pure serine protease isolated by Trametes cingulata (designated SPTC) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation-dialysis followed by heat-treatment and UNO S-1 FPLC cation-exchange chromatography. The chemical characterization carried on include phisico-chemical determination and spectroscopie analysis. The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 31405.16-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of ALTTQTEAPWALGTVSHKGQAST, thus sharing high homology with those of fungal-proteases. The optimum pH and temperature values of its proteolytic activity were pH 9 and 60°C, respectively, and its half-life times at 60 and 70°C were 9 and 5-h, respectively. It was completely inhibited by PMSF and DFP, which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine protease family. Compared to Flavourzyme(®)500L from Aspergillus oryzae and Thermolysin typeX from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, SPTC displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency as well as elevated organic solvent tolerance and considerable detergent stability. Finally, SPTC could potentially be used in peptide synthesis and detergent formulations.

  3. Gluteus Maximus Turnover Flap for Sacral Osteomyelitis After Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Sho; Yanagawa, Takashi; Saito, Kenichi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Developments in radiation therapy modalities offer alternative treatments for unresectable malignant tumors in the pelvis and trunk. However, poor vascularity as a result of radiation therapy makes the treated lesion susceptible to infection, and there are no established treatments for pelvic osteomyelitis with a large dead space after radiation therapy. The authors report 2 cases of sacral osteomyelitis after radiation therapy that were treated successfully with a gluteus maximus turnover flap. To create the flap, the distal portion of the lower third of the muscle was detached from the trochanter. The distal edge of the flap was turned toward the sacral defect and sewn to the remnant of the sacrum, which filled the dead space with the muscle bulk. A 68-year-old man with a recurrent sacral chordoma was treated with carbon ion radiation therapy; however, a sacral infection developed 5 months later. Debridement and a course of antibiotics could not control the infection and did not induce sufficient formation of granulation tissue in the large and deep dead space. The turnover flap with both gluteus maximus muscles cured the deep-seated infection and closed the wound. A 58-year-old woman had sacral osteoradionecrosis with infection. A turnover flap created with the left gluteus maximus muscle controlled the infection and closed the wound after the first operation, a V-Y flap, failed. This study showed that a gluteus maximus muscle turnover flap effectively controlled infectious lesions with large and deep dead space around the sacrum. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ontogenetic variation in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) in relation to the development of cornified scales.

    PubMed

    Krmpotic, Cecilia M; Carlini, Alfredo A; Galliari, Fernando C; Favaron, Phelipe; Miglino, María A; Scarano, Alejo C; Barbeito, Claudio G

    2014-12-01

    The epidermis of mammals is characterized by having a stratum granulosum that produces an orthokeratotic stratum corneum, different from the typical reptilian parakeratotic stratum. Nonetheless, some mammals show distinct degrees of parakeratosis in epidermal regions with few or no pilose follicles (e.g., areas subjacent to cornified scales). With respect to the epidermis and the development of cornified scales in the Dasypodidae, previous studies have supported the presence of a continuous stratum granulosum without any variations during ontogeny. This condition, in which the cornified scales develop without a loss of the stratum granulosum, was interpreted as primitive for eutherians. The present contribution expands the knowledge on the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus in distinct ontogenetic stages in order to determine whether the cornified scales show the same developmental pattern as in other eutherians. The presence of a stratum granulosum in C. vellerosus neonates and its reduction in more advanced ontogenetic stages, in direct relationship with cornified scale development, supports the hypothesis that the partial parakeratosis in the xenarthran integument is secondary, as in other eutherians, and can be interpreted as a derived character state.

  6. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation.

  7. Gluteus maximus calcific tendonosis: a rare cause of sciatic pain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspal R; Yip, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Extraspinal causes of radicular pain are rare and are in danger of being overlooked. Here, we present a patient with pain radiating into the posterior thigh and lateral calf. Although initial differential diagnosis included lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus, further imaging revealed the presence of gluteus maximus calcific tendonosis. After physical therapy and a potent oral steroid regimen, the pain gradually resolved and the patient was able to return to full activity.

  8. Calcific Tendinitis of the Gluteus Maximus in a Golfer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ariel A; Stang, Thomas S; Fritz, Jan; Papp, Derek F

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a relatively rare condition in which calcium is inappropriately deposited in tendons, resulting in a local inflammatory reaction that can cause severe symptoms in certain cases. The cause of this disease process is not completely understood, although repetitive microtrauma likely plays a role in its development. Although the disorder most often involves the rotator cuff, it can affect other structures throughout the body, such as the tendons about the ankle and hip-including the rectus femoris and gluteus maximus. Nonoperative management typically involves using an anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification and can be augmented with formal physical therapy and modalities. Although nonoperative management provides adequate relief for many patients, sometimes operative debridement of the calcific deposit with or without repair of the involved tendon is required. The authors report an unusual case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus insertion in a golfer. The patient had tried nonoperative treatment for approximately 2 years with no real relief, and a recent exacerbation of the pain was significantly delaying his return to sport. Although plain radiographs did not show abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging showed a calcific deposit in the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon. After discussing further treatment options with the patient, the decision was made to remove the deposit and repair the insertion. He recovered completely and was able to return to play. The frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of this condition are discussed in this case report, as well as the possible link to golf in this patient. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e997-e1000.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Comparison of Electromyographic Activity of the Superior and Inferior Portions of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle During Common Therapeutic Exercises.

    PubMed

    Selkowitz, David M; Beneck, George J; Powers, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Background Previous studies have reported that the superior and inferior portions of the gluteus maximus have different functional roles. Knowledge of how the different portions of the gluteus maximus are activated during therapeutic exercise may lead to more specific exercise prescription. Objective To compare muscle activation of the superior and inferior portions of the gluteus maximus during commonly used therapeutic exercises. Methods Twenty healthy persons participated. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were obtained from the superior and inferior portions of the gluteus maximus using fine-wire electrodes. Normalized EMG signal amplitudes were compared between the superior and inferior gluteus maximus across 11 exercises using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results The superior portion of the gluteus maximus had significantly greater relative EMG activity than the inferior portion of the gluteus maximus during exercises that incorporated elements of hip abduction and/or external rotation (5 of 11 exercises evaluated). There was no significant difference in activation between the superior and inferior portions of the gluteus maximus during the remaining 6 exercises. Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate preferential activation of the superior portion of the gluteus maximus during exercises that incorporate elements of hip abduction and/or external rotation. In contrast, exercises that primarily involve hip extension target both portions of the gluteus maximus to a similar extent. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):794-799. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6493.

  10. Effects of Photoperiod on Epididymal and Sperm Morphology in a Wild Rodent, the Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruceño, A. M.; de Rosas, J. C.; Fóscolo, M.; Chaves, E. M.; Scardapane, L.; Dominguez, S.; Aguilera-Merlo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) is a seasonal South American wild rodent. The adult males exhibit an annual reproductive cycle with periods of maximum and minimum gonadal activity. Four segments have been identified in the epididymis of this species: initial, caput, corpus, and cauda. The main objective of this work was to relate the seasonal morphological changes observed in the epididymal duct with the data from epididymal sperm during periods of activity and gonadal regression using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under light and electron microscopy, epididymal corpus and cauda showed marked seasonal variations in structural parameters and in the distribution of different cellular populations of epithelium. Initial and caput segments showed mild morphological variations between the two periods. Changes in epididymal sperm morphology were observed in the periods analyzed and an increased number of abnormal gametes were found during the regression period. During this period, anomalies were found mainly in the head, midpiece, and neck, while in the activity period, defects were found only in the head. Our results confirm that the morphological characteristics of the epididymal segments, as well as sperm morphology, undergo significant changes during the reproductive cycle of Lagostomus. PMID:25969823

  11. The anatomical and functional relation between gluteus maximus and fascia lata.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Antonio; Antonio, Stecco; Gilliar, Wolfgang; Wolfgang, Gilliar; Hill, Robert; Robert, Hill; Fullerton, Brad; Stecco, Carla; Carla, Stecco

    2013-10-01

    There is not full agreement regarding the distal insertions of the gluteus maximus muscle (GM), particularly the insertions into the iliotibial band and lateral intermuscular septum. 6 cadavers, 4 males and 2 females, mean age 69 yr, were dissected to evaluate the insertions of the GM into the iliotibial band, fascia lata, lateral intermuscular septum and femur. The iliotibial band is a reinforcement of the fascia lata and cannot be separated from it. Its inner side is in continuity with the lateral intermuscular septum, which divides the quadriceps from the hamstring. In all subjects the gluteus maximus presented a major insertion into the fascia lata, so large that the iliotibial tract could be considered a tendon of insertion of the gluteus maximus. The fascial insertion of the gluteus maximus muscle could explain the transmission of the forces from the thoracolumbar fascia to the knee.

  12. Low coverage sequencing of two Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three species of elephant that exist, the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and two species of African elephant (Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis). The populations of all three species are dwindling, and are under threat due to factors, such as habitat destruction and ivory hunting. The species differ in many respects, including in their morphology and response to disease. The availability of elephant genome sequence data from all three elephant species will complement studies of behaviour, genetic diversity, evolution and disease resistance. Findings We present low-coverage Illumina sequence data from two Asian elephants, representing approximately 5X and 2.5X coverage respectively. Both raw and aligned data are available, using the African elephant (L. africana) genome as a reference. Conclusions The data presented here are an important addition to the available genetic and genomic information on Asian and African elephants. PMID:25053995

  13. Low coverage sequencing of two Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) genomes.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Robert, Christelle; Watson, Mick

    2014-01-01

    There are three species of elephant that exist, the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and two species of African elephant (Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis). The populations of all three species are dwindling, and are under threat due to factors, such as habitat destruction and ivory hunting. The species differ in many respects, including in their morphology and response to disease. The availability of elephant genome sequence data from all three elephant species will complement studies of behaviour, genetic diversity, evolution and disease resistance. We present low-coverage Illumina sequence data from two Asian elephants, representing approximately 5X and 2.5X coverage respectively. Both raw and aligned data are available, using the African elephant (L. africana) genome as a reference. The data presented here are an important addition to the available genetic and genomic information on Asian and African elephants.

  14. Transcriptomic features of Pecten maximus oocyte quality and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Massimo; Huvet, Arnaud; Corporeau, Charlotte; Suquet, Marc; Planas, Josep V.; Moreira, Rebeca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus is a high valuable species of great interest in Europe for both fishery and aquaculture. Notably, there has been an increased investment to produce seed for enhancement programmes of wild scallop populations. However, hatchery production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. Major hurdles are spawning control and gamete quality. In the present study, a total of 14 scallops were sampled in the bay of Brest (Brittany, France) to compare transcriptomic profiles of mature oocytes collected by spawning induction or by stripping. To reach such a goal, a microarray analysis was performed by using a custom 8x60K oligonucleotide microarray representing 45,488 unique scallop contigs. First we identified genes that were differentially expressed depending on oocyte quality, estimated as the potential to produce D-larvae. Secondly, we investigated the transcriptional features of both stripped and spawned oocytes. Genes coding for proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, serine/threonine kinases signalling pathway, mRNA processing, response to DNA damage, apoptosis and cell-cycle appeared to be of crucial importance for both oocyte maturation and developmental competence. This study allowed us to dramatically increase the knowledge about transcriptional features of oocyte quality and maturation, as well as to propose for the first time putative molecular markers to solve a major bottleneck in scallop aquaculture. PMID:28253290

  15. Transcriptomic features of Pecten maximus oocyte quality and maturation.

    PubMed

    Pauletto, Marianna; Milan, Massimo; Huvet, Arnaud; Corporeau, Charlotte; Suquet, Marc; Planas, Josep V; Moreira, Rebeca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus is a high valuable species of great interest in Europe for both fishery and aquaculture. Notably, there has been an increased investment to produce seed for enhancement programmes of wild scallop populations. However, hatchery production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. Major hurdles are spawning control and gamete quality. In the present study, a total of 14 scallops were sampled in the bay of Brest (Brittany, France) to compare transcriptomic profiles of mature oocytes collected by spawning induction or by stripping. To reach such a goal, a microarray analysis was performed by using a custom 8x60K oligonucleotide microarray representing 45,488 unique scallop contigs. First we identified genes that were differentially expressed depending on oocyte quality, estimated as the potential to produce D-larvae. Secondly, we investigated the transcriptional features of both stripped and spawned oocytes. Genes coding for proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, serine/threonine kinases signalling pathway, mRNA processing, response to DNA damage, apoptosis and cell-cycle appeared to be of crucial importance for both oocyte maturation and developmental competence. This study allowed us to dramatically increase the knowledge about transcriptional features of oocyte quality and maturation, as well as to propose for the first time putative molecular markers to solve a major bottleneck in scallop aquaculture.

  16. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot.

  17. A Microsatellite Genetic Map of the Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Fernández, Carlos; Fortes, Gloria G.; Castro, Jaime; Sánchez, Laura; Presa, Pablo; Pérez, Montse; Sanjuán, Andrés; de Carlos, Alejandro; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Ezcurra, Susana; Cal, Rosa M.; Piferrer, Francesc; Martínez, Paulino

    2007-01-01

    A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was constructed from two unrelated families. The mapping panel was derived from a gynogenetic family of 96 haploid embryos and a biparental diploid family of 85 full-sib progeny with known linkage phase. A total of 242 microsatellites were mapped in 26 linkage groups, six markers remaining unlinked. The consensus map length was 1343.2 cM, with an average distance between markers of 6.5 ± 0.5 cM. Similar length of female and male maps was evidenced. However, the mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed significant differences between sexes, ∼1.6 times higher in the female than in the male. The comparison of turbot microsatellite flanking sequences against the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome revealed 55 significant matches, with a mean length of 102 bp and high sequence similarity (81–100%). The comparative mapping revealed significant syntenic regions among fish species. This study represents the first linkage map in the turbot, one of the most important flatfish in European aquaculture. This map will be suitable for QTL identification of productive traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in fish and vertebrate species. PMID:18073440

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Chondrichthyes, Cetorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Hester, Jennifer; Atwater, Kimberly; Bernard, Andrea; Francis, Malcolm; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2015-01-01

    The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world's second largest fish and the subject of strong conservation concern. Minimal genetic assessment exists for this globally distributed but regionally endangered species. We describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. maximus, obtained via polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,670 bp and consists of 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes. The base composition has an A + T bias (63.6%), as is often seen in other sharks. Gene order is equivalent to that found in most vertebrates.

  19. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in a centipede, Scolopendra cingulata (Chilopoda, Scolopendridae), with the special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chajec, Lukasz; Sonakowska, Lidia; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra cingulata has a tube-shaped digestive system that is divided into three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The midgut is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. Hemocytes also appear between the digestive cells of the midgut epithelium. The ultrastructure of three types of epithelial cells and hemocytes of the midgut has been described with the special emphasis on the role of regenerative cells in the protection of midgut epithelium. The process of midgut epithelium regeneration proceeds due to the ability of regenerative cells to proliferate and differentiate according to a circadian rhythm. The regenerative cells serve as unipotent stem cells that divide in an asymmetric manner. Additionally, two types of hemocytes have been distinguished among midgut epithelial cells. They enter the midgut epithelium from the body cavity. Because of the fact that numerous microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells, we discuss the role of hemocytes in elimination of pathogens from the midgut epithelium. The studies were conducted with the use of transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescent methods.

  20. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional environmental pressure influences population differentiation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Vandamme, S G; Maes, G E; Raeymaekers, J A M; Cottenie, K; Imsland, A K; Hellemans, B; Lacroix, G; Mac Aoidh, E; Martinsohn, J T; Martínez, P; Robbens, J; Vilas, R; Volckaert, F A M

    2014-02-01

    Unravelling the factors shaping the genetic structure of mobile marine species is challenging due to the high potential for gene flow. However, genetic inference can be greatly enhanced by increasing the genomic, geographical or environmental resolution of population genetic studies. Here, we investigated the population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by screening 17 random and gene-linked markers in 999 individuals at 290 geographical locations throughout the northeast Atlantic Ocean. A seascape genetics approach with the inclusion of high-resolution oceanographical data was used to quantify the association of genetic variation with spatial, temporal and environmental parameters. Neutral loci identified three subgroups: an Atlantic group, a Baltic Sea group and one on the Irish Shelf. The inclusion of loci putatively under selection suggested an additional break in the North Sea, subdividing southern from northern Atlantic individuals. Environmental and spatial seascape variables correlated marginally with neutral genetic variation, but explained significant proportions (respectively, 8.7% and 10.3%) of adaptive genetic variation. Environmental variables associated with outlier allele frequencies included salinity, temperature, bottom shear stress, dissolved oxygen concentration and depth of the pycnocline. Furthermore, levels of explained adaptive genetic variation differed markedly between basins (3% vs. 12% in the North and Baltic Sea, respectively). We suggest that stable environmental selection pressure contributes to relatively strong local adaptation in the Baltic Sea. Our seascape genetic approach using a large number of sampling locations and associated oceanographical data proved useful for the identification of population units as the basis of management decisions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Feeding preferences of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Raj Kumar; Raubenheimer, David; Aryal, Achyut; Pathak, Mitra Lal; Ji, Weihong

    2016-11-17

    Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100-125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for maintaining the genetic diversity of elephants and conservation of biodiversity in this region. Knowledge of foraging patterns of these animals, which is important for understanding their habitat requirements and for assessing their habitat condition, is lacking for the main areas populated by elephants in Nepal. This study investigates the feeding preferences of the Asian elephant in Parsa Wildlife Reserve (PWR) and Chitwan National Park (CNP), Nepal. Fifty-seven species of plants in 25 families were found to be eaten by Asian elephants, including 12 species of grasses, five shrubs, two climbers, one herb and 37 species of trees. The species that contributed the greatest proportion of the elephant's diet were Spatholobus parviflorus (20.2%), Saccharum spontaneum (7.1%), Shorea robusta (6.3), Mallotus philippensis (5.7%), Garuga pinnata (4.3%). Saccharum bengalensis (4.2%), Cymbopogan spp (3.7%), Litsea monopetala (3.6) and Phoenix humilis (2.9%). The preference index (PI) showed that browsed species were preferred during the dry season, while browsed species and grasses were both important food sources during the rainy season. Elephants targeted leaves and twigs more than other parts of plants (P < 0.05). This study presents useful information on foraging patterns and baseline data for elephant habitat management in the PWR and CNP in the south central region of Nepal.

  3. Tuberculosis surveillance of elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal at the captive-wild interface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comprehensive elephant tuberculosis (TB) survey using culture and four serological screening tests was conducted in Nepal. Private and government-owned male and female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were included in the study. The mean reported age was 38 years (range 5-60 years). A tot...

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Houck, M L; Kumamoto, A T; Gallagher, D S; Benirschke, K

    2001-01-01

    G- and C-banded karyotypes of the two extant species of the mammalian order Proboscidea are presented for the first time. Chromosome complements were 2n = 56 in both Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus. Comparisons between the species demonstrated a high level of chromosome band homology, with 26 conserved autosomal pairs. The normal diploid karyotype of L. africana had 25 acrocentric/telocentric and two metacentric/submetacentric autosomal pairs. E. maximus differed by having one less acrocentric and one additional submetacentric pair due to either a heterochromatic arm addition or deletion involving autosomal pair 27. Several acrocentric autosomes of L. africana exhibited small short arms that were absent in homologous chromosomes of E. maximus. The X chromosomes in both species were large submetacentric elements and were homologous. However, the small acrocentric Y chromosomes differed; in E. maximus it was slightly larger and had more distinct G-bands than its counterpart in L. africana. Extant Elephantidae appear to be relatively conservative in their rates of chromosomal change compared to some other mammalian families. The high-quality banded karyotypes presented here should prove useful as references in future chromosome analyses of elephant populations and in comparative cytogenetic studies with other ungulate orders.

  5. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus in pastures of Bingol Province, Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The province of Bingol, a very mountainous area located in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has limited agricultural land but large intermountain pastures supporting the main economic resource of the region, livestock production. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus was recovered from a ...

  6. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Steckler, Natalie K.; Olesen, Niels J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses have been isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Denmark. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these two ranaviruses are nearly identical and form a distinct clade at the base of the ranavirus tree branching off near other fish ranaviruses. PMID:27979944

  7. A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata): the oldest record of the genus and morphological and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matias; Zamorano, Martin; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo J; Luna, Carlos; Boh, Daniel; Saffer, Mariano Magnussen

    2013-01-01

    Among South American Quaternary Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Cingulata), Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto represents one of the best known genera. Prior to this contribution, four species were recognized. N. pseudornatus (Ameghino) and N. ornatus (Owen) (Ensenadan Age/Stage, early-middle Pleistocene); N. gouldi Zurita (Bonaerian Age/Stage, middle Pleistocene-late Pleistocene), and N. paskoensis (Zurita) (Lujanian Age/Stage, late Pleistocene-early Holocene). One of the most notable characters of the species of the genus is a modified area located in the distal part of the nasals, recently interpreted as a neomorphic structure derived from the ossification of the nasal cartilages. In this contribution, a new species of Neosclerocalyptus (N. castellanosi sp. nov.), which in turn represents the oldest record of the genus, is presented and described. In addition, a cladistic analysis is carried out to test the monophyly of Neosclerocalyptus and the phylogenetic position of this new species. The material comes from Vorohuean (late Pliocene) levels in the surroundings of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Among other morphological characters, this new species has ossified nasal cartilages restricted to the latero-dorsal area of the nasals, whereas in the remaining species these structures are more expanded and both sides contact in the midline of the skull. In turn, the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of Neosclerocalyptus, whereas N. castellanosi sp. nov. appears closely related to N. pseudornatus, being N. ornatus the sister taxa of this clade. On the other hand, N. gouldi + N. paskoensis constitute the other clade. The clade constituted by Hoplophorus euphractus Lund + Panochthus intermedius Lydekker constitutes the sister taxa of Neosclerocalyptus.

  8. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Expression of floral identity genes in Clianthus maximus during mass inflorescence abortion and floral development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Clemens, John; Jameson, Paula E

    2011-06-01

    Clianthus maximus is a leguminous perennial with an unusual order of floral organ insertion, and inflorescences produced year round that nearly all abort except during a limited time in autumn. This study aimed to determine at what point in floral organ differentiation abortion occurred and whether the expression of the floral identity genes underlies this cessation in flower development. Inflorescences were harvested across an annual cycle and flower development was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Expression of the C. maximus-equivalents of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), PISTILLATA (PI) and AGAMOUS (AG) was monitored simultaneously by quantitative, reverse transcriptase PCR. Only those inflorescences formed in autumn proceeded to anthesis. Organogenesis had not begun in inflorescences that aborted. The C. maximus-equivalents of AP1, PI and AG were expressed in sepals, petals, carpels and stamens, as expected from the ABC model of floral organ identity specification; furthermore, the order of expression of the three genes reflected the unusual pattern of organ differentiation. Low expression of LFY and AP1 was observed during inflorescence abortion. Predictions of gene expression based on the ABC model were upheld despite the unusual mass abortion of inflorescences and the non-standard pattern of organ formation. The lack of expression of LFY and AP1 in inflorescences may have been the cause of inflorescence abortion.

  10. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG) of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90°) hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE), to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE). Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg), before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52%) and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12%) for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects. Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples.

  11. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Bret; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG) of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90°) hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE), to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE). Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg), before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52%) and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12%) for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects. Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples. PMID:26417543

  12. Characterization of the microbiota associated to Pecten maximus gonads using 454-pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Mira, Alex; Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Romalde, Jesús L

    2016-06-01

    A next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was used to study the microbiota associated to Pecten maximus broodstock, applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V4 16S rRNA gene regions. We analysed the resident bacterial communities in female and male scallop gonads before and after spawning. DNA samples were amplified and quality-filtered reads were assigned to family and genus taxonomic levels using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. A total of 18,520 sequences were detected, belonging to 13 phyla, including Proteobacteria (55%), Bacteroidetes (11,7%), Firmicutes (3%), Actinobacteria (2%) and Spirochaetes (1,2%), and 110 genera. The major fraction of the sequences detected corresponded to Proteobacteria, Beta- and Gammaprotebacteria being the most abundant classes. The microbiota of P. maximus gonad harbour a wide diversity, however differences on male and female samples were observed, where female gonad samples show a larger number of genera and families. The dominant bacterial genera appeared to be Delftia, Acinetobacter, Hydrotalea, Aquabacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacterium, Sphingomonas, and Pseudomonas that were present among the four analysed samples. This next generation sequencing technique, applied for the first time in P. maximus (great scallop) gonads was useful for the study of the bacterial communities in this mollusc, unravelling the great bacterial diversity in its microbiota. [Int Microbiol 19(2): 93-99(2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  13. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on folliculostellate cells of the pituitary pars distalis of adult male viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabian

    2011-10-01

    Numerous reports have shown the effect of photoperiod and melatonin administration on the different hormone secreting cell types in the pituitary pars distalis. The viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) is a rodent with photoperiod-dependent seasonal reproduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of photoperiod seasonal variations and melatonin administration on the folliculostellate cells in pituitary pars distalis of viscacha. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to measure the percentage of S-100-positive area (total, cellular and colloidal) and the number of folliculostellate cells. The S-100 protein was immunolocalized at intracellular (folliculostellate cells) and extracellular (follicular colloid) levels. The morphometric parameters analyzed exhibited seasonal variations with highest values in the summer (long photoperiod) and lowest values in the winter (short photoperiod). The administration of melatonin caused a significant decrease of immunostaining. Results suggest that the natural photoperiod might be the most important environmental signal causing the decrease in folliculostellate cells immunostaining observed in the winter. These findings agree with seasonal changes previously reported in endocrine cells and suggest that folliculostellate cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of the secretory activity of pituitary pars distalis through S-100 protein production.

  14. Do Verbal and Tactile Cueing Selectively Alter Gluteus Maximus and Hamstring Recruitment During a Supine Bridging Exercise in Active Females? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hollman, John H; Berling, Tyler A; Crum, Ellen O; Miller, Kelsie M; Simmons, Brent T; Youdas, James W

    2017-01-25

    Hip extension with hamstring- rather than gluteus maximus-dominant recruitment may increase anterior femoracetabular forces and contribute to conditions that cause hip pain. Cueing methods during hip extension exercises may facilitate greater gluteus maximus recruitment. We examined whether specific verbal and tactile cues facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment while inhibiting hamstring recruitment during a bridging exercise. Randomized controlled trial. Biomechanics laboratory. 30 young adult women [age 24 (3) years, BMI 22.2 (2.4) kg/m2]. Participants were tested over 2 sessions, 1 week apart, while performing 5 repetitions of a bridging exercise. At their second visit, participants in the experimental group received verbal and tactile cues intended to facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment and inhibit hamstring recruitment. Control group participants received no additional cues beyond original instructions. Gluteus maximus and hamstring recruitment were measured with surface electromyography, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Gluteus maximus recruitment was unchanged in the control group and increased from 16.8 to 33.0% MVIC in the cueing group (F = 33.369, P < .001). Hamstring recruitment was unchanged in the control group but also increased from 16.5 to 29.8% MVIC in the cueing group (F = 6.400, P = .018). The effect size of the change in gluteus maximus recruitment in the cueing group (Cohen's d = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.2) was not significantly greater than the effect size in hamstring recruitment (Cohen's d = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.1 to 1.5). Verbal and tactile cues hypothesized to facilitate gluteus maximus recruitment yielded comparable increases in both gluteus maximus and hamstring recruitment. If one intends to promote hip extension by facilitating gluteus maximus recruitment while inhibiting hamstring recruitment during bridging exercises, the cueing methods employed in this study may not produce desired effects.

  15. Abductor Reconstruction with Gluteus Maximus Transfer in Primary Abductor Deficiency during Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se Ang; Byun, Young Soo; Gu, Tae Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Abductor deficiency in native hip joint may cause severe limping and pain. It is more serious situation in case of arthroplasty due to instability and recurrent dislocation. Well-known causes of abductor deficiency are repeated surgery, chronic trochanteric bursitis, superior gluteal nerve injury, failure of repair of abductor tendon insertion to the greater trochanter. Author had experienced primary abductor deficiency during total hip replacement and treated successfully with the transfer of gluteus maximus. We'd like to introduce the operation technique with the review of literature. PMID:27777922

  16. ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPIN PHARMACOKINETICS IN TWO ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) INFECTED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Egelund, Eric F; Isaza, Ramiro; Alsultan, Abdullah; Peloquin, Charles A

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the pharmacokinetic profiles of chronically administered oral isoniazid and rifampin in one adult male and one adult female Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) that were asymptomatically infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Rifampin's half-life was reduced when compared to previous single-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of healthy uninfected Asian elephants. Both elephants experienced delayed absorption of isoniazid and rifampin as compared to previous pharmacokinetic studies in this species. The altered pharmacokinetics of both drugs in repeated-dosing clinical situations underscores the need for individual therapeutic drug monitoring for tuberculosis treatment.

  17. Medical management of a corneal stromal abscess in a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Galle, Laurence E; Barrie, Kathleen; Lindsay, William A

    2006-09-01

    A 47-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed a corneal stromal abscess in her right eye. The elephant was trained to open her eye for topical ophthalmic therapy, and was treated six times daily with antibiotics and an antifungal solution for almost 2 mo. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used to control pain, and atropine was applied topically to dilate the pupil and provide additional comfort. Vascularization of the abscess began shortly after initiating therapy, and complete resolution was obtained by 7 wk.

  18. Congenital gluteus maximus contracture syndrome - a case report with review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kotha, Vamshi Krishna; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Reddy, M. Venkateshwar; Moorthy, Rangubatla Sathyanrayana; Kishan, Tatikonda Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Although the clinical features of gluteus maximus contracture syndrome have been frequently described, imaging features have been seldom described. Most commonly reported cases are those following intramuscular injection in the gluteal region although congenital contracture is an uncommon but important occurrence. This condition has most often been reported in children of school going age. These patients often present with difficulty in squatting, limitation of hip motion or specific deformities and often require surgical correction. We describe the plain radiography, ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this condition in a patient with no previous known history of intramuscular injections. PMID:24967033

  19. Congenital gluteus maximus contracture syndrome--a case report with review of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Vamshi Krishna; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Reddy, M Venkateshwar; Moorthy, Rangubatla Sathyanrayana; Kishan, Tatikonda Venkat

    2014-04-01

    Although the clinical features of gluteus maximus contracture syndrome have been frequently described, imaging features have been seldom described. Most commonly reported cases are those following intramuscular injection in the gluteal region although congenital contracture is an uncommon but important occurrence. This condition has most often been reported in children of school going age. These patients often present with difficulty in squatting, limitation of hip motion or specific deformities and often require surgical correction. We describe the plain radiography, ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this condition in a patient with no previous known history of intramuscular injections.

  20. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF GLUTEUS MEDIUS AND GLUTEUS MAXIMUS DURING REHABILITATION EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Boren, Kristen; Conrey, Cara; Le Coguic, Jennifer; Voight, Michael; Robinson, T. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Previous research studies by Bolga, Ayotte, and Distefano have examined the level of muscle recruitment of the gluteal muscles for various clinical exercises; however, there has been no cross comparison among the top exercises from each study. The purpose of this study is to compare top exercises from these studies as well as several other commonly performed clinical exercises to determine which exercises recruit the gluteal muscles, specifically the gluteus medius and maximus, most effectively. Methods: Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on gluteus medius and maximus to measure muscle activity during 18 exercises. Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVIC) was established for each muscle group in order to express each exercise as a percentage of MVIC and allow standardized comparison across subjects. EMG data were analyzed using a root-mean-square algorithm and smoothed with a 50 millisecond time reference. Rank ordering of the exercises was performed utilizing the average percent MVIC peak activity for each exercise. Results: Twenty-four subjects satisfied all eligibility criteria and consented to participate in the research study. Five of the exercises produced greater than 70%MVIC of the gluteus medius muscle. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (103%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (89%MVIC), single limb squat (82%MVIC), clamshell (hip clam) progression 4 (77%MVIC), and font plank with hip extension (75%MVIC). Five of the exercises recruited gluteus maximus with values greater than 70%MVIC. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: front plank with hip extension (106%MVIC), gluteal squeeze (81%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (73%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (71%MVIC), and single limb squat (71%MVIC). Four of

  1. Restoration of native plant communities in a Hawaiian dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus

    Treesearch

    Selita A. Ammondt; Creighton M. Litton; Lisa M. Ellsworth; James K. Leary

    2012-01-01

    How does a highly degraded Hawaiian tropical dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the non-native invasive Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) respond to different restoration treatments (three native species outplanting treatments; four native broadcast seed treatments)? What effect do restoration treatments have on invasive and native species...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Arcobacter sp. Strain LFT 1.7 Isolated from Great Scallop (Pecten maximus) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arcobacter sp. strain LFT 1.7 was isolated from great scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain LFT 1.7 formed an independent lineage in the genus Arcobacter. The draft genome of LFT 1.7 was sequenced to determine the taxonomic position and ecological function of this strain. PMID:28183771

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Arcobacter sp. Strain LFT 1.7 Isolated from Great Scallop (Pecten maximus) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, A L; Romalde, J L

    2017-02-09

    Arcobacter sp. strain LFT 1.7 was isolated from great scallop (Pecten maximus) larvae. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain LFT 1.7 formed an independent lineage in the genus Arcobacter The draft genome of LFT 1.7 was sequenced to determine the taxonomic position and ecological function of this strain.

  4. Bioremediation of bacteria pollution using the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis in the intensive mariculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xichang; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Bi; Jin, Meifang; Fu, Wantao

    2010-01-01

    Sessile filter-feeding marine sponges (Porifera) have been reported to possess high efficiency in removing bacteria pollution from natural or aquaculture seawater. However, no investigation has been carried out thus far in a true mariculture farm water system. Therefore this study sought to investigate the ability of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perlevis to bioremediate the bacteria pollution in the intensive aquaculture water system of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Sponge specimens were hung in fish culture effluent at different temperature to investigate the optimal temperature condition for bacteria removal by H. perlevis. Turbots S. maximus were co-cultured with sponge H. perlevis in 1.5 m(3) of water system at 15-18 degrees C for 6 weeks to control the growth of bacteria. It was found that H. perlevis was able to remove pathogenic bacteria efficiently at 10-20 degrees C, with a maximal removal of 71.4-78.8% of fecal coliform, 73.9-98.7% of pathogenic vibrio, and 75.0-83.7% of total culturable bacteria from fish-culture effluent at 15 degrees C; H. perlevis continuously showed good bioremediation of bacteria pollution in the S. maximus culture water system, achieving removal of 60.0-90.2% of fecal coliform, 37.6-81.6% of pathogenic vibrio, and 45.1-83.9% of total culturable bacteria. The results demonstrate that H. perlevis is an effective bioremediator of bacteria pollution in the turbot S. maximus culture farm water system.

  5. Induction of apoptosis in a carp leucocyte cell line infected with turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Zhang, Qiya; Li, Chunliang; Miao, Dali; Gui, Jianfang

    2004-05-01

    A rhabdovirus was observed from the diseased turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) with lethal syndrome. In this study, a carp leucocyte (CLC) cell line was used to investigate the infection process and cell death mechanism occurring during the virus infection. Strong cytopathogenic effect (CPE) and the morphological changes, such as extreme chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation, were observed under fluorescence microscopy after DAPI staining in the infected CLC cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, cytoplasm vacuolization, chromatin condensation, nuclear breakdown and formation of discrete apoptotic bodies. The bullet-shaped nucleocapsids were measured and ranged in size from 110 to 150 nm in length and 40 to 60 nm in diameter. And therefore the virus is called Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of the DNA extracted from infected cells showed typical DNA ladder in the course of SMRV infection. Flow cytometry analysis of SMRV infected CLC cells detected apoptotic peak in the virus infected CLC cells. Virus titre analysis and electron microscopic observation revealed that the virus replication fastigium was earlier than that of the apoptosis occurrence. No apoptosis was observed in the CLC infected with UV-inactivated SMRV. All these supported that SMRV infected CLC cells undergo apoptosis and the virus replication is necessary for apoptosis induction of CLC cells.

  6. Inhibitory Activity and Chemical Characterization of Daucus carota subsp. maximus Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Barbera, Marcella; Aleo, Aurora; Lommatzsch, Ines; La Mantia, Tommaso; Settanni, Luca

    2017-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of green seeds from Daucus carota subsp. maximus growing wild in Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy) were characterized. EOs were extracted by steam distillation, examined for their inhibitory properties against food-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and analyzed for the chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Undiluted EOs showed a large inhibition spectrum against Gram-positive strains and also vs. Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was in the range 1.25 - 2.50 μl/ml for the most sensitive strains. The chemical analysis indicated that D. carota subsp. maximus EOs included 34 compounds (five monoterpene hydrocarbons, six oxygenated monoterpenes, 14 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, four oxygenated sesquiterpenes, camphorene and four other compounds), accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, and that the major chemicals were carotol, β-bisabolene, and isoelemicin. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a new oxygenated homoditerpenoid from leaves of Centaurothamnus maximus with antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Alam, Perwez; Al-Anezi, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Haque, Anzarul; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    A new bioactive oxygenated homoditerpenic compound along with one known compound from the antimicrobial active ethanol extract of leaves of an endemic plant Centaurothamnus maximus was isolated. The n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of C. maximus leaves were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential by using standard agar well diffusion method against various microorganisms viz. B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and M. smegmatis. The results revealed that only ethanol extract was active against all microbes except the fungus C. albicans. A new compound 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-8α-methoxy-15-hydroxy-methylene- pimar-5,9 (11)-diene (CM-1) was isolated along with a known compound α-D-xylose (CM-2) from ethanol extract by reverse phase (RP-18) column chromatography and 1D and 2D NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HSQC) aided by EIMS mass and IR spectra were used to establish the structure. CM-1 was found to be active against B. subtilis, S. aureus and M. smegmatis (P>0.005) at MIC 20 μg/ml. Findings of this study may provide a lead for synthesis of more potent antimicrobial agents to serve the humanity against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  8. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait.

  9. Electromyographic analysis of gluteus maximus and hamstring activity during the supine resisted hip extension exercise versus supine unilateral bridge to neutral.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2017-02-01

    Hip extension strengthening exercises which maximize gluteus maximus contributions and minimize hamstring influences may be beneficial for persons with hip pain. This study's aim was to compare muscle activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstrings from healthy subjects during a supine resisted hip extension exercise versus supine unilateral bridge to neutral. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were obtained from the right gluteus maximus and hamstrings in 13 healthy male and 13 healthy female subjects. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) were collected to normalize data and permit meaningful comparisons across muscles. Peak median activation of the gluteus maximus was 33.8% MVIC for the bridge and 34.7% MVIC for the hip extension exercise, whereas peak median recruitment for hamstrings was 28.4% MVIC for the bridge and 51% MVIC for the hip extension exercise. The gluteus maximus to hamstrings ratio was compared between the two exercises using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (α = 0.05). The ratio (p = 0.014) was greater in the supine unilateral bridge (median = 111.3%) than supine hip extension exercise (median = 59.2%), suggesting a reduction of hamstring recruitment in the unilateral bridge to neutral compared to the supine resisted hip extension exercise. The supine hip extension exercise demonstrated higher EMG activity of hamstrings in comparison with supine unilateral bridge and, therefore, may be less appropriate in subjects who need to increase gluteus maximus activation.

  10. Periocular anterior adnexal anatomy and clinical adnexal examination of the adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael A; Isaza, Ramiro; Cuthbert, J Kelly; Brooks, Dennis E; Samuelson, Don A

    2012-12-01

    Formalin preserved ocular-associated anterior adnexa tissues from five necropsied Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were dissected with attention to the palpebrae, conjunctiva, nictitating membranes, nasolacrimal ducts, and periocular glandular tissues. Gross and histologic examination revealed that lacrimal and tarsal glands were not present. Evidence of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, including lacrimal punctae or any remnant of lacrimal sacs, was also absent. In contrast, well-developed sebaceous glands associated with accessory hairs along the palpebrae were exceptionally abundant. Mixed-secreting accessory lacrimal glands were noted in the deep stroma posterior to the tarsus of both palpebrae and the gland of the nictitating membrane. Apparently, the Asian elephant has developed a novel tear system in the absence of lacrimal and tarsal (meibomian) glands. Clinical examinations and bacterial cultures of the visible periocular tissues were performed on eight living adult Asian elephants to confirm the postmortem anatomic findings and provide guidance to the clinician during examination of the elephant conjunctiva.

  11. The first report of disease in a basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus).

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Baily, J L; Foster, G; Reid, R J; Barley, J

    2010-11-01

    Few diseases have been reported in any species of shark and none in the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) despite the latter being the subject of targeted hunting for over two centuries. This is the first report to describe the clinical signs and gross and microscopical pathology in a diseased basking shark that was live-stranded on the east coast of Scotland. Pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis was present together with multifocal, predominantly non-suppurative, myocarditis with myocyte necrosis, oedema and haemorrhage. Additionally, there was full thickness ulcerative and fibrinonecrotizing dermatitis with underlying granulomatous inflammation. The aetiology could not be determined, but the lesions were suggestive of an infectious process, possibly bacterial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  13. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sarad; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mikota, Susan K; Nakajima, Chie; Gairhe, Kamal P; Subedi, Suraj; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Matsuba, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants.

  14. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Arya, Nlin; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Cheewamongkolnimit, Nareerat; Keratikul, Nutcha; Poon-Iam, Sawinee; Routh, Andrew; Bumpenpol, Pitikarn; Angkawanish, Taweepoke

    2015-11-01

    Bone turnover markers could offer a potential alternative means for the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in young growing elephants although the baseline of bone turnover markers in elephant is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine any relationship between the age of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and markers of bone formation. Serum samples from 24 female Asian elephants were collected to evaluate levels of two bone formation markers, namely, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Both intact and N-terminal midfragment OC and BAP were negatively correlated with age. The findings demonstrate that younger elephants have a higher rate of bone turnover than older elephants. Use of these and additional bone markers could lead to the establishment of validated protocols for the monitoring of bone disease in elephants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DETECTION OF AEROSOLIZED BACTERIA IN EXPIRED AIR SAMPLES FROM ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Burke, Sophie M; Vogelnest, Larry; Thompson, Paul; Tovey, Euan R; Williamson, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Elephant-mediated transmission of tuberculosis is assumed to be similar to human models, which state close and prolonged contact with an infected individual is required for transmission. Although considered a risk factor for infection, several case studies have reported that close contact with an elephant is not always necessary for transmission, and the role of aerosolized bacteria remains unclear. To investigate aerosol-mediated transmission of pathogenic bacteria from elephants, a method for the detection of aerosols using an adapted sampling system was developed. A commensal bacterium was isolated from the upper respiratory tract of elephants ( Elephas maximus ) and was used as a proxy organism to detect aerosolized droplets in the sampling system. It was found that elephants are capable of producing aerosolized bacterial particles of a size small enough to remain airborne for prolonged periods and penetrate the lower regions of the human respiratory tract.

  16. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species.

  17. Redescription of Cetorhinicola acanthocapax Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus).

    PubMed

    Beveridge, I; Duffy, C

    2005-11-01

    Cetorhinicola acanthocapax Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 is redescribed based on adult specimens collected from a basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus) off the east coast of New Zealand. Both the mature and gravid segments are described for the first time, and the first scanning electron micrographs of the armature and scolex microtriches are provided. Novel features include the opening of the vagina anterior to the cirrus-sac and the extension of the vagina anterior to the cirrus-sac. Pectinate microtriches are present on the anterior quarter of the pars pedunculus scolecis scattered between filiform microtriches; the bothrial margins are covered with tridigitate microtriches, while the adherent surface of the bothria have pectinate microtriches. The additional morphological features described are consistent with a close association between Cetorhinicola Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 and the Eutetrarhynchoidea Guiart, 1927.

  18. Neutrophils of Scophthalmus maximus produce extracellular traps that capture bacteria and inhibit bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophils constitute an essential part of the innate immune system. Recently, neutrophils have been found to produce a complex extracellular structure called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In fish, a few studies on NETs production have been reported, however, the function of fish NETs is unknown. In this study, we examined the ability of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) neutrophils to produce NETs and investigated the effect of turbot NETs on bacterial infection. We found that upon lipopolysaccharides treatment, turbot head kidney neutrophils produced typical NETs structures that contained DNA and histones. Bacteria treatment also induced production of NETs, which in turn entrapped the bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial replication. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot, NETs-trapped bacteria exhibited significantly weakened ability of tissue dissemination and colonization. These results indicate for the first time that teleost NETs possess apparent antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Prenatal passive transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis.

  20. Low temperature stress on the hematological parameters and HSP gene expression in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liqin; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Han, Longjiang; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To study the effect of low temperature stress on hematological parameters and HSP gene expression in the turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), water temperature was lowered rapidly from 18 to 1°C. During the cooling process, three individuals were removed from culture tanks at 18, 13, 8, 5, 3, and 1°C. Blood samples and tissues were taken from each individual, hematological indices and HSP gene expression in tissues were measured. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) as temperature decreased. Enzyme activities of plasma alanine transaminase and creatine kinase increased as temperature decreased, whereas aspartic transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities displayed no obvious changes above 1°C and lactate dehydrogenase activity increased first and then decreased. Blood urea nitrogen and uric acid levels were highest at 8°C, and creatinine concentration was highest at 3°C. The concentrations of plasma cortisol, cholesterol, and triglyceride all increased significantly ( P < 0.05) as temperature decreased. The serum glucose concentration increased first and then decreased to the initial level. The HSP70 mRNA expression showed various patterns in different tissues, whereas HSP90 mRNA expression showed the same tendency in all tissues. Overall, these results indicate that temperature decreases in the range of 8 to 5°C may induce a stress response in S. maximus and that temperature should be kept above 8°C in the aquaculture setting to avoid damage to the fish.

  1. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin modulate mammary gland morphogenesis in adult female plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Halperin, Julia; Dorfman, Veronica B; Fraunhoffer, Nicolas; Vitullo, Alfredo D

    2013-06-01

    We studied for the first time the mammary gland morphogenesis and its hormonal modulation by immunolocalizing estradiol, progesterone and prolactin receptors (ER, PR and PRLR) in adult females of Lagostomus maximus, a caviomorph rodent which shows a pseudo-ovulatory process at mid-gestation. Mammary ductal system of non-pregnant females lacks expression of both ERα and ERβ. Yet throughout pregnancy, ERα and ERβ levels increase as well as the expression of PR. These increments are concomitant with ductal branching and alveolar differentiation. Even though mammary gland morphology is quite similar to that described for other rodents, alveolar proliferation and differentiation are accelerated towards the second half of pregnancy, once pseudo-ovulation had occurred. Moreover, this exponential growth correlates with an increment of both progesterone and estradiol serum-induced pseudo-ovulation. As expected, PR and PRLR are strongly expressed in the alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and lactation. Strikingly, PRLR is also present in ductal epithelia of cycling glands suggesting that prolactin function may not be restricted to its trophic effect on mammary glands of pregnant and lactating females, but it also regulates other physiological processes in mammary glands of non-pregnant animals. In conclusion, this report suggests that pseudo-ovulation at mid-gestation may be associated to L. maximus mammary gland growth and differentiation. The rise in P and E2-induced pseudo-ovulation as well as the increased expression of their receptors, all events that correlate with the development of a more elaborated and differentiated ductal network, pinpoint a possible relation between this peculiar physiological event and mammary gland morphogenesis.

  2. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  3. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    PubMed Central

    Lynsdale, Carly L.; Santos, Diogo J. Franco dos; Hayward, Adam D.; Mar, Khyne U.; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  4. Reproductive performance of the largest captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Pushpakumara, P G A; Rajapakse, R C; Perera, B M A O; Brown, J L

    2016-11-01

    The Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage (PEO) in Sri Lanka maintains one of the largest captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) populations in the world, with a total of 79 animals (45 females and 34 males) at present. It was established in 1975 as an orphanage for rescued wild calves, and commenced natural breeding under controlled conditions when they reached breeding age. This study summarizes reproductive data of 65 live births from 38 years of records at PEO. The age at first calving (n=31) was 14.6±0.7years, and the numbers of females giving birth two, three, four and five times were 21, 8, 4 and 2, with corresponding inter-birth intervals (IBI) of 4.9±0.3, 4.8±0.5, 7.9±1.9 and 5.7±0.5years, respectively. Females giving birth to males (5.7±2.2years) had longer IBIs compared to birthing female calves (4.7±1.1years). The average gestation for 18 pregnancies with known conception dates was 667±11days. The average birth weight was similar for male (83.1±4.6kg; n=14) and female (82.8±8.4kg; n=6) calves. Sex ratio for live births was 36 male:29 female and not different from 1:1; however, more males (10/14) were born after a second parity. Calf mortality and stillbirth rates were low: 7.6% and 4.4%, respectively. This study highlights the successful breeding program at the PEO, providing baseline reproductive data that can aid in improving breeding of other elephants managed under captive conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity towards elevated pCO2 in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) embryos and fed larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Sissel; Grefsrud, Ellen S.; Harboe, Torstein

    2017-02-01

    The increasing amount of dissolved anthropogenic CO2 has caused a drop in pH values in the open ocean known as ocean acidification. This change in seawater carbonate chemistry has been shown to have a negative effect on a number of marine organisms. Early life stages are the most vulnerable, and especially the organisms that produce calcified structures in the phylum Mollusca. Few studies have looked at effects on scallops, and this is the first study presented including fed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus) followed until day 14 post-fertilization. Fertilized eggs from unexposed parents were exposed to three levels of pCO2 using four replicate units: 465 (ambient), 768 and 1294 µatm, corresponding to pHNIST of 7.94, 7.75 (-0.19 units) and 7.54 (-0.40 units), respectively. All of the observed parameters were negatively affected by elevated pCO2: survival, larval development, shell growth and normal shell development. The latter was observed to be affected only 2 days after fertilization. Negative effects on the fed larvae at day 7 were similar to what was shown earlier for unfed P. maximus larvae. Growth rate in the group at 768 µatm seemed to decline after day 7, indicating that the ability to overcome the environmental change at moderately elevated pCO2 was lost over time. The present study shows that food availability does not decrease the sensitivity to elevated pCO2 in P. maximus larvae. Unless genetic adaptation and acclimatization counteract the negative effects of long term elevated pCO2, recruitment in populations of P. maximus will most likely be negatively affected by the projected drop of 0.06-0.32 units in pH within year 2100.

  6. Juvenile King Scallop, Pecten maximus, Is Potentially Tolerant to Low Levels of Ocean Acidification When Food Is Unrestricted

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Matthew Burton; Bean, Tim P.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Le Quesne, Will J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The decline in ocean water pH and changes in carbonate saturation states through anthropogenically mediated increases in atmospheric CO2 levels may pose a hazard to marine organisms. This may be particularly acute for those species reliant on calcareous structures like shells and exoskeletons. This is of particular concern in the case of valuable commercially exploited species such as the king scallop, Pecten maximus. In this study we investigated the effects on oxygen consumption, clearance rates and cellular turnover in juvenile P. maximus following 3 months laboratory exposure to four pCO2 treatments (290, 380, 750 and 1140 µatm). None of the exposure levels were found to have significant effect on the clearance rates, respiration rates, condition index or cellular turnover (RNA: DNA) of individuals. While it is clear that some life stages of marine bivalves appear susceptible to future levels of ocean acidification, particularly under food limiting conditions, the results from this study suggest that where food is in abundance, bivalves like juvenile P. maximus may display a tolerance to limited changes in seawater chemistry. PMID:24023928

  7. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant.

  8. A coupled biophysical model for the distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Clément; Lavaud, Romain; Cugier, Philippe; Jean, Fred; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Foucher, Eric; Desroy, Nicolas; Fifas, Spyros; Foveau, Aurélie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we used a modelling approach integrating both physical and biological constraints to understand the biogeographical distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel during its whole life cycle. A 3D bio-hydrodynamical model (ECO-MARS3D) providing environmental conditions was coupled to (i) a population dynamics model and (ii) an individual ecophysiological model (Dynamic Energy Budget model). We performed the coupling sequentially, which underlined the respective role of biological and physical factors in defining P. maximus distribution in the English Channel. Results show that larval dispersion by hydrodynamics explains most of the scallop distribution and enlighten the main known hotspots for the population, basically corresponding to the main fishing areas. The mechanistic description of individual bioenergetics shows that food availability and temperature control growth and reproduction and explain how populations may maintain themselves in particular locations. This last coupling leads to more realistic densities and distributions of adults in the English Channel. The results of this study improves our knowledge on the stock and distribution dynamics of P. maximus, and provides grounds for useful tools to support management strategies.

  9. Juvenile king scallop, Pecten maximus, is potentially tolerant to low levels of ocean acidification when food is unrestricted.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Matthew Burton; Bean, Tim P; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Le Quesne, Will J F

    2013-01-01

    The decline in ocean water pH and changes in carbonate saturation states through anthropogenically mediated increases in atmospheric CO2 levels may pose a hazard to marine organisms. This may be particularly acute for those species reliant on calcareous structures like shells and exoskeletons. This is of particular concern in the case of valuable commercially exploited species such as the king scallop, Pecten maximus. In this study we investigated the effects on oxygen consumption, clearance rates and cellular turnover in juvenile P. maximus following 3 months laboratory exposure to four pCO2 treatments (290, 380, 750 and 1140 µatm). None of the exposure levels were found to have significant effect on the clearance rates, respiration rates, condition index or cellular turnover (RNA: DNA) of individuals. While it is clear that some life stages of marine bivalves appear susceptible to future levels of ocean acidification, particularly under food limiting conditions, the results from this study suggest that where food is in abundance, bivalves like juvenile P. maximus may display a tolerance to limited changes in seawater chemistry.

  10. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from immune tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) challenged with pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Belén G; Fernández, Carlos; Millán, Adrián; Bouza, Carmen; Vázquez-López, Araceli; Vera, Manuel; Alvarez-Dios, José A; Calaza, Manuel; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Vázquez, María; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Magariños, Beatriz; Lemos, Manuel L; Leiro, José M; Martínez, Paulino

    2008-01-01

    Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Scophthalmidae; Pleuronectiformes) is a flatfish species of great relevance for marine aquaculture in Europe. In contrast to other cultured flatfish, very few genomic resources are available in this species. Aeromonas salmonicida and Philasterides dicentrarchi are two pathogens that affect turbot culture causing serious economic losses to the turbot industry. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms for disease resistance and host-pathogen interactions in this species. In this work, thousands of ESTs for functional genomic studies and potential markers linked to ESTs for mapping (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) are provided. This information enabled us to obtain a preliminary view of regulated genes in response to these pathogens and it constitutes the basis for subsequent and more accurate microarray analysis. Results A total of 12584 cDNAs partially sequenced from three different cDNA libraries of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, Philasterides dicentrarchi and from healthy fish were analyzed. Three immune-relevant tissues (liver, spleen and head kidney) were sampled at several time points in the infection process for library construction. The sequences were processed into 9256 high-quality sequences, which constituted the source for the turbot EST database. Clustering and assembly of these sequences, revealed 3482 different putative transcripts, 1073 contigs and 2409 singletons. BLAST searches with public databases detected significant similarity (e-value ≤ 1e-5) in 1766 (50.7%) sequences and 816 of them (23.4%) could be functionally annotated. Two hundred three of these genes (24.9%), encoding for defence/immune-related proteins, were mostly identified for the first time in turbot. Some ESTs showed significant differences in the number of transcripts when comparing the three libraries, suggesting regulation in response to these pathogens. A total of

  11. Application of split gluteus maximus muscle--adipofascial turnover flap and subcutaneous tension-reducing suture technique in repair of decubitus ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weizhong; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Zuojun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the clinical effect of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Thirty-one cases of sacrococcygeal decubitus ulcers were repaired by split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap. The surface of flaps ranged from 5×6 cm to 7×8 cm. The skin was then closed, primarily using subcutaneous tension-reducing suture. Eighty-eight percent of the flaps (27 of 31) healed primarily. The split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture technique was found to be a highly efficient method of repairing decubitus ulcers with a relatively low ratio of recurrence.

  12. Anti-predator adaptations in a great scallop (Pecten maximus) - a palaeontological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof Roman; Szopa, Krzysztof; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Shelly fauna was exposed to increased pressure exerted by shell-crushing durophagous predators during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution that was initiated in the Triassic. As a result of evolutionary `arms race', prey animals such as bivalves, developed many adaptations to reduce predation pressure (e.g. they changed lifestyle and shell morphology in order to increase their mechanical strength). For instance, it was suggested that Pectinidae had acquired the ability to actively swim to avoid predator attack during the early Mesozoic. However, pectinids are also know to have a specific shell microstructure that may effectively protect them against predators. For instance, we highlight that the shells of some recent pectinid species (e.g. Pecten maximus) that display cross-lamellar structures in the middle part playing a significant role in the energy dissipation, improve the mechanical strength. In contrast, the outer layers of these bivalves are highly porous, which allow them to swim more efficiently by reducing the shell weight. Pectinids are thus perfect examples of animals optimising their skeletons for several functions. We suggest that such an optimisation of their skeletons for multiple functions likely occurred as a results of increased predation pressure during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  13. Dietary gossypol suppressed postprandial TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Bian, Fuyun; Jiang, Haowen; Man, Mingsan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Gossypol is known to be a polyphenolic compound toxic to animals. However, its molecular targets are far from fully characterized. To evaluate the physiological and molecular effects of gossypol, we chose turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish, as our model species. Juvenile turbots (7.83 ± 0.02 g) were fed diets containing gradient levels of gossypol at 0 (G0), 600 (G1), and 1,200 (G2) mg/kg diets for 11 wk. After the feeding trial, fish growth, body protein, and fat contents were significantly reduced in the G2 group compared with those of the G0 group (P < 0.05). Gossypol had little impact on digestive enzyme activities and intestine morphology. However, gossypol caused liver fibrosis and stimulated chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine secretions. More importantly, gossypol suppressed target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in both the feeding experiment and cell cultures. Our results demonstrated that gossypol inhibited TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways both in vivo and in vitro, thus providing new mechanism of action of gossypol in nutritional physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) vs. VHSV (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus): A Review.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a very valuable fish species both in Europe and China. The culture of this flatfish is well-established but several bacteria, viruses, and parasites can produce mortality or morbidity episodes in turbot farms. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting turbot, because neither vaccines nor treatments are commercially available. Although the mortality in the turbot farms is relatively low, when this virus is detected all the stock have to be destroyed. The main goals that need to be improved in order to reduce the incidence of this disease is to know what are the strategies or molecules the host use to fight the virus and, in consequence, try to potentiate this response using different ways. Certain molecules can be selected as potential antiviral treatments because of their high protective effect against VHSV. On the other hand, the use of resistance markers for selective breeding is one of the most attractive approaches. This review englobes all the investigation concerning the immune interaction between turbot and VHSV, which until the last years was very scarce, and the knowledge about VHSV-resistance markers in turbot. Nowadays, the availability of abundant transcriptomic information and the recent sequencing of the turbot genome open the door to a more exhaustive and profuse investigation in these areas.

  15. Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.

  16. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  17. Demonstrating coprophagy with passage markers? The example of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Besselmann, Dorothea; Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2007-06-01

    Coprophagy, or the ingestion of a certain fraction of the faeces, is a well-known strategy of small herbivores. However, the question of whether a particular species actually uses this cryptic strategy or not is not easily answered experimentally. In this study we introduce the use of ingesta passage markers as a tool to verify coprophagy in species where individual observation might be difficult. In two captive adult plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus), we demonstrate recurrent excretion peaks for both a fluid (cobald-EDTA) and a particle (chromium-mordanted fibre) marker, the most parsimonious explanation for which is faeces re-ingestion. In addition, a literature review of graphical presentations of passage marker excretion revealed such recurrent marker peaks in a large number of studies; however, these observations were rarely explicitly contributed to a coprophagic digestion strategy. The widespread use of semi-logarithmic plots or cumulative marker excretion curves in displaying passage studies makes recurrent marker excretion peaks less evident. We conclude that passage markers offer a comparatively easy way of assessing the incidence of coprophagy. Due to the reported absence of coprophagy in rabbits, a species well-known for using this strategy, on high-protein, low-fibre diets, it is recommended that investigations of the occurrence of coprophagy should be made with animals fed challenging, high-fibre diets.

  18. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-12-01

    A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

  19. Anatomy and biomechanics of gluteus maximus and the thoracolumbar fascia at the sacroiliac joint.

    PubMed

    Barker, P J; Hapuarachchi, K S; Ross, J A; Sambaiew, E; Ranger, T A; Briggs, C A

    2014-03-01

    Biomechanical models predict that recruitment of gluteus maximus (GMax) will exert a compressive force across the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), yet this muscle requires morphologic assessment. The aims of this study were to document GMax's proximal attachments and assess their capacity to generate forces including compressive force at the SIJ. In 11 embalmed cadaver limbs, attachments of GMax crossing the SIJ were dissected and their fascicle orientation, length and attachment volume documented. The physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of each attachment was calculated along with its estimated maximum force at the SIJ and lumbar spine. GMax fascicles originated from the gluteus medius fascia, ilium, thoracolumbar fascia, erector spinae aponeurosis, sacrum, coccyx, dorsal sacroiliac and sacrotuberous ligaments in all specimens. Their mean fascicle orientation ranged from 32 to 45° below horizontal and mean length from 11 to 18 cm. The mean total PCSA of GMax was 26 cm(2) (range 16-36), of which 70% crossed the SIJ. The average maximum force predicted to be generated by GMax's total attachments crossing each SIJ was 891 N (range 572-1,215), of which 70% (702 N: range 450-1,009) could act perpendicular to the plane of the SIJ. The capacity of GMax to generate an extensor moment at lower lumbar segments was estimated at 4 Nm (range 2-9.5). GMax may generate compressive forces at the SIJ through its bony and fibrous attachments. These may assist effective load transfer between lower limbs and trunk. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Identification and characterization of pathogen to bacterial septicaemia in cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guomin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Cuizhen; Fang, Hai; Zhan, Wenbin

    2007-10-01

    Bacteria-infected turbots Scophthalmus maximus with septicaemia were examined between 2001 and 2004 in aspects of the conditions of disease occurrence, clinical syndromes and pathological changes. The phenotypic information of pathogenic bacteria was studied, including morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the mol% G+C of the DNA. In addition, representative strains (S010623-1, LH031120-1) were selected for molecular identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results show that the isolates (LH031120-1 to LH031120-6, HT040308-1 to HT040308-6, HT040620-1 to HT040620-6) from three farms were identified as Edwardsiella tarda. The isolates (S010610-1 to S010610-10, S010623-1 to S010623-20) from one farm were identified as Listonella anguillarum. We conducted studies on the pathogenicity of isolates by artificial infection, and revealed all infected groups in morbidity and mortality. The septicaemia infected turbot showed a syndrome similar to that of the naturally infected fish. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that of 37 antimicrobial agents, E. tarda was sensitive to 27 agents, and L. anguillarum was sensitive to 21 agents.

  1. Serum osmolality and effects of water deprivation in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Natalie H.; Isaza, Ramiro; Hall, James S.; Wiedner, Ellen; Conrad, Bettina L.; Wamsley, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Serum from 21 healthy, captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) was evaluated by measured and calculated osmolality. Serum osmolality results for this population of Asian elephants had a median of 261 mOsm/kg and an interquartile interval of 258–269 mOsm/kg when measured by freezing point osmometry and a median of 264 mOsm/kg and an interquartile interval of 257–269 mOsm/kg when measured by vapor pressure osmometry. These values are significantly lower than values reported in other mammalian species and have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Calculated osmolality produced unreliable results and needs further study to determine an appropriate formula and its clinical application in this species. A 16-hr water deprivation test in 16 Asian elephants induced a small, subclinical, but statistically significant increase in measured serum osmolality. Serum osmolality, blood urea nitrogen, and total protein by refractometer were sensitive indicators of hydration status. Serum osmolality measurement by freezing point or vapor pressure osmometry is a useful adjunct to routine clinical tests in the diagnostic evaluation of elephants. PMID:22643341

  2. Molecular identification of the strongyloid nematode Oesophagostomum aculeatum in the Asian wild elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, O; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Yindee, M; Kosoltanapiwat, N; Nuamtanong, S; Ponlawat, A; Adisakwattana, P

    2016-07-01

    The transmission of zoonoses by wildlife, including elephants, is a growing global concern. In this study, we screened for helminth infections among Asian wild elephants (Elephas maximus) of the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Elephant faecal samples (45) were collected from the sanctuary grounds during January through November 2013 and assayed individually using the tetranucleotide microsatellite technique. Microscopic examination indicated a high prevalence of strongylids (93.0%) and low prevalences of trichurids (2.3%) and ascarids (2.3%). To identify the strongylid species, small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were amplified from copro-DNA and compared with sequences in GenBank. The generated SSU-rDNA sequences comprised five distinct haplotypes that were closely related to Oesophagostomum aculeatum. A phylogenetic analysis that incorporated related nematodes yielded a tree separated into two main clades, one containing our samples and human and domestic animal hookworms and the other consisting of Strongyloides. The present results indicate that O. aculeatum in local elephants is a potential source of helminthiasis in human and domestic animals in this wild-elephant irrupted area.

  3. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  4. Variation in Size and Growth of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus along a Latitudinal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chauvaud, Laurent; Patry, Yann; Jolivet, Aurélie; Cam, Emmanuelle; Le Goff, Clement; Strand, Øivind; Charrier, Grégory; Thébault, Julien; Lazure, Pascal; Gotthard, Karl; Clavier, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate. PMID:22649553

  5. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Josefin; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperate in an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioning procedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodal stimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odor stimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of recess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in tests of odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method for assessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodal stimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats, and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion that Asian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Sinphithakkul, P; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Giorgi, M; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) trihydrate in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, following intramuscular administration at two dosages of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected from 0.5 up to 72 h. The concentration of AMX in elephant plasma was measured using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AMX was measurable up to 24 h after administration at two dosages. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 1.20 ± 0.39 μg/mL after i.m. administration at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas it was 3.40 ± 0.63 μg/mL at a dosage of 11 mg/kg b.w. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the disposition of AMX in Asian elephants. Based on the preliminary findings found in this research, the dosage of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg b.w. produced drug plasma concentrations higher than 0.25 mg/mL for 24 h after i.m. administration. Thereafter, i.m. administration with AMX at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w. appeared a more suitable dose than 11 mg/kg b.w. However, more studies are needed to determine AMX clinical effectiveness in elephants.

  7. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microvascular responses to body tilt in cutaneous maximus muscle of conscious rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Rohit K.; Segal, Steven S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated microvascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) and head-down tilt (HDT) in striated muscle of conscious male rats. To observe the microcirculation in the cutaneous maximus muscle, a transparent polycarbonate chamber was implanted aseptically into a skin fold created between the shoulders. Rats were trained to sit quietly during HUT and HDT while positioned on a horizontal microscope that rotated in the sagittal plane. At 4-5 days after surgery, arteriole and venule diameters were recorded using videomicroscopy while the rat experienced 10 min each (in random order) of HUT or HDT at 20 deg or 40 deg separated by 2-h rest periods. HUT had no affect on microvessel diameter; 20 deg HDT had little affect. In response to 40 deg HDT, 'large' arterioles constricted by 18 +/- 2% and 'small' arterioles dilated by 21 +/- 3%; this difference suggested variation in mechanisms controlling arteriolar responses. Venules exhibited a larger fluctuation in diameter during 40 deg HDT compared with other body positions, suggesting that venomotor activity may be induced with sufficient fluid shift or change in central venous pressure. These observations illustrate a viable model for studying microvascular responses to gravitational stress in conscious rats.

  9. Identification of the Major Sex-Determining Region of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén; Millán, Adrián; Fernández, Carlos; Vilas, Román; Viñas, Ana; Sánchez, Laura; Felip, Alicia; Piferrer, Francesc; Ferreiro, Isabel; Cabaleiro, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in fish is a labile character in evolutionary terms. The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. This group is an interesting model for studying the evolution of the SD region and the gonadal differentiation pathway. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish of great commercial value, where a strong sexual dimorphism exists for growth rate. Following a QTL and marker association approach in five families and a natural population, we identified the main SD region of turbot at the proximal end of linkage group (LG) 5, close to the SmaUSC-E30 marker. The refined map of this region suggested that this marker would be 2.6 cM and 1.4 Mb from the putative SD gene. This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. Comparative genomics of LG5 marker sequences against five model species showed no similarity of this chromosome to the sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and fugu, but suggested a similarity to a sex-associated QTL from Oreochromis spp. The segregation analysis of the closest markers to the SD region demonstrated a ZW/ZZ model of sex determination in turbot. A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. PMID:19786621

  10. A genome scan for candidate genes involved in the adaptation of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Vilas, Román; Vandamme, Sara G; Vera, Manuel; Bouza, Carmen; Maes, Gregory E; Volckaert, Filip A M; Martínez, Paulino

    2015-10-01

    Partitioning phenotypic variance in genotypic and environmental variance may benefit from the population genomic assignment of genes putatively involved in adaptation. We analyzed a total of 256 markers (120 microsatellites and 136 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms - SNPs), several of them associated to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for growth and resistance to pathologies, with the aim to identify potential adaptive variation in turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. The study area in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, from Iberian Peninsula to the Baltic Sea, involves a gradual change in temperature and an abrupt change in salinity conditions. We detected 27 candidate loci putatively under selection. At least four of the five SNPs identified as outliers are located within genes coding for ribosomal proteins or directly related with the production of cellular proteins. One of the detected outliers, previously identified as part of a QTL for growth, is a microsatellite linked to a gene coding for a growth factor receptor. A similar set of outliers was detected when natural populations were compared with a sample subjected to strong artificial selection for growth along four generations. The observed association between FST outliers and growth-related QTL supports the hypothesis of changes in growth as an adaptation to differences in temperature and salinity conditions. However, further work is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  11. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.

  12. Anterior ocular abnormalities of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kraiwong, Natapong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Diskul, Phiphatanachatr; Charoenphan, Patara; Pintawong, Weerasak; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2016-07-01

    To survey and classify anterior ocular abnormalities in 1478 captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) in six regions of Thailand. Anterior ocular examination was performed in both eyes (n = 2956) of 1478 elephants selected from the annual health check program involving 2958 animals within six regions of Thailand from January to November 2013. Lesions were described and compared between age and gender. A total of 17.83% (527/2956) of examined eyes from 24.97% (369/1478) of examined elephants had anterior ocular abnormalities. The most common lesions in these examined eyes were frothy ocular discharge (5.85%), corneal edema (5.31%), and conjunctivitis (5.18%). In addition, epiphora, phthisis bulbi, other corneal abnormalities, anterior uveitis, and lens abnormalities were noted. Almost all lesions increased in frequency with age (P < 0.01). Regular ophthalmic examination in elephants should be included in their annual health check program. Early detection and treatment of any ocular abnormality may avoid the development of subsequent irreversible ocular pathology. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Zachariah, Arun; Kalaivannan, N; Ling, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world.

  14. PROPOSED SIMPLE METHOD FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM RECORDING IN FREE-RANGING ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Bouvard, Jonathan; Sillero, Leonor Camacho; Huynh, Minh; Segalini, Vincent; Point, Lisa; Croce, Veronica; Rigaux, Goulven; Highwood, Jack; Chetboul, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography represents a relevant diagnostic tool for detecting cardiac disease in animals. Elephants can present various congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases. However, few electrophysiologic studies have been reported in captive elephants, mainly due to challenging technical difficulties in obtaining good-quality electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings, and no data are currently available for free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The purpose of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a simple method for recording ECG tracings in wild, apparently healthy, unsedated Asian elephants (n = 7) in the standing position. Successful six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were obtained, with the aVL lead providing the best-quality tracings in most animals. Variables measured in the aVL lead included heart rate, amplitudes and duration of the P waves, QRS complexes, T and U waves, and duration of the PR, QT, and QU intervals. A negative deflection following positive P waves, representative of an atrial repolarization wave (Ta wave), was observed for five out of the seven elephants.

  15. Digestive enzyme activities of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) during early developmental stages under culture condition.

    PubMed

    Tong, X H; Xu, S H; Liu, Q H; Li, J; Xiao, Z Z; Ma, D Y

    2012-06-01

    Digestive enzyme activities were analysed in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from hatching until 60 days after hatching (DAH). Trypsin sharply increased to the climax at 17 DAH and decreased until 31 DAH followed by a stable level thereafter. Amylase was determined at 4 DAH, reached the maximum value at 19 DAH and declined sharply to 39 DAH and remained at a low level thereafter, suggesting the carbohydrate component should remain at a low level in formulated diets. Pepsin was detected at 9 DAH and increased to 34 DAH and then remained at a stable level. The above results revealed pancreatic enzymes are no longer main enzymes for food digestion after the formation of functional stomach. Leucine-alanine peptidase (Leu-ala) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and leucine aminopeptidase N (LAP) were found in newly hatched larvae. Both AP and LAP activities markedly increased to 23 DAH, decreased abruptly to 50 DAH and increased gradually to 60 DAH. Leu-ala reached the plateau from 23 to 39 DAH, followed by a decline to 46 DAH and an increase until 60 DAH. The brush border membrane (BBM)-bound enzyme activities increased from 30% at 31 DAH to 81% at 38 DAH of the total activities, indicating the maturation of intestinal tract.

  16. Branchial structure and hydromineral equilibrium in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to heavy fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Goanvec, Christelle; Poirier, Elisabeth; Le-Floch, Stéphane; Theron, Michaël

    2011-09-01

    This study is an attempt to go further in the comprehension of the effects of heavy fuel oil in the context of an accidental oil spill at sea. It focuses on the link between morphological and functional impacts of realistic doses of the dissolved fraction of a heavy fuel oil on fish gills. Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus were exposed to the dissolved fraction of a heavy fuel oil for 5 days and then placed 30 days in clean sea water for recovery. During the contamination period, the concentration of the 16 US EPA priority poly-aromatic hydrocarbons showed small variations around a mean value of 321.0 ± 9.1 ng l⁻¹ (mean ± SEM). The contamination induced a 64% increase in hepatic cytochrome P 450 1A (Western blot analysis). Osmolality, [Na⁺] and [Cl⁻] rapidly and significantly increased (by 14, 23 and 28% respectively) and slowly decreased to normal levels during the recovery period. At the same time, branchial histology showed decreases in the number of mucocytes (by 30%) and of chloride cells (by 95%) in the interlamellar epithelium. Therefore, it is suggested that the osmotic imbalance observed after the 5 days of exposure to the dissolved fraction of the heavy fuel oil is the consequence of the structural alteration of the gills i.e, the strong reduction of ionocyte numbers.

  17. Cloning and early expression pattern of two melatonin biosynthesis enzymes in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, Robin; Boeuf, Gilles; Fuentes, Michael; Gehring, Walter J; Falcón, Jack

    2007-05-01

    Melatonin biosynthesis from serotonin involves the sequential activation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Photoperiod synchronizes a daily rhythm in pineal and retinal melatonin secretion through controlling AANAT activity. Teleost fish possess two Aanat, one expressed in the retina (AANAT1) and the other expressed in the pineal gland (AANAT2). We report here the full-length cloning of Aanat1, Aanat2, SmHiomt and Otx5 (orthodenticle homeobox homolog 5) in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, Sm), a flatfish belonging to an evolutionary recent group of Teleost. The temporal expression pattern of the genes investigated is consistent with the idea that OTX5 is needed for photoreceptor specification, and that the pineal gland differentiates before the retina. SmAanat2 expression remained pineal specific during the period of time investigated, whereas SmOtx5 and SmHiomt expressions were seen in both the retina and pineal gland. Our results do not support the existence of a second SmHiomt, as is the case for SmAanat. Neither SmAanat2 nor SmHiomt mRNAs displayed cyclic accumulation in the pineal organ of embryos and larvae maintained under a light-dark cycle from fertilization onward. This is in marked contrast with the situation observed with zebrafish Aanat2, indicating that the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the pineal melatonin system have been modified during the evolution of Teleost.

  18. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  19. Microvascular responses to body tilt in cutaneous maximus muscle of conscious rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Rohit K.; Segal, Steven S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated microvascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) and head-down tilt (HDT) in striated muscle of conscious male rats. To observe the microcirculation in the cutaneous maximus muscle, a transparent polycarbonate chamber was implanted aseptically into a skin fold created between the shoulders. Rats were trained to sit quietly during HUT and HDT while positioned on a horizontal microscope that rotated in the sagittal plane. At 4-5 days after surgery, arteriole and venule diameters were recorded using videomicroscopy while the rat experienced 10 min each (in random order) of HUT or HDT at 20 deg or 40 deg separated by 2-h rest periods. HUT had no affect on microvessel diameter; 20 deg HDT had little affect. In response to 40 deg HDT, 'large' arterioles constricted by 18 +/- 2% and 'small' arterioles dilated by 21 +/- 3%; this difference suggested variation in mechanisms controlling arteriolar responses. Venules exhibited a larger fluctuation in diameter during 40 deg HDT compared with other body positions, suggesting that venomotor activity may be induced with sufficient fluid shift or change in central venous pressure. These observations illustrate a viable model for studying microvascular responses to gravitational stress in conscious rats.

  20. Elephant (Elephas maximus) Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David; Jackson, Bradford; Riddle, Heidi S.; Stremme, Christopher; Miller, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey's results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants. PMID:25688328

  1. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  2. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) vs. VHSV (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a very valuable fish species both in Europe and China. The culture of this flatfish is well-established but several bacteria, viruses, and parasites can produce mortality or morbidity episodes in turbot farms. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting turbot, because neither vaccines nor treatments are commercially available. Although the mortality in the turbot farms is relatively low, when this virus is detected all the stock have to be destroyed. The main goals that need to be improved in order to reduce the incidence of this disease is to know what are the strategies or molecules the host use to fight the virus and, in consequence, try to potentiate this response using different ways. Certain molecules can be selected as potential antiviral treatments because of their high protective effect against VHSV. On the other hand, the use of resistance markers for selective breeding is one of the most attractive approaches. This review englobes all the investigation concerning the immune interaction between turbot and VHSV, which until the last years was very scarce, and the knowledge about VHSV-resistance markers in turbot. Nowadays, the availability of abundant transcriptomic information and the recent sequencing of the turbot genome open the door to a more exhaustive and profuse investigation in these areas. PMID:27303308

  3. An analysis of peak pelvis rotation speed, gluteus maximus and medius strength in high versus low handicap golfers during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Sarahann; Glaws, Kate; Mitchell, Melissa; Scerbo, Heather; Voight, Michael; Sells, Pat

    2012-06-01

    The kinematic sequence of the golf swing is an established principle that occurs in a proximal-to-distal pattern with power generation beginning with rotation of the pelvis. Few studies have correlated the influence of peak pelvis rotation to the skill level of the golfer. Furthermore, minimal research exists on the strength of the gluteal musculature and their ability to generate power during the swing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and a golfer's handicap. 56 healthy subjects. Each subject was assessed using a hand-held dynamometry device per standardized protocol to determine gluteus maximus and medius strength. The K-vest was placed on the subject with electromagnetic sensors at the pelvis, upper torso, and gloved lead hand to measure the rotational speed at each segment in degrees/second. After K-vest calibration and 5 practice swings, each subject hit 5 golf balls during which time, the sensors measured pelvic rotation speed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the relationships between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and golf handicap. A significant difference was found between the following dependent variables and golf handicap: peak pelvis rotation (p=0.000), gluteus medius strength (p=0.000), and gluteus maximus strength (p=0.000). Golfers with a low handicap are more likely to have increased pelvis rotation speed as well as increased gluteus maximus and medius strength when compared to high handicap golfers. The relationships between increased peak pelvis rotation and gluteus maximus and medius strength in low handicap golfers may have implications in designing golf training programs. Further research needs to be conducted in order to further explore these relationships.

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF PEAK PELVIS ROTATION SPEED, GLUTEUS MAXIMUS AND MEDIUS STRENGTH IN HIGH VERSUS LOW HANDICAP GOLFERS DURING THE GOLF SWING

    PubMed Central

    Glaws, Kate; Mitchell, Melissa; Scerbo, Heather; Voight, Michael; Sells, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Hypothesis: The kinematic sequence of the golf swing is an established principle that occurs in a proximal-to-distal pattern with power generation beginning with rotation of the pelvis. Few studies have correlated the influence of peak pelvis rotation to the skill level of the golfer. Furthermore, minimal research exists on the strength of the gluteal musculature and their ability to generate power during the swing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and a golfer's handicap. Subjects: 56 healthy subjects. Material/Methods: Each subject was assessed using a hand-held dynamometry device per standardized protocol to determine gluteus maximus and medius strength. The K-vest was placed on the subject with electromagnetic sensors at the pelvis, upper torso, and gloved lead hand to measure the rotational speed at each segment in degrees/second. After K-vest calibration and 5 practice swings, each subject hit 5 golf balls during which time, the sensors measured pelvic rotation speed. Results: A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the relationships between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and golf handicap. A significant difference was found between the following dependent variables and golf handicap: peak pelvis rotation (p=0.000), gluteus medius strength (p=0.000), and gluteus maximus strength (p=0.000). Conclusion: Golfers with a low handicap are more likely to have increased pelvis rotation speed as well as increased gluteus maximus and medius strength when compared to high handicap golfers. Clinical Relevance: The relationships between increased peak pelvis rotation and gluteus maximus and medius strength in low handicap golfers may have implications in designing golf training programs. Further research needs to be conducted in order to further explore these relationships. PMID:22666643

  5. High-Throughput Sequence Analysis of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Transcriptome Using 454-Pyrosequencing for the Discovery of Antiviral Immune Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, Patricia; Balseiro, Pablo; Romero, Alejandro; Dios, Sonia; Forn-Cuni, Gabriel; Fuste, Berta; Planas, Josep V.; Beltran, Sergi; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is an important aquacultural resource both in Europe and Asia. However, there is little information on gene sequences available in public databases. Currently, one of the main problems affecting the culture of this flatfish is mortality due to several pathogens, especially viral diseases which are not treatable. In order to identify new genes involved in immune defense, we conducted 454-pyrosequencing of the turbot transcriptome after different immune stimulations. Methodology/Principal Findings Turbot were injected with viral stimuli to increase the expression level of immune-related genes. High-throughput deep sequencing using 454-pyrosequencing technology yielded 915,256 high-quality reads. These sequences were assembled into 55,404 contigs that were subjected to annotation steps. Intriguingly, 55.16% of the deduced protein was not significantly similar to any sequences in the databases used for the annotation and only 0.85% of the BLASTx top-hits matched S. maximus protein sequences. This relatively low level of annotation is possibly due to the limited information for this specie and other flatfish in the database. These results suggest the identification of a large number of new genes in turbot and in fish in general. A more detailed analysis showed the presence of putative members of several innate and specific immune pathways. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this study is the first transcriptome analysis using 454-pyrosequencing for turbot. Previously, there were only 12,471 EST and less of 1,500 nucleotide sequences for S. maximus in NCBI database. Our results provide a rich source of data (55,404 contigs and 181,845 singletons) for discovering and identifying new genes, which will serve as a basis for microarray construction, gene expression characterization and for identification of genetic markers to be used in several applications. Immune stimulation in turbot was very effective, obtaining an

  6. [Insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped for the treatment of severe gluteal muscle contracture].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-shi; Yang, Xiao-long

    2015-06-01

    To investigate clinical curative effects of gluteal muscle contracture release combined with insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped in treating severe gluteal muscles contracture. From 2006 May to 2011 May, 20 patients (35 sides) with severe gluteal muscle contracture were collected, including 12 males and 8 females, aged from 8 to 34 years old with an average of 13 years old; the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 21 years. All patients manifested abnormal gait at different degree, knees close together cannot squat,positive syndrome of Ober, positive test of alice leg. Gluteus contracture fascia release were performed firstly in operation, then insertion of tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped were carried out. Preoperative and postoperative gait, and knee flexion hip extensor squat test, cross leg test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint, stretch strength and motor ability after hip abduction were observed and compared. Twenty patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years. Gluteus maximus were released thoroughly, and snapping hip was disappeared, Ober syndrome were negative. There was significant differences in knee flexion hip extensor squat test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint,stretch before and after operation (P<0.01). Gluteus muscle strength was protected,stretch strength and motor ability of hip joint were recovered well. Among them,31 cases got excellent results and 4 good. For severe gluteal muscles contracture,insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped performed after gluteus contracture fascia release could release gluteal muscle contracture to the greatest extent and obtain postoperative curative effect without resection of normal hip muscle fibers and destroy joint capsule.

  7. Variation in the immunoglobulin levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) after vaccination with Streptococcus iniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Liu, Hongming; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2009-09-01

    A pathogenic bacterium (S636), identified as Streptococcus iniae, was isolated from turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in 2005. We immunized turbot with formalin-killed S. iniae four times (on days 1, 14, 21, and 28) by intraperitoneal inoculation. After each vaccination, we obtained serum samples and isolated the lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, spleen, pronephros, and mesonephros. We measured surface Ig-positive (sIg+) lymphocytes and serum antibody levels from these organs using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively, using monoclonal antibodies against turbot immunoglobulin. We confirmed that the antibody reacted with both the surface and plasma Ig by confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. The percentage of sIg+ in the lymphocytes increased following each successive vaccination. The mean percentage increased from 31.96% (control) to 37.49%, 38.36%, 42.9%, and 51.63% in the peripheral blood; from 27.09% to 36.63%, 36.81%, 39.28%, and 46.0% in the spleen; from 22.2% to 28.99%, 29.21%, 32.83%, and 41.58% in pronephros; and from 18.12% to 22.17%, 22.45%, 25.69%, and 31.68% in the mesonephros. The ELISA results were consistent with these results. Both the total and specific antibody levels increased with each vaccination. The mean OD value of the specific antibody assay increased from 0.094, to 0.269, 0.283, 0.333, and 0.421; for total antibody the mean OD value increased from 0.133, to 0.292, 0.323, 0.413, and 0.527.

  8. Transcriptome profiles associated to VHSV infection or DNA vaccination in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Pereiro, Patricia; Dios, Sonia; Boltaña, Sebastián; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Mackenzie, Simon; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding the viral G glycoprotein show the most successful protection capability against fish rhabdoviruses. Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective response remain still poorly understood. With the aim of shedding light on the protection conferred by the DNA vaccines based in the G glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) we have used a specific microarray highly enriched in antiviral sequences to carry out the transcriptomic study associated to VHSV DNA vaccination/infection. The differential gene expression pattern in response to empty plasmid (pMCV1.4) and DNA vaccine (pMCV1.4-G860) intramuscular administration with regard to non-stimulated turbot was analyzed in head kidney at 8, 24 and 72 hours post-vaccination. Moreover, the effect of VHSV infection one month after immunization was also analyzed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish at the same time points. Genes implicated in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, IFN inducible/regulatory proteins, numerous sequences implicated in apoptosis and cytotoxic pathways, MHC class I antigens, as well as complement and coagulation cascades among others were analyzed in the different experimental groups. Fish receiving the pMCV1.4-G860 vaccine showed transcriptomic patterns very different to the ones observed in pMCV1.4-injected turbot after 72 h. On the other hand, VHSV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated turbot induced a highly different response at the transcriptome level, indicating a very relevant role of the acquired immunity in vaccinated fish able to alter the typical innate immune response profile observed in non-vaccinated individuals. This exhaustive transcriptome study will serve as a complete overview for a better understanding of the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune response in fish after viral infection/vaccination. Moreover, it provides interesting clues about molecules with a potential

  9. Digestive physiology of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus): A large herbivorous hystricomorph rodent.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Katharina B; Besselmann, Dorothea; Cyrus-Eulenberger, Ulrike; Vendl, Catharina; Ortmann, Sylvia; Zingg, Robert; Kienzle, Ellen; Kreuzer, Michael; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) are large South American, fossorial rodents susceptible to diabetic cataracts. Various aspects of their digestive physiology were studied in three different experiments with nine male and seven female adult animals and six different diets (total n of feeding trials = 35). Viscachas achieved mean retention times of 23–31 hr, which is of a magnitude also recorded in horses; these did not differ for solute or small particle (<2 mm) markers. Secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagy, and were rarer on high-protein as compared to grass hay-only diets. Mean resting metabolic rate was, at 229 kJ/kg0.75/day, lower than expected for a mammal of this size. Digestible energy requirement for maintenance was 445 kJ/kg0.75/day. At 1.6–2.7 L/day, viscachas produced more methane than expected for a hindgut fermenter of their size. On diets that included concentrate feeds, viscachas excreted glucose in their urine, corroborating reports on the susceptibility of this species for diabetes when kept on energy-dense food. Viscachas had a similar apparent digestibility of protein, lipids, and macrominerals as other rodents, rabbits, or domestic horses. This suggests that whether or not a species practices coprophagy does not have a major influence on these measures. Viscachas resemble other hindgut fermenters in their high apparent calcium digestibility. With respect to a digestibility-reducing effect of dietary fiber, viscachas differed from rabbits and guinea pigs but were similar to horses, suggesting that small body size needs not necessarily be linked to lower digestive efficiency on high-fiber diets.

  10. Effects of Enteromyxum scophthalmi experimental infection on the neuroendocrine system of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.).

    PubMed

    Losada, A P; Bermúdez, R; Faílde, L D; Di Giancamillo, A; Domeneghini, C; Quiroga, M I

    2014-10-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi is an intestinal myxosporean parasite responsible for serious outbreaks in turbot Scophthalmus maximus (L.) culture, in North-western Spain. The disease affects the digestive tract, provokes severe catarrhal enteritis, emaciation and high rates of mortality. The digestive parasitization triggers a response with the coordinate participation of immune and neuroendocrine systems through the action of peptides released by enteroendocrine cells and present in nervous elements, acting as neuro-immune modulators. The present study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot to characterize the presence of bombesin (BOM), glucagon (GLUC), somatostatin (SOM), leu-enkephalin (LEU) and met-enkephalin (MET). The occurrence of E. scophthalmi in the turbot gastrointestinal tract increased the number of enteroendocrine cells immunoreactive to SOM, LEU and MET. On the other hand, BOM and GLUC immunoreactive cells were less numerous in the gastrointestinal tract of the parasitized turbot. Scarce immunoreactivity to BOM, GLUC and SOM was observed in nerve fibres and neurons of the myenteric plexus of control and infected fish. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, with the diminution of the anorexigenic peptides BOM and GLUC; the increase of enkephalins, related to pro-inflammatory processes; and the increase of SOM, which may cause inhibitory effects on the immune response, constituting a compensatory mechanism to the exacerbated response observed in E. scophthalmi-infected turbot.

  11. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE AFTER RECTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Ziegler, Jessie; Lee, Elizabeth; Tell, Lisa; Murray, Suzan

    2016-03-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug with bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of anaerobic bacteria. It is a recognized treatment for elephants diagnosed with anaerobic bacterial infection or protozoal disease or exhibiting signs of colonic impaction, diarrhea, and colic. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of rectally administered metronidazole (15 mg/kg) in five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples were collected from each animal for 96 hr after rectal administration of metronidazole. Serum concentrations of metronidazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole, were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. Results indicated that serum levels of metronidazole were quantifiable at the 0.25 hr time point and absent in all elephants by the 96 hr time point. The serum peak concentration (mean ± SD, 13.15 ± 2.59 μg/ml) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (mean ± SD, 108.79 ± 24.77 hr × μg/ml) were higher than that reported in domestic horses after similar usage. Concurrently, the time of maximum serum concentration (mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.45 hr) and terminal elimination half-life (harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD, 7.85 ± 0.93 hr) were longer when compared to equine reports. Rectal administration of metronidazole was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed in all study elephants. Based on the findings in this study, metronidazole administered at a single dose of 15 mg/kg per rectum in the Asian elephant is likely to result in serum concentrations above 4 μg/ml for 8 hr and above 2 μg/ml for 24 hr after treatment is administered. Dosing recommendations should reflect the mean inhibitory concentration of metronidazole for each pathogen.

  12. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): histologic lesions with correlation to local immune responses.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, J A; Terio, K A; Miller, M; Junecko, B F; Reinhart, T

    2015-05-01

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an important health concern for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), no studies have evaluated the associated local immune responses or histologic lesions. In primates including humans, latent tuberculosis is distinguished by well-organized granulomas with TH1 cytokine expression, whereas active disease is characterized by poorly organized inflammation and local imbalance in TH1/TH2 cytokines. This study examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung samples from 5 tuberculosis-negative and 9 tuberculosis-positive Asian elephants. Lesions were assessed by light microscopy, and lymphoid infiltrates were characterized by CD3 and CD20 immunolabeling. Expression of TH1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and TH2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) cytokines was determined using in situ hybridization. In 6 of 9 samples, inflammation was similar to the pattern of primate active disease with low to moderate numbers of lymphocytes, most of which were CD20 positive. In 1 sample, inflammation was most similar to latent tuberculosis in primates with numerous CD3-positive lymphocytes. Expression of IFN-γ was detected in 3 of 8 tuberculosis-positive samples. Expression of TNF-α was detected in 3 of 8 positive samples, including the one with latent morphology. Low-level expression of IL-4 was present in 4 of 8 positive samples. Only single positive samples displayed expression of IL-10 and TGF-β. Tuberculosis-negative samples generally lacked cytokine expression. Results showed heterogeneity in lesions of elephant tuberculosis similar to those of latent and active disease in primates, with variable expression of both TH1 and TH2 cytokines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish.

  14. A new flap alternative for trochanteric pressure sore coverage: distal gluteus maximus musculocutaneous advancement flap.

    PubMed

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sahin, Ismail; Eski, Muhitdin; Alhan, Dogan

    2015-02-01

    Management of long-term bedridden patients experiencing pressure sores still represents a surgical challenge due to limited flap alternatives and high recurrence rates after the treatment. Fasciocutaneous, musculocutaneous, local perforator-based flaps, and free flaps have all been used for treatment of trochanteric pressure sores. This study presents a new use of distal gluteus maximus (GM) muscle as an advancement musculocutaneous flap for coverage of trochanteric pressure sores in 7 patients. The technique involves design of a long V-shaped skin island over the distal fibers of the GM muscle, beginning from the inferoposterior wound edge and extending inferomedially, almost parallel to the gluteal crease. After its harvest as an island flap on the distal fibers of the GM muscle, the skin paddle can be advanced onto the trochanteric defect, whereas the muscle itself is rotated after severing its insertion to femur. If a second triangular skin island is designed on the proximal fibers of GM muscle to cover an associated sacral defect, 2 coexisting pressure sores can be reconstructed concomitantly with 2 skin paddles on a single muscle belly at 1 surgical setting. Of the 7 patients, 3 had 3 (bilateral trochanteric and sacral), 2 had 2 (sacral and trochanteric), and 2 had 1 (only trochanteric) pressure sores. All ulcers were closed successfully and all of the flaps survived totally without any complication except the one in which we experienced minimal wound dehiscence in the early postoperative period. Conclusively, our current surgical method provided a reliable coverage for trochanteric pressure sores although it was technically straightforward and fast. Additionally, it offers simultaneous closure of 2 pressure ulcers with 2 skin islands on a single muscle flap.

  15. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  16. Immunohistochemical detection and gene expression of TNFα in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) enteromyxosis.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pardo, Belén G; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa) constitutes one of the most devastating pathogens for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. This parasite causes a severe intestinal parasitosis that leads to a cachectic syndrome with high morbidity and mortality rates for which no therapeutic options are available. Presence of inflammatory infiltrates, increased apoptotic rates and epithelial detaching have been described at intestinal level, as well as leukocyte depletion in lymphohaematopoietic organs. Previous investigations on enteromyxosis in turbot showed the high susceptibility of this species to the parasite and reported the existence of a dysregulated immune response against the parasite. The pleiotropic cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a major role in immune response and is involved in a wide range of biological activities. In teleost, the gene expression of this cytokine has been found regulated under several pathological conditions. Teleost TNFα shows some analogous functions with its mammalian counterparts, but the extent of its activities is still poorly understood. Cytokines are generally considered as a double-edge sword and TNFα has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases as well as in wasting syndromes described in mammals. The aim of this work was to analyse the expression of TNFα during enteromyxosis with molecular (Q-PCR) and morphological (immunohistochemistry) tools. Kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from turbot with moderate and severe infections were analysed and compared to healthy naïve fish. TNFα expression was increased in both spleen and kidney in the earlier stages of the disease, whereas in severely infected fish, the expression decreased, especially in kidney. At the intestinal level, an increase in the number of TNFα-positive cells was noticed, which was proportional to the infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrate the involvement of TNFα in the immune response to

  17. Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Cheeran, Jacob Varghese; Sukumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. Methodology/Principal Findings Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test) and new (four in-house ELISA) tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3–97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI): 74.8–99.9) and diagnostic specificity were 89.6–98.5% (95% CI: 79.4–99.9) based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6–62.8) of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0) tested positive on all five tests. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures. PMID:23166708

  18. Fine Mapping and Evolution of the Major Sex Determining Region in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Xoana; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Vera, Manuel; Piferrer, Francesc; Viñas, Ana; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Fish sex determination (SD) systems are varied, suggesting evolutionary changes including either multiple evolution origins of genetic SD from nongenetic systems (such as environmental SD) and/or turnover events replacing one genetic system by another. When genetic SD is found, cytological differentiation between the two members of the sex chromosome pair is often minor or undetectable. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a valuable commercial flatfish, has a ZZ/ZW system and a major SD region on linkage group 5 (LG5), but there are also other minor genetic and environmental influences. We here report refined mapping of the turbot SD region, supported by comparative mapping with model fish species, to identify the turbot master SD gene. Six genes were located to the SD region, two of them associated with gonad development (sox2 and dnajc19). All showed a high association with sex within families (P = 0), but not at the population level, so they are probably partially sex-linked genes, but not SD gene itself. Analysis of crossovers in LG5 using two families confirmed a ZZ/ZW system in turbot and suggested a revised map position for the master gene. Genetic diversity and differentiation for 25 LG5 genetic markers showed no differences between males and females sampled from a wild population, suggesting a recent origin of the SD region in turbot. We also analyzed associations with markers of the most relevant sex-related linkage groups in brill (S. rhombus), a closely related species to turbot; the data suggest that an ancient XX/XY system in brill changed to a ZZ/ZW mechanism in turbot. PMID:25106948

  19. Stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Feng, Wen-Rong; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Fish skin and its mucus provide the first line of defense against chemical, physical and biological stressors, but little is known about the role of skin and its mucus in immune response to crowding stress. In the present study, we investigated the stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities. Turbot (average weight 185.4 g) were reared for 120 days under three densities: low density (LD), medium density (MD), and high density (HD). After 120 days, fish were weighed and sampled to obtain blood, mucus and skin tissues which were used for analyses of biochemical parameters and genes expression. The results showed HD treatment significantly suppressed growth and enhanced plasma cortisol and glucose levels (P < 0.05). In mucus, the activities of lysozyme (LZM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and esterase in HD treatment were lower than LD and MD treatments (P < 0.05) In skin, HD treatment resulted in up-regulation in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) mRNA level, and down-regulation in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the transcriptions of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-) and LZM (P < 0.05). Overall, the data suggested that overly high stocking density was a stressor which caused an immunosuppression in skin of turbot. Moreover, this information would help to understand the skin immunity and their relation with stress and disease in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): cloning, characterization and its responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Zhou, Shuhong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3, a member of the G protein-coupled receptors superfamily, regulates the responses of many immune responses. In this experiment, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of CXCR3 in Scophthalmus maximus (turbot). A 5'-UTR of 216-bp, a 259-bp 3'-UTR with a poly (A) tail and a 1089-bp CDS encoding 362 amino acids form the cDNA of CXCR3, which is 1564-bp long. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that turbot CXCR3 shared a high similarity with other CXCR3s and shared more similarity with CXCR5 than the other subfamilies of chemokines. The CXCR3 protein in turbot showed the highest similarity with the CXCR3b from rainbow trout (44.5%), which indicated that this CXCR3 gene/protein may be a CXCR3b isoform. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CXCR3 transcripts were constitutively expressed in all the tissues of the non-injected turbot used in this study, with the highest expression occurring in blood. Several immune-related tissues of fish, such as the spleen, head kidney, liver and blood, tissues, which were abundant of lymphocyte, were investigated in this study. CXCR3 gene was expressed at the highest level in blood than the other tested tissues. The injection experiment suggested that the CXCR3 expression level after LPS injection was significantly up-regulated in all immune-related tissues in turbot. These results improve our understanding of the functions of CXCR3 in the turbot immune response.

  1. Identification of shedders of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses among Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Jean-Michel; Schetle, Nelli; Steinmetz, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus), are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV). At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types. To identify EEHV shedders, seven of eight Asian elephants in a Swiss zoo were trained to provide trunk wash samples. These were collected at intervals over a period of four months and tested by PCR for presence of EEHV1 through 6. Moreover, the quality of each sample was assessed by testing for the elephant TNF-alpha gene. Overall, 57% of the samples were valid with five of seven participating elephants identified as EEHV shedders. Two of those shed virus only once, whereas the other three, all closely related among each other, shed virus on multiple occasions. One of the frequent shedders had been in very close contact to all of the three EHD victims. Therefore, we speculate that this particular animal may represent the virus source in all three cases. However, when subtyping was conducted, the presently circulating virus was identified as EEHV1B, while the virus subtype causing EHD had been 1A in all three cases. In addition to four animals excreting EEHV1, a recently introduced animal was observed to shed EEHV3/4. We suggest that the policy of trunk washing to identify and characterize EEHV-shedders is to be endorsed in zoos with ongoing or planned elephant breeding programs. PMID:28467495

  2. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants.

  3. Molecular characterization and quantification of estrogen receptors in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Meng, Zhen; Jia, Yudong

    2017-01-10

    Estrogens regulate various reproductive processes via estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathway in vertebrates. In this study, full-length sequences coding for ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2 were isolated from female turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by homology cloning and a strategy based on rapid amplification of cDNA end-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of turbot ERs showed high homologies with the corresponding sequences of other fish species and significant homology with the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Turbot ERs contained six typical nuclear receptor-characteristic domains and exhibited high evolutionary conservation in the functional domains. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the erα and erβ (β1, β2) mRNAs were abundant in the liver and ovary, respectively. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA levels of erα and vitellogenin (vtg) were found increased gradually from pre-vitellogenesis to late-vitellogenesis stages, with the highest values observed at the late-vitellogenesis stage, and then decreased from migratory-nucleus to atresia stages. However, mRNA levels of erα in the ovary remained unchanged during ovarian development. Hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, serum estradiol-17β and the mRNA levels of erβ1 and erβ2 in the ovary manifested results similar to the expression of erα mRNAs in the liver. These findings indicated that ERα is mainly involved in hepatic vitellogenesis, and ERβs may play crucial roles to regulate ovarian development in turbot. Overall, this study improves understanding of the physiological functions of turbot ERs, which will be valuable for fish reproduction and broodstock management.

  4. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Villamarín, Antonio; Bermúdez, Roberto; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of cellular and organismal responses. Its main function, as a potent pro-inflammatory mediator, has been demonstrated in numerous teleost species and there are many reports on the modulation of TNFα gene expression under pathological conditions. Nevertheless, there is still scarce knowledge about the tissue distribution and type of cells that express this cytokine in fish species, which would help to further investigate its biological activities. These studies are hampered by the lack of molecular markers for teleost that hinder the development of morphological techniques, like immunohistochemistry. The aim of this work was to develop an immunohistochemical technique for the detection of TNFα in paraffin-embedded organs from healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), an economically-important marine fish species. A commercial anti-human TNFα antibody, whose specificity was confirmed by western blot analysis, was used. Immunoreactive cells were observed in higher numbers in the lymphohematopoietic organs, kidney, spleen and thymus, although TNFα-positive cells were also present in the digestive tract, liver, heart, gills and skin. Similarly to non-fish species, monocytes/macrophages appeared to be the main producers of this cytokine; nevertheless, the presence of immunoreactive rodlet cells in different tissues was also reported. The nature and distribution of the labeled cells appeared to be related with a strategic localization for defense response to antigenic challenge. The relative abundance of TNFα-positive cells in the lymphohematopoietic organs also suggests that this cytokine may have a broader role in the normal physiology of those organs. The immunohistochemical technique allowed the in-situ characterization of TNFα expression, representing a valid tool to investigate the immune response of turbot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of shedders of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses among Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Mathias; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Schetle, Nelli; Steinmetz, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus), are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV). At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types. To identify EEHV shedders, seven of eight Asian elephants in a Swiss zoo were trained to provide trunk wash samples. These were collected at intervals over a period of four months and tested by PCR for presence of EEHV1 through 6. Moreover, the quality of each sample was assessed by testing for the elephant TNF-alpha gene. Overall, 57% of the samples were valid with five of seven participating elephants identified as EEHV shedders. Two of those shed virus only once, whereas the other three, all closely related among each other, shed virus on multiple occasions. One of the frequent shedders had been in very close contact to all of the three EHD victims. Therefore, we speculate that this particular animal may represent the virus source in all three cases. However, when subtyping was conducted, the presently circulating virus was identified as EEHV1B, while the virus subtype causing EHD had been 1A in all three cases. In addition to four animals excreting EEHV1, a recently introduced animal was observed to shed EEHV3/4. We suggest that the policy of trunk washing to identify and characterize EEHV-shedders is to be endorsed in zoos with ongoing or planned elephant breeding programs.

  6. Olfactory discrimination ability of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) for structurally related odorants.

    PubMed

    Rizvanovic, Alisa; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, we assessed the ability of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, to discriminate between 2 sets of structurally related odorants. We found that the animals successfully discriminated between all 12 odor pairs involving members of homologous series of aliphatic 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, 2-ketones, and n-carboxylic acids even when the stimuli differed from each other by only 1 carbon. With all 4 chemical classes, the elephants displayed a positive correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length. The animals also successfully discriminated between all 12 enantiomeric odor pairs tested. An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomers. Compared with other species tested previously on the same sets of odor pairs (or on subsets thereof), the Asian elephants performed at least as well as mice and clearly better than human subjects, squirrel monkeys, pigtail macaques, South African fur seals, and honeybees. Further comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between the number of functional olfactory receptor genes and the proportion of discriminable enantiomeric odor pairs. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in regulating the behavior of Asian elephants.

  7. Use of gluteus maximus adipomuscular sliding flaps in the reconstruction of sacral defects after tumor resection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While performing sacrectomy from a posterior approach enables the en bloc resection of sacral tumors, it can result in deep posterior peritoneal defects and postoperative complications. We investigated whether defect reconstruction with gluteus maximus (GLM) adipomuscular sliding flaps would improve patient outcomes. Methods Between February 2007 and February 2012, 48 sacrectomies were performed at He Nan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou City, China. We retrospectively examined the medical records of each patient to obtain the following information: demographic characteristics, tumor location and pathology, oncological resection, postoperative drainage and complications. Based on the date of the operation, patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of closure type: simple midline closure (group 1) or GLM adipomuscular sliding reconstruction (group 2). Results We assessed 21 patients in group 1 and 27 in group 2. They did not differ with regards to gender, age, tumor location, pathology or size, or fixation methods. The mean time to last drainage was significantly longer in group 1 compared to group 2 (28.41 days (range 17–43 days) vs. 16.82 days (range 13–21 days, P < 0.05)) and the mean amount of fluid drained was higher (2,370 mL (range 2,000–4,000 mL) vs. 1,733 mL (range 1,500–2,800 mL)). The overall wound infection rate (eight (38.10%) vs. four (14.81%), P < 0.05) and dehiscence rate (four (19.05%)] vs. three (11.11%), P < 0.05) were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. The rate of wound margin necrosis was lower in group 1 than in group 2 (two (9.82%) vs. three (11.11%), P < 0.05). Conclusions The use of GLM adipomuscular sliding flaps for reconstruction after posterior sacrectomy can significantly reduce the risk of infection and improve outcomes. PMID:23701700

  8. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  9. The dynamics of sperm DNA stability in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa before and after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Hernandez, M; Rittem, S; Thongtip, N; Mahasawangkul, S; Gosálvez, J; Holt, W V

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of sperm DNA fragmentation in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa at various processing stages before and after cryopreservation. Five semen samples from four elephants were assessed at four different stages during processing; after (1) collection and reextension in TEST-egg yolk; (2) cooling to 5 °C; (3) equilibration for 1 h with glycerol; (4) thawing. An experimental approach was adopted that allowed comparisons of DNA fragmentation rates developed after the various processing stages. For this, spermatozoa were incubated in TEST-yolk media at 37 °C for 0, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h, and sperm DNA fragmentation rates were estimated using an elephant-specific Halosperm procedure. Incubation at 37 °C induced a rapid increase in DNA fragmentation, and significant differences between males were observed. The overall rate of increase over 4 h was estimated at about 5% per hour, and no significant changes to this rate were observed at the different processing stages, even, including the post-thaw samples. As semen quality of the five ejaculates was relatively poor, the basic semen parameter data were compared with nine different samples collected 11 mo earlier to see whether the tested samples were atypical or representative of the population, As there was no significant difference between the two sets of samples, it is believed that the samples tested for DNA stability were not unusually sensitive. These results suggest that Asian elephant spermatozoa are more susceptible to DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of other mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gluteus maximus impairment in femoroacetabular impingement: a tensiomyographic evaluation of a clinical fact.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Marín, Miguel; Ares, Oscar; Sallent, Andrea; Cuscó, Xavier; Cugat, Ramón

    2016-06-01

    the aim of the present study is to evaluate the mechanical and contractile properties of the gluteus maximus (GM) muscle in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Our hypothesis is that the clinical observation of GM pain would be evidenced by tensiomyographic impairment in muscle function. A prospective, cross-sectional, intra-group comparative study was conducted to assess the neuromuscular changes of lower extremity muscles in patients with FAI. Fifty-one patients with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of FAI for at least 3 months were included. The rectus femoris (RF), adductor magnus (AM), and GM of both lower extremities of all patients were evaluated with tensiomyography (TMG). The values of TMG of the affected lower extremity were compared to those of the healthy contralateral side. The parameters obtained in this study were maximal displacement (Dm), and contraction time (Tc). The Tc of the injured GM was significantly higher compared to the healthy side (p = 0.01). There were no significant side-to-side differences in the Dm of the GM (p = 0.13), either in the Tc and Dm of the RF (p = 0.15 and p = 0.8, respectively) and AM (p = 0.25 and p = 0.75, respectively). FAI is associated with impairment of contraction time in the GM of the injured compared to the healthy side. Impairment of the GM may be monitored to evaluate response to conservative or surgical treatment.

  11. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Activity in the Back Squat and Barbell Hip Thrust Exercises.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-12-01

    The back squat and barbell hip thrust are both popular exercises used to target the lower body musculature; however, these exercises have yet to be compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis between the back squat and barbell hip thrust. Thirteen trained women (n = 13; age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; mass = 58.2 kg) performed estimated 10-repetition maximums (RM) in the back squat and barbell hip thrust. The barbell hip thrust elicited significantly greater mean (69.5% vs 29.4%) and peak (172% vs 84.9%) upper gluteus maximus, mean (86.8% vs 45.4%) and peak (216% vs 130%) lower gluteus maximus, and mean (40.8% vs 14.9%) and peak (86.9% vs 37.5%) biceps femoris EMG activity than the back squat. There were no significant differences in mean (99.5% vs 110%) or peak (216% vs 244%) vastus lateralis EMG activity. The barbell hip thrust activates the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris to a greater degree than the back squat when using estimated 10RM loads. Longitudinal training studies are needed to determine if this enhanced activation correlates with increased strength, hypertrophy, and performance.

  12. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  13. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  14. Shell Extracts from the Marine Bivalve Pecten maximus Regulate the Synthesis of Extracellular Matrix in Primary Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the −112/−61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  15. Effect of increased pCO2 on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Harboe, T.

    2013-02-01

    As a result of high anthropogenic emission of CO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the oceans has increased causing a drop in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects on embryo and larvae of great scallop (Pecten maximus L.), using mean pCO2-levels of 477 (ambient), 821, 1184, and 1627 ppm. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Growth was reduced with 5-10% when pCO2 increased from ambient 477 ppm to 1627 ppm, and survival based on egg number was reduced from 40.4% in the ambient group to 10.7% in the highest pCO2-group. Larvae/embryos stained with calcein one day after fertilization, showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area indicating calcification of the shell already at the trochophore stage. Shell hinge deformities were observed at elevated pCO2-levels in trochophore larvae after two days. After seven days, deformities in both shell hinge and shell edge were observed in veliger larvae at elevated pCO2-levels. Although the growth showed a moderate reduction, survival rate and increased amount of deformed larvae indicates that P. Maximus larvae are affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected for the next century.

  16. Infection rates in Dipetalogaster maximus (Reduviidae: Triatominae) by Trypanosoma cruzi in the Cape Region, Baja California Sur, México.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, María-Luisa; Llinas, Jorge; Palacios, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Infection rates of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (in the blood-sucking bug Dipetalogaster maximus [Uhler]) were determined from specimens collected at 12 localities in the Cape Region of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Eight collection sites were located in the tropical dry forest, two in desert shrub, and two in the ecotone between these two communities. Of the 245 D. maximus collected, 65% were first and second instar nymphs; 32.6% were third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs; and 2.4% were adults. The highest proportion of specimens came from El Fandango (30%) and San Bartolo (23%) canyons and La Cruz hill (12%) in the mountain slopes facing the Gulf of California. In feces from individual bugs analyzed for T. cruzi, we found an overall infection rate of 7.0%. Infection rates increased from 4.1% in second instars to 42.% in fifth instars. High infection rates were found in bugs collected from La Poza (38.4%), El Gato (27.2%), and El Pedregoso (25%) hills; low infection rates were found in specimens from La Cruz hill and San Bartolo canyon. Specimens from some collection sites were not infected with T. cruzi.

  17. Electromyographyc evaluation of movements of lower limb in double pulley system equipment: comparison between gastrocnemius (caput laterale) and gluteus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tassi, N; Engrácia Valenti, V

    2007-09-01

    It was evaluated movements of lower limb in the double pulley system equipment on ten male volunteers during contraction of gastrocnemius (caput laterale) and gluteus maximus muscles in the following movements: 1) hip extension with extended knee and erect trunk, 2) hip extension with flexed knee and erect trunk, 3) hip extension with flexed knee and erect trunk, 3) hip extension with extended knee and inclined trunk, 5) hip abduction along the midline, 7) hip abduction with extension beyond the midline, 8) adduction with hip flexion beyond the midline, 8) adduction with hip flexion beyond the midline, and 9) adduction with hip extension beyond the midline. Myoelectric signals were taken up by Lec Tec surface electrodes connected to a 6-channel Lynx electromyographic signal amplifier coupled with a computer equipped with a model CAD 10/26 analogue digital conversion board and with a specific software for signal recording and analysis. We observed weak gastrocnemius muscle activity for all movements studied. In the case of gluteus maximus, the most important potentials were observed for movement 2, while for the remaining movements the actions were of reasonable intensity. Compared to gluteus, gastrocnemius was less required for all movements.

  18. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of metallic compounds on the flatfish Scophthalmus maximus: biomarkers of neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Brandão, Fátima; Sérgio, Tânia; Rodrigues, Sara; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-06-01

    Flatfish species, such as the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), are common targets for toxic effects, since they are exposed through the food chain (ingestion of contaminated preys) and are in direct contact with the waterborne contaminant and sediments. Furthermore, these fish species live in close proximity to interstitial water that frequently dissolves high amounts of contaminants, including metals. Despite this significant set of characteristics, the present knowledge concerning flatfish contamination and toxicity by metals is still scarce. To attain the objective of assessing the effects of metals on a flatfish species, S. maximus specimens were chronically exposed to lead, copper and zinc, at ecologically relevant concentrations, and biochemical (oxidative stress: catalase and glutathione S-transferases activities, and lipid peroxidation; neurotoxicity: cholinesterase activity) parameters were assessed on selected tissues (gills and liver). Copper had no significant effects on all tested parameters; lead was causative of significant increases in liver GSTs activities and also in lipoperoxidation of gill tissue; exposure to zinc caused a significant increase in catalase activity of gill tissue. None of the tested metals elicited noteworthy effects in terms of neurotoxicity. The obtained results showed that only the metal lead is of some environmental importance, since it was able to cause deleterious modifications of oxidative nature at relevant concentrations.

  19. Isolation and characterization of 45 Polymorphie microsatellite loci of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) and cross-species amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shiying; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Huang, Zhihui; Xue, Baogui; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2011-03-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish species commercially important for aquaculture. In this study, we generated a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library for Scophthalmus maximus, and then isolated and characterized 45 microsatellite loci by genotyping 30 individuals. The observed number of alleles ranged from 2 to 19 with an average of 6.24, while the effective number of alleles ranged from 1.30 to 11.11 with an average of 3.66. The expected heterozygosities varied from 0.235 to 0.925 4 and Polymorphie information content ranged from 0.2044 to 0.903 3, with an average of 0.622. Twelve loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between any pair of loci after Bonferroni correction. In cross-species amplification, five flatfish species ( Paralichthys lethostigma, Verasper moseri, platichthys stellatus, Hippoglossoides dubius and Cynoglossus semilaevis) showed at least one Polymorphie locus. These Polymorphie microsatellite loci should prove useful for Population analysis of turbot and other related species.

  20. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    PubMed

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O2 M(-2)S(-1)). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Crassostrea gigas and Pecten maximus reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A

    2012-11-01

    Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted

  2. Effect of stocking density on performances of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Blancheton, Jean-Paul

    2013-05-01

    Limited information has been available about the influence of loading density on the performances of Scophthalmus maximus, especially in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In this study, turbot (13.84±2.74 g; average weight±SD) were reared at four different initial densities (low 0.66, medium 1.26, sub-high 2.56, high 4.00 kg/m2) for 10 weeks in RAS at 23±1°C. Final densities were 4.67, 7.25, 14.16, and 17.47 kg/m2, respectively, which translate to 82, 108, 214, and 282 percent coverage of the tank bottom. Density had both negative and independent impacts on growth. The final mean weight, specific growth rate (SGR), and voluntary feed intake significantly decreased and the coefficient of variation (CV) of final body weight increased with increase in stocking density. The medium and sub-high density groups did not differ significantly in SGR, mean weight, CV, food conversion rate (FCR), feed intake, blood parameters, and digestive enzymes. The protease activities of the digestive tract at pH 7, 8.5, 9, and 10 were significantly higher for the highest density group, but tended to be lower (not significantly) at pH 4 and 8.5 for the lowest density group. The intensity of protease activity was inversely related to feed intake at the different densities. Catalase activity was higher (but not significantly) at the highest density, perhaps because high density started to induce an oxidative effect in turbot. In conclusion, turbot can be cultured in RAS at a density of less than 17.47 kg/m2. With good water quality and no feed limitation, initial density between 1.26 and 2.56 kg/m2 (final: 7.25 and 14.16 kg/m2) would not negatively affect the turbot cultured in RAS. For culture at higher density, multi-level feeding devices are suggested to ease feeding competition.

  3. Transcriptome Profiles Associated to VHSV Infection or DNA Vaccination in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, Patricia; Dios, Sonia; Boltaña, Sebastián; Coll, Julio; Estepa, Amparo; Mackenzie, Simon; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding the viral G glycoprotein show the most successful protection capability against fish rhabdoviruses. Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective response remain still poorly understood. With the aim of shedding light on the protection conferred by the DNA vaccines based in the G glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) we have used a specific microarray highly enriched in antiviral sequences to carry out the transcriptomic study associated to VHSV DNA vaccination/infection. The differential gene expression pattern in response to empty plasmid (pMCV1.4) and DNA vaccine (pMCV1.4-G860) intramuscular administration with regard to non-stimulated turbot was analyzed in head kidney at 8, 24 and 72 hours post-vaccination. Moreover, the effect of VHSV infection one month after immunization was also analyzed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish at the same time points. Genes implicated in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, IFN inducible/regulatory proteins, numerous sequences implicated in apoptosis and cytotoxic pathways, MHC class I antigens, as well as complement and coagulation cascades among others were analyzed in the different experimental groups. Fish receiving the pMCV1.4-G860 vaccine showed transcriptomic patterns very different to the ones observed in pMCV1.4-injected turbot after 72 h. On the other hand, VHSV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated turbot induced a highly different response at the transcriptome level, indicating a very relevant role of the acquired immunity in vaccinated fish able to alter the typical innate immune response profile observed in non-vaccinated individuals. This exhaustive transcriptome study will serve as a complete overview for a better understanding of the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune response in fish after viral infection/vaccination. Moreover, it provides interesting clues about molecules with a potential

  4. Gluteus maximus contraction velocity assessed by tensiomyography improves following arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Marín, Miguel; Rivera, Eila; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Barastegui, David; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cugat, Ramón

    2017-05-13

    Muscular impairment, particularly for the gluteus maximus (GM), has been observed in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensiomyographic changes of the GM, rectus femoris (RF) and adductor longus (AL) before and after arthroscopic surgery for FAI. It was hypothesized that arthroscopic treatment of FAI would improve the preoperative muscular impairment. All patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment of FAI between January and July 2015 were approached for eligibility. Patients included had a tensiomyography (TMG) evaluation including maximal displacement (Dm) and contraction time (Tc) of these muscles in both lower extremities. TMG values between the injured and healthy sides were compared at the preoperative and post-operative (3, 6 and 12 months after surgery) periods. There were no significant differences for the RF and AL, and Dm of the GM for any of the comparisons (n.s.). However, GM Tc was significantly lower at 3 (p = 0.016), 6 (p = 0.008), and 12 (p = 0.049) months after surgery in the injured side compared to preoperatively. GM Tc of the healthy side was significantly lower than the injured side at the preoperative period (p = 0.004) and at 3 (p = 0.024) and 6 (p = 0.028) months after surgery, but these significant differences were no longer observed at 12 months after surgery (n.s.). There was a significant reduction of pain in the GM area at 1 year after surgery compared to preoperatively (p < 0.0001). Arthroscopic treatment of FAI and the subsequent rehabilitation improves contraction velocity of the GM of the injured side. Despite Tc is elevated in the GM of the injured compared to the healthy side preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months after surgery, differences in Tc between both sides are no longer significant at 12 months. Athletes with FAI participating in sports with great involvement of GM may benefit from arthroscopic treatment and its subsequent rehabilitation. TMG can be used as

  5. "Right-trunkers" and "left-trunkers": side preferences of trunk movements in wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Martin, Franziska; Niemitz, Carsten

    2003-12-01

    In this article, the side preferences of feeding-related trunk movements of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were investigated for the first time. It is hypothesized that a functional asymmetry of the trunk is necessary to perform skillful feeding movements more efficiently. This might be connected with a corresponding hemispheric specialization. Video recordings of 41 wild elephants provided frequencies and durations of the following trunk-movement categories: object contact, retrieval, and reaching. In each category, individual side preferences were found. The strength of side preferences varied between the trunk-movement categories and the sexes. Mean durations of retrieval and reaching correlated negatively with the strength of side biases. Comparing the side preferences in the unpaired trunk with analogous phenomena in other unpaired grasping organs and in primate handedness. the authors discuss possible explanations for the evolution of asymmetries in unpaired grasping organs.

  6. a Method for Virtual Anastylosis: the Case of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Falcolini, C.; Buonfiglio, M.; Pergola, S.; Saccone, M.; Mammì, B.; Romito, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper is the first report about the development of a methodology for the virtual Anastylosis of elements belonging to an archaeological site, based on the 3d modeling of fragments. This research is the result of the cooperation between Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Architettura and Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali; several 3D survey, modeling, information systems and archaeology experts were involved. The purpose of the research was to study the complex and stratified site of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus aiming, first of all, at completing the existing traditional graphic documentation using cataloguing and survey innovative methodologies, and, secondly, at supporting new proposals for the reconstruction and Anastylosis of the Arch itself. This tested methodology whose fundamental element is the three-dimensional textured model of each fragment, can also be used in other sites and contexts.

  7. Tissue treatment for whole mount internal lectin staining in the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, Panagrolaimus superbus and Acrobeloides maximus.

    PubMed

    Borgonie, G; van Driessche, E; Link, C D; de Waele, D; Coomans, A

    1994-06-01

    Four different fixation schemes, using ten fluorescent-labelled lectins, were investigated for whole mount internal staining of three rhabditid nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans, Panagrolaimus superbus and Acrobeloides maximus. Acetone-only fixation was found to give strong and reproducible staining, which could be prevented either by periodate treatment of the organisms or by specific inhibitory sugars of the lectins under investigation. Whereas the use of either phosphate or TRIS buffers had no effect on the staining pattern or the fluorescence intensity, the incubation time as well as the incubation temperature affected the staining reaction. The best results were obtained upon overnight incubation at 4 degrees C: the lectin staining could be inhibited in all cases, except for the intestinal brush border of C. elegans by the lectin of Lens culinaris.

  8. Birth statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.

    PubMed

    Dale, Robert H I

    2010-01-01

    African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. This study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. I obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. Over the past 30 years, newborn Asian elephants have been taller and heavier than newborn African elephants. Neonatal African elephants exhibited sex differences in both weight and height, whereas neonatal Asian elephants have exhibited sex differences only in height. Primiparous dams ex situ are at least as old as their in situ counterparts, whereas ex situ sires appear to be younger than sires in range countries. Confirming earlier anecdotal evidence, both African [N=47] and Asian [N=91] dams gave birth most often at night.

  9. Investigation of individual and group variability in estrous cycle characteristics in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Oregon Zoo.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, S S; Hunt, K E; Martin, M S; Finnegan, M; Brown, J L

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating ovarian cycle activity through longitudinal progestagen monitoring is important for optimizing breeding management of captive elephants and understanding impact of life events (births, deaths, and transfers) on reproductive function. This study summarized serum progestagen profiles for eight Asian mainland elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) and one Bornean elephant (E. maximus borneensis) at the Oregon Zoo over a 20-yr interval, and represents the longest longitudinal dataset evaluated to date. Estrous cycle characteristics were more varied than previously reported for this species, with an overall duration of 12 to 19 wk, luteal phase duration of 4 to 15 wk, and follicular phase duration of 2 to 12 wk. In general, there was more cycle variability across than within individual elephants. Compared with other elephants in the group, the Borneo female exhibited consistently longer cycle lengths, higher progestagen concentrations, and greater cycle variability; however, it is not known if this represents a subspecies or an individual difference. Cycle durations did not appear to change over time or with age, and the first pubertal cycle was similar to subsequent cycles. Variability in duration of the follicular phase was greater than that of the luteal phase. In addition, there was a significant negative relationship between luteal and follicular phase durations, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the follicular phase in maintaining a relatively consistent cycle duration within individuals. Overall, we found these elephants to be highly resilient in that major life events (births, deaths, and changes in herd structure) had minimal effect on cycle dynamics over time. In conclusion, the higher range in cycle phase characteristics is likely because of the larger number of elephants studied and longer duration of longitudinal monitoring, and may be more representative of the captive population as a whole. Furthermore, identification of significant

  10. Spatial changes in fatty acids signatures of the great scallop Pecten maximus across the Bay of Biscay continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerot, Caroline; Meziane, Tarik; Schaal, Gauthier; Grall, Jacques; Lorrain, Anne; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Kraffe, Edouard

    2015-10-01

    The spatial variability of food resources along continental margins can strongly influence the physiology and ecology of benthic bivalves. We explored the variability of food sources of the great scallop Pecten maximus, by determining their fatty acid (FA) composition along an inshore-offshore gradient in the Bay of Biscay (from 15 to 190 m depth). The FA composition of the digestive gland showed strong differences between shallow and deep-water habitats. This trend was mainly driven by their content in diatom-characteristic fatty acids, which are abundant near the coast. Scallops collected from the middle of the continental shelf were characterized by higher contents of flagellate markers than scallops from shallow habitats. This could be related to a permanent vertical stratification in the water column, which reduced vertical mixing of waters, thereby enhancing organic matter recycling through the microbial loop. In the deeper water station (190 m), FA compositions were close to the compositions found in scallops from shallow areas, which suggest that scallops could have access to the same resources (i.e. diatoms). Muscle FA composition was more indicative of the physiological state of scallops over this depth range, revealing contrasting reproductive strategies among the two coastal sites and metabolic or physiological adaptation at greater depth (e.g. structural and functional adjustments of membrane composition). This study therefore revealed contrasted patterns between shallow and deeper habitats for both P. maximus muscle and digestive gland tissues. This emphasizes the variability in the diet of this species along its distribution range, and stresses the importance of analyzing different tissues for their FA composition in order to better understand their physiology and ecology.

  11. Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans.

  12. Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics and gluteus maximus recruitment correlate with frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squat tests in women.

    PubMed

    Hollman, John H; Galardi, Christy M; Lin, I-Hsuan; Voth, Brandon C; Whitmarsh, Crystal L

    2014-04-01

    Hip muscle dysfunction may be associated with knee valgus that contributes to problems like patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare knee and hip kinematics and hip muscle strength and recruitment between "good" and "poor" performers on a single-leg squat test developed to assess hip muscle dysfunction and (2) examine relationships between hip muscle strength, recruitment and frontal plane knee kinematics to see which variables correlated with knee valgus during the test. Forty-one active women classified via visual rating as "good" or "poor" performers on the test participated. Participants completed 5-repetition single-leg squat tests. Isometric hip extension and abduction strength, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius recruitment, and 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during the test were compared between groups and examined for their association with frontal plane knee motion. "Poor" performers completed the test with more hip adduction (mean difference=7.6°) and flexion (mean difference=6.3°) than "good" performers. No differences in knee kinematics, hip strength or hip muscle recruitment occurred. However, the secondary findings indicated that increased medial hip rotation (partial r=0.94) and adduction (partial r=0.42) and decreased gluteus maximus recruitment (partial r=0.35) correlated with increased knee valgus. Whereas hip muscle function and knee kinematics did not differ between groups as we'd hypothesized, frontal plane knee motion correlated with transverse and frontal plane hip motions and with gluteus maximus recruitment. Gluteus maximus recruitment may modulate frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-06-01

    Bridging exercise variations are well researched and commonly employed for both rehabilitation and sport performance. However, resisted bridge exercise variations have not yet been compared in a controlled experimental study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography (EMG) amplitude for the barbell, band, and American hip thrust variations. Thirteen healthy female subjects (age = 28.9 y; height = 164.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg) familiar with the hip thrust performed 10 repetitions of their 10-repetition maximum of each variation in a counterbalanced and randomized order. The barbell hip thrust variation elicited statistically greater mean gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the American and band hip thrusts, and statistically greater peak gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the band hip thrust (P ≤ .05), but no other statistical differences were observed. It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.

  14. Primary structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the Atlantic scallop, Pecten maximus, and expression of the regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Janes, D P; Patel, H; Chantler, P D

    2000-01-01

    We have determined the complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the heavy chain, regulatory light chain and essential light chain which constitute the molecular structure of myosin from the striated adductor muscle of the scallop, Pecten maximus. The deduced amino acid sequences of P. maximus regulatory light chain, essential light chain and heavy chain comprise 156, 156 and 1940 amino acids, respectively. These myosin peptide sequences, obtained from the most common of the eastern Atlantic scallops, are compared with those from three other molluscan myosins: the striated adductor muscles of Argopecten irradians and Placopecten magellanicus, and myosin from the siphon retractor muscle of the squid, Loligo pealei. The Pecten heavy chain sequence resembles those of the other two scallop sequences to a much greater extent as compared with the squid sequence, amino acid identities being 97.5% (A. irradians), 95.6% (P. magellanicus) and 73.6% (L. pealei), respectively. Myosin heavy chain residues that are known to be important for regulation are conserved in Pecten maximus. Using these Pecten sequences, we have overexpressed the regulatory light chain, and a combination of essential light chain and myosin heavy chain fragment, separately, in E. coli BL21 (DE3) prior to recombination, thereby producing Pecten regulatory domains without recourse to proteolytic digestion. The expressed regulatory domain was shown to undergo a calcium-dependent increase (approximately 7%) in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence with a mid-point at a pCa of 6.6.

  15. Skeletal development and abnormalities of the vertebral column and of the fins in hatchery-reared turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tong, X H; Liu, Q H; Xu, S H; Ma, D Y; Xiao, Z Z; Xiao, Y S; Li, J

    2012-03-01

    To describe the skeletal development and abnormalities in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, samples were collected every day from hatching to 60 days after hatching (DAH). A whole-mount cartilage and bone-staining technique was used. Vertebral ontogeny started with the formation of anterior haemal arches at 5·1 mm standard length (L(S) ) c. 11 DAH, and was completed by the full attainment of parapophyses at 16·9 mm L(S) c. 31 DAH. Vertebral centra started to develop at 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH and ossification in all centra was visible at 11·0 mm L(S) c. 25 DAH. The caudal fin appeared at 5·1 mm L(S) c. 11 DAH and ossification was visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The onset of dorsal and anal fin elements appeared at 5·8 mm L(S) c. 15 DAH and 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH, respectively. Ossifications of both dorsal fin and anal fin were visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The pectorals were the only fins present before first feeding, their ossifications were completed at 23·5 mm L(S) c. 48 DAH. Pelvic fins began forming at 7·2 mm L(S) c. 19 DAH and calcification of the whole structure was visible at 19·8 mm L(S) c. 36 DAH. In the present study, 24 types of skeletal abnormalities were observed. About 51% of individuals presented skeletal abnormalities, and the highest occurrence was found in the haemal region of the vertebral column. As for each developmental stage, the most common abnormalities were in the dorsal fin during early metamorphic period (stage 2), vertebral fusion during climax metamorphosis (stage 3) and caudal fin abnormality during both late-metamorphic period (stage 4) and post-metamorphic period (stage 5). Such research will be useful for early detection of skeletal malformations during different growth periods of reared S. maximus.

  16. Immunohistochemical study on the neuroendocrine system of the digestive tract of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, R; Vigliano, F; Quiroga, M I; Nieto, J M; Bosi, G; Domeneghini, C

    2007-03-01

    In recent years a new parasite, causing severe losses, has been detected in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), in Northwestern Spain. Dead fish showed emaciation and cachexia caused by severe necrotizing enteritis, which affected all areas of the digestive tract. The parasite was classified as a myxosporean and named Enteromyxum scophthalmi. This study was designed to assess the response of the turbot neuroendocrine system against E. scophthalmi infection. Immunohistochemical tests were applied to sections of the gastrointestinal tract of uninfected and E. scophthalmi-infected turbot, and the presence of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were documented. A higher abundance of both endocrine epithelial cells (ECs) and nerve cell bodies and fibres for CCK-8, 5-HT and SP were recorded in the gastrointestinal tract of infected turbot, whereas VIP-like substance decreased. The results indicate that E. scophthalmi infection in turbot induced changes in the neuroendocrine system, which may cause alterations in gut motility, electrolyte and fluid secretion, and vascular and immune functions.

  17. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Glycosylation Pattern of the Jejunum and Ileum of the Wild Rodent Lagostomus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tano De La Hoz, María Florencia; Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2016-05-01

    Morphological and histochemical analyses were performed to characterize the histology, ultrastructure, and glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum of the wild rodent Lagostomus maximus. Enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells were identified in both intestinal epithelia. Two morphological types of enterocytes were identified only in the ileum based on their cytoplasm electron density. Although the histological and ultrastructural examination showed that the epithelia of both anatomical regions were morphologically similar, a certain specialization in their secretory products was evident. The glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum was characterized in situ by histochemical and lectin histochemical methods. Histochemical results revealed the presence of carboxylated and sulfated gycoconjugates in both regions, although sulfomucins were clearly prevalent in the ileum. Sialic acid was highly O-acetylated and particularly abundant in the jejunum. The KOH/PA*/Bh/PAS technique evidenced a more intense histochemical reaction in the jejunal than in the ileum goblet cells, demonstrating a reduction of neutral mucin secretion in the distal small intestine. Further specific differences were revealed by lectin histochemistry. These data evidenced that the nature of mucus varies at different anatomical regions, probably adapted to physiological requirements.

  19. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  20. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1{beta} in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Yingmei; Huang Xiaohang . E-mail: xiaohanghuang@yahoo.ca; Cong Bailin; Liu Shenghao; Chen Kui; Li Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2006-04-07

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1{beta}, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1{beta} of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1{beta} secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish.

  1. The occurrence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): first case of EEHV4 in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sripiboon, Supaphen; Tankaew, Pallop; Lungka, Grishda; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is a type of herpesvirus that causes acute hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and is often fatal, especially in calves. This study describes the postmortem evaluation of two captive-born Asian elephants (2 and 3 yr of age, respectively) diagnosed with EEHV in Thailand. Both elephants presented only mild depression, lethargy, and anorexia before death within 24 hr of symptom onset. Necropsies were performed, and tissue samples were tested for EEHV viral presence using polymerase chain reaction. Molecular and phylogenetic evidence illustrated two types of EEHV, which were closely related to EEHV1A in Case 1 and EEHV4 in Case 2. Pathologic findings differed between the cases. More specific organ tropism was found in Case 1, where mainly the cardiovascular system was affected. In contrast, in Case 2, hemorrhages were noted in most organs, including in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. This report is the first to document EEHV4 in Asia and the second case of this strain to be identified in an elephant worldwide.

  2. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) homologue in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Yang, Chang-Geng; Sun, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Xian-Li; Chen, Song-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acts as an important mediator in multiple biological processes induced by different cytokines. So far, little information is available in fish STAT3. In this study, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) STAT3 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. The turbot STAT3 full-length cDNA consists of 2355 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 784 amino acids with four conserved domains including STAT_int, STAT_alpha, STAT_bind and SH2 domain. The phylogenetic tree showed that turbot STAT3 shared the closest relationship with mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) STAT3. The autoactivation experiment in yeast proved that turbot STAT3 was a strong transcription factor. The quantitative RT-PCR experiment indicated that Stat3 mRNA was expressed in widespread tissues with the highest expression levels in the liver. And the further expression patterns analysis revealed that turbot Stat3 expression levels were increased in liver, spleen, kidney of fish infected with Vibrio anguillarum and liver of fish infected with LCDV. Meantime, hepcidin, one of STAT3 target gene, was also up-regulated in liver of fish infected with two pathogens. These results suggested that turbot Stat3 may involved in the immune defense process as a transcription factor.

  3. A novel hepcidin-like in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) highly expressed after pathogen challenge but not after iron overload.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, P; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2012-05-01

    Hepcidins are antimicrobial peptides with an important role in the host innate immunity. Moreover, it has been reported that mammalian hepcidins present a dual-function being a key regulator in the iron homeostasis. Here, we describe the coding sequence of a novel hepcidin-like peptide in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. This molecule presents several differences with regard to the previously characterized hepcidin in this flatfish species and it has not the hypothetical iron regulatory sequence Q-S/I-H-L/I-S/A-L in the N-terminal region. Therefore we propose the existence of at least two types of hepcidin in turbot. Moreover, results revealed a higher variability in the mRNA sequences of the novel hepcidin compared with the other form. Constitutive expression of turbot hepcidins (Hepcidin-1 and Hepcidin-2) was analyzed in several tissues and as expected, both molecules were highly represented in liver. On the other hand, the effect of three different stimuli (bacterial or viral infection and iron overloading) in the level of hepcidin mRNA was also examined and a differential response to pathogens and iron was observed. Whereas both hepcidins were affected by pathogen challenge, only Hepcidin-1 was up-regulated after iron overloading. Therefore, this and other evidences suggest that these peptides could be involved in different functions covering the dual role of mammalian hepcidins.

  4. Exploitation of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) immune-related expressed sequence tag (EST) database for microsatellite screening and validation.

    PubMed

    Navajas-Pérez, R; Robles, F; Molina-Luzón, M J; De La Herrán, R; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Pardo, B G; Vera, M; Bouza, C; Martínez, P

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we identified and characterized 160 microsatellite loci from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from immune-related organs of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). A final set of 83 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after the analysis of 40 individuals of Atlantic origin including both wild and farmed individuals. The allele number and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 18 and from 0.021 to 0.951, respectively. Evidences of null alleles at moderate-high frequencies were detected at six loci using population data. None of the analysed loci showed deviations from Mendelian segregation after the analysis of five full-sib families including approximately 92 individuals/family. The markers are used to consolidate the turbot genetic map, and because they are mostly EST-derived, they will be very useful for comparative genomic studies within flatfishes and with model fish species. Using an in silico approach, we detected significant homologies of microsatellite sequences with the EST databases of the flatfish species with highest genomic resources (Senegalese sole, Atlantic halibut, bastard halibut) in 31% of these turbot markers. The conservation of these microsatellites within Pleuronectiformes will pave the way for anchoring genetic maps of different species and identifying genomic regions related to productive traits.

  5. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine on ovarian cyclicity and uterine morphology of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Murray, Suzan; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine to suppress ovarian steroidogenic activity and to treat hemorrhage and anemia associated with reproductive tract pathology in a 59-year-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The Repro-BLOC GnRH vaccine was administered subcutaneously as a series of 4 boosters of increasing dose from 3 to 30 mg of recombinant ovalbumin-GnRH fusion protein given at variable intervals after initial vaccination with 3 mg protein. Efficacy was confirmed over a year after initial vaccination based on complete ovarian cycle suppression determined by serum progestagen analyses. Estrous cycle suppression was associated with a significant increase in GnRH antibody binding and subsequent decrease in serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tract documented a reduction in uterine size and vascularity after immunization. The hematocrit level normalized soon after the initial intrauterine hemorrhage, and no recurrence of anemia has been detected. No substantive adverse effects were associated with GnRH vaccination. The results indicate that GnRH vaccination in elephants shows potential for contraception and management of uterine pathology in older elephants.

  6. Effect of a birth on the behavior of a family group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Dublin Zoo.

    PubMed

    Whilde, Jenny; Marples, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Elephants in the wild live in herds of related females from several generations. Zoos, therefore, tend to house elephants in female groups, consisting where possible of related individuals. This type of group structure is very beneficial as it allows group members to experience events such as births in the group, and means that natural social interactions can take place between the group members. The behavior of four related female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Dublin Zoo was recorded before and after the birth of a calf, to examine what effects it would have on the behavior and associations in the elephant group. The mother of the calf significantly decreased the amount of time she spent walking after the birth and the aunt of the calf showed significant decreases in both walking and standing. The mother spent the majority of her time closest to her calf after the birth, but the proportion of time she spent with each of the other individuals in the group did not change. The associations of the aunt also did not change after the birth. The older sister of the newborn calf increased the proportion of time she spent nearest to her mother after the calf was born, and reduced the time she spent close to another young elephant in the group. The new calf seems to have been successfully assimilated into the elephant group. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  8. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  10. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.

  11. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours. PMID:27508498

  12. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics.

    PubMed

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours.

  13. Variation in progesterone receptors and GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Saucedo, Lucía; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Fraunhoffer, Nicolás; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Halperín, Julia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, elevated levels of progesterone (P4) throughout gestation maintain a negative feedback over the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (H-H-G) axis, avoiding preovulatory follicular growth and preventing ovulation. Recent studies showed that in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) folliculogenesis progresses to preovulatory stages during gestation, and an ovulatory process seems to occur at midgestation. The aim of this work was to analyze hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and P4 receptors (PR) expression and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and correlate these with the functional state of the ovary in nonovulating and ovulating females and gestating females with special emphasis in the supposedly ovulating females at midgestation. We investigated P4 and LH serum levels as well as the distribution, localization, and expression of PR and GnRH in the hypothalamus of L. maximus at different time points during gestation and in nongestating, ovulating and nonovulating, females. A significant increment in GnRH, P4, and LH was detected in midpregnant vizcachas with respect to early-pregnant and to ovulating females. PR was also significantly increased in midpregnant animals. PR was detected in neurons of the preoptic and hypothalamic areas. Coexistence of both PR and GnRH in neurons of medial preoptic area and supraoptic nucleus was detected. Midpregnant animals showed increased number of PR immunoreactive cells at median eminence, localized adjacently to GnRH immunoreactive fibers. High expression of hypothalamic GnRH and PR, despite an increased level of P4, was correlated with the presence of antral, preovulatory follicles, and luteinized unruptured follicles at midgestation that suggest a possible role of the H-H-G axis in the modulation of ovulation during gestation in L. maximus.

  14. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting.

  15. Coupling experimental and field-based approaches to decipher carbon sources in the shell of the great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchais, V.; Richard, J.; Jolivet, A.; Flye-Sainte-Marie, J.; Thébault, J.; Jean, F.; Richard, P.; Paulet, Y.-M.; Clavier, J.; Chauvaud, L.

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated how the carbon isotopic composition of food source (δ13Cfood) and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) influences the carbon isotopic composition of Pecten maximus shells (δ13Cshell) under both experimental and natural conditions. The objectives are to better understand the relationship between P. maximus and its environment, and to specifically distinguish conditions under which calcification is influenced by respired CO2 derived from food sources versus conditions in which calcification uses inorganic carbon from seawater. Laboratory experiment investigated carbon incorporation into shell carbonates by maintaining scallops under conditions where the stable carbon isotopic composition of food sources was considerably depleted (-54‰), relative to values observed in the natural environment (-21‰). Laboratory experiment ran for 78 days under three temperature conditions, 15 °C, 21 °C and 25 °C. A survey of the environmental parameters and stable carbon isotopic composition into shell carbonate of natural population of P. maximus was also realized during the same year in the Bay of Brest, France. Data collected from both laboratory experiment and the natural environment confirmed that both δ13CDIC and δ13Cfood influence δ13Cshell values and that organic carbon incorporation (CM) averages about 10% (4.3-6.8% under experimental conditions and 1.9-16.6% in the natural environment). The shift in stable carbon isotopic composition from the uptake of depleted food sources under experimental conditions realized a marked divergence in the predicted equilibrium between calcium carbonate and ambient bicarbonate, relative to the natural environment. This offset was 1.7 ± 0.6‰ for scallops in their natural environment and 2.5 ± 0.5 and 3.2 ± 0.9‰ for scallops under experimental conditions at water temperatures of 15 °C and 21 °C, respectively. The offset of 3‰ for scallops subjected to laboratory experiment could not be explained

  16. Protective effect of glutamine and arginine against soybean meal-induced enteritis in the juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Bai, Nan; Xu, Bingying; Xu, Xiaojie; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2017-09-04

    Soybean meal can induce enteritis in the distal intestine (DI) and decrease the immunity of several cultured fish species, including turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Glutamine and arginine supplementation have been used to improve immunity and intestinal morphology in fish. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of these two amino acids on the immunity and intestinal health of turbot suffering from soybean meal-induced enteritis. Turbots (initial weight 7.6 g) were fed one of three isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets for 8 weeks: SBM (control diet), with 40% soybean meal; GLN, SBM diet plus 1.5% glutamine; ARG, the SBM diet plus 1.5% arginine. Symptoms that are typical of soybean meal-induced enteritis, including swelling of the lamina propria and subepithelial mucosa and a strong infiltration of various inflammatory cells was observed in fish that fed the SBM diet. Glutamine and arginine supplementation significantly increased (1) the weight gain and feed efficiency ratio; (2) the height and vacuolization of villi and the integrity of microvilli in DI; (3) serum lysozyme activity, and the concentrations of C3, C4, and IgM. These two amino acids also significantly decreased the infiltration of leucocytes in the lamina propria and submucosa and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including il-8, tnf-α, and tgf-β. For the mucosal microbiota, arginine supplementation significantly increased microbiota community richness and diversity, and glutamine supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Bacillus. These results indicate that dietary glutamine and arginine improved the growth performance, feed utilization, and distal intestinal morphology, activated the innate and adaptive immune systems, changed the intestinal mucosal microbiota community, and relieved SBMIE possibly by suppression of the inflammation response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of a long-acting ceftiofur crystalline-free acid formulation in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E; Allender, Matthew C; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2012-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of a long-acting formulation of ceftiofur, ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA), following SC injection to Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 11 adult Asian elephants. Each elephant received CCFA (6.6 mg/kg, SC) in the area caudoventral to the base of an ear. Blood samples were collected from an ear vein immediately prior to and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after CCFA administration. Plasma concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (the acetamide derivative of ceftiofur) were measured via ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetics approach. The mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide was 1.36 ± 0.74 μg/mL and was detected at 4718 ± 31.30 hours. The mean ± SD area under the curve from time 0 to infinity was 2278 ± 55.8 μg•h/mL, and the mean residence time from time 0 to infinity was 158.2 ± 90.2 hours. The terminal elimination half-life associated with the slope of the terminal phase had a harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD of 83.36 ± 30.01 hours. Elephants tolerated CCFA at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg, SC, well. Dosing recommendations will depend on the mean inhibitory concentration of ceftiofur for each bacterial pathogen. Desfuroylceftiofur acetamide concentrations remained > 0.25 μg/mL for the entire 168-hour study period, which suggested CCFA would provide clinically relevant antimicrobial activity against certain pathogens for 7 to 10 days.

  18. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mauvis A; Frey, Peter H; Ormond, Rupert F; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals' dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6-9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494-1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143-340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111-317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks.

  19. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  20. [Biochemical, physicochemical and functional characterization of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Study of the changes occurring during the 4 degrees C storage].

    PubMed

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristian; Aravena, María Elena; López, Luis; Ramírez, Alberto; Oyarzo, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a kind of flatfish that is well adapted to intensive farm culture. After the harvest it is necessary to know the physicochemical, biochemical and technological properties and if during the refrigerated storage, changes of these properties are developed. The main objective of the study was the assessment of the proximal composition, the biochemical, physicochemical and functional properties, and how they are influenced during the 16 days storage at 4 degrees C. Parameters such as centesimal composition, PAGE-SDS, and protein thermal stability through a DSC were carried out. pH, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) dripping, texture, holding water capacity (WHC), emulsification (EC) and gelification (GC) were also determined. Results for the proximal composition were: humidity 76.3%; fat content 2.71%; proteins 19.6%; and ashes 1.3%. Two different thermal transitions at 47.5 degrees C (myosin) and 76.9 degrees C (actin) were observed. The PAGE-SDS showed profiles corresponding to myofibrilars and sarcoplasmatic proteins, which presented no changes during the storage. pH experimented an increase from 5.9 to 6.6; TVB-N showed a variation from 20.0 to 39.5 mg TVB-N/100 g of muscle at the day 16. The WHC started with a 10.5% and ended in 58.1%; no GC was observed. The increase of the EC and WHC during the storage was due to conformational changes of proteins. The compression force presented a fluctuation between 111.2 and 106.0 N and the shear strain decreased during the storage from 148.6 to 95.2 N. The dripping showed a variation between 1.7% and 2.5%. According to the results of the storage during 16 days at 4 degrees C, the NBV-T content determined a shelf life of 14 days.

  1. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  2. Effects of dietary stachyose on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Li, Yanxian; Liu, Jintao

    2015-10-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary stachyose on the growth performance, digestive enzymes activities and intestinal structures of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L). Five isonitrogenous (49.58% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.50% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 0 (Control), 0.625% (S-0.625), 1.25% (S-1.25), 2.5% (S-2.5) and 5% (S-5) stachyose, respectively. With the increase of stachyose level, the growth performance and feed utilization of turbot, such as the specific growth rate, final mean body weight, weight gain rate and feed efficiency, increased significantly ( P< 0.05) and then stabilized. The feed intake of fish fed S-5 was significantly higher ( P< 0.05) than that of fish in other groups. The activities of trypsin, intestinal caseinolytic, stomach and intestinal amylase were significantly influenced by stachyose ( P<0.05). The highest values of trypsin and intestinal caseinolytic activities were observed in group S-1.25, while the highest activity of stomach amylase and the lowest activity of intestine amylase were observed in group S-5. No lesion or damage was found on the distal intestine structures of fish from all treatments, while the height of simple folds in the distal intestine was significantly increased ( P< 0.05) when 1.25% or 2.5% stachyose was added in the diets. These results indicated that moderate level of stachyose (1.25%) improves the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities and the distal intestine structures of juvenile turbot.

  3. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  4. Kinetics of viral loads and genotypic analysis of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 infection in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E; Weber, Martha A; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elphas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants.

  5. Perfecting the design of the gluteus maximus perforator-based island flap for coverage of buttock defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan; Naidu, Shenthilkumar

    2010-06-01

    The new design of the gluteus maximus perforator-based island flap for coverage of gluteal defects has the distinct advantage of being able to use customizable tissue components for coverage and at the same time sparing the source vessel. This adds a further option for use in reconstruction. After excisional débridement of the lesion, a perforator adjacent to the defect is selected. The tissue of the donor region is pinched to simulate closure. The change in shape of the recipient defect is noted and the dimensions of this new shape are measured. This will serve as the new dimensions of the donor tissue. The tissue components required to fill the defect are then analyzed and the flap is raised. It can be either muscle-sparing, muscle-splitting, or muscle-inclusive. A 1- to 2-cm diameter of soft tissue around the perforator is preserved. The flap is islanded and transposed, and the donor site is closed primarily, acting as a "locking barrier" to the flap. Tension-free closure of the recipient flap is then carried out. Seventy-five patients underwent closure of varying defects of the gluteal region using this technique. The authors had a total of three minor complications. The rest of the patients healed well, with no recurrence at a mean follow-up of 15 months. The flap design for coverage of gluteal defects has a great impact on recurrence and complications. This design is novel and the flap is simple to elevate. This is an ideal flap in any high-risk patient in whom the risk of recurrence is high.

  6. RNA-seq analysis of early enteromyxosis in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): new insights into parasite invasion and immune evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Robledo, Diego; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Pardo, Belén G; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Quiroga, María Isabel; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-07-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi, an intestinal myxozoan parasite, is the causative agent of a threatening disease for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. The colonisation of the digestive tract by this parasite leads to a cachectic syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This myxosporidiosis has a long pre-patent period and the first detectable clinical and histopathological changes are subtle. The pathogenic mechanisms acting in the early stages of infection are still far from being fully understood. Further information on the host-parasite interaction is needed to assist in finding efficient preventive and therapeutic measures. Here, a RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from experimentally-infected and control turbot was performed. Only infected fish with early signs of infection, determined by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of E. scophthalmi, were selected. The RNA-seq analysis revealed, as expected, less intense transcriptomic changes than those previously found during later stages of the disease. Several genes involved in IFN-related pathways were up-regulated in the three organs, suggesting that the IFN-mediated immune response plays a main role in this phase of the disease. Interestingly, an opposite expression pattern had been found in a previous study on severely infected turbot. In addition, possible strategies for immune system evasion were suggested by the down-regulation of different genes encoding complement components and acute phase proteins. At the site of infection (pyloric caeca), modulation of genes related to different structural proteins was detected and the expression profile indicated the inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation. These transcriptomic changes provide indications regarding the mechanisms of parasite attachment to and invasion of the host. The current results contribute to a better knowledge of the events that characterise the early

  7. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) hepcidin-1 and hepcidin-2 possess antimicrobial activity and promote resistance against bacterial and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Yu, Lan-Ping; Li, Mo-Fei; Sun, Li

    2014-05-01

    Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and a regulator of iron homeostasis. In turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), two types of hepcidins have been identified, which share approximately 50% sequence identity. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial potentials of the two hepcidins in the form of synthesized peptides, SmHep1P and SmHep2P. We found that SmHep1P and SmHep2P exhibited apparent bactericidal activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. The bactericidal effect of SmHep1P was stronger against Gram-positive bacteria, while the bactericidal effect of SmHep2P was stronger against Gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescence and electron microscopy showed that both peptides were able to bind to the target bacterial cells and alter the surface structure of the cells. In vitro studies showed that SmHep1P and SmHep2P reduced bacterial invasion into cultured fish cells. In vivo studies showed that turbot administered with SmHep1P and SmHep2P exhibited significantly enhanced resistance against bacterial and viral infection. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the antimicrobial activities of SmHep2P were in most cases significantly stronger than those of SmHep1P. Together these results indicate that the two hepcidins of turbot most likely possess antimicrobial properties and play a role in the innate immune defense against bacterial and viral pathogens.

  8. Protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus reared at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lin; Lei, Jilin; Ai, Chunxiang; Hong, Wanshu; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) reared at five salinities (12, 18, 24, 30, and 36). The fish were fed three isocaloric and isolipidic diets for 60 days. The results show that specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were higher in fish reared at salinities of 18 and 36, but lower at 12. Fish fed with diet C25P40 (25% carbohydrate and 40% protein) had lower SGR and FCE values compared with those fed with the C5P52 (5% carbohydrate and 52% protein) and C15P46 (15% carbohydrate and 46% protein) diets; however, there was no statistical difference between diet C5P52 and C15P46. SGR and FCE values were unaffected by diet composition in fish reared at salinity 36. Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities were higher in fish reared at 18 and 36, but lower at 12, while glucokinase (GK) activity was higher in fish reared at 12, and lower at 18 and 36. Dietary starch enhanced GK activity while depressing lipogenic enzyme activity. However, lipogenic enzyme activity increased with increasing dietary starch in fish reared at 36. It is recommended that salinity should be maintained >12 in the farming of juvenile turbot. In addition, an increase in gelatinized starch from 5% to 15% could spare 6% dietary protein in fish reared at salinities of 18-30, while higher salinity (36) could improve dietary carbohydrate use and enhance the protein-sparing effect, which is linked with the induction of lipogenic capacities.

  9. Effects of probiotic on microfloral structure of live feed used in larval breeding of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Jing, Yayun; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun; Li, Bin; Chen, Guiping; Zhang, Hesen

    2017-08-01

    The effects of an exogenous probiotic (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) on microbial community structure of Branchionus plicatils and Artemia sinica were evaluated in this study during turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larval breeding. The analysis and comparison of the microfloral composition of live feed with probiotic was conducted using the Illumina HiSeq PE250. The abundance of microbial species and diversity of microflora in live feed with B. amyloliquefaciens were higher than those in the control. The microfloral composition was similar among the three replicate experimental groups of B. plicatils compared with the control after enrichment. Lactococcus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Alteromonas were always dominant. Additionally, some other bacterial species became dominant during the enrichment process. The microbial community during nutrient enrichment of A. sinica was rather similar among the three control replicates. Relative abundance of Cobetia sp., the most dominant species, was 54%-65.2%. Similarity in the microbial community was still high after adding B. amyloliquefaciens. Furthermore, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas replaced Cobetia as the dominant species, and the abundance of Cobetia decreased to 4.3%-25.3%. Mean common ratios at the operational taxonomic unit level were 50%-60% between the two B. plicatils and A. sinica treatments. Therefore, the microbial community structure changed after adding B. amyloliquefaciens during nutrient enrichment of B. plicatils or A. sinica and tended to stabilize. Additionally, the abundance of Vibrio in any kind of live feed was not significantly different from that in the control. These results will help improve the microflora of B. plicatils and A. sinica and can be used to understand the multiple-level transfer role of probiotic species among probiotic products, microflora of live feed, and fish larvae.

  10. Estimates of the pharmacokinetics of famciclovir and its active metabolite penciclovir in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Brock, A Paige; Isaza, Ramiro; Hunter, Robert P; Richman, Laura K; Montali, Richard J; Schmitt, Dennis L; Koch, David E; Lindsay, William A

    2012-12-01

    To determine plasma pharmacokinetics of penciclovir following oral and rectal administration of famciclovir to young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). 6 healthy Asian elephants (5 females and 1 male), 4.5 to 9 years old and weighing 1,646 to 2,438 kg. Famciclovir was administered orally or rectally in accordance with an incomplete crossover design. Three treatment groups, each comprising 4 elephants, received single doses of famciclovir (5 mg/kg, PO, or 5 or 15 mg/kg, rectally); there was a minimum 12-week washout period between subsequent famciclovir administrations. Serial blood samples were collected after each administration. Samples were analyzed for famciclovir and penciclovir with a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy assay. Famciclovir was tolerated well for both routes of administration and underwent complete biotransformation to the active metabolite, penciclovir. Mean maximum plasma concentration of penciclovir was 1.3 μg/mL at 1.1 hours after oral administration of 5 mg/kg. Similar results were detected after rectal administration of 5 mg/kg. Mean maximum plasma concentration was 3.6 μg/mL at 0.66 hours after rectal administration of 15 mg/kg; this concentration was similar to results reported for humans receiving 7 mg/kg orally. Juvenile Asian elephants are susceptible to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus. Although most infections are fatal, case reports indicate administration of famciclovir has been associated with survival of 3 elephants. In Asian elephants, a dose of 8 to 15 mg of famciclovir/kg given orally or rectally at least every 8 hours may result in penciclovir concentrations that are considered therapeutic in humans.

  11. KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E.; Weber, Martha A.; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7–21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. PMID:23505702

  12. Visual Cues Given by Humans Are Not Sufficient for Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) to Find Hidden Food

    PubMed Central

    Plotnik, Joshua M.; Pokorny, Jennifer J.; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F.; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J.; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L.; Morrison, Violet M. B.; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K.; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S.; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L.; Duchatelier, Alicia P.; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species – due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits – are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants’ inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation. PMID:23613804

  13. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pharmacokinetic model of florfenicol in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): establishment of optimal dosage and administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    de Ocenda, V-R; Almeida-Prieto, S; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Barja, J L; Otero-Espinar, F J; Blanco-Méndez, J

    2017-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was studied after single intravenous (10 mg kg(-1) ) and oral (100 mg kg(-1) ) administration. The plasma concentration-time data of florfenicol were described by an open one-compartment model. The elimination half-life (t1/2 ) was estimated to be 21.0 h, and the total body clearance, Cl, was determined as 0.028 L kg h(-1) . The apparent volume distribution (Vd ) was calculated to be 0.86 L kg(-1) and the mean residence time (MRTiv ) was 30.2 h. Following oral administration, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of 55.4 μg mL(-1) was reached at 12 h (Tmax ). The absorption constant (ka ) was 0.158 h(-1) . The bioavailability was estimated to be 57.1%. The low bioavailability observed at higher doses was explained by the saturation of the mechanisms of absorption. The drug absorption process was limited by its inherent low solubility, which limited the amount of available FF absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, an optimal dosing schedule for FF administration is hereby provided. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration found for susceptible strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, oral FF administration of first, an initial dose of 30 mg FF kg(-1) , followed by 6 maintenance doses at 18 mg kg(-1) /daily could be effective against furunculosis in turbot.

  15. Synergistic action of rhizospheric fungi with Megathyrsus maximus root speeds up hydrocarbon degradation kinetics in oil polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Ahmad, Rafiq; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed at combining the potentials of plant and some rhizospheric fungal strains in remediation of crude-oil polluted soil. Four new rhizospheric fungi were identified from an aged crude-oil polluted site and used with Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) for a 90 day synergistic remediation experiment. Cultures of these strains were first mixed with spent mushroom compost (SMC), the mixture was then applied to a sterilized crude oil polluted soil at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% potted in three replicates. Soil with plant alone (0%1) and soil with fungi-SMC alone (0%2) served as controls. The soil's initial and final pH, nutrient, 16 EPA PAHs and heavy metal contents were determined, degradation rate, half-life and percentage loss of the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) were also calculated. Finally, the remediated soils were further screened for seed germination supporting index. The fungal strains were identified and registered at NCBI as Aspergillus niger asemoA (KY473958.1), Talaromyces purpurogenus asemoF (KY488463.1), Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ (KY488466.1) and Aspergillus flavus asemoM (KY488467.1). We observed for the first time that the synergistic mechanism improved the soil nutrient, reduced the heavy metal concentration and sped up hydrocarbon degradation rate. Using the initial and final concentrations of the TPAH, we recorded highest biodegradation rates (K1) and half-life (t1/2) in 30 and 40% treatments over controls, these treatments also had highest seed germination supporting index. This work suggests that the set-up synergistic remediation could be used to remediate crude oil polluted soil and this could be used in large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shuyan; Nie, Qin; Miao, Huijun; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-08-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:LIP) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (initial body weight 8.75 g ± 0.04 g). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic low protein level (39%) diets were formulated with increasing ratios of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (2:18, 6:18, 18:12 and 28:6). A high protein level (50%) diet with the 2:12 ratio of carbohydrate to lipid was used as the control. Results showed that the survival rate, contents of moisture, crude protein and ash in muscle were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. With the dietary CHO:LIP ratio increased from 2:18 to 18:12, weight gain rate significantly increased ( P < 0.05). Higher dietary CHO:LIP ratio (28:6) resulted in the significantly decreased weight gain rate ( P < 0.05). Meanwhile, this treatment also resulted in the highest daily feed intake and liver glycogen content, as well as the lowest feed efficiency ( P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen content in fish fed the diet with 2:12 or 2:18 CHO:LIP ratio was significantly lower than those fed with the other three diets ( P < 0.05). The present results confirmed that the juvenile turbot can utilize carbohydrate. Furthermore, the appropriate ratio of dietary carbohydrate to lipid was important to the growth and feed utilization of turbot. The proper CHO:LIP ratio based on the growth performance in the present study was determined to be 18:12 when the dietary protein level was 39%.

  18. Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Alan F.; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M.; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C.; Mikulski, Rose L.; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Ling, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  19. HEREDITARY FACTOR VII DEFICIENCY IN THE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CAUSED BY A F7 MISSENSE MUTATION.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; McGrath, Ken; Raj, Karthik; McLaren, Philippa; Payne, Karen; McCoy, Richard; Giger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary disorders and genetic predispositions to disease are rarely reported in captive and free-ranging wildlife, and none have been definitively identified and characterized in elephants. A wild-caught, 41-yr-old male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) without an apparent increased bleeding tendency was consistently found to have prolonged prothrombin times (PTs, mean=55±35 s) compared to 17 other elephants (PT=10±2 s). This elephant's partial thromboplastin times (PTT) fell within the normal range of the other elephants (12-30 s). A prolonged PT in the presence of a normal PTT suggests disruption of the extrinsic pathway via deficiency of coagulation Factor VII (FVII). This elephant's plasma FVII activity was very low (2%) compared to that of 15 other elephants (57-80%), but other coagulation factors' activities did not differ from the control elephants. Sequencing of genomic DNA from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood revealed a single homozygous point mutation (c.202A>G) in the F7 gene of the FVII deficient elephant that was not present in unrelated elephants. This mutation causes an amino acid substitution (p.Arg68Gly) that is predicted to be deleterious. Two living offspring of the affected elephant were heterozygous for the mutation and had normal plasma FVII activities and coagulation profiles. Tissue from a third offspring, a deceased calf, was utilized to show that it was also a heterozygote. A DNA test has been developed to enable the screening of additional elephants for this mutation. Consistent with FVII deficiency investigations in other species, the condition did not cause a serious bleeding tendency in this individual elephant.

  20. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-02-01

    Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P ≤ .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

  1. Distribution and linkage of domoic acid (amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of the scallop Pecten maximus.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, Aida; Blanco, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus accumulates domoic acid, the main amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the digestive gland for a long time. To try to find if the cause of this characteristic is the binding of the toxin to some cellular component, the subcellular distribution of domoic acid in the cells of the digestive gland was studied, by means of serial centrifugation, ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Domoic acid was found to be present mostly in soluble form in the cytosol, as more than 90% was found in the supernatant after a centrifugation of 1h at 45,000 x g, and passed a 10 kDa ultrafilter. The retention time of the peak with an absorption maximum of 242 nm--the one characteristic of domoic acid--observed in the SEC chromatograms of the scallop samples was found identical to be one of a reference solution of the toxin, indicating therefore, that domoic acid is free in the cytosol of the digestive gland of Pecten maximus. This finding turns the focus from binding to the lack of membrane transporters in this species of the scallop as the cause of the long retention time of domoic acid in this species.

  2. The colonic groove of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus): Histochemical evidence of an abrupt change in the glycosylation pattern of goblet cells.

    PubMed

    Tano de la Hoz, María Florencia; Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Zanuzzi, Carolina Natalia; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2017-07-20

    The ascending colon of most rodent species shows a longitudinal colonic groove that works as a retrograde transport pathway for a mixture of bacteria and mucus toward the cecum. We describe the morphology and glycosylation pattern of the colonic groove of Lagostomus maximus to analyze the role of mucins in this anatomical feature. We also studied the distribution pattern of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) to evaluate their regulatory influence on gut motility. The groove originated near the cecocolic junction and extended along the mesenteric side of the ascending colon, limited at both ends by nonpapillated ridges. These ridges divided the lumen of the ascending colon into two compartments: a narrow channel and a large channel, called the groove lumen and the main lumen, respectively. The histochemical analysis showed differences in the glycosylation pattern of the goblet cells inside and outside the groove. Unlike the mucosa lining the main lumen of the colon, the groove was rich in goblet cells that secrete sulfomucins. The PA/Bh/KOH/PAS technique evidenced an abrupt change in the histochemical profile of goblet cells, which presented a negative reaction in the groove and a strongly positive one in the rest of the colonic mucosa. The anti-c-kit immunohistochemical analysis showed different ICC subpopulations in the ascending colon of L. maximus. Of all types identified, the ICC-SM were the only cells located solely within the colonic groove. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular analysis of the seasonal expression of genes coding for different functional markers of the digestive gland of the bivalve mollusk Pecten maximus (L.).

    PubMed

    Le Pennec, Gaël; Le Pennec, Marcel

    2002-11-01

    Digestive gland cells of Pecten maximus accumulate and release lipid storage according to a seasonal cycle. For the first time in molluscs, molecular probes were developed and applied to monitor the lipid accumulation and consumption cycle related to phytoplankton blooms and phenomena of cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The molecular probes consisted of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), which is involved in the acetylation of fatty acids; aldolase, which favours the formation of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone; actin, an essential element of the cytoskeleton that disappears during adipocyte cell transformation; and cycline B, an ubiquitous cell cycle protein. Alpha-amylase, provided by IFREMER-Brest (France), was used to relate these different events to the animal's food supply. A positive relation between GPD and aldolase gene expressions was inversely correlated with that of actin, confirming results in mammals. In P. maximus, mRNA transcripts of GPD and aldolase decrease rapidly before gamete emissions whereas those of actin increase rapidly. After gamete emission, the mRNA levels of aldolase, GPD and alpha-amylase increase, while those of actin decrease. Cycline B mRNA transcripts indicate that the period of digestive cell proliferation is initiated during winter, prior to the release of lipids into the digestive tract and apoptosis. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  4. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). correlation with fine structural organization.

    PubMed

    Scaraffia, P Y; Maldonado, C; Aoki, A; De Burgos, N M

    2001-01-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.

  5. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Mauvis A.; Frey, Peter H.; Ormond, Rupert F.; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals’ dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6–9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494–1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143–340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111–317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks. PMID

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junping; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Liu, Ping; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus, an important aquaculture species in China, currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture. Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections. However, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight, at 16°C and 10°C water temperatures. The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma, muscle, liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC. The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration. Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures. The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent. The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration, whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16°C and 10°C, respectively. The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16°C than that at 10°C, and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues. The plasma C max /MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16°C; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10°C. The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16°C, and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10°C. These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy. Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected. The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  7. Comparative study of different exposure routes on the biotransformation and genotoxicity of PAHs in the flatfish species, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Le Dû-Lacoste, Marie; Akcha, Farida; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Morin, Bénédicte; Burgeot, Thierry; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out in order to come to a better understanding of the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the marine environment and especially on their bioaccumulation, biotransformation and genotoxic effects in fish. Juveniles of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed to PAHs through different routes via (1) a mixture of dissolved PAHs, (2) a PAH-polluted sediment and (3) an oil fuel elutriate. Fish were exposed 4 days followed by a 6-day depuration period. In each experiment, PAH concentrations in the seawater of the tanks were analysed regularly by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Muscle and liver samples were also analysed for parent PAH levels and PAH bioconcentration factors were calculated. Biotransformation was evaluated by measuring the levels of PAH metabolites in fish bile. Genotoxicity was assessed by the alkaline comet assay. Regardless of exposure route, the parent PAH concentrations in the liver and muscle showed a peak level 1 day after the beginning of the exposure, followed by a decrease up to the background level towards the end of the experiment, except for the exposure to dissolved PAHs for which levels were relatively low throughout the study. As a consequence, no bioaccumulation was observed in fish tissues at the end of the experiment. In contrast, regardless of exposure routes, a rapid production of biliary metabolites was observed throughout the whole exposure experiment. This was especially true for 1-hydroxypyrene, the major metabolite of pyrene. After 6 days of recovery in clean water, a significant decrease in the total metabolite concentrations occurred in bile. Fish exposed through either route displayed a significant increase in DNA strand breaks after 4 days of exposure, and significant correlations were observed between the level of biliary PAH metabolites and the level of DNA lesions in fish erythrocytes. Overall results indicate that exposure to either a

  8. Responses of conventional and molecular biomarkers in turbot Scophthalmus maximus exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Theron, Michael; Le Floch, Stéphane; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2012-07-15

    Several accidental spills in European coastal areas have resulted in the release of different toxic compounds into the marine environment, such as heavy fuel oil type no. 6 in the "Erika" and "Prestige" oil spills and the highly toxic styrene after the loss of the "Ievoli Sun". There is a clear need to develop tools that might allow assessing the biological impact of these accidental spills on aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects and recovery after exposure of juvenile fish (Scophthalmus maximus) to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene by using a battery of molecular, cell and tissue level biomarkers. Turbots were exposed to styrene for 7 days and to the diluted soluble fraction of the oil (10%) for 14 days, and then allowed to recover in clean seawater for the same time periods. cyp1a1 transcript was overexpressed in turbots after 3 and 14 days of exposure to heavy fuel oil, whereas ahr transcription was not modulated after heavy fuel oil and styrene exposure. pparα transcription level was significantly up-regulated after 3 days of treatment with styrene. Liver activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) was significantly induced after 14 days of oil exposure, but it was not affected by styrene. Hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced after exposure to both treatments, indicating that the tested compounds significantly impaired fish health. Both AOX and LMS values returned to control levels after the recovery period. No differences in gamete development were observed between fuel- or styrene- exposed fish and control fish, and vitellogenin plasma levels were low, suggesting no xenoestrogenic effects of fuel oil or styrene. While styrene did not cause any increase in the prevalence of liver histopathological alterations, prevalence of extensive cell vacuolization increased after exposure to heavy fuel oil for 14 days. In conclusion, the suite of selected biomarkers proved to be

  9. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with a newborn calf.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, Larry; Hulst, Frances; Thompson, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Herrin, Kimberly A Vinette

    2015-03-01

    In 2006, five Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were imported to Taronga Zoo, Australia, from Thailand. Pre-import and initial postarrival tuberculosis screening was performed by trunk wash (TW) culture and was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In April 2009, the ElephantTB STAT-PAK (SP) assay was used to test the elephants. A 15.5-yr-old pregnant cow was reactive. TW frequency for this cow was increased from annually to quarterly. TW cultures remained negative on all other elephants. In February 2010, the Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB assay was used for the first time, and the SP-reactive cow also reacted on the DPP. A SP was run concurrently and was reactive. All other elephants were nonreactive on both assays. Treatment was not initiated due to concern about the effect of antituberculous drugs on the fetus. Quarterly TW cultures continued. The cow gave birth on 2 November 2010. A routine TW on 24 November 2010 was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Although previous shedding could not be ruled out, reactivation of latent infection or exacerbation of subclinical disease due to parturition was suspected. Treatment with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol commenced. A 12-mo treatment course was completed within a 15-mo period. The isolate was susceptible to these drugs and genotyped as a Beijing strain. Stored serum samples from 2004 and 2006 were tested retrospectively and were reactive on SP and DPP. TW, SP, and DPP screening frequency increased to monthly for the positive cow on commencement of treatment in January 2011. Monthly serum biochemistry indicated drug-induced hepatitis. Therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted to ensure therapeutic levels were achieved. The infant calf was reactive on DPP, but TW culture negative, and was not treated. Serial DPP results for the cow and calf during and after treatment indicated that the antibody levels were declining, suggesting a favorable response to therapy in the dam, and that the origin

  10. Transcriptome Analysis for Identification of Genes Related to Gonad Differentiation, Growth, Immune Response and Marker Discovery in The Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Deyou; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Wang, Guangning; Wang, Ting; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2016-01-01

    Background Turbot Scophthalmus maximus is an economically important species extensively aquacultured in China. The genetic selection program is necessary and urgent for the sustainable development of this industry, requiring more and more genome background knowledge. Transcriptome sequencing is an excellent alternative way to identify transcripts involved in specific biological processes and exploit a considerable quantity of molecular makers when no genome sequences are available. In this study, a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of S. maximus was produced on basis of an Illumina platform. Results Total RNA was isolated from liver, spleen, kidney, cerebrum, gonad (testis and ovary) and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each type of tissues were pooled to construct two cDNA libraries (male and female). Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, nearly 44.22 million clean reads in length of 100 bp were generated and then assembled into 106,643 contigs, of which 71,107 were named unigenes with an average length of 892 bp after the elimination of redundancies. Of these, 24,052 unigenes (33.83% of the total) were successfully annotated. GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis were performed to predict potential genes and their functions. Based on our sequence analysis and published documents, many candidate genes with fundamental roles in sex determination and gonad differentiation (dmrt1), growth (ghrh, myf5, prl/prlr) and immune response (TLR1/TLR21/TLR22, IL-15/IL-34), were identified for the first time in this species. In addition, a large number of credible genetic markers, including 21,192 SSRs and 8,642 SNPs, were identified in the present dataset. Conclusion This informative transcriptome provides valuable new data to increase genomic resources of Scophthalmus maximus. The future studies of corresponding gene functions will be very useful for the management of reproduction, growth and disease control in turbot aquaculture

  11. Clinical disorders in armadillos (Dasypodidae, Edentata) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Costa, E O; Oliveira, P M

    1997-12-01

    The major health problems found in 113 armadillos are presented and correlated with management in captivity. The most common of 217 recorded clinical disorders involved injury (28.5%), digestive system (17.9%), respiratory system (15.2%), nutritional deficiency (13.3%), skin problems (3.6%), septicaemia (1.8%), nervous system (1.3%), urinary system (0.9%) and effects of environmental (0.9%), with 14.7% of the cases inconclusive. Internal parasites were identified in 42.0% of faeces samples, mainly eggs of helminths (66.6%), of which the commonest were Ancylostoma sp. (33.3%), Strongyloides sp. (30.5%), Ascaris sp. (25.0%), Trichuris sp. (11.1%), and also protozoa (13.0%). Enterobacteriaceae were the bacteria most frequently isolated, with Escherichia coli the most prevalent, followed by Salmonella sp. and Enterobacter aerogenes. The most successful treatments are listed. The influence of some captive factors on the onset of the diseases was also analysed: donated animals 91.1% and zoo born 8.8%; quarantine enclosure 84.0% and exhibition 15.0%; and related to time in captivity, 92.2% occurred with animals in the first 6 months in the zoo and 7.8% with animals more than 6 months.

  12. Protection and antibody response induced by intramuscular DNA vaccine encoding for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G glycoprotein in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Pereiro, P; Martinez-Lopez, A; Falco, A; Dios, S; Figueras, A; Coll, J M; Novoa, B; Estepa, A

    2012-06-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a high-value farmed marine flatfish with growing demand and production levels in Europe susceptible to turbot-specific viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) strains. To evaluate the possibility of controlling the outbreaks of this infectious disease by means of DNA vaccination, the gpG of a VHSV isolated from farmed turbot (VHSV(860)) was cloned into an expression plasmid containing the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (pMCV1.4-G(860)). In our experimental conditions, DNA immunised turbots were more than 85% protected against VHSV(860) lethal challenge and showed both VHSV-gpG specific and neutralizing antibodies. To our knowledge this is the first report showing the efficacy of turbot genetic immunisation against a VHSV. Work is in progress to determine the contribution of innate and adaptive immunity to the protective response elicited by the immunization.

  13. USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS A COMPONENT OF TUSK FRACTURE MANAGEMENT IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) AND AN AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    PubMed

    Sim, Richard R; Stringer, Elizabeth; Donovan, Dennis; Chappell, Rachael; Flora, Pat; Hall, Jon; Pillay, Selvum; Willis, Benjamin G; McCain, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue. A 34-yr-old male African elephant with a longitudinal crack received a carbon fiber/fiberglass composite circumferential wrap to potentially stabilize the crack. Compression of the crack was achieved, but follow-up was truncated due to bacterial pulpitis. Both cases show that composite material allows for lightweight, durable management of tusk fractures with continued radiographic monitoring.

  14. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: the case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Coppola, Daniele; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Panti, Cristina; de Sabata, Eleonora; Clò, Simona

    2014-09-01

    The impact of microplastics (plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm) on large filter feeding marine organisms such as baleen whales and sharks are largely unknown. These species potentially are ingesting micro-litter by filter feeding activity. Here we present the case studies of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) exploring the toxicological effects of microplastics in these species measuring the levels of phthalates in both species. The results show higher concentration of MEHP in the muscle of basking shark in comparison to fin whale blubber. These species can be proposed as indicators of microplastics in the pelagic environment in the implementation of Descriptor 8 and 10 of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  15. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Ganswindt, André; Seshagiri, Polani B; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress) metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants.

  16. Expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factors I and II during embryonic and early larval development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haishen; Qi, Qian; Hu, Jian; Si, Yufeng; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important proteins involved in fish growth and development. Here, we report the isolation of IGF-II and expression analysis of IGFs in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, aiming to clarify their function in embryonic and larval development of fish. The deduced IGF-II gene is 808 bp in full length, which encodes a protein of 219 amino acids and is 93% similar with that of Paralichthys olicaceus in amino acid sequence. The tissue abundance and the expression pattern of IGFs in a turbot at early development stages were investigated via reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction. Result showed that the IGF-I and IGF-II genes were widely expressed in tissues of S. maximus. IGF-I was detected in all tissues except intestines with the highest level in liver, while IGF-II transcript presented in all tissues except muscle. At the stages of embryonic and larval development, the mRNA levels of IGFs sharply increased from the stage of unfertilized egg to post larva, followed by a decrease with larval development. However, there was an increase in IGF-I at the embryonic stage and IGF-II at the gastrula stage, respectively. These results suggested that IGFs play important roles in cell growth and division of the turbot. Our study provides reference data for further investigation of growth regulation in turbot, which can guarantee better understanding of the physiological role that IGFs play in fish.

  17. A model of dynamic sacro-iliac joint instability from malrecruitment of gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles resulting in low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Nokes, L D M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose a biomechanical model of sacro-iliac joint dysfunction as a cause of low back pain. Sacro-iliac joint is known to be a source of low back pain. We also know that it is a very stable joint with little mobility. Surrounding lower limb and back muscles contribute a major part of this stability. Gait analysis studies have revealed an orderly sequence of muscle activation when we walk - that contributes to efficient stabilisation of the joint and effective weight transfer to the lower limb. Gluteus maximus fibres-lying almost perpendicular to the joint surfaces are ideally oriented for this purpose. Biceps femoris is another important muscle that can also influence joint stability by its proximal attachment to sacrotuberous ligament. Altered pattern of muscle recruitment has been observed in patients with low back pain. But we do not know the exact cause-effect relationship. Because of its position as a key linkage in transmission of weight from the upper limbs to the lower, poor joint stability could have major consequences on weight bearing. It is proposed that sacro-iliac joint dysfunction can result from malrecruitment of gluteus maximus motor units during weight bearing. This results in compensatory biceps over activation. The resulting soft tissue strain and joint instability may manifest itself in low back pain. If our hypothesis holds true, it may have positive implications for patients with sacro-iliac joint dysfunction - who could be offered a definite diagnosis and targeted physiotherapy. It may be possible to identify patients early in a primary care setting and offer direct physio referral. They could benefit from exercises to improve strengthening and recruitment of the affected muscles.

  18. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  19. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michele A.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Meehan, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  20. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  1. Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus) and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) on a Retail Level

    PubMed Central

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Rehbein, Hartmut; Schröder, Ute

    2015-01-01

    An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1) in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89%) and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P) (up to 9) compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5). Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects. PMID:28231221

  2. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  3. Less invasive blood sampling in the animal laboratory: clinical chemistry and haematology of blood obtained by the Triatominae bug Dipetalogaster maximus.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, S N; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Ritz, C; Sørensen, D B

    2012-04-01

    Dipetalogaster maximus (Dipmax), a blood-sucking bug belonging to the family Reduviidae, has been used to obtain blood samples, for example for clinical chemistry and haematology, in a variety of zoo animals and wildlife. Using this bug allows stress-free blood sampling as the bug is able to draw blood without the mammal noticing the bug. In laboratory animal science, the need for blood samples from unstressed animals may arise, especially in animal behaviour research. The use of Dipmax bugs may prove a valuable tool for this purpose. To validate the method, we compared an array of standard blood parameters sampled from New Zealand White rabbits, sampled either by the use of bugs or by the conventional method; puncture of vena auricularis caudalis. The overall hypothesis was that there was no significant difference in clinical chemistry and haematological parameters between the bug method and the conventional method. A total of 17 clinical parameters as well as 12 haematological parameters were measured and compared in New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed that for 13 of these 29 analysed parameters, the bug method and the conventional method did not give significantly different results, and the obtained results were thus directly comparable. For the remaining parameters the obtained results were significantly different. However, all parameters were measurable in the bug samples. The influences of the bug metabolism on these parameters are discussed.

  4. The distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of Pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.

    PubMed

    Bouley, D M; Alarcón, C N; Hildebrandt, T; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E

    2007-10-01

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. Unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. The distribution, morphology and tissue density of Pacinian corpuscles, specialized mechanoreceptors, were studied in a forefoot and hindfoot of Asian elephants. Pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis and distal digital cushion and were most densely localized to the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral region of each foot, with the highest numbers in the anterior region of the forefoot (52.19%) and the posterior region of the hindfoot (47.09%). Pacinian corpuscles were encapsulated, had a typical lamellar structure and were most often observed in large clusters. Three-dimensional reconstruction through serial sections of the dermis revealed that individual Pacinian corpuscles may be part of a cluster. By studying the distribution and density of these mechanoreceptors, we propose that Pacinian corpuscles are one possible anatomic mechanism used by elephants to detect seismic waves.

  5. Tissue expression of PPAR-α isoforms in Scophthalmus maximus and transcriptional response of target genes in the heart after exposure to WY-14643.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2013-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and can be activated either by natural ligands as fatty acids or by synthetic ligands including several environmental chemicals. In this study, two PPARα isoforms (α1 and α2) were analyzed in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) for a different tissue distribution. PPARα1 was ubiquitously expressed, while the PPARα2 was predominantly expressed in the heart. Following this result, turbot juveniles were exposed by injection to a synthetic selective PPARα agonist, WY-14643, for 14 days. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed with pools of heart samples of control and exposed fish to get insights into PPARα-regulated genes in the heart of juvenile turbot. Four genes were positively identified in the forward-subtracted and 12 genes in the reverse-subtracted cDNA SSH library, corresponding to the down-regulated and up-regulated genes in response to the WY-14643 treatment, respectively. The confirmation of these results in individual samples of juvenile turbot exposed to WY-14643 revealed a statistically significant mRNA induction of two cardiac muscle proteins (myosin light chain 2 and tropomyosin 4), which were shown to be involved in heart contraction and heartbeat regulation in other teleost species. Herewith, we showed for the first time that PPARα2 is predominantly expressed in the heart and that a PPARα agonist can induce the mRNA expression of cardiac muscle proteins in teleosts.

  6. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening.

  7. Development and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Markers from Two Transcriptome 454-Runs of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Using High-Throughput Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Vera, Manuel; Alvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Fernandez, Carlos; Bouza, Carmen; Vilas, Roman; Martinez, Paulino

    2013-03-12

    The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a commercially valuable flatfish and one of the most promising aquaculture species in Europe. Two transcriptome 454-pyrosequencing runs were used in order to detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to immune response and gonad differentiation. A total of 866 true SNPs were detected in 140 different contigs representing 262,093 bp as a whole. Only one true SNP was analyzed in each contig. One hundred and thirteen SNPs out of the 140 analyzed were feasible (genotyped), while Ш were polymorphic in a wild population. Transition/transversion ratio (1.354) was similar to that observed in other fish studies. Unbiased gene diversity (He) estimates ranged from 0.060 to 0.510 (mean = 0.351), minimum allele frequency (MAF) from 0.030 to 0.500 (mean = 0.259) and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. A large number of SNPs (49) were located in the coding region, 33 representing synonymous and 16 non-synonymous changes. Most SNP-containing genes were related to immune response and gonad differentiation processes, and could be candidates for functional changes leading to phenotypic changes. These markers will be useful for population screening to look for adaptive variation in wild and domestic turbot.

  8. Development and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Markers from Two Transcriptome 454-Runs of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Using High-Throughput Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Manuel; Alvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Fernandez, Carlos; Bouza, Carmen; Vilas, Roman; Martinez, Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a commercially valuable flatfish and one of the most promising aquaculture species in Europe. Two transcriptome 454-pyrosequencing runs were used in order to detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to immune response and gonad differentiation. A total of 866 true SNPs were detected in 140 different contigs representing 262,093 bp as a whole. Only one true SNP was analyzed in each contig. One hundred and thirteen SNPs out of the 140 analyzed were feasible (genotyped), while III were polymorphic in a wild population. Transition/transversion ratio (1.354) was similar to that observed in other fish studies. Unbiased gene diversity (He) estimates ranged from 0.060 to 0.510 (mean = 0.351), minimum allele frequency (MAF) from 0.030 to 0.500 (mean = 0.259) and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. A large number of SNPs (49) were located in the coding region, 33 representing synonymous and 16 non-synonymous changes. Most SNP-containing genes were related to immune response and gonad differentiation processes, and could be candidates for functional changes leading to phenotypic changes. These markers will be useful for population screening to look for adaptive variation in wild and domestic turbot. PMID:23481633

  9. Effect of mine discharge on the pattern of riverine habitat use of elephants Elephas maximus and other mammals in Singhbhum forests, Bihar, India

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.K.; Chowdhury, S.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to access the influence of water quality both on the occurrence of, and utilization by, elephants (Elephas maximus) in a riverine habitat. Mining operations and other anthropogenic changes to natural river systems have caused degradation of the ecosystem for elephants. A decline in their numbers has been seen throughout the Singhbhum Forests, India due to fragmentation and loss of habitat. The need to preserve and restore the habitat of the elephant is accepted, but until the factors that influence their distribution are known and understood, suitable management plans cannot be implemented. The study area was the catchment of the river Koina where waste discharge from an iron oremine and processing plant impact upon water quality. The study period from April 1995 to March 1996 looked at sections of the river where unregulated mine discharge was made, and where regulation through tailing ponds controlled total suspended solids (TSS) output from the mine waste water to the river system. Various physico-chemical parameters recorded at seven sampling stations were quantified. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) segregated the key parameters in determining the discharge levels of both regulated and unregulated discharge at various sites.

  10. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae.

  11. The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lipid and protein oxidation levels in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) and their relationship with semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, S; Promthep, K; Buranaamnuay, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Saikhun, K

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidation damage to spermatozoa and seminal plasma has an important role in sperm quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of lipid and protein oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with varying percentage of progressive motility. Lipid and protein oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) assay and the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Fresh semen samples were collected from Asian elephants and classified according to the percentage of motile spermatozoa into good (>60%) and poor (≤20%) motility. Results revealed that seminal plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and seminal plasma protein carbonyls (PCs) were significantly higher in poor motility than in good motility (p < .05). The MDA and PC levels in seminal plasma were negatively correlated with the percentages of progressive motility (p < .05). In addition, the negative correlation between sperm concentration and seminal plasma MDA level was investigated (p < .05). The sperm viability was also negatively correlated with sperm PC level (p < .05). This study indicated that lipid and protein oxidation has deleterious effect on semen quality of Asian elephants. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Induction of glutathione-S-transferases in primary cultured digestive gland acini from the mollusk bivalve Pecten maximus (L.): application of a new cellular model in biomonitoring studies.

    PubMed

    Le Pennec, Gaël; Le Pennec, Marcel

    2003-07-16

    In the last three decades, marine invertebrates have been used to monitor environmental health conditions and potential pollution, e.g. in the Mussel Watch Program. The whole animal or specific organs are used to determine contamination levels and disturbances. In the present study, a new in vitro cell culture model was validated for pollution monitoring. A commercial species, the scallop Pecten maximus, was tested for the presence and induction of phase II glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes. These activities were monitored for a year, and the results were found to be consistent with those in the literature. Tributyltin, ethylmethane sulfonate and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil were assayed in, in vitro induction studies. A rapid increase of GST activities was observed within 24 h with all compounds tested, and a time- as well as a dose-response was established. This in vitro cell culture model seems suitable for routine use to predict the effects of pollutants on whole organisms within an ecosystem and in fisheries.

  14. Demonstration of nutrient pathway from the digestive system to oocytes in the gonad intestinal loop of the scallop Pecten maximus L.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Peter G; Le Pennec, Gaël; Le Pennec, Marcel

    2003-08-01

    The mechanism of nutrient transfer from the digestive system to the gonad acini and developing oocytes was investigated in the gonad-intestinal loop system of the queen scallop Pecten maximus L. Ferritin was injected directly into the purged intestine of specimens from the wild. Subsequently, a histochemical reaction and transmission electron microscopy were used to localize ferritin in various cell types. Ferritin was rapidly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium, and then appeared in hemocytes in the surrounding connective tissue. In the hemocytes, ferritin was stored in variously sized inclusions, as well as in the general cytoplasm. In all sections examined for the 12 experimental individuals, hemocytes were always found in association with connective tissue fibers extending from the base of the intestinal epithelium to gonad acini. After 30-min incubation, ferritin appeared inside the acini of all individuals. Ferritin-bearing cells were rarely found in association with male acini or gametes, nor with mature female gametes, but often with developing female gametes. Not all individuals showed the same temporal dynamics of ferritin transport, suggesting that nutrient transfer to oocytes is either not a continuous process, or that among individuals, transfer is not synchronized on short time scales. This is the first demonstration of a pathway of nutrient transfer from the intestine, and more generally the digestive system, to developing oocytes in the Bivalvia.

  15. Tissue Localization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Receptor-27.8 kDa and Its Expression Kinetics Induced by the Viral Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Wu, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The 27.8 kDa membrane protein expressed in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill cells was proved to be a receptor mediating lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection. In this study, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting demonstrated that 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was shared by flounder and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and immunohistochemistry showed that 27.8R was widely expressed in tested tissues of healthy turbot. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that 27.8R expression was relatively higher in stomach, gill, heart, and intestine, followed by skin, head kidney, spleen, blood cells, kidney and liver, and lower in ovary and brain in healthy turbot, and it was significantly up-regulated after LCDV infection. Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that LCDV was detected in heart, peripheral blood cells, and head kidney at 3 h post infection (p.i.), and then in other tested tissues at 12 h p.i. LCDV copies increased in a time-dependent manner, and were generally higher in the tissues with higher 27.8R expression. Additionally, IIFA showed that 27.8R and LCDV were detected at 3 h p.i. in some leukocytes. These results suggested that 27.8R also served as a receptor in turbot, and LCDV can infect some leukocytes which might result in LCDV spreading to different tissues in turbot. PMID:26556346

  16. Quorum Sensing Involved in the Spoilage Process of the Skin and Flesh of Vacuum-Packaged Farmed Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Wu, Haohao; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Pan, Yurong; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-10-03

    Fish skin has both positive and negative effects on the shelf-life of the fish. This study aimed to investigate the spoilage process of the skin and flesh of refrigerated farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with vacuum packaging. Microbial community changes were analyzed by combining culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The results indicated that the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot was 16 d; skin mucus was the interference factor of turbot quality. The culture-dependent analysis demonstrated that the total viable counts and the population of H2 S-producing bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., and lactic acid bacteria in skin had a range of 0.45 to 1.40 log (CFU/g) higher than the microbial numbers in flesh after 16 d in storage. 16S high throughout sequencing results demonstrated that the compositions of spoilage microbes were similar in skin and flesh. Shewanella spp., followed by Carnobacterium spp., was the dominant spoilage organism at day 16. Quorum sensing (QS) signaling activity increased during the storage. Exogenous N-butanoyl-L-homoserinelactone(C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl-Lhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL) significantly accelerated the spoilage process of refrigerated turbot, while the addition of 4, 5-Dihydroxypentane-2, 3-dione (DPD) prolonged the lag phase duration. Therefore, QS may be involved in the spoilage process of refrigerated turbot.

  17. Specific pathways for the incorporation of dissolved barium and molybdenum into the bivalve shell: an isotopic tracer approach in the juvenile Great Scallop (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Hélène; Pomerleau, Sébastien; Jolivet, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Riso, Ricardo; Thébault, Julien; Chauvaud, Laurent; Amouroux, David

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved barium and molybdenum incorporation in the calcite shell was investigated in the Great Scallop Pecten maximus. Sixty six individuals were exposed for 16 days to two successive dissolved Ba and Mo concentrations accurately differentiated by two different isotopic enrichments (⁹⁷Mo, ⁹⁵Mo; ¹³⁵Ba, ¹³⁷Ba). Soft tissue and shell isotopic composition were determined respectively by quantitative ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and laser ablation--ICP-MS. Results from Ba enrichment indicate the direct incorporation of dissolved Ba into the shell in proportion to the levels in the water in which they grew with a 6-8 day delay. The low spike contributions and the low partition coefficient (D(Mo) = 0.0049 ± 0.0013), show that neither the soft tissue nor the shell were significantly sensitive to Mo enrichment. These results eliminate direct Mo shell enrichment by the dissolved phase, and favour a trophic uptake that will be investigated using the successive isotopic enrichment approach developed in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR for detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 infection in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Sariya, Ladawan; Chatsirivech, Jarin; Suksai, Parut; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Songjaeng, Adisak; Tangsudjai, Siriporn; Kanthasaewee, Oraphan; Maikaew, Umaporn; Chaichoun, Kridsada

    2012-10-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Several studies have described this virus as a major threat to young Asian elephants. A SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to identify EEHV1 on trunk swabs and necropsied tissues. Two of 29 (6.9%) trunk swab samples from healthy Asian elephants were positive for EEHV1. The viruses were analyzed and classified as EEHV1A based on 231 nucleotides of the terminase gene. Necropsied spleen and heart tissue showed the highest level and second highest levels of DNA virus copy accumulation, respectively. The detection limit of the test was 276 copies/μl of DNA. There was no cross-reaction with other mammalian herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpesvirus 2. Inter- and intra-assay showed low coefficients of variation values indicating the reproducibility of the test. The results indicated that the test can be practically used for epidemiological study, clinical diagnosis, and management and control of EEHV1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of feedback techniques for lower back pain on gluteus maximus and oblique abdominal muscle activity and angle of pelvic rotation during the clam exercise.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Kyung; Park, Kyue-Nam; Jung, Do-Young

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of feedback tools on activities of the gluteus maximus (Gmax) and oblique abdominal muscles and the angle of pelvic rotation during clam exercise (CE). Comparative study using repeated measures. University laboratory. Sixteen subjects with lower back pain. Each subject performed the CE without feedback, the CE using a pressure biofeedback unit (CE-PBU), and the CE with palpation and visual feedback (CE-PVF). Electromyographic (EMG) activity and the angles of pelvic rotation were measured using surface EMG and a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, respectively. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare the EMG activity in each muscle as well as the angle of pelvic rotation during the CE, CE-PBU, and CE-PVF. The results of post-hoc testing showed a significantly reduced angle of pelvic rotation and significantly more Gmax EMG activity during the CE-PVF compared with during the CE and CE-PBU. These findings suggest that palpation and visual feedback is effective for activating the Gmax and controlling pelvic rotation during the CE in subjects with lower back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic gene transcription profiles in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally exposed to heavy fuel oil nº 6 and to styrene.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Bilbao, Eider; Ruiz, Pamela; Pardo, Belén G; Martínez, Paulino; Cajaraville, Miren P; Cancio, Ibon

    2017-02-01

    Oil and chemical spills in the marine environment, although sporadic, are highly dangerous to biota inhabiting coastal and estuarine areas. Effects of spilled compounds in exposed organisms occur at different biological organization levels: from molecular, cellular or tissue levels to the physiological one. The present study aims to determine the specific hepatic gene transcription profiles observed in turbot juveniles under exposure to fuel oil n °6 and styrene vs controls using an immune enriched turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray containing 2716 specific gene probes. After 3 days of exposure, fuel oil specifically induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated transcriptional response through up-regulation of genes, such as ahrr and cyp1a1. More gene transcripts were regulated after 14 days of exposure involved in ribosomal biosynthesis, immune modulation, and oxidative response among the most significantly regulated functional pathways. On the contrary, gene transcription alterations caused by styrene did not highlight any significantly regulated molecular or metabolic pathway. This was also previously reported at cell and tissue level where no apparent responses were distinguishable. For the fuel oil experiment, obtained specific gene profiles could be related to changes in cell-tissue organization in the same individuals, such as increased hepatocyte vacuolization, decrease in melano-macrophage centers and the regulation of leukocyte numbers. In conclusion, the mode of action reflected by gene transcription profiles analyzed hereby in turbot livers could be linked with the responses previously reported at higher biological organization levels. Molecular alterations described hereby could be preceding observed alterations at cell and tissue levels.

  1. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sieving a living: a review of the biology, ecology and conservation status of the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus.

    PubMed

    Sims, David W

    2008-01-01

    The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus is the world's second largest fish reaching lengths up to 12 m and weighing up to 4 tonnes. It inhabits warm-temperate to boreal waters circumglobally and has been the subject of fisheries exploitation for at least 200 years. There is current concern over its population levels as a consequence of directed harpoon and net fisheries that in the north-east Atlantic Ocean alone took over 100,000 mature individuals between 1946 and 1997. As a consequence, it is not known whether populations are recovering or are at a fraction of their historical, pre-fishing biomass. They are currently Red-listed as vulnerable globally, and endangered in the north-east Atlantic. The basking shark is one of only three shark species that filter seawater for planktonic prey and this strategy dominates key aspects of its life history. Until recently, very little was known about the biology, ecology and behaviour of this elusive species. The advent of satellite-linked electronic tags for tracking has resulted in considerable progress in furthering our understanding of basking shark behaviour, foraging, activity patterns, horizontal and vertical movements, migrations and broader scale distributions. Genetic studies are also beginning to reveal important insights into aspects of their global population structure, behaviour and evolutionary history. This chapter reviews the taxonomy, distribution and habitat, bionomics and life history, behaviour, population structure, exploitation, management and conservation status of the basking shark. In doing so, it reveals that whilst important behavioural and ecological information has been gained, there are still considerable gaps in knowledge. In particular, these relate to the need to resolve population sizes, spatial dynamics such as population sub-structuring and sexual segregation, the critical habitats occupied by pregnant females, and the distribution and scale of fishery by-catch rates. Although challenging

  3. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Lily-type lectin (Sm LTL) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, and its response to Vibrio anguillarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dandan; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Shang, Xiaomei; Cui, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2017-04-01

    A full-length lily-type lectin (Sm LTL) was identified from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in this study. By searching database for protein identification and function prediction, Sm LTL were confirmed. The full-length cDNA of Sm LTL is composed of 569 bp and contains a 339 bp ORF that encodes 112 amino acid residues. The Sm LTL peptide is characterized by a specific β-prism architecture and contains three mannose binding sites in a three-fold internal repeat between amino acids 30-99; two of the repeats share the classical mannose binding domain (QxDxNxVxY) while the third binding site was similar to other fish-specific binding motifs (TxTxGxRxV). The primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of Sm LTL were predicted and analyzed, indicating that the Sm LTL protein was hydrophilic, contained 5.36% α-helices, 39.29% extended strands, 16.07% β-folds, and 39.29% random coils, and three β-folds. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the Sm LTL mRNA was abundantly expressed in skin, gill, and intestine. Low levels of Sm LTL expression were observed in other tissues. The expression of Sm LTL in gill, skin and intestine increased at mRNA level after stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, our results suggest that Sm LTL serve as the first line of defence against microbial infections and play a pivotal role in the innate mucosal immune system. The current study indicates that Sm LTL is a member of the lilytype lectin family and the information reported here will provide an important foundation for future research on the role of this protein.

  4. Selection of normalization factors for quantitative real time RT-PCR studies in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under conditions of viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2013-04-15

    Disease outbreaks caused by iridoviruses are known to affect farmed flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To facilitate quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in flounder and turbot during viral infection, we in this study examined the potentials of 9 housekeeping genes of flounder and turbot as internal references for qRT-PCR under conditions of experimental infection with megalocytivirus, a member of the Iridoviridae family. The mRNA levels of the 9 housekeeping genes in the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of flounder and turbot were determined by qRT-PCR at 24h and 72h post-viral infection, and the expression stabilities of the genes were determined with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that (i) viral infection induced significant changes in the mRNA levels of the all the examined genes in a manner that was dependent on both tissue type and infection stage; (ii) for a given time point of infection, stability predictions made by the two algorisms were highly consistent for most tissues; (iii) the optimum reference genes differed at different infection time points at least in some tissues; (iv) at both examined time points, no common reference genes were identified across all tissue types. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in flounder and turbot in relation to viral infection, different internal references may have to be used not only for different tissues but also for different infection stages.

  5. Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and molecular physiology of the GnRH preprogonadotrophin in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Charif, Santiago Elías; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Schmidt, Alejandro Raúl; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Dorfman, Verónica Berta

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea. Such features should occur under a special modulation of the HHG axis, guided by GnRH. The aim of this study was to sequence hypothalamic GnRH preprogonadotrophin mRNA in the vizcacha, to compare it with evolutionarily related species and to identify its expression, distribution and pulsatile pattern of secretion. The GnRH1variant was detected and showed the highest homology with that of chinchilla, its closest evolutionarily related species. Two isoforms of transcripts were identified, carrying the same coding sequence, but different 5' untranslated regions. This suggests a sensitive equilibrium between RNA stability and translational efficiency. A predominant hypothalamic localization and a pulsatile secretion pattern of one pulse of GnRH every hour were found. The lower homology found for GAP, also among evolutionarily related species, depicts a potentially different bioactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Density Genetic Linkage Mapping in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) Based on SNP Markers and Major Sex- and Growth-Related Regions Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiji; Hu, Yulong; Ma, Yu; Xu, Liyong; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high density consensus genetic linkage map of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) family composed of 149 mapping individuals using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) developed using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technique with the restriction enzyme, PstI. A total of 6,647 SNPs were assigned to 22 linkage groups, which is equal to the number of chromosome pairs in turbot. For the first time, the average marker interval reached 0.3958 cM, which is equal to approximately 0.1203 Mb of the turbot genome. The observed 99.34% genome coverage indicates that the linkage map was genome-wide. A total of 220 Quantitative Traits Locus (QTLs) associated with two body length traits, two body weight traits in different growth periods and sex determination were detected with an LOD > 5.0 in 12 linkage groups (LGs), which explained the corresponding phenotypic variance (R2), ranging from 14.4–100%. Among them, 175 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining 45 were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. According to the QTLs related to growth trait distribution and the changing of LGs during different growth periods, the growth traits are likely controlled by multi-SNPs distributed on several LGs; the effect of these SNPs changed during different growth periods. Most sex-related QTLs were detected at LG 21 with a linkage span of 70.882 cM. Additionally, a small number of QTLs with high feasibility and a narrow R2 distribution were also observed on LG7 and LG14, suggesting that multi LGs or chromosomes might be involved in sex determination. High homology was recorded between LG21 in Cynoglossus semilaevis and turbot. This high-saturated turbot RAD-Seq linkage map is undoubtedly a promising platform for marker assisted selection (MAS) and flatfish genomics research. PMID:25775256

  7. The first characterization of two type I interferons in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) reveals their differential role, expression pattern and gene induction.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, P; Costa, M M; Díaz-Rosales, P; Dios, S; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are considered the main cytokines directing the antiviral immune response in vertebrates. These molecules are able to induce the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) which, using different blocking mechanisms, reduce the viral proliferation in the host. In addition, a contradictory role of these IFNs in the protection against bacterial challenges using murine models has been observed, increasing the survival or having a detrimental effect depending on the bacteria species. In teleosts, a variable number of type I IFNs has been described with different expression patterns, protective capabilities or gene induction profiles even for the different IFNs belonging to the same species. In this work, two type I IFNs (ifn1 and ifn2) have been characterized for the first time in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), showing different properties. Whereas Ifn1 reflected a clear antiviral activity (over-expression of ISGs and protection against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus), Ifn2 was not able to induce this response, although both transcripts were up-regulated after viral challenge. On the other hand, turbot IFNs did not show any protective effect against the bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida, although they were induced after bacterial challenge. Both IFNs induced the expression of several immune genes, but the effect of Ifn2 was mainly limited to the site of administration (intramuscular injection). Interestingly, Ifn2 but not Ifn1 induced an increase in the expression level of interleukin-1 beta (il1b). Therefore, the role of Ifn2 could be more related with the immune regulation, being involved mainly in the inflammation process.

  8. Enteromyxum leei (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) as the cause of myxosporean emaciation disease of farmed olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mariko; Setsuda, Aogu; Sato, Hiroshi; Song, Kicheon; Han, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Gyeong-Ju; Yeo, In Kyu

    2016-11-01

    A life-threatening emaciation disease of unknown cause(s) is affecting the farming of olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea. As this is one of the major industries in the region, it is of great concern to local farmers trying to develop successful and sustainable aquaculture. We examined 16 olive flounders and one turbot cultured at three farms located in the southern part of Jeju Island, which manifested moderate to severe emaciation such as thinning of the body with notable appearance of bony ridges of the skull on heads. Fresh mucosal scrapings of the intestinal mucosa contained many myxosporean vegetative stages at various developments but not fully grown spores. Histological examination of gastrointestinal and other visceral organs revealed striking changes in the intestinal mucosa such as detachment and loss of the epithelium due to intensive parasitism of the myxosporean vegetative stages, accompanied by considerable leukocyte infiltration in the lamina propria, and at the final stage villus atrophy with no epithelial lining. Specific polymerase chain reaction using a pair of primers targeting a fragment of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of Enteromyxum leei, a known pathogen causing myxosporean emaciation disease in a variety of cultured fish in Mediterranean countries and Japan, amplified 433-bp products in almost all diseased fish samples, particularly the gastrointestinal tract. Nearly the whole length of the 18S rDNA, 1672-bp long excluding primer-aligning sequences, of the present Korean isolate was comparable to those of E. leei isolates from Japan and Europe, particularly those from the former region. Taking the heavy load of various developmental stages of E. leei in the gastrointestinal mucosa into account, we ascribe the emaciation disease of the fish examined in the present study to this well-known myxosporean species and not to another unknown pathogen(s).

  9. Characteristics of high-quality Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) ejaculates and in vitro sperm quality after prolonged chilled storage and directional freezing.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Saiers, R L; Robeck, T R

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro quality of spermatozoa from one elephant (Elephas maximus) was examined after chilled storage and directional freezing (DF). High-quality, non-contaminated ejaculates (77.6±6.0% progressive motility, 3.9±1.5 µg creatinine mL(-1) raw semen, 2.7±0.6% detached heads) were cryopreserved after 0 (0hStor), 12 (12hStor) and 24 h (24hStor) of chilled storage. At 0 h and 6h post-thawing, total motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and normal morphology were similar (P>0.05) across treatments. In contrast, progressive motility, rapid velocity and several kinematic parameters were lower (P<0.05) for 24Stor compared with 0hStor at 0 h post-thaw. By 6 h post-thaw, amplitude of lateral head displacement and velocity parameters (average pathway, straight-line and curvilinear velocity) were lower (P<0.05) for 24hStor compared with 0hStor and 12hStor. DNA integrity was high and remained unchanged (P>0.05) across all groups and processing stages (1.6±0.6% of cells contained fragmented DNA). Results indicate that DF after up to 12 h of chilled storage results in a post-thaw sperm population of acceptable quality for artificial insemination. These findings have implications for the cryopreservation of sex-sorted spermatozoa, which typically undergo more than 12 h of chilled storage prior to sorting and preservation.

  10. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  11. Assessment of Pregnancy Status of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) by Measurement of Progestagen and Glucocorticoid and Their Metabolite Concentrations in Serum and Feces, Using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

    PubMed Central

    KAJAYSRI, Jatuporn; NOKKAEW, Weerapun

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days. PMID:24257195

  12. EVALUATION OF THE I-STAT PORTABLE CLINICAL ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENT OF IONIZED CALCIUM AND SELECTED BLOOD CHEMISTRY VALUES IN ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Tarbert, Danielle K; Behling-Kelly, Erica; Priest, Heather; Childs-Sanford, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Thei-STAT® portable clinical analyzer (PCA) provides patient-side results for hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas values when immediate results are desired. This analyzer is commonly used in nondomestic animals; however, validation of this method in comparison with traditional benchtop methods should be performed for each species. In this study, the i-STAT PCA was compared with the Radiometer ABL 800 Flex benchtop analyzer using 24 heparinized whole blood samples obtained from healthy E. maximus . In addition, the effect of sample storage was evaluated on the i-STAT PCA. Analytes evaluated were hydrogen ion concentration (pH), glucose, potassium (K(+)), sodium (Na(+)), bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and ionized calcium (iCa(2+)). Statistical analysis using correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots found good agreement between results from samples run immediately after phlebotomy and 4 hr postsampling on the i-STAT PCA with the exception of K(+), which is known to change with sample storage. Comparison of the results from the two analyzers at 4 hr postsampling found very strong or strong correlation in all values except K(+), with statistically significant bias in all values except glucose and PCO2. Despite bias, mean differences assessed via Bland-Altman plots were clinically acceptable for all analytes excluding K(+). Within the reference range for iCa(2+), the iCa(2+) values obtained by the i-STAT PCA and Radiometer ABL 800 Flex were close in value, however in light of the constant and proportionate biases detected, overestimation at higher values and underestimation at lower values of iCa(2+) by the i-STAT PCA would be of potential concern. This study supports the use of the i-STAT PCA for the evaluation of these analytes, with the exception of K(+), in the Asian elephant.

  13. Microarray-based identification of differentially expressed genes in families of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) after infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rosales, P; Romero, A; Balseiro, P; Dios, S; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2012-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is one of the major threats to the development of the aquaculture industry worldwide. The present study was aimed to identify genes differentially expressed in several turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) families showing different mortality rates after VHSV. The expression analysis was conducted through genome-wide expression profiling with an oligo-microarray in the head kidney. A significant proportion of the variation in the gene expression profiles seemed to be explained by the genetic background, indicating that the mechanisms by which particular species and/or populations can resist a pathogen(s) are complex and multifactorial. Before the experimental infections, fish from resistant families (low mortality rates after VHSV infection) showed high expression of different antimicrobial peptides, suggesting that their pre-immune state may be stronger than fish of susceptible families (high mortality rates after VHSV infection). After infection, fish from both high- and low-mortality families showed an up-modulation of the interferon-induced Mx2 gene, the IL-8 gene and the VHSV-induced protein 5 gene compared with control groups. Low levels of several molecules secreted in the mucus were observed in high-mortality families, but different genes involved in viral entrance into target cells were down-regulated in low-mortality families. Moreover, these families also showed a strong down-modulation of marker genes related to VHSV target organs, including biochemical markers of renal dysfunction and myocardial injury. In general, the expression of different genes involved in the metabolism of sugars, lipids and proteins were decreased in both low- and high-mortality families after infection. The present study serves as an initial screen for genes of interest and provides an extensive overview of the genetic basis underlying the differences between families that are resistant or susceptible to VHSV infection.

  14. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.

  15. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  16. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    PubMed

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

    2014-03-01

    The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.

  17. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5, a newly recognized elephant herpesvirus associated with clinical and subclinical infections in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y; Nofs, Sally A; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R; Hoffman, Daryl S; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals.

  18. Genotoxicity of field-collected inter-tidal sediments from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) as measured by the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Kilemade, M F; Hartl, M G J; Sheehan, D; Mothersill, C; Van Pelt, F N A M; O'Halloran, J; O'Brien, N M

    2004-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay was employed to test the potential of surficial sediment collected from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to induce DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in a laboratory exposure experiment. Turbot were exposed for 21 days to field-collected sediment from Cork Harbor and from a relatively clean reference site at Ballymacoda and sampled at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. As a positive control for the sediment exposure experiment, a subsample of the turbot was exposed to cadmium chloride-spiked seawater. DNA damage analysis was performed on epidermal, gill, spleen, liver, and whole blood cell preparations. Liver, gill, and blood were the most sensitive tissues while a lower level of damage was detected in the epidermis and spleen. The blood was determined to be a suitable predictor of DNA damage in the whole organism. Chemical analysis of the sediment indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed the bulk of the contaminants, with the harbor sites having almost double the levels of those from the reference site. The data indicated that turbot exposed to sediments from Cork Harbor elicited a significant increase in DNA damage in comparison with those exposed to sediment from the reference site and that exposure to the contaminated sediments caused a multi-organ genotoxic response. Results from the study indicate a relationship between the presence of genotoxicants in sediment and DNA damage. This finding was encouraging with regard to the potential use of the Comet assay as part of a marine biomonitoring strategy.

  19. ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 5, A NEWLY RECOGNIZED ELEPHANT HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL INFECTIONS IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Nofs, Sally A.; Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Flanagan, Joseph P.; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R.; Hoffman, Daryl S.; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals. PMID:23505714

  20. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Communities and Detection of Potential Pathogens in a Recirculating Aquaculture System for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments. PMID:24278329

  1. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-09-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual population enhancement, with detectable effects on genetic diversity and effective population size, or consists of sea ranching with limited genetic consequences on the wild stock. To address this question, microsatellite-based genetic monitoring of three hatchery-born and naturally recruited populations was conducted over a 5-year period. Results showed a limited reduction in allelic richness but a strong alteration of allelic frequencies in hatchery populations, while genetic diversity appeared very stable over time in the wild populations. A temporal increase in relatedness was observed in both cultured stock and wild populations. Effective population size (Ne) estimates were low and variable in the wild population. Moreover, the application of the Ryman-Laikre model suggested a high contribution of hatchery-born scallops to the reproductive output of the wild population. Overall, the data suggest that the main objective of the seeding program, which is stock enhancement, is fulfilled. Moreover, gene flow from surrounding populations and/or the reproductive input of undetected sub-populations within the bay may buffer the Ryman-Laikre effect and ensure the retention of the local genetic variability.

  2. Modelling larval dispersal of the king scallop ( Pecten maximus) in the English Channel: examples from the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Dumas, Franck; Foveau, Aurélie; Foucher, Eric; Thiébaut, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The king scallop ( Pecten maximus) is one of the most important benthic species of the English Channel as it constitutes the first fishery in terms of landings in this area. To support strategies of spatial fishery management, we develop a high-resolution biophysical model to study scallop dispersal in two bays along the French coasts of the English Channel (i.e. the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine) and to quantify the relative roles of local hydrodynamic processes, temperature-dependent planktonic larval duration (PLD) and active swimming behaviour (SB). The two bays are chosen for three reasons: (1) the distribution of the scallop stocks in these areas is well known from annual scallop stock surveys, (2) these two bays harbour important fisheries and (3) scallops in these two areas present some differences in terms of reproductive cycle and spawning duration. The English Channel currents and temperature are simulated for 10 years (2000-2010) with the MARS-3D code and then used by the Lagrangian module of MARS-3D to model the transport. Results were analysed in terms of larval distribution at settlement and connectivity rates. While larval transport in the two bays depended both on the tidal residual circulation and the wind-induced currents, the relative role of these two hydrodynamic processes varied among bays. In the bay of Saint-Brieuc, the main patterns of larval dispersal were due to tides, the wind being only a source of variability in the extent of larval patch and the local retention rate. Conversely, in the bay of Seine, wind-induced currents altered both the direction and the extent of larval transport. The main effect of a variable PLD in relation to the thermal history of each larva was to reduce the spread of dispersal and consequently increase the local retention by about 10 % on average. Although swimming behaviour could influence larval dispersal during the first days of the PLD when larvae are mainly located in surface waters, it has a

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) farming.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Magadán, Susana; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Santos, Ysabel; Cintas, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is an important commercial marine flatfish. Its production may be affected by bacterial diseases that cause severe economical losses, mainly tenacibaculosis and vibriosis, provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimum and Vibrio splendidus, respectively. An alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for the control of these diseases is the use of probiotics. In this work, we report the in vitro and in vivo potential of eight lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from fish, seafood and fish products intended for human consumption, as turbot probiotics. Seven out of the eight LAB exerted direct antimicrobial activity against, at least, four strains of T. maritimum and V. splendidus. All LAB survived in seawater at 18 °C for 7 days, and withstood exposure to pH 3.0 and 10% (v/v) turbot bile; however, they differed in cell surface hydrophobicity (8.2-21.7%) and in their ability to adhere to turbot skin (1.2-21.7%) and intestinal (0.7-2.1%) mucus. Most of the tested strains inhibited the binding of turbot pathogens to the mucus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris SMM69 and Weissella cibaria P71 were selected based on their strong antimicrobial activity against T. maritimum and V. splendidus, good probiotic properties, and different adhesion ability to skin mucus and capacity to inhibit the adhesion of turbot pathogens to mucus. These two LAB strains were harmless when administered by bath to turbot larvae and juveniles; moreover, real-time PCR on the transcription levels of the immunity-related genes encoding IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme, C3, MHC-Iα and MHC-IIα in five organs (head-kidney, spleen, liver, intestine and skin) revealed the ability of these LAB to stimulate their expression in turbot juveniles, especially the non-specific immunity associated genes in mucosal tissues. Based on our results, Lc. cremoris SMM69 and W. cibaria P71 may be considered as suitable probiotic candidates for turbot

  4. Exposure of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol mixtures: Implications for contaminant uptake and plasma steroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Julia; Salaberria, Iurgi; Styrishave, Bjarne; Staňková, Radka; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Olsen, Anders J; Posch, Wilfried; Flaten, Trond P; Krøkje, Åse; Salvenmoser, Willi; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the synthetic hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on tissue uptake of both contaminants in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Silver uptake and tissue distribution (gills, liver, kidney, stomach, muscle and bile) were analyzed following a 14-day, 2-h daily pulsed exposure to AgNPs (2 μg L(-1) and 200 μg L(-1)), Ag(+) (50 μg L(-1)), EE2 (50 ng L(-1)) and AgNP + EE2 (2 or 200 μg L(-1)+50 ng L(-1)). Effects of the exposures on plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) levels, EE2 and steroid hormone concentrations were investigated. The AgNP and AgNP + EE2 exposures resulted in similar Ag concentrations in the tissues, indicating that combined exposure did not influence Ag uptake in tissues. The highest Ag concentrations were found in gills. For the Ag(+) exposed fish, the highest Ag concentrations were measured in the liver. Our results show dissolution processes of AgNPs in seawater, indicating that the tissue concentrations of Ag may partly originate from ionic release. Plasma EE2 concentrations and Vtg induction were similar in fish exposed to the single contaminants and the mixed contaminants, indicating that the presence of AgNPs did not significantly alter EE2 uptake. Similarly, concentrations of most steroid hormones were not significantly altered due to exposures to the combined contaminants versus the single compound exposures. However, high concentrations of AgNPs in combination with EE2 caused a drop of estrone (E1) (female fish) and androstenedione (AN) (male and female fish) levels in plasma below quantification limits. Our results indicate that the interactive effects between AgNPs and EE2 are limited, with only high concentrations of AgNPs triggering

  5. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jen N.; Leighty, Katherine A.; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  6. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains.

  7. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-enriched genetic map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): a useful framework for comparative genomics across model and farmed teleosts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a relevant species in European aquaculture. The small turbot genome provides a source for genomics strategies to use in order to understand the genetic basis of productive traits, particularly those related to sex, growth and pathogen resistance. Genetic maps represent essential genomic screening tools allowing to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) and to identify candidate genes through comparative mapping. This information is the backbone to develop marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs in aquaculture. Expressed sequenced tag (EST) resources have largely increased in turbot, thus supplying numerous type I markers suitable for extending the previous linkage map, which was mostly based on anonymous loci. The aim of this study was to construct a higher-resolution turbot genetic map using EST-linked markers, which will turn out to be useful for comparative mapping studies. Results A consensus gene-enriched genetic map of the turbot was constructed using 463 SNP and microsatellite markers in nine reference families. This map contains 438 markers, 180 EST-linked, clustered at 24 linkage groups. Linkage and comparative genomics evidences suggested additional linkage group fusions toward the consolidation of turbot map according to karyotype information. The linkage map showed a total length of 1402.7 cM with low average intermarker distance (3.7 cM; ~2 Mb). A global 1.6:1 female-to-male recombination frequency (RF) ratio was observed, although largely variable among linkage groups and chromosome regions. Comparative sequence analysis revealed large macrosyntenic patterns against model teleost genomes, significant hits decreasing from stickleback (54%) to zebrafish (20%). Comparative mapping supported particular chromosome rearrangements within Acanthopterygii and aided to assign unallocated markers to specific turbot linkage groups. Conclusions The new gene-enriched high-resolution turbot map represents a

  8. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and testosterone (6.71 ± 1.62 ng/mL; P = 0.019) concentrations after GnRH were higher than the respective baselines (0.57 ± 0.07 ng/mL, 3.05 ± 0.60 ng/mL). Although basal- and GnRH-induced LH secretion were similar across the stages, evaluation of the area under the curve in GnRH-treated bulls indicated that the testosterone response was greatest during premusth (2.84 ± 0.76 area units; P = 0.019) compared to postmusth (2.02 ± 0.63 area units), and nonmusth (2.01 ± 0.46 area units). This confirms earlier reports that GnRH stimulates LH release and subsequent testosterone production in bull elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal

  9. Analysis of qPCR reference gene stability determination methods and a practical approach for efficiency calculation on a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) gonad dataset.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Diego; Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Cal, Rosa M; Pardo, Belén G; Sánchez, Laura; Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana

    2014-08-04

    Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most widely used method for analyzing the expression of a moderate number of genes and also for the validation of microarray results. Several issues are crucial for a successful qPCR study, particularly the selection of internal reference genes for normalization and efficiency determination. There is no agreement on which method is the best to detect the most stable genes neither on how to perform efficiency determination. In this study we offer a comprehensive evaluation of the characteristics of reference gene selection methods and how to decide which one is more reliable when they show discordant outcomes. Also, we analyze the current efficiency calculation controversy. Our dataset is composed by gonad samples of turbot at different development times reared at different temperatures. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a relevant marine aquaculture European species with increasing production in the incoming years. Since females largely outgrow males, identification of genes related to sex determination, gonad development and reproductive behavior, and analysis of their expression profiles are of primary importance for turbot industry. We analyzed gene stability of six reference genes: RPS4, RPL17, GAPDH, ACTB, UBQ and B2M using the comparative delta-CT method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm approaches in gonad samples of turbot. Supported by descriptive statistics, we found NormFinder to be the best method, while on the other side, GeNorm results proved to be unreliable. According to our analysis, UBQ and RPS4 were the most stable genes, while B2M was the least stable gene. We also analyzed the efficiency calculation softwares LinRegPCR, LREanalyzer, DART and PCR-Miner and we recommend LinRegPCR for research purposes since it does not systematically overestimate efficiency. Our results indicate that NormFinder and LinRegPCR are the best approaches for reference gene selection and

  10. Prediction of estrus cyclicity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) through estimation of fecal progesterone metabolite: development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, R; Sukumar, R; Seshagiri, P B

    2010-05-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), prominent "flagship species", are listed under the category of endangered species (EN - A2c, ver. 3.1; IUCN Red List 2009) and there is a need for their conservation. This requires understanding demographic and reproductive dynamics of the species. Monitoring reproductive status of any species is traditionally being carried out through invasive blood sampling and this is restrictive for large animals such as wild or semi-captive elephants due to legal, ethical, and practical reasons. Hence, there is a need for a non-invasive technique to assess reproductive cyclicity profiles of elephants, which will help in the species' conservation strategies. In this study, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the concentration of one of the progesterone-metabolites i.e., allopregnanolone (5 alpha-P-3OH) in fecal samples of Asian elephants. We validated the assay which had a sensitivity of 0.25 microM at 90% binding with an EC(50) value of 1.37 microM. Using female elephants, kept under semi-captive conditions in the forest camps of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu and Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, India, we measured fecal progesterone-metabolite (5 alpha-P-3OH) concentrations in six animals and showed their clear correlation with those of serum progesterone, measured by a standard radio-immuno assay. Statistical analyses using a Linear Mixed Effect model showed a positive correlation (P<0.1) between the profiles of fecal 5 alpha-P-3OH (range: 0.5-10 microg/g) and serum progesterone (range: 0.1-1.8 ng/mL). Therefore, our studies show, for the first time, that the fecal progesterone-metabolite assay could be exploited to predict estrus cyclicity and to potentially assess the reproductive status of captive and free-ranging female Asian elephants, thereby helping to plan their breeding strategy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jen N; Leighty, Katherine A; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  12. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  13. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Xu, Dandan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources.

  14. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources. PMID:27802317

  15. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. PMID:20673092

  16. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations.

  17. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa.

  18. Ultrastructural characterisation of the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Dasypus hybridus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra)

    PubMed Central

    FERRARI, C. C.; CARMANCHAHI, P. D.; ALDANA MARCOS, H. J.; AFFANNI, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Dasypus hybridus was studied. A comparison with the olfactory mucosa of another armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus) was made. The olfactory mucosa of D. hybridus shows many features which are similar to those of other mammals. Interestingly, it differs from the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo C. villosus. A suggestion is made that these differences may be due to differences in the digging habits of these species. In Dasypus, the supporting cells (SCs) showed dense vacuoles, multivesicular bodies and lysosome-like bodies probably related with the endocytotic system. The SCs show a dense network of SER presumably associated with xenobiotic mechanisms. The olfactory receptor neurons exhibit lysosome-like bodies and multivesicular bodies in their perikarya. These organelles suggest the presence of an endocytotic system. Duct cells of Bowman's glands exhibit secretory activities. Bowman's glands are compound-branched tubulo-acinar mixed glands with merocrine secretory mechanisms. PMID:10739023

  19. The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Lorenna C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Favaron, Phelipe O; Mess, Andrea; Miglino, Maria A

    2012-05-04

    Placental characters vary among Xenarthra, one of four supraordinal clades of Eutheria. Armadillos are known for villous, haemochorial placentas similar to humans. Only the nine-banded armadillo has been well studied so far. Placentas of three species of armadillos were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry including proliferation marker, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The gross anatomy differed: Euphractus sexcinctus and Chaetophractus villosus had extended, zonary placentas, whereas Chaetophractus vellerosus had a disk. All taxa had complex villous areas within the maternal blood sinuses of the endometrium. Immunohistochemistry indicated the validity of former interpretations that the endothelium of the sinuses was largely intact. Tips of the villi and the columns entering the maternal tissue possessed trophoblast cell clusters with proliferation activity. Elsewhere, the feto-maternal barrier was syncytial haemochorial with fetal vessels near the surface. Differences among armadillos occurred in regard to the extension of the placenta, whereas the fine structure was similar. Parallels to the human suggest that armadillos are likely to be useful animal models for human placentation.

  20. The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Placental characters vary among Xenarthra, one of four supraordinal clades of Eutheria. Armadillos are known for villous, haemochorial placentas similar to humans. Only the nine-banded armadillo has been well studied so far. Methods Placentas of three species of armadillos were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry including proliferation marker, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results The gross anatomy differed: Euphractus sexcinctus and Chaetophractus villosus had extended, zonary placentas, whereas Chaetophractus vellerosus had a disk. All taxa had complex villous areas within the maternal blood sinuses of the endometrium. Immunohistochemistry indicated the validity of former interpretations that the endothelium of the sinuses was largely intact. Tips of the villi and the columns entering the maternal tissue possessed trophoblast cell clusters with proliferation activity. Elsewhere, the feto-maternal barrier was syncytial haemochorial with fetal vessels near the surface. Conclusions Differences among armadillos occurred in regard to the extension of the placenta, whereas the fine structure was similar. Parallels to the human suggest that armadillos are likely to be useful animal models for human placentation. PMID:22559925

  1. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina.

  2. Spermatogenesis is seasonal in the large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Juan P; Rossi, Luis F; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Redi, Carlo A; Solari, Alberto J; Merani, Maria S; Garagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the distinct reproductive biology of armadillos. Very few studies have investigated armadillo spermatogenesis, with data available only for Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus. In the present study, we analysed male germ cell differentiation in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus throughout the year, describing a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium made of eight different stages. Evaluation of the testis/body mass ratio, analysis of the architecture of the seminiferous epithelium and the frequency of defective seminiferous tubules allowed identification of a temporal interruption of spermatogenesis during the period between mid-May to July (mid-end autumn) in correlation with very low testosterone levels. Overall, these results suggest that spermatogenesis is seasonal in C. villosus.

  3. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of epipelagic lamniforms: redescription of Hyperandrotrema cetorhini from basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and description of a new congener from shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) off Alabama.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Ruiz, Carlos F; Curran, Stephen S; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    We emend the original generic diagnosis for Hyperandrotrema Maillard and Ktari, 1978 , and redescribe its type species Hyperandrotrema cetorhini Maillard and Ktari, 1978 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912), based on the holotype and 2 paratypes collected from the heart of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). We also describe Hyperandrotrema walterboegeri Orélis-Ribeiro and Bullard n. sp. based on light and scanning electron microscopy of 6 adult specimens collected from the heart of a shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810) captured from Viosca Knoll (29°11.70'N, 88°33.32'W; 123 km southwest of Dauphin Island, Alabama), northern Gulf of Mexico. Hyperandrotrema spp. infect lamniforms and differ from all other nominal aporocotylids at least by having a ventrolateral field of robust C-shaped spines (rather than transverse rows of minute, shaft-like spines), an inverse U-shaped intestine with extremely elongate ceca terminating near the level of the excretory bladder, and a common genital pore that comprises the dorsal opening of a common genital atrium. Adults of the new species exceeded 12 mm in total length, making them the largest of the nominal fish blood flukes. The new species further differs from H. cetorhini by the combination of having an adult body that is 7-8 times longer than wide, large midbody tegumental spines measuring 25-38 μm long × 10-12 μm wide, a long vas deferens 4-5% of the body length, a testis 9-11 times longer than wide, and a large ootype 105-150 μm long × 85-105 μm wide. This is the first report of Hyperandrotrema from the Gulf of Mexico and the second aporocotylid species reported from an epipelagic elasmobranch. Our results demonstrate that ecologically related (epipelagic, marine) and phylogenetically related (Lamniformes) definitive hosts are infected by morphologically similar (congeneric) fish blood flukes.

  4. Expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of the South American plains Vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    González, Candela Rocío; Muscarsel Isla, María Laura; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Willis, Miguel Alfredo; Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptor play a critical role in spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals, and estrogens and their receptors contribute to regulation of testicular function through initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis and germ cell division and survival. However, results from different species are still far from establishing a clear understanding of these receptors in the different cell types from the testis. We analyzed the expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors α and β and aromatase protein by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, in relation to proliferation followed by the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and germinal identity by VASA protein, in fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent with sustained germ cell proliferation and an increasing number of OCT-4-expressing gonocytes in the developing ovary. AR expression was restricted to Leydig cells and peritubular cells before sexual maturity, at which point it also became expressed in Sertoli cells. ERα and ERβ were expressed in seminiferous tubules and the interstitium, respectively, in both fetal and prepubertal testes. In adult testes, both ERα and ERβ co-localized in Leydig and peritubular cells. The aromatase enzyme, which converts androgenic precursors into estrogens, was detectable in all developmental stages analyzed and was restricted to Leydig cells. PCNA remained high until sexual maturity. ERα nuclear detection in germ cells and AR in Leydig cells in PCNA-positive cells suggest the possibility of a stimulatory effect of estrogens on spermatogonia proliferation. This effect might explain the increase found in VASA-expressing cells in the adult testis.

  5. PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) co-exposure prolongs CYP1A induction, and sustains oxidative stress in B(a)P-exposed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Gunawickrama, S H N P; Aarsaether, Niels; Orbea, Amaia; Cajaraville, Miren P; Goksøyr, Anders

    2008-08-29

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) activation and biliary elimination, phase II activities, and peroxisomal and antioxidant activities of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were studied in a long-term controlled experiment. Fish were serially exposed in water on day 1 and on completion of months 3, 6 and 9 to 0.1, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1mg B(a)P/l, respectively, while another group was identically treated with additional PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1% of concomitant B(a)P (w/w). Temporally persistent responses were obtained by sampling on week 3 and 3 months from each latest exposure. Serial exposure to B(a)P+PCB77 progressively induced liver 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A protein levels (ELISA, western blotting) towards months 9, 12 and gill EROD activity on month 12. It associated with an apparent increase in liver benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels (ultrasensitive enzyme radioimmunoassay), and elevated bile B(a)P metabolite levels on month 9 females as compared to males. In contrast, B(a)P alone did not cause (p>0.05) comparable effects on liver EROD, CYP1A, adducts nor on bile metabolites. Both exposed groups demonstrated evidence for lasting oxidative stress as hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly altered (p<0.05) with symptomatic pro-oxidant associations among them. Both treatments affected liver somatic index similarly (increase on month 3, decrease on month 9 in males). Continued exposure on month 18 (0.2mg B(a)P/l, 1% PCB77) followed by sampling 6 months later showed sustained induction (p<0.001) of hepatic EROD in B(a)P+PCB77 group, which was not seen in B(a)P alone treatment. Thus, PCB77 co-exposure prolonged CYP1A induction and contributed to a persistent oxidative challenge in B(a)P-exposed turbot. The results indicate synergistic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in the

  6. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  7. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Paraglyptodon Castellanos, 1932 (Mammalia, Cingulata, Glyptodontia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura E.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Taglioretti, Matias; Toledo, Nestor

    2016-03-01

    Castellanos described and published about new genera of glyptodonts, according to a phylogenetic scheme mainly based on the evolution of the external surface of the dorsal carapace. Among these new genera, Castellanos proposed Paraglyptodon as the predecessor of Glyptodon, and included within Paraglyptodon all known species of Glyptodontinae recovered from "horizontes pre-Ensenadenses", and within Glyptodon all known species from "Horizontes pampeanos", restricting the latter to the Quaternary. All the species that belong to Paraglyptodon, that is Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Paraglyptodon dubius, and Paraglyptodon paranensis were established based on one, two or few osteoderms, mostly from the dorsal carapace. Regarding P. paranensis and P. dubius, Oliva and collaborators consider the first as a nomen vanum, representing an indeterminate Glyptodontinae, and the second as a synonym of P. chapalmalensis. Upon re-examination of the holotypes of P. chapalmalensis and P. uquiensis together with their comparison with other well-known specimens of glyptodonts, mainly with Glyptodon (of both juvenile and adult stages), we found the same ornamentation in different sections of the dorsal carapaces, particularly in P. chapalmalensis and in juvenile stages of Glyptodon spp. We could not identify features that would allow us to make a distinction between the holotype of P. uquiensis and Glyptodon spp. Therefore, we consider that a new taxon guide for naming the Upper Chapadmalalan biozone is necessary. The biostratigraphic range of Glyptodon could possibly be extended to the late Pliocene. However, new records and studies are needed to verify the existence of this taxon in the Chapadmalalan Stage/Age in its type locality.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo's Diets.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fochs, Sílvia; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; Fariña, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework.

  9. Molecular identification of Austrobilharzia species parasitizing Cerithidea cingulata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) from Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, W Y; Al-Bustan, S A; Isaac, A M; George, B A; Chandy, B S

    2012-12-01

    Avian schistosomes belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) are among the causative agents of cercarial dermatitis in humans. In this paper, ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to study schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay that have been identified morphologically as Austrobilharzia sp. Sequence comparison of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 28S and 18S regions of the collected schistosome cercariae with corresponding sequences of other schistosomes in GenBank revealed high sequence similarity. This confirmed the morphological identification of schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay as belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia. The finding was further supported by the phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the combined data set 18S-28S-mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCO1) sequences in which Austrobilharzia sp. clustered with A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis. Sequence comparison of the Austrobilharzia sp. from Kuwait Bay with A. variglandis and A. terrigalensis based on mtCO1 showed a variation of 10% and 11%, respectively. Since the sequence variation in the mtCO1 was within the interspecific range among trematodes, it seems that the Austrobilharzia species from Kuwait Bay is different from the two species reported in GenBank, A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis.

  10. Twig Girdler, Oncideres Cingulata (Say), Attacks Terminals of Plantation-managed Pecans

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; J.D. Solomon; R.M. Krinard

    1981-01-01

    Sweet pecan, a prized species for use in fine furniture and paneling, is subject to branch and terminal damage by the pecan twig girdler that could cause deformities in the trees. In the young plantation studied, 55 percent of the trees in disked plots and 40 percent in mowed plots were damaged by the twig girdler, but only 19 percent in control plots were damaged....

  11. Distribution of tolypeutes illiger, 1811 (xenarthra: cingulata) with comments on its biogeography and conservation.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Campos, Bruno A T P; Rocha, Patrício A; Ferrari, Stephen F; Langguth, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the data available on the distribution of three-banded armadillos of the genus Tolypeutes, identifying potential geographic barriers and evaluating possible biogeographic processes that may account for the present-day distribution of the species and its conservation status. The database was derived from published records, interviews, and voucher specimens, over a timescale ranging from the fossil record to specimens collected in 2013. A total of 236 localities were recorded, with 68 attributed to Tolypeutes matacus and 168 to Tolypeutes tricinctus. The vegetation within the range of the genus is predominantly a xerophytic mosaic of grassland, savannas, open woodland, and xeric thorn forest. The marine transgressions of the Miocene and the uplifting of the Brazilian Shield may have contributed to the vicariant separation of the ancestral populations of T. matacus, to the west and south, and T. tricinctus, to the north and east. The three-banded armadillo is possibly one of the most threatened of Brazilian mammals, considering the low number of recent records and the fact that it is hunted intensively throughout its range.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo’s Diets

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fochs, Sílvia; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; Fariña, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework. PMID:25919313

  13. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish.

  14. Reassortant betanodavirus infection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Olveira, J G; Dopazo, C P; Bandín, I

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the susceptibility of turbot juveniles to two betanodavirus strains was assessed, a RGNNV/SJNNV reassortant (Ss160.03) and a SJNNV strain. The reassortant isolate exhibits a slightly modified SJNNV CP, with two amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal domain (positions 247 and 270). To analyse the role of these residues as virulence and host determinants in turbot, three recombinant strains (rSs160.03247 , rSs160.03270 , rSs160.03247+270 ) harbouring site-specific mutations in the CP sequence were also tested in experimental trials. Moderate mortalities (up to 50%) were recorded at 18 °C in the fish challenged with the Ss160.03 strain, whereas low mortalities (17%) were observed in the group challenged with the SJNNV strain. A slight decrease (around 10%) was observed in the mortalities caused by the mutants rSs160.03247 and rSs160.03270 , whilst the mutation of both positions reduced mortality by more than half of that observed in fish challenged with the wild strain. These results are confirmed by the replication in brain tissues, because whereas the wild strain was detected from 5 to 30 dpi and reached the highest viral load, the recombinant virus harbouring both mutations was not detected in the brain until 20 dpi and with a moderate viral load.

  15. Hearing in the elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Heffner, R; Heffner, H

    1980-05-02

    Auditory thresholds were determined for a 7-year-old Indian elephant. The hearing range extended from 17 hertz to 10.5 kilohertz. The results indicate that the inverse relationship between functional interaural distance (that is, the distance between the two ears divided by the speed of sound) and high-frequency hearing limit is valid even for very large mammals.

  16. Synaptonemal complexes and XY behavior in two species of Argentinian armadillos: Chaetophractus villosus and Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Sciurano, R B; Merani, M S; Bustos, Jimena; Solari, A J

    2006-04-01

    Spermatocytes from the two armadillo species, C. villosus and D. hybridus were studied in microspreads for synaptonemal complexes (SCs) and in thin sections for electron microscopy (EM). The complete SC karyotype generally agrees with previous reports on mitotic chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome is submetacentric in both species and the Y is the shortest one in C. villosus and the second shortest in D. hybridus, and an extremely acrocentric one. A SC is formed along the total length of the Y chromosome, and this SC persists along all the pachytene substages. A single recombination nodule (RN) is located in the region of the SC nearest to the attachment to the nuclear envelope. The lateral element (LE) of the X axis in the SC shows a wavy aspect in most of the SC length distant from the nuclear envelope. Nucleoli are attached to acrocentric or submetacentric bivalents, are visibly double in some cells, and in thin sections show an elaborate nucleolonema. Some differences in the XY are species-specific, as the higher degree of tangling and stronger heteropycnosis in D. hybridus. The effective, single crossover of the XY pair is highly localized, despite the permanence of a long tract of SC.

  17. Reassessment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo "Dasypus" pilosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) and revalidation of the genus Cryptophractus Fitzinger, 1856.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Ciancio, Martín R; Pacheco, Víctor; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo M; Bostelmann, J Enrique; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-04-14

    The hairy long-nosed armadillo, currently referred as Dasypus (Cryptophractus) pilosus, is an enigmatic species endemic to montane cloud forests and subparamo of Peruvian Andes. Its strikingly different external features, which include the carapace concealed by abundant hair, the presence of more movable bands, and a slender skull, have raised questions regarding its taxonomic status as subgenus or as genus. This paper assesses this issue based on a cladistic study and provides a detailed comparative description of the species, including the first account on the distinctive ornamentation of its osteoderms. Based on several unique characters in the carapace, skull, mandible, and teeth, as well as on the external phylogenetic position relative to other Dasypus, we favor the assignment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo to other genus. As result, we revalidate the original generic epithet, so that the valid name of the species is Cryptophractus pilosus Fitzinger, 1856.

  18. Seasonal reproduction in male pichis Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) estimated by fecal androgen metabolites and testicular histology.

    PubMed

    Superina, Mariella; Jahn, Graciela A

    2009-06-01

    Poaching poses a threat to a wide variety of wildlife, and basic information about the biology of hunted species needs to be collected before their populations decline to the extent that requires drastic human intervention. As the survival of a species is related to its ability to reproduce, data on its reproductive cycle are necessary for the development of management strategies. The hypothesis was tested that the reproductive season of pichis (Zaedyus pichiy), small hibernating armadillos that inhabit arid environments in Argentina and Chile, is limited to spring months. Gonadal competence of semi-captive and wild-caught male pichis of Mendoza Province, Argentina was studied, by measuring fecal immunoreactive testosterone concentrations and evaluating spermatogenic activity. Results suggest that Z. pichiy is a seasonal breeder that regulates reproduction through photoperiodic cues. Gonadal competence was limited to a period of 3-5 months in spring and early summer and was reflected in enlarged testes, increased spermatogenesis, and significantly elevated fecal immunoreactive testosterone concentrations. The reproductive season for males from southern Mendoza was almost 6 weeks shorter than in the north. This fact, along with significant morphological differences between both groups, suggests that northern and southern pichis belong to two distinct populations. It is concluded that prolonged breeding seasons and more favorable environmental conditions in northern Mendoza favor a prolongation of the reproductive season that may allow pichis to breed later in the year, thus maximizing reproductive opportunities.

  19. Phylogeography of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae Xenarthra): post-glacial range expansion from Pampas to Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Poljak, Sebastián; Confalonieri, Viviana; Fasanella, Mariana; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta Susana

    2010-04-01

    We report a phylogeographic study of Chaetophractus villosus populations in Argentina. Control Region (CR) sequences (484 bp) were obtained for 76 C. villosus from 20 locations across the species whole distribution range. Seventeen new haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic variation and the earliest fossils were found in the Pampean Region, thus appearing as the most probable area of origin of the species. A general pattern of Contiguous Range Expansion (CRE) was revealed by Nested Clade Analysis (NCA) supported by mismatch analysis and Fu's test. The Pampean Region would have been the pre-expansion area, while Patagonia would have been the main dispersal route of contiguous expansion, possibly after the Pleistocenic glaciations.

  20. A new species of Cyclobulura (Nematoda: Subuluridae) from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navone, Graciela T; Ezquiaga, María C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2010-12-01

    Cyclobulura superinae n. sp. collected from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus is herein described as the second species in Cyclobulura Quentin, 1977, and the first subulurid in armadillos. The species is unique in the spur-like structures present at the tip of both spicules, yet they conform to the description of Cyclobulura in the structure of the buccal parts. Specimens of the new species show longer chordal lobes and more conspicuous radial lobes and are smaller than specimens of C. lainsoni. In addition, males of C. superinae exhibit a spur-like process in the distal end of the spicules and a shorter tail (170 vs. 300 µm) with no spine. Finally, the eggs of C. superinae are smaller (60-89 × 45-71 vs. 95-100 × 80-85). To our knowledge, the new species is the first subulurid nematode found in an armadillo.

  1. 115 ROLE OF THE OVARY AND UTERUS FOR THE PLAINS VISCACHA (LAGOSTOMUS MAXIMUS MAXIMUS, CHINCHILLIDAE) REPRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Favaron, P O; Flamini, M A; Mess, A M; Barreto, R N; Simões, L S; Sasahara, T H; Barbeito, C G; Romagnoli, P; Miglino, M A

    2016-01-01

    A dogma of mammalian reproduction states that primordial germ cells in females are restricted to the intrauterine phase and only small portions of oocytes are available for ovulation during the adult life. Among the rare exceptions to this rule is the plains viscacha. It polyovulates up to 800 oocytes per cycle, from which 10 to 12 are implanted, but only 1 to 2 conceptuses survive. To better understand the main mechanisms involved in these patterns of super-ovulation, super-implantation, and embryonic loss in the viscacha, we conducted an analysis of the ovary and uterus of pregnant females and their conceptuses. Pregnant females (n=16) of ~50 and 90 days of gestation (early to mid-gestation) were selected for conceptus recovery. Hemi-ovariohysterectomy was performed following surgical and anaesthetic protocols used for laboratory animals and the conceptuses collected. Female fetuses of Day 50 (n=2) and 90 (n=1) of gestation were obtained from Estación de Cría de Animales Silvestres, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The reproductive organs were investigated by means of gross morphology, histology (hematoxilin and eosin), stereology (quantification of the volume of the ovary and number of ovary follicles), immunohistochemistry (PCNA, Oct-4, VEGF, and Caspase-3), and transmission electron microscopy. In the Day 50 fetal samples, the ovaries had an ovoid shape with smooth surface without apparent folds. First steps of subdivision were observed in the ovary of fetus of 90 days. The total volume of all fetal ovaries was of 4.8mm(2) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.32. The ovaries of adult individuals had remarkable invaginations with surface projections and were small, asymmetrical, and dorsoventrally flattened with a mean of 77.6mm(3) (CV=0.47). Only adult females had differentiation of germ cells. Primordial follicles had a mean of 9.9×10(5) (CV=0.19), representing 93% of the total number of ovarian follicles. The mean of primary follicles was 3.05×10(4) (CV=0.36), whereas for secondary follicles it was 2.75×10(4) (CV=0.50), each representing 3% of all ovarian follicles. The number of antral follicles in several stages of development was 8.64×10(3) (CV=0.75), representing 1% of the follicles. Primordial follicles expressed pluripotency (Oct-4+) and proliferation (PCNA(+)) markers, as well as the primary follicles. The cells did not react for Caspase-3 as marker for apoptosis. Variations regarding to the vascularization of the different regions of the uterine horn were observed, which were more intense and efficient near to the cervix. Data showed that a specialised, highly convoluted structure of the ovarian cortex developed in the intrauterine phase as a prerequisite for massive super-ovulation, associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and continued proliferation of germ cells, as well as maintenance of several corpora lutea during the adult life. Thus, a highly complex pattern of polyovulation, polyimplantation, and controlling mechanisms has evolved in the female reproductive system of the viscacha that mainly was associated with the maternal side. After an in-depth analysis of the arterial and venous vascularization of the uterine horns and uteri, we speculate that specializations regarding the vasculature and musculature evolved first and then contributed as a compensatory or controlling mechanism for polyovulation and polyimplantation. In conclusion, polyovulation in the viscacha represents a unique enigma in reproductive biology.

  2. Epididymis of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): A Morphological Comparative Study in Relation to Sexual Maturity.

    PubMed

    Cruceño, A A M; Aguilera-Merlo, C I; Chaves, E M; Mohamed, F H

    2017-02-01

    The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda). In each segment, the structural parameters and the relative cell distribution were different between the groups. The serum testosterone levels of pre-pubertal and adults showed a very significant increase related to sexual maturity. The AR expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the groups. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the morphological characteristics of the viscacha epididymis vary while sexual maturity is reached, the development of initial and caput is subsequent to corpus and cauda development and the androgens might play an important role during this process.

  3. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene–lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene–lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower–middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene–early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  4. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

    PubMed

    Góis, Flávio; González Ruiz, Laureano Raúl; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

  5. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Mariela C.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative ( Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America ( D. bellus) and South America ( Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional.

  6. Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, Alfredo E.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Gillette, David; Sánchez, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the main aspects of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) concerning the glyptodontine Glyptodontidae (Xenarthra) is very scarce. A bidirectional dispersal process was recently proposed for this clade, with the presence of the North American genus Glyptotherium Osborn recognized in latest Pleistocene sediments of northern South America (Venezuela and Brazil). However, the earliest stages of this paleobiogeographical process remain poorly understood, mainly because of the limited fossil record on this clade in late Pliocene sediments. The goals of this contribution are: a) to present and describe the first record of a glyptodontine glyptodontid from the late Pliocene of northern South America, tentatively assigned to a new species of Boreostemma Carlini et al. ( Boreostemma? sp. nov); and b) to analyze its paleobiogeographical implications with respect to the GABI. This new material was recovered from the San Gregorio Formation (late Pliocene, prior the GABI) in northern Venezuela, where it is represented by several osteoderms of the dorsal carapace. A comparison among the three known late Pliocene glyptodontine glyptodontids of a) southern South America ( Paraglyptodon), b) northern South America ( Boreostemma), and c) southern North America (" Glyptotherium"), reveals a series of shared characters between (b) and (c), not present in (a). The most important of these shared characters in (b) and (c) are: all the osteoderms present a great development of the central figure, which is always larger than the peripherals; the sulcus that delimits the central and peripheral figures is narrower and shallower; and all the osteoderms present are relatively thin. This evidence suggests that the lineage of Glyptodontinae which participated in the GABI and subsequently diversified in North America originated in northern South America. Moreover, the evident morphological differences between these glyptodontines with respect to the southern South American forms show a significant separation of both lineages since at least latest Miocene-early Pliocene.

  7. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Carlini, Alfredo A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative (Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America (D. bellus) and South America (Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional.

  8. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.

  9. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  11. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants' behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

  12. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.

  13. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  14. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  15. A Seasonal and Age-Related Study of Interstitial Cells in the Pineal Gland of Male Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus).

    PubMed

    Busolini, Fabricio Ivan; Rosales, Gabriela Judith; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Mohamed, Fabian Heber

    2017-10-01

    The pineal gland of viscacha exhibits histophysiological variations throughout the year, with periods of maximal activity in winter and minimal activity in summer. The aim of this work is to analyze the interstitial cells (IC) in the pineal gland of male viscachas in relation to season and age. The S-100 protein, glio-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin were detected in adult and immature animals by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Double-IHC was also performed. The S-100 protein was localized within both, IC nucleus and cytoplasm. GFAP was present only in the cytoplasm. Vimentin was expressed in some IC, besides endothelial cells, and perivascular spaces. In the adult males, the morphometric parameters analyzed for the S-100 protein and GFAP exhibited seasonal variations with higher values of immunopositive area percentage in winter and lower values in summer, whereas the immature ones showed the lowest values for all the adult animals studied. Colocalization of S-100 protein and GFAP was observed. The IC exhibited differential expression for the proteins studied, supporting the hypothesis of the neuroectodermal origin. The IC generate an intraglandular communication network, suggesting its participation in the glandular activity regulation processes. The results of double-IHC might indicate the presence of IC in different functional stages, probably related to the needs of the cellular microenvironment. The morphometric variations in the proteins analyzed between immature and adult viscachas probed to be more salient in the latter, suggesting a direct relationship between the expression of the S-100 protein and GFAP, and animal age. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1847-1857, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on the pars tuberalis of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Romera, Edith Perez; Mohamed, Fabian; Fogal, Teresa; Dominguez, Susana; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary pars tuberalis (PT) is a glandular zone exhibiting well-defined structural characteristics. Morphologically, it is formed by specific secretory cells, folliculostellate cells, and migratory cells coming from the pars distalis. The purpose of this work was to investigate differences in specific cellular characteristics in the PT of viscachas captured in summer (long photoperiod) and winter (short photoperiod), as well as the effects of chronic melatonin administration in viscachas captured in summer and kept under long photoperiod. In summer, the PT-specific cells exhibited cell-like characteristics with an important secretory activity and a moderate amount of glycogen. In winter, the PT-specific granulated cells showed ultrastructural variations with signs of a reduced synthesis activity. Also, PT showed a high amount of glycogen and a great number of cells in degeneration. After melatonin administration, the ultrastructural characteristics were similar to those observed in winter, but the amount of glycogen was higher. These results suggest possible functional implications as a result of morphological differences between long and short photoperiods, and are in agreement with the variations of the pituitary-gonadal axis, probably in response to the natural photoperiod changes through the pineal melatonin. The ultrastructural differences observed in PT, after melatonin administration, were similar to those observed in the short photoperiod, thus supporting the hypothesis that these cytological changes are induced by melatonin.

  17. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody.

  18. Characterization of seasonal reproduction patterns in female pichis Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) estimated by fecal sex steroid metabolites and ovarian histology.

    PubMed

    Superina, Mariella; Carreño, Norma; Jahn, Graciela A

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive strategies vary considerably among species, but most studies have focused on a very limited number of mammalian species. Knowledge of the reproductive cycle and behavior is essential for developing and implementing in situ and ex situ conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species. This study aimed at characterizing the seasonal reproductive pattern of female pichis Zaedyus pichiy, a threatened small armadillo native to arid regions of Argentina and Chile, through direct observations, histological studies, and by measuring fecal immunoreactive estrogens, progestagens and glucocorticoids in 10 wild-born, captive pichis and in free-ranging individuals. Results suggest that pichis are seasonal breeders that give birth to one yearly litter of 1-2 offspring, which do not leave the burrow until they are weaned at approximately 37 days. Ovarian follicular growth seems to occur throughout the year. Fecal progestagen, estrogen and glucocorticoid concentrations were minimal during the first half of pregnancy, increased to peak concentrations of up to 3500, 200 and 200ng/g dry feces, respectively, and decreased before parturition. Postpartum progestagen concentrations were greater in lactating females than females that aborted or did not raise their offspring (p<0.0001), which is probably related to an elevated corticosteroid synthesis that contributes to maintain lactation, given that fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were of similar pattern. Observations of a second pregnancy after late abortion or death of the newborn litter and sustained follicular growth during pregnancy and lactation suggest that female pichis can become receptive briefly after having lost their litter. Fecal estrogen and progestagen concentrations of non-pregnant, non-lactating females did not have a well-defined hormonal cyclic pattern, and corpora lutea were only observed in pregnant females.

  19. Heart rate variability in relation to stress in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Vézina-Audette, Raphaël; Herry, Christophe; Burns, Patrick; Frasch, Martin; Chave, Emmanuelle; Theoret, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a safe, reliable, and accessible means to measure heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and evaluates the use of HRV as a physiological correlate of stress in the Asian elephant. A probabilistic model indicates that HRV measurements may adequately distinguish between stressed and non-stressed elephants. PMID:26933266

  20. Pseudo-radiculopathy in subacute trochanteric bursitis of the subgluteus maximus bursa.

    PubMed

    Swezey, R L

    1976-08-01

    Seventy patients, averaging 82 years of age, were referred for low back pain and/or a suspected herniated disk. Objective neurological deficits consistent with L5 or S1 root involvement were identified in 5 of the 70 patients. Trochanteric bursitis (TB), often mimicking radiculitis, was diagnosed in 31 patients. Trochanteric bursitis was associated with lumbosacral strain and lumbar osteoarthrosis in 21 of 31 patients and with an S1 disk in 1 of those 31 patients. Degenerative joint disease of the ipsilateral hip was present in 4 of 20 of these patients with TB. Six patients with low back pain had both hip and knee arthritis (including two patients with rheumatoid arthritis). Three patients had degenerative hip disease without low back complaints. The remaining patient had TB associated with left hemiparesis. All patients had limitation of lumbosacral motion. Patients with arthritic hips had apparent shortening of the affected leg of one-half inch or greater. Trochanteric bursitis is a common complication of lumbosacral strain, frequently mimicking radiculopathy. Gait alteration associated with back pain or static traction on gluteal musculature during rest therapy may be predisposing factors. The association of TB with hip disease and/or leg length discrepancies was again confirmed.

  1. QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions between fish and pathogens, that may be harmless under natural conditions, often result in serious diseases in aquaculture systems. This is especially important due to the fact that the strains used in aquaculture are derived from wild strains that may not have had enough time to adapt to new disease pressures. The turbot is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, produces important losses to turbot industry. An appealing solution is to achieve more robust broodstock, which can prevent or diminish the devastating effects of epizooties. Genomics strategies have been developed in turbot to look for candidate genes for resistance to furunculosis and a genetic map with appropriate density to screen for genomic associations has been also constructed. In the present study, a genome scan for QTL affecting resistance and survival to A. salmonicida in four turbot families was carried out. The objectives were to identify consistent QTL using different statistical approaches (linear regression and maximum likelihood) and to locate the tightest associated markers for their application in genetic breeding strategies. Results Significant QTL for resistance were identified by the linear regression method in three linkage groups (LGs 4, 6 and 9) and for survival in two LGs (6 and 9). The maximum likelihood methodology identified QTL in three LGs (5, 6 and 9) for both traits. Significant association between disease traits and genotypes was detected for several markers, some of them explaining up to 17% of the phenotypic variance. We also identified candidate genes located in the detected QTL using data from previously mapped markers. Conclusions Several regions controlling resistance to A. salmonicida in turbot have been detected. The observed concordance between different statistical methods at particular linkage groups gives consistency to our results. The detected associated markers could be useful for genetic breeding strategies. A finer mapping will be necessary at the detected QTL intervals to narrow associations and around the closely associated markers to look for candidate genes through comparative genomics or positional cloning strategies. The identification of associated variants at specific genes will be essential, together with the QTL associations detected in this study, for future marker assisted selection programs. PMID:22047500

  2. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and acetylation of sulfamethoxazole in turbot Scophthalmus maximus after intravascular administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fei; Lian, Chun'ang; Zhai, Qianqian; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) acetylation process in turbot reared at 18°C were investigated. Either SMX (parent drug) or its acetylized metabolite, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole (AcSMX), was administered intravascularly to turbot at a dosage of 50 mg/kg BW. Serum concentrations of the parent drug and its metabolite were both measured by HPLC, and the changes in concentration over time were analyzed in two- and non-compartment models because SMX treatment produced multiple peaks. The results demonstrated that the elimination half-life of the parent drugs, SMX and AcSMX, were 159.2 and 5.9 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.2 and 0.8 L/kg, and the clearance was 0.038 and 0.222 L/(h·kg), for SMX and AcSMX, respectively. SMX acetylation in turbot was 2.8%, and the deacetylation of AcSMX was 0.2%. These findings may be useful in optimizing SMX dosage regimens in turbot aquaculture.

  4. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G.; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-01-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. PMID:26951068

  5. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-06-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. The physiological performance and immune response of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to nitrite exposure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite (NO(2-)) is the most common toxic nitrogenous compound in aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nitrite physiological performance and immune response of turbot. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8 mM nitrite for 96 h. After 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure, blood were collected to measure the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), complement C3 (C3), complement C4 (C4), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme (LYS); gill samples were taken to analyze mRNA levels of LYS, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP 90), metallothionein (MT), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The results showed that nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, ALP, C3 and C4, reduced the levels of IgM and LYS, up-regulated the gene expressions of HSP 70, HSP 90, MT, TLR-3, TNF-α and IL-1β, and down-regulated the gene expressions of LYS and IGF-1 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Based on the results, it can be concluded that high level nitrite exposure results in dysfunction of the blood physiology and immunity in turbot. Further, this study will be helpful to understand the mechanism of aquatic toxicology induced by nitrite in marine fish.

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Andrew D. Taylor; J. Boone Kauffman

    2013-01-01

    Frequent wildfires in tropical landscapes dominated by non-native invasive grasses threaten surrounding ecosystems and developed areas. To better manage fire, accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in fuels are urgently needed. We quantified the spatial variability in live and dead fine fuel loads and moistures at four guinea grass (...

  8. Genotypic diversity of Vibrio isolates associated with turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) culture.

    PubMed

    Montes, Mercedes; Farto, Rosa; Pérez, María J; Armada, Susana P; Nieto, Teresa P

    2006-06-01

    One hundred environmental strains of Vibrio isolated from seawater and skin of healthy turbot in an aquaculture system were analyzed. Chromosomal DNA was digested with HindIII and MluI, and hybridized using a digoxigenin-labeled probe complementary to 16S and 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli. Nineteen riboclusters were defined by ribotyping analysis at a value of SD> or = 70%, using the Dice coefficient (S(D)) and UPGMA. The phylogenetic position of each ribocluster was achieved by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representative isolates. Both techniques were necessary and useful for identifying the isolates. V. parahaemolyticus, V. scophthalmi, V. splendidus-V. lentus related group, V. halioticoli, V. fischeri and V. ichthyoenteri were identified and clustered separately. Their ribocluster diversity was studied. Throughout the year, ribotypic profiles of corresponding strains isolated from both seawater and turbot skin appeared, indicating that environmental strains can easily colonize turbot. No correspondence between riboclusters and the season of isolation was found. Some ribotypes had been found in previous studies, demonstrating that ribotyping is a useful tool for monitoring environmental isolates and to finding strains that can colonize aquatic organisms and are able to produce outbreaks. The ribotype schemes defined here can be used as a ribotype database of environmental isolates of these species.

  9. Maximus-AI: Using Elman Neural Networks for Implementing a SLMR Trading Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Nuno C.; Gomes, Carlos

    This paper presents a stop-loss - maximum return (SLMR) trading strategy based on improving the classic moving average technical indicator with neural networks. We propose an improvement in the efficiency of the long term moving average by using the limited recursion in Elman Neural Networks, jointly with hybrid neuro-symbolic neural network, while still fully keeping all the learning capabilities of non-recursive parts of the network. Simulations using Eurostoxx50 financial index will illustrate the potential of such a strategy for avoiding negative asset returns and decreasing the investment risk.

  10. Cobboldia elephantis (Cobbold, 1866) larval infestation in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Javare Gowda, Ananda K; Dharanesha, N K; Giridhar, P; Byre Gowda, S M

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, post-mortem was conducted on a female elephant aged about 37 years died at Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Hunsur, Mathigoodu Elephant Camp, Karnataka state. The animal suffered with diarrhoea, anorexia, dehydration and was unable to walk for about one week before death and was treated with antibiotics and fluid therapy for three days. The post-mortem examination revealed that, the gastric mucosa was severely congested, hyperaemic and numerous stomach bots attached to the mucosa. The bots were recovered from the gastric mucosa and processed for species identification. The posterior spiracles of the bots showed three longitudinal parallel slits in each spiracle, the abdominal segments had a row of belt like triangular shaped spines and the anterior end had two powerful oral hooks with cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton. Based on the above said morphological characters, the bots were identified as Cobboldia elephantis. This seems to be the first report of C. elephantis in free range wild elephant from Karnataka state.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression of interferon-gamma of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, E; Janki, M B V; Arathy, D S; Hariharan, R; Premraj, C Avinash; Rasool, T J

    2007-07-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterial organisms has emerged as one of the major diseases in captive elephants. In vitro Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay is being used as an ancillary test for early detection of TB in domestic and captive wild animals. In the present study, basic sequence information and immunological cross-reactivity of this major cytokine of Asian elephants were explored. At predicted amino acid level, IFN-gamma of Asian elephant showed maximum identity to that of horse (73%). Other IFN-gamma amino acid sequences that showed high level identity were that of giant panda (72%), dog (71%), nine-banded armadillo (69%), cattle (63%) and human (62%). IFN-gamma promoter sequences of Asian elephant, human, cattle and mouse showed high level conservation of the putative transcription factor binding sites, TATA box and transcriptional start site. The functionally important human IFN-gamma promoter elements, such as AP-2IRE-BE, YY1-gammaIFN-BED, ATFCS and AP-1gammaINF binding sites, were absolutely conserved in the corresponding elephant sequence. There was only a single nucleotide variation in the other two important elements, NFAT-gammaINF and IFN-gammaPE, indicating the highly conserved regulation of IFN-gamma expression across different species. Phylogenetic analysis based on IFN-gamma protein sequences revealed a closer relation of Asian elephants and nine-banded armadillo. This shows a closer evolution of these members of Afrotheria and Xenarthra, respectively; and supports the previous reports based on mitochondrial DNA studies. In Western blot analysis, IFN-gamma of Asian elephant expressed in Escherichia coli was detected using an anti-bovine IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody, indicating immunological cross-reactivity.

  12. A safer method for studying hormone metabolism in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yon, Lisa; Faulkner, Brian; Kanchanapangka, Sumolya; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Meepan, Sompast; Lasley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive hormone assays provide a way to determine an animal's health or reproductive status without the need for physical or chemical restraint, both of which create unnecessary stress for the animal, and can potentially alter the hormones being measured. Because hormone metabolism is highly species-specific, each assay must be validated for use in the species of interest. Validation of noninvasive steroid hormone assays has traditionally required the administration of relatively high doses of radiolabelled compounds (100 µCi or more of (14)C labeled hormone) to permit subsequent detection of the excreted metabolites in the urine and feces. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive to extremely low levels of rare isotopes such as (14)C, and provides a way to validate hormone assays using much lower levels of radioactivity than those traditionally employed. A captive Asian bull elephant was given 1 µCi of (14)C-testosterone intravenously, and an opportunistic urine sample was collected 2 hr after the injection. The sample was separated by HPLC and the (14)C in the fractions was detected by AMS to characterize the metabolites present in the urine. A previously established HPLC protocol was used, which permitted the identification of fractions into which testosterone sulfate, testosterone glucuronide, and the parent compound testosterone elute. Results from this study indicate that the majority of testosterone excreted in the urine of the Asian bull elephant is in the form of testosterone sulfate. A small amount of testosterone glucuronide is also excreted, but there is no parent compound present in the urine at all. These results underscore the need for enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare urine samples for hormone assay measurement. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of proper hormone assay validation in order to ensure accurate measurement of the desired hormone. Although this study demonstrated the utility of AMS for safer validation of noninvasive hormone assays in nondomestic species, this methodology could also be applied to studies of nutrient metabolism and drug pharmakokinetics, both areas in great need of further study in wildlife species.

  13. Causes and Correlates of Calf Mortality in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Khyne U.; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant. PMID:22396757

  14. Stereotypic behavior of a female Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) in a zoo.

    PubMed

    Elzanowski, Andrzej; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    This study recorded daytime behavior of a female Asiatic elephant at the Municipal Zoo, Wroclaw, Poland, in both an indoor pen and an outdoor paddock as continuous scan sampling for 140 hr, over 35 days in 1 year. Stereotypic sequences involved bouts of highly repetitive stereotypic movements and much more variable interbout behavior. The study found both stereotypic movements, nodding and body (corpus) swaying, were asymmetric, accompanied by protraction of the right hind leg and to-and-fro swinging of the trunk. The elephant spent 52% of the daytime in stereotypic movements, 3.5 times the level reported for females in other zoos' groups. The share of time devoted to stereotypic behavior was lowest in the summer when the elephant was regularly released to the paddock and highest in the late fall after she had stayed in the pen after months of days outside. This suggests that changes in the management routine enhance stereotypies. Comparing the summer and winter stable management periods, stereotypies were much more frequent in the indoor pen than the outdoor paddock, suggesting that the confinement to a barren pen contributed to the observed levels of stereotypies.

  15. Ephrin-A5 overexpression degrades topographic specificity in the mouse gluteus maximus muscle.

    PubMed

    Lampa, S J; Potluri, S; Norton, A S; Fusco, W; Laskowski, M B

    2004-11-25

    Motor neurons project onto specific muscles with a distinct positional bias. We have previously shown using electrophysiological techniques that overexpression of ephrin-A5 degrades this topographic map. Here, we show that positional differences in axon terminal areas, an entirely different parameter of neuromuscular topography, are also eliminated with ephrin-A5 overexpression. Therefore, we now have both morphological and electrophysiological approaches to explore the mechanisms of neuromuscular topography.

  16. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROSPORUM CANIS FROM ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) IN THE CHONGQING ZOO, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xingfang; Hu, Juan; Wu, Denghu; Wei, Li; Yang, Yang; Chen, Jiankang; Mi, Benzhong; Yang, SongQuan

    2016-09-01

    Skin diseases affect millions of people and animals worldwide, including Asian elephants. This study sought to determine the pathogen of skin diseases that occurred in Asian elephants in Chongqing Zoo, China. The isolated fungus was identified through its cultural characteristics, morphology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR amplification using common fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) determined that the pathogen was 99.7% homologous to Microsporum canis. This is the first report on elephants infected with Microsporum canis in China.

  17. Dung as a potential medium for inter-sexual chemical signaling in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Seshagiri, P B; Sukumar, R

    2012-09-01

    Chemical signaling is a prominent mode of male-female communication among elephants, especially during their sexually active periods. Studies on the Asian elephant in zoos have shown the significance of a urinary pheromone (Z7-12:Ac) in conveying the reproductive status of a female toward the opposite sex. We investigated the additional possibility of an inter-sexual chemical signal being conveyed through dung. Sixteen semi-captive adult male elephants were presented with dung samples of three female elephants in different reproductive phases. Each male was tested in 3 separate trials, within an interval of 1-3 days. The trials followed a double-blind pattern as the male and female elephants used in the trials were strangers, and the observer was not aware of the reproductive status of females during the period of bioassays. Males responded preferentially (P<0.005), in terms of higher frequency of sniff, check and place behavior toward the dung of females close to pre-ovulatory period (follicular-phase) as compared to those in post-ovulatory period (luteal-phase). The response toward the follicular phase samples declined over repeated trials though was still significantly higher than the corresponding response toward the non-ovulatory phase in each of the trials performed. This is the first study to show that male Asian elephants were able to distinguish the reproductive phase of the female by possibly detecting a pre-ovulatory pheromone released in dung. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of stocking density on antioxidant status, metabolism and immune response in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoliang; Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the physiological and immune responses of juvenile turbot to stocking density. Turbot (average weight 185.4g) were reared for 120days in a land based recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) under three stocking densities: low density (LD, ~9.3-26.1kg/m(2), initial to final density), medium density (MD, ~13.6-38.2kg/m(2)) and high density (HD, ~19.1-52.3kg/m(2)). Fish were sampled at days 0, 40, 80 and 120 to obtain growth parameters and liver tissues. No significant difference was detected in growth, biochemical parameters and gene expression among the three densities until at the final sampling (day 120). At the end of this trial, fish reared in HD group showed lower specific growth rate (SGR) and mean weight than those reared in LD and MD groups. Similarly, oxidative stress and metabolism analyses represented that antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH)) and metabolic enzymes (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH)) clearly reduced in the liver of turbot reared in HD group. The gene expression data showed that glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated, and lysozyme (LYS) and hepcidin (HAMP) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in HD group on day 120. Overall, our results indicate that overly high stocking density might block the activities of metabolic and antioxidant enzymes, and cause physiological stress and immunosuppression in turbot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional variation in bycatches associated with king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) dredge fisheries.

    PubMed

    Szostek, Claire L; Murray, Lee G; Bell, Ewen; Lambert, Gwladys; Kaiser, Michel J

    2017-02-01

    The biomass and composition of bycatch from king scallop dredge fisheries was assessed and compared between the English Channel, Cardigan Bay in Wales and around the Isle of Man. Bycatch composition varied significantly at localised, and broad, geographic scales. The mean proportion of scallop dredge bycatch biomass in the English Channel was 19% of total catch biomass. The proportion of bycatch was lower in Cardigan Bay (15%) but notably higher around the Isle of Man (53%). The proportion of individual bycatch species in dredge catches were low, therefore scallop dredging is unlikely to cause a substantial increase the population mortality of individual commercially fished species beyond that caused by the target fisheries for those species, or bycatches of other fisheries. The amount and mortality of organisms left on the seabed in the dredge path was not quantified in this study but should also be considered in management of the fishery. The discard rate of finfish and shellfish of commercial value from the king scallop dredge fishery in the English Channel was between 18 and 100%, with a higher rate of discarding occurring in the eastern English Channel compared to the west. The clear regional differences in bycatch composition and variation in the quantity of discards mean that an area by area approach to managing bycatch species is required in relation to the king scallop dredge fishery.

  20. Evidence of means-end behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Irie-Sugimoto, Naoko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Sato, Takao; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-04-01

    The present study explores to what extent Asian elephants show "means-end" behavior. We used captive Asian elephants (N = 2) to conduct four variations of the Piagetian "support" problem, which involves a goal object that is out of reach, but rests on a support within reach. In the first condition, elephants were simultaneously presented with two identical trays serving as the "support", with the bait on one tray and the other tray left empty. In the next two conditions, the bait was placed on one tray, while additional bait was placed beside the other tray. In the last condition, both trays contained bait, but one of the trays had a small gap which prevented the elephants from reaching the reward. Subjects were required to choose and pull either tray with their trunk and to obtain the bait (i.e. goal). Results showed that one elephant performed all of the support problems significantly above chance after several sessions, suggesting that the elephant was capable of understanding that pulling the tray was the "means" for achieving the "end" of obtaining the bait. This study showed that elephants show means-end behavior when subjected to a Piagetian "support" task, and indicates that such goal-directed behavior occurs in species other than primates.

  1. Home Range and Ranging Behaviour of Bornean Elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) Females

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Raymond; Ahmad, Abd Hamid; Payne, Junaidi; Williams, Christy; Ambu, Laurentius Nayan; How, Phua Mui; Goossens, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Background Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before. Methodology/Principal Findings The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km2 in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km2 in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another. Conclusions/Significance Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans. PMID:22347469

  2. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S; Cox, Sherry K; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases--and the successful treatment regimen used--will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future.

  3. Reproductive Endocrinology and Musth Indicators in a Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Duer, Connie; Tomasi, Tom; Abramson, Charles I

    2016-12-01

    Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable. In addition to antagonistic behavior, musth is also characterized by temporal gland secretion and urine dribbling. In previous studies, musth has been attributed to elevated testosterone levels. This study attempted to enhance the knowledge base concerning these phenomena by examining hormone concentrations (n = 357) in Onyx, a male Asian elephant housed at Dickerson Park Zoo, with intermittent access to females (n = 1-5) over a 12-year period. Behavior and signs of musth also were recorded daily by elephant department staff. Musth indicators (temporal gland secretion, aggression, urine dribbling) increased with musth but not prior to it. We confirmed that temporal gland secretion was a better indicator of behavioral musth than urine dribbling. Hormones concentrations increased as musth approached, and presumably initiated musth indicators, but variability was high. Therefore, these hormones cannot be used to predict the onset of musth in this individual. Rather, the free/total testosterone ratio was a good indication of the 60-day pre-musth period. In addition, testosterone production and musth indicators increased in intensity when a young bull at the zoo started entering musth. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Social life of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: implications for elephant welfare.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Varadharajan; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Asian elephants in the wild live in complex social societies; in captivity, however, management often occurs in solitary conditions, especially at the temples and private places of India. To investigate the effect of social isolation, this study assessed the social group sizes and the presence of stereotypies among 140 captive Asian elephants managed in 3 captive systems (private, temple, and forest department) in Tamil Nadu, India, between 2003 and 2005. The majority of the facilities in the private (82%) and temple (95%) systems held a single elephant without opportunity for social interaction. The forest department managed the elephants in significantly larger groups than the private and temple systems. Among the 3 systems, the proportion of elephants with stereotypies was the highest in temple (49%) followed by private system (26%) and the forest department facility (6%); this correlates with the social isolation trend observed in the 3 systems and suggests a possible link between social isolation and abnormal elephant behavior separate from other environmental factors. The results of this study indicate it would be of greater benefit to elephant well being to keep the patchily distributed solitary temple and private elephants who are socially compatible and free from contagious diseases in small social groups at "common elephant houses" for socialization.

  5. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  6. Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1) age (2) seasonality (3) and circulating testosterone (SrTest), triiodothyronine (SrT3) and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4), as well as seminal (4) testosterone (SpTest), zinc (SpZn) and protein (SpTP) on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls (age range, 10-to 72-years) by manual stimulation between July 2004 and June 2005. Serum samples obtained monthly were assessed for SrTest, SrT3, SrT4, and seminal plasma samples were evaluated for, SpTest, SpZn and SpTP. Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years. Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years (P < 0.05); on the other hand, sperm concentration was lowest at age 10 to 19 years (P < 0.05). Percentage of sperm with normal morphology was highest at age 23 to 43 years. The levels of SrT3, SrTest, SpTest and SpZn were lowest at age 51 to 70 years, whereas SrT4 was lowest at age 23 to 43 years. Seasonality significantly affected semen characteristics in which percentage of viable sperm and cell concentration were highest during rainy season and lowest during summer months (P < 0.05). However, percentage of sperm with normal morphology was highest in summer and lowest in rainy season (P < 0.05). Seasonality significantly influenced SrTest with elevated concentrations observed in rainy season and winter (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. PMID:18346275

  7. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals.

  8. Elemental Analysis of Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Teeth Using X-ray Fluorescence and a Comparison to Other Species.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Brown, Janine L; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-03-01

    Elemental composition in bone of the different species has variation depending on genetic and environmental factors especially their food habitat. The aims of this study were to conduct an elemental analysis of Asian elephant teeth, both deciduous (first molar, second molar, and tusk) and permanent (molar and tusk), and compare the elemental composition of permanent teeth among 15 species, mostly mammalian. These teeth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence at two voltages: 15 and 50 kV. In Asian elephants, deciduous tusk showed a lower Ca/Zn ratio compared to permanent tusk, because of the lack of Zn in permanent molars. Ca/Fe ratio was higher in deciduous than permanent molars. For permanent teeth, elephant molars presented a high Ca/Pb ratio but no Ca/Zn, Ca/Sr, and Zn/Fe ratios because of the lack of Zn and Sr in the samples tested. The key elemental ratios for differentiating elephant deciduous and permanent tusk were Ca/P and Ca/Zn. The considerable variation in elemental ratio data across 15 species was observed. All tooth samples contained Ca and P, which was not surprising; however, Pb also was present in all samples and Cd in a large majority, suggesting exposure to environmental contaminants. From discriminant analysis, the combination of Ca/P+Ca/Zn+Ca/Pb+Ca/Fe+Ca/Sr+Zn/Fe can generate two equations that successfully classified six (dog, pig, goat, tapir, monkey, and elephant) out of 15 species at 100 % specificity. In conclusion, determining the elemental profile of teeth may serve as a tool to identify the tooth "type" of elephants and to potentially classify other species.

  9. Inter-species transmission of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schönherz, Anna A; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2013-04-01

    Successful viral infection is a complex mechanism, involving many host-pathogen interactions that developed during coevolution of host and pathogen, and often result in host-species specificity. Nevertheless, many viruses are able to infect several host species and sporadically cross species barriers. The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry, has developed an exceptionally wide host range across marine and freshwater environments. Transmission of VHSV between host species therefore represents a potential risk for aquaculture, which currently is not addressed in biosecurity managements. The objective of this study was to investigate the inter-species transmission potential of VHSV and evaluate whether infected marine wild fish pose a potential risk on marine cultured rainbow trout. A cohabitation infection trial with turbot as donor and rainbow trout as recipient host species was conducted. Turbot were intraperitoneally injected with either a marine-adapted (MA) or a trout-adapted (TA) VHSV isolate and subsequently grouped with naïve rainbow trout. Both VHSV isolates were able to replicate and cause mortality in turbot, while only the TA isolate was able to cross the species barrier and infect rainbow trout with fatal outcome. The results demonstrate that a marine fish species can function as reservoir and transmitter of TA VHSV isolates.

  10. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  11. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  12. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  13. Effect of temperature and short chain fructooligosaccharides supplementation on the hepatic oxidative status and immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Inês; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Costas, Benjamín; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2014-10-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with different levels of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on the hepatic oxidative status, hematology and innate immune parameters was evaluated in turbot reared at 15 °C and 20 °C. Four practical diets containing half of the protein provided by plant ingredients and the other half by fish meal were supplemented with scFOS at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% and fed to turbot juveniles for 9 weeks. Independently of the rearing temperature, diet with 1% scFOS increased the haematocrit (Ht) while 2% scFOS augmented the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), white blood cells (%) and lysozyme were higher in fish reared at 15 °C, whereas red blood cells and neutrophil numbers increased in fish reared at 20 °C. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were affected by rearing temperature being lower in fish reared at 20 °C. Compared to the control diet, at 15 °C, turbot fed 0.5 or 1% scFOS presented lower activities of CAT and glutathione reductase (GR). At 20 °C turbot fed the 2% scFOS diet presented lower activities of CAT and GPX. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity were not affected by temperature nor dietary prebiotic incorporation. Results of this study suggest scFOS has no effect on innate immunology or hematology. High temperature (20 °C) does not induce turbot oxidative stress, but the recommended dietary scFOS incorporation level for counteracting oxidative stress may differ with other rearing temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Rees, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    This study recorded sexual behavior within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants for approximately 230 hr on 50 days over a period of 10 months. The study observed a single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times. When the juvenile bull was between 4 years, 2 months and 4 years, 8 months old, he exhibited mounting behavior only on days when adult mounting occurred. Adult mounting always occurred first. Beyond the age of 4 years, 8 months, the juvenile bull exhibited spontaneous mounting behavior in the absence of adult mounting. This suggests that mounting behavior may develop because of social facilitation. Determining the significance of the presence of sexually active adults in the normal development of sexual behavior in juveniles will require further studies. Encouraging the establishment of larger captive herds containing adults and calves of both sexes-if their presence is important-would improve the welfare of elephants in zoos and increase their potential conservation value.

  15. Sperm DNA fragmentation and morphological degeneration in chilled elephant (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta Africana) semen collected by transrectal massage.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Montano, G A; Love, C C; Robeck, T R

    2013-05-01

    Ejaculates from nine Asian and two African elephants were analysed to gain a further understanding of mechanisms underlying variable semen quality after transrectal massage. Semen analysis was performed after collection (0 h; subjective motility parameters only) and after 24 h of chilled storage at 10 °C (24 h; all ejaculate and sperm characteristics). Ejaculates with ≤50% total motility (TM) at 24 h, which represented >90% of collection attempts, contained a sperm population with a high degree of DNA damage (64.2 ± 19.2% fragmented DNA) and an elevated incidence of detached heads (43.3 ± 22.5%). In contrast, good quality ejaculates designated as those with >50% TM at 24 h displayed higher (p < 0.05) values of sperm kinetic parameters, DNA integrity and normal morphology. Fertility potential was high for good quality ejaculates from two males (one Asian and one African bull) based on in vitro characteristics after chilled storage for up to 48 h post-collection. Urine contamination of semen, as assessed quantitatively by creatinine concentration, was confirmed as a significant factor in reduced elephant ejaculate quality. However, the identification of considerable DNA damage and morphological degeneration in the majority of ejaculates after only 24 h of chilled storage indicates that sperm ageing could be a primary contributor to inconsistent semen quality in the elephant. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Seasonal variation in the spatial distribution of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the lower Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siders, Zachary A; Westgate, Andrew J; Johnston, David W; Murison, Laurie D; Koopman, Heather N

    2013-01-01

    The local distribution of basking sharks in the Bay of Fundy (BoF) is unknown despite frequent occurrences in the area from May to November. Defining this species' spatial habitat use is critical for accurately assessing its Special Concern conservation status in Atlantic Canada. We developed maximum entropy distribution models for the lower BoF and the northeast Gulf of Maine (GoM) to describe spatiotemporal variation in habitat use of basking sharks. Under the Maxent framework, we assessed model responses and distribution shifts in relation to known migratory behavior and local prey dynamics. We used 10 years (2002-2011) of basking shark surface sightings from July-October acquired during boat-based surveys in relation to chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, bathymetric features, and distance to seafloor contours to assess habitat suitability. Maximum entropy estimations were selected based on AICc criterion and used to predict habitat utilizing three model-fitting routines as well as converted to binary suitable/non-suitable habitat using the maximum sensitivity and specificity threshold. All models predicted habitat better than random (AUC values >0.796). From July-September, a majority of habitat was in the BoF, in waters >100 m deep, and in the Grand Manan Basin. In October, a majority of the habitat shifted southward into the GoM and to areas >200 m deep. Model responses suggest that suitable habitat from July - October is dependent on a mix of distance to the 0, 100, 150, and 200 m contours but in some models on sea surface temperature (July) and chlorophyll-a (August and September). Our results reveal temporally dynamic habitat use of basking sharks within the BoF and GoM. The relative importance of predictor variables suggests that prey dynamics constrained the species distribution in the BoF. Also, suitable habitat shifted minimally from July-September providing opportunities to conserve the species during peak abundance in the region.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Edwardsiellapiscicida Strain ACC35.1 Isolated from Diseased Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Buján, Noemí; Toranzo, Alicia E; Magariños, Beatriz

    2017-02-16

    Edwardsiella piscicida is a bacterial fish pathogen with a high degree of virulence. The strain ACC35.1 was isolated from diseased turbot in Europe. The draft genome sequence comprises 3.84 Mb with a G+C content of 59.8% and >3,450 protein-coding genes.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-8 in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Vijay, Anushri; Nagarajan, Govindasamy; Kaur, Ramneek; Srivastava, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 are pro-inflammatory cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages in response to a variety of microbial and nonmicrobial agents. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. The open reading frame (ORF) of Asian elephant IL-1β is 789 bp in length, encoded a propeptide of 263 amino acid polypeptide. The predicted protein revealed the presence of IL-1 family signature motif and an ICE cut site. Whereas, IL-8 contained 321 bp of open reading frame. Interestingly, the predicted protein sequence of 106 aa, contains an ELR motif immediately upstream of the CQC residues, common in all vertebrate IL-8 molecules. Identity levels of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences of Asian elephant IL-1β ranged from 68.48 (Squirrel monkey) to 98.57% (African elephant), and 57.78 (Sheep) to 98.47% (African elephant), respectively, whereas that of IL-8 ranged from 72.9% (Human) to 87.8% (African elephant), and 63.2 (human, gorilla, chimpanzee) to 74.5% (African elephant, buffalo), respectively. The phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequenced showed that the Asian elephant IL-1β and IL-8 were most closely related to African elephant. Molecular characterization of these two cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8, in Asian elephant provides fundamental information necessary to progress the study of functional immune responses in this animal and gives the potential to use them to manipulate the immune response as recombinant proteins.

  19. Nonfatal clinical presentation of elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus discovered in a group of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Schaftenaar, W; Reid, C; Martina, B; Fickel, J; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2010-12-01

    Several different strains of elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus-1 (EEHV-1) have been identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in both African and Asian elephants. EEHV-1 has been identified in both cutaneous lesions in healthy African elephants and fatal cases of hemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. However, until now, no EEHV-1 strain has been identified or associated with otherwise healthy Asian elephants. This article describes recurrent nonendothelial lesions associated with EEHV-1 infection in a herd of Asian elephants not exhibiting fatal hemorrhagic syndrome. Genotypes of EEHV-1 strains, based on viral DNA polymerase and glycoprotein B, associated with fatal hemorrhagic syndrome, were compared to those identified in nonendothelial lesions. The same EEHV-1 genotypes were identified in fatal cases and mucosal lesions in otherwise healthy Asian elephants in this herd. Further studies of the Asian elephant immune system and virologic studies to determine the triggers of tissue tropism are needed before any conclusion can be reached. Elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus, EEHV, herpetic lesions, tropism.

  20. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C4–HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C6–HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C8–HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10–HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12–HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C8–HSL, rather than C6–HSL. Exogenous C4–HSL and C8–HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C6–HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot. PMID:27420072

  1. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateralization in trunk and forefoot movements in a population of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Keerthipriya, P; Tewari, Rachna; Vidya, T N C

    2015-11-01

    We examined side preferences in trunk and forefoot movement during feeding in a wild population of Asian elephants. Trunk sweeping movements to pluck/uproot/gather vegetation and forefoot scuffing movements to uproot vegetation were scored in 206 individuals. We found a much stronger side preference in trunk use than in forefoot use, supporting a modified task complexity hypothesis. The forefoot and trunk appeared to be coordinated while feeding and, among individuals that had significant forefoot preferences, the proportion of right forefoot use was higher among right trunkers than left trunkers. Trunk and forefoot preferences were not dependent on individuals' social associates, and trunk preferences were also not dependent on feeding associates. There was a significant effect of individual identity on forefoot preference strength but no population-level side preference in trunk or forefoot movement, suggesting no dominant eye control over the task, which might be true of feeding-related foot movement in other herbivores also. There was no effect of age or sex on trunk or forefoot side preference or strength. The onset of trunk side preference, however, was very early compared with that observed in other species studied and calls for a comparison of the ontogeny of side preferences in precocial and altricial species. Based on 57 mother-offspring pairs, we found that offspring trunk side preferences were independent of their mothers' preferences, suggesting that these preferences are not maternally inherited. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Clinico-Pathologic Features of Fatal Disease Attributed to New Variants of Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses in Two Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Garner, M. M.; Helmick, K.; Ochsenreiter, J.; Richman, L. K.; Latimer, E.; Wise, A. G.; Maes, R. K.; Kiupel, M.; Nordhausen, R. W.; Zong, J. C.; Hayward, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    The first herpesviruses described in association with serious elephant disease were referred to as endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) because of their ability to infect capillary endothelial cells and cause potentially fatal disease. Two related viruses, EEHV1 and EEHV2, have been described based on genetic composition. This report describes the similarities and differences in clinicopathologic features of 2 cases of fatal endotheliotropic herpesvirus infections in Asian elephants caused by a previously unrecognized virus within the betaherpesvirus subfamily that is markedly divergent from the 2 previously studied fatal probosciviruses, based on polymerase chain reaction sequence analysis of 2 segments of the viral genome. In addition to ascites, widespread visceral edema, petechiae, and capillary damage previously reported, important additional findings with EEHV3 infection were the presence of grossly visible renal medullary hemorrhage, a tropism for larger veins and arteries in various tissues, relatively high density of renal herpetic inclusions, and involvement of the retinal vessels. These findings indicate a less selective organ tropism, and this may confer a higher degree of virulence for EEHV3. PMID:19112123

  4. Results of the third reproductive assessment survey of North American Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) female elephants.

    PubMed

    Dow, T L; Holásková, I; Brown, J L

    2011-01-01

    A written survey assessed reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in AZA/SSP facilities in 2008, and data were compared to surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005. Results showed that ovarian acyclicity rates across the surveys remained unchanged for Asian (13.3, 10.9 and 11.1%) and African (22.1, 31.2 and 30.5%) elephants, respectively (P > 0.05), but were higher overall for African compared to Asian elephants (P < 0.05). In 2008, the percentages of Asian and African elephants with irregular cycles (14.3 and 15.8%) and irregular + no cycles (25.4 and 46.4%) was similar to 2005 (7.6 and 11.8%; 18.5 and 43.0%), but were increased compared to 2002 (2.6 and 5.2%; 16.0 and 27.3%), respectively (P < 0.05). For both species, ovarian acyclicity increased with age (P < 0.05). Reproductive tract pathologies did not account for the majority of acyclicity, although rates were higher in noncycling females (P < 0.05). Bull presence was associated with increased cyclicity rates (P < 0.05) for Asian (92.5 vs. 58.3%) and African (64.9 vs. 57.8%) elephants compared to females at facilities with no male, respectively. Cyclicity rates were higher for Asian (86.8 vs. 65.2%) and African (67.9 vs. 56.7%) elephants managed in free compared to protected contact programs (P < 0.05), respectively. Geographical facility location had no effect on cyclicity (P > 0.05). In summary, incidence of ovarian cycle problems continues to predominantly affect African elephants. Although percentages of acyclicity did not increase between 2005 and 2008, 42.2% Asian and 30.2% African females were no longer being hormonally monitored; thus, reproductive cycle abnormalities could be worse than current data suggest. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Secretory pattern of inhibin during estrous cycle and pregnancy in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yuto, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Narushima, Etsuo; Katayanagi, Masayuki; Sugimura, Keisuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The ovary of female elephants has multiple corpora lutea (CL) during the estrous cycle and gestation. The previous reports clearly demonstrated that inhibin was secreted from lutein cells as well as granulosa cells of antral follicles in cyclic Asian elephants. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibin secretion during the pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Two African elephants and two Asian elephants were subjected to this study. Circulating levels of immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Four pregnant periods of an African elephant and three pregnant periods of an Asian elephant were analyzed in this study. Circulating levels of ir-inhibin started to increase at 1 or 2 week before the ovulation and reached the peak level 3 or 4 weeks earlier than progesterone during the estrous cycle in both African and Asian elephants. After last luteal phase, the serum levels of ir-inhibin remained low throughout pregnancy in both an African and an Asian elephant. The mean levels of ir-inhibin during the pregnancy were lower than the luteal phase in the estrous cycle despite high progesterone levels were maintained throughout the pregnancy. These results strongly suggest that CL secrete a large amount of progesterone but not inhibin during the pregnancy in elephants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification and expression analysis of fetuin B (FETUB) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) mucosal barriers following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Chen, Jinghua

    2017-09-01

    Fetuin B (FETUB), a recently described cysteine proteinase inhibitor, has numerous conserved N-glycosylation sites, species-specific O-glycosylation sites, and two cystatin (CY) domains. FETUB is likely to play regulatory roles in acute inflammation, female infertility, fish organogenesis and tumor suppression. In the present study, transcript of turbot FETUB gene was captured, its protein structure and expression patterns in different tissues with emphasis on mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection were characterized. Turbot FETUB gene showed the closest relationship with Takifugu rubripes in phylogenetic analysis. In addition, FETUB was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in skin. Finally, FETUB gene showed different expression patterns following both bacterial challenge. The rapidly and significantly differential expression patterns of FETUB in mucosal surfaces against bacterial infections might indicate its key roles to prevent pathogen attachment and entry in turbot mucosal immunity. Functional studies should be carried out to further characterize the FETUB and avail utilization of its function to increase the disease resistance of turbot in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barriers against infections and to facilitate selection of the fine family/varieties of disease resistance in turbot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The secretory pattern and source of immunoreactive prolactin in pregnant African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yuto, Natsuki; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Lueders, Imke; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Sugimura, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Sayuri; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant African and Asian elephants. Levels of immunoreactive (ir-) PRL in serum and placental homogenates were measured by a heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on an ovine and human RIA system, and the localization of ir-PRL in the placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-human PRL. Circulating ir-PRL clearly showed a biphasic pattern during pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Serum levels of ir-PRL started to increase from the 4 - 6th month of gestation and reached the first peak level around the 11-14th month. A second peak of circulating ir-PRL levels was observed around the 18-20th month of gestation followed by an abrupt decline after parturition. In contrast, in a case of abortion of an African elephant, the second peak of ir-PRL was not observed, and the levels remained low for about four months until parturition. The weight of the fetus delivered at the 17th month of gestation was 23.5 kg, which was quite small compared with normal fetuses in previous reports. Ir-PRL was detected in placental homogenates, and immunolocalization was observed in trophoblasts in both the African and Asian elephants, indicating that the placenta is the source of ir-PRL during pregnancy in elephants. The present results clearly demonstrated that circulating ir-PRL shows a biphasic pattern during normal pregnancy and that the placenta appears to be an important source of circulating ir-PRL during pregnancy in both African and Asian elephants.

  9. Longitudinal study of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, indicates intermittent shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Laura; Dunham, Stephen; Yon, Lisa; Chapman, Sarah; Kenaghan, Megan; Purdie, Laura; Tarlinton, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    EEHV-1 is a viral infection of elephants that has been associated with a fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. Previous studies have suggested that pregnant animals may shed more virus than non-pregnant animals. This study examined whether pregnancy affected the frequency or magnitude of shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1) using Taq man real-time PCR on trunk washes from four female elephants from a UK collection over three time periods between 2011 and 2014. These periods included pregnancies in two animals (period 1 and period 3). Behavioural observations made by keepers were also assessed. During period 1 there was a high degree of social hierarchical instability which led to a hierarchy change, and was associated with aggressive behaviour. Also during period 1 EEHV-1 shedding was of a higher magnitude and frequency than in the latter two time periods. These results suggest that there is no clear relationship between shedding and pregnancy, and that behavioural stressors may be related to an increase in EEHV-1 shedding.

  10. Effects of chemical stress and food limitation on the energy reserves and growth of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Kerambrun, E; Henry, F; Rabhi, K; Amara, R

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine the growth and energetic performance of juvenile turbot after exposure to contaminated sediment and during the subsequent recovery period with or without food limitation. We designed a two-step experiment by first exposing juvenile turbot to harbour sediment for 26 days and then transferring them to clean sea water with different frequencies of feeding for 35 days. Without food limitation, fish previously exposed to contaminated sediment compensated for weight, length and lipid reserve losses; we did not record any differences in size, Fulton's K condition index and triacylglycerol/sterol (TAG/ST) ratio after the 35-day depuration period compared to the reference fish. This result could be related to the compensatory growth mechanism observed in a wide range of fish species following a period of growth depression. With food limitation during the 35-day depuration period, recovery growth was not sufficient to restore length and weight values similar to the reference fish. Moreover, turbot previously exposed to contaminated sediment and subsequently fed twice or once a week exhibited extremely low TAG/ST ratios, but the reference fish submitted to the same restrictive feeding conditions did not. This study indicates that juvenile fish affected by chemical pollution can improve their biological performance if pollution events are followed by a period of abundant food. However, if pollution events occur during periods of food scarcity, e.g. in winter, storage of energy reserves will be compromised.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Edwardsiella piscicida Strain ACC35.1 Isolated from Diseased Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Toranzo, Alicia E.; Magariños, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Edwardsiella piscicida is a bacterial fish pathogen with a high degree of virulence. The strain ACC35.1 was isolated from diseased turbot in Europe. The draft genome sequence comprises 3.84 Mb with a G+C content of 59.8% and >3,450 protein-coding genes. PMID:28209828

  12. Assessment of Fungal Pathogens as Biocontrol Agents of Myriophyllum Spicatum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Gliocladium roseum, 2 Indeterminate Hyphomycete (producing only chlamydospores), Acremoniurn sp, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Embeilisia nr. telituster, Fusarium ... solani , Geotrchum candidum Coniothyrium fuckelli, Cryptosporiopsis sp, Glomerella cingulata and an Indeterminate Coelomycete.

  13. Proline with or without hydroxyproline influences collagen concentration and regulates prolyl 4-hydroxylase α (I) gene expression in juvenile turbo ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaikai; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao; Peng, Mo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary proline (Pro), and Pro and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in combination on the growth performance, total Hyp and collagen concentrations of tissues, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase α(I) (P4H α(I)) gene expression in juvenile turbot feeding high plant protein diets. A diet containing 50% crude protein and 12% crude lipid was formulated as the basal and control, on which other two protein and lipid contents identical experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the basal with either 0.75% Pro (Pro-0.75) or 0.75% Pro and 0.75% Hyp (Pro+Hyp). Four groups of fish in indoor seawater recirculating systems, 35 individuals each, were fed twice a day to apparent satiation for 10 weeks. The results showed that dietary Pro and Hyp supplementation had no significant effect on growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot (P > 0.05). Total Hyp and collagen concentrations in muscle were significantly increased when dietary Pro and Hyp increased (P <0.05), and fish fed diet Pro+Hyp showed significantly higher free Hyp content in plasma than those fed other diets (P <0.05). The expression of P4H a(I) gene in liver and muscle was significantly up regulated in fish fed diet Pro-0.75 in comparison with control (P <0.05); however the gene was significantly down regulated in fish fed diet Pro+Hyp in muscle in comparison with fish fed diet Pro-0.75 (P <0.05). It can be concluded that supplement of crystal L-Pro and L-Hyp to high plant protein diets did not show positive effects on growth performance of juvenile turbot, but enhanced total collagen concentrations in muscle.

  14. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  15. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  16. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  17. Effect of feeding different levels of wheat roti on nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in semi-captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Saini, M; Katole, S; Kullu, S S; Swarup, D; Sharma, A K

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of wheat roti (WR) on nutrient utilization and blood metabolites in Asian elephants fed roughages ad libitum. Nine (3 M, 6 F) Asian elephants (14-52 years of age, 1909-3968 kg BW) were used in an experiment based on replicated Latin square design. Animals in each group (n = 3) were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a manner that animals in all the three groups were exposed to all the three treatments in three different periods. Each feeding trial comprised 30 days (25 days of adaptation and 5 days collection period). The amount of WR fed to the elephants was 0.18, 0.12 and 0.06% of BW in groups I, II and III, respectively. They were allowed to forage in the nearby forests for 6 h/day and to bathe for 2 h/day. The animals had ad libitum access to cut Rohini (Mallotus philippensis) trees in their night shelter. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn were measured. Feed consumption was not significantly different among the groups. Significant (p < 0.01) decrease in digestibility of DM and GE and blood glucose concentration was observed with decreased level of WR in the diet. Feeding of WR at 0.06% of BW supplied adequate amount of DE, CP, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn to meet requirement for adult maintenance. Feeding of WR in excess of 0.06% of BW supplied DE in excess of requirement, increased blood glucose concentration which may cause obesity and other associated health problems. It was concluded that the amount of WR should be restricted to 0.06% of BW in the diet of captive Asian elephants.

  18. Influence of light and feeding conditions on swimming activity rhythms of larval and juvenile turbot. Scophthalmus maximus L.: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champalbert, Gisèle; Le Direach-Boursier, Laurence

    1998-12-01

    Turbot larvae are transported towards coastal nursery areas and live in very shallow waters. Food availability is assumed to be an important factor that retains them in such areas. To study the effects of a biotic factor (food) and an abiotic factor (light) that strongly influence behavioural mechanisms, experiments were carried out on laboratory-reared animals: larvae (1 cm), post-larvae (1.2 to 2.5 cm) and early juveniles (6 to 7 cm). Three kinds of apparatus and methods were used to record variations in swimming activity: (1) a phototaxis device to study orientation reactions in horizontal tanks; (2) actographs with infrared photoelectric barriers fitted around vertical cylindrical tanks; and (3) video cameras and cylindrical tanks. Observations were performed in total darkness and under dark-light regimes. Different types and quantities of food were provided to the fish. Larvae and juveniles of turbot exhibited a positive phototaxis from 1 to 1000 μW cm -2. At intensities lower than or equal to 0.1 μW cm -2, they did not exhibit clear reactions toward or away from the light. Turbot larvae and juveniles kept in total darkness did not show a clear rhythm of activity. Under natural illumination as well as in artificial LD conditions of similar periodicity, larvae swam by day and night. Live food ( Artemia nauplii or juvenile mysids) induced an immediate increase in activity or the maintenance of a high level of activity, which decreased over the following days. Recently metamorphosed turbot kept under LD conditions exhibited a clear rhythm with a nocturnal maximum. Food given at night did not induce swimming changes as long as food density remained low. At higher prey concentrations, increased activity during feeding was followed by reduced activity for more than 24 hours. A similar response pattern was noted when active food was given in large quantities during the day: juveniles displayed an immediate increase in activity, which subsequently decreased. Regular food supply during the day induced an activity rhythm with a diurnal maximum. Despite slight differences, 6-7 cm juveniles behaved in a similar way. Our results clearly indicate the importance of trophic conditions on the swimming activity rhythms of larval and juvenile turbots and the lesser role of light conditions. They are compared with results in the literature describing the behaviour of the same species, and with juvenile sole, whose behaviour appears to be different.

  19. Qualitative comparison of the cranio-dental osteology of the extant elephants, Elephas Maximus (Asian elephant) and Loxodonta africana (African elephant).

    PubMed

    Todd, Nancy E

    2010-01-01

    Few osteological descriptions of the extant elephants and no detailed morphological comparison of the two genera, Elephas and Loxodonta, have been done in recent years. In this study, 786 specimens of extant elephants (crania, mandibles, and molars) were examined for characters unique to each species. Differences between sexes in each species were described, as well as differences between subspecies of each species. Striking differences in morphology were noted between sexes of both elephants and between subspecies, which may complement current genetic studies, the focus of which is to determine division at the subspecies or species level, particularly differences between the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) and the forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). In addition, examination of the two living elephants provides an excellent dataset for identifying phylogenetic characters for use in examining evolutionary relationships within and between fossil lineages of elephantids.

  20. Molecular cloning, subcelluar location and expression profile of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Wang, Xian-Li; Yang, Chang-Geng; Chen, Song-Lin

    2013-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) is an important molecule involved in the type I interferon signalling pathway. To date, little STAT2 homologue is available in fish except Atlantic salmon and goldfish. In this paper, STAT2 was firstly cloned and characterized from turbot, a marine flatfish with high economic value. Briefly, turbot STAT2 cDNA is 3206 bp in length encoding a predicted protein of 793 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree shows that turbot STAT2 protein shared the closest relationship with Atlantic salmon. Analysis of subcellular distribution indicates that STAT2 is mainly present in the cytoplasm of TK cells. Stat2 mRNA is constitutively expressed in widespread tissues and induced by several folds in turbot tissues and TK cells after stimulation with Vibrio anguillarum and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). Unlike the higher vertebrate STAT2, turbot STAT2 nuclear export signal (NES) exists not in the C-terminal 79 amino acids but in N-terminal 137-312 amino acids (STAT_alpha domain). The nuclear translocation of turbot STAT2 after Poly(I:C) treatment proved its transcription activity in TK cells. All these results suggested that STAT2 may be involved in the immune response in turbot as a transcription factor.

  1. Effect of the early temperature on the growth of larvae and postlarvae turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L.: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, María D; Martínez, Juan M; Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Cal, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Turbot specimens were kept at three temperatures (T s ): warm (W) (21-22 °C), ambient (A) (17-18 °C) and cold (C) (13-14 °C) during the larval and early postlarval stages. At 90 days posthatching (dph), all of them were transferred to ambient T until 190 dph. At 2-3 dph, the specimens showed a monolayer of red muscle and immature white fibres; external or dermomyotome cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were observed on the surface of the red muscle. In the following stages, many myogenic cells and presumptive myogenic precursors were observed within the myotome, presumably derived of the dermomyotome. When comparing the growth at the same age (2, 10, 25, 37 dph), the body length and the muscle growth were positively influenced by the warm T, being the hyperplasia the muscle parameter more significantly influenced. The development rate was also positively correlated with the high T: the beginning of the metamorphosis took place at 15, 23 and 25 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at ambient temperature. The metamorphosis finished at 25, 30 and 37 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at warm temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar in all the groups at the end of the metamorphosis. At 90 and 190 dph, the largest body length was observed at W temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar between A and W; the number of fibres was similar in all the groups at 190 dph, which shows the beginning of a compensatory muscle growth in A and C, mainly in A.

  2. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Stephens, N; Vogelnest, L; Lowbridge, C; Christensen, A; Marks, G B; Sintchenko, V; McAnulty, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a pathogen of humans. Infections have been reported in animal species and it is emerging as a significant disease of elephants in the care of humans. With the close association between humans and animals, transmission can occur. In November 2010, a clinically healthy Asian elephant in an Australian zoo was found to be shedding M. tuberculosis; in September 2011, a sick chimpanzee at the same zoo was diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by an indistinguishable strain of M. tuberculosis. Investigations included staff and animal screening. Four staff had tuberculin skin test conversions associated with spending at least 10 hours within the elephant enclosure; none had disease. Six chimpanzees had suspected infection. A pathway of transmission between the animals could not be confirmed. Tuberculosis in an elephant can be transmissible to people in close contact and to other animals more remotely. The mechanism for transmission from elephants requires further investigation.

  4. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Xiuhua; Huang, Jie; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L) than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05), but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05). Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route. PMID:26950114

  5. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Ribas, Laia; Pardo, Belén G; Fernández, Carlos; Alvarez-Diós, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Quiroga, María Isabel; Planas, Josep V; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Martínez, Paulino; Piferrer, Francesc

    2013-03-15

    Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database ("Turbot 2 database") was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences ("Turbot 3 database"), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50-90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also compiled. Further, 2,976 putative natural antisense transcripts (NATs) including microRNAs were also identified. The combined sequencing strategies employed here significantly increased the turbot genomic resources available, including 34,400 novel sequences. The generated database contains a larger number of genes relevant for reproduction- and immune-associated studies, with an excellent coverage of most genes present in many relevant physiological pathways. This database also allowed the identification of many microsatellites and SNP markers that will be very useful for population and genome screening and a valuable aid in marker assisted selection programs.

  6. An aerolysin-like enterotoxin from Vibrio splendidus may be involved in intestinal tract damage and mortalities in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), and cod, Gadus morhua L., larvae.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, H L; Bergh, Ø; Birkbeck, T H

    2012-02-01

    Vibrio splendidus is a pathogen that can cause major losses during the early stages of larval turbot rearing when live feed (rotifers or Artemia) is used. As haemolytic bacteria have often been associated with larval rearing losses, we studied the role of the V. splendidus haemolysin in infection of larvae. From a bank of over 10,000 transposon mutants of V. splendidus, two different types of haemolysin-negative mutants were obtained. Both had lost virulence for larval fish, and immunohistochemistry showed that the transposon mutant studied colonized the turbot larval intestinal tract at a similar level to the wild-type organism but did not cause damage or signs of enteritis found with the wild-type organism. One transposon insertion site was located within a gene with high homology to aerolysin, the cytolytic toxin produced by several Aeromonas spp. The haemolysin, which we have termed vibrioaerolysin, had properties similar to aerolysin and osmotic protection studies showed that it formed pores in the membranes of erythrocytes of similar diameter to those of aerolysin. The Tn10 insertion site of the second transposon mutant was in an adjacent ToxR-like gene, suggesting that this might control expression of the vibrioaerolysin. The gastroenteritis caused by Aeromonas spp. in humans is considered to be due to production of aerolysin causing cyclic AMP-dependent chloride secretion in cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Damage to the intestinal tract of marine fish larvae could occur in a similar way, and it is possible that several Vibrio spp. found in the developing bacterial flora of the larval fish gut can secrete aerolysin-like toxins leading to death of larvae in the early rearing stages. Routine bacteriological screening on blood agar plates of live feed is recommended with measures to reduce the concentrations of haemolytic bacteria in rearing systems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Redescription and molecular characterization of Anoplocephala manubriata, Railliet et al., 1914 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from a Sri Lankan wild elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Perera, K U E; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Perera, B V P; Bandara, K B A T; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2017-02-28

    The present work provides a detailed morphological and molecular description of Anoplocephala manubriata in elephants. Adult worms were recovered during an autopsy of a wild elephant in Elephant Transit Home, Udawalawe, Sri Lanka. Necropsy findings revealed a severe cestode infection in the small intestine. These tapeworms were tightly attached to the intestinal mucosae, resulted in hyperemic thickened intestinal mucosae, variable size irregular well-demarcated multifocal ulcerative regions sometimes covered with necrotic membranes and variable size, diffuse, well-demarcated raised nodular masses were evident in the small intestine. The article provides an account of the biology of A. manubriata and a comparative analysis of the morphology and morphometrics of Anoplocephala species that occur in different hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), a portion of the 28S region and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) genes revealed that A. manubriata is closely associated with Anoplocephala species in horse in comparison to other Anoplocephalines. This study will enhance the current knowledge in taxonomy of elephant tapeworms and contribute to future phylogenetic studies.

  8. Species differences and effects of soft coral extracts from Sinnularia maximus on the expression of cytochrome P4501A and 2N in butterflyfishes (Chaetodon spp.).

    PubMed

    DeBusk, B C; Slattery, M; Ki, Jang-Seu; Lee, Jae-Seong; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Schlenk, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) has been shown to confer resistance in numerous terrestrial insects that consume potentially toxic secondary metabolites in plants, but fewer studies have examined the role of critical biotransformation enzymes in allowing marine organisms to consume chemically defended foods. This study examined the expression of CYP1A and CYP2N mRNAs in several butterflyfish species, which can feed on numerous chemically defended soft and hard corals. In addition, the effect of an extract from a soft coral (Sinnularia maxima) on expression of hepatic CYP1A and CYP2 mRNAs was also examined. Fish were fed extracts on days 1, 3 and 5, and expression was examined on day 5. Phylogenetic analyses of the CYP1A cDNA from 12 species of butterflyfish (DNA, amino acid) indicate well-separated groupings according to their feeding strategies. The non-coralline feeding Chaetodon xanthurus exhibited a 7-fold higher basal expression of CYP2N8 relative to the other species studied. Although induction of CYP2N7 expression was observed in C. punctatofasciatus, CYP1A and CYP2N was largely unaffected or diminished by extract treatment in the other species of butterflyfish. These results indicated groupings of feeding strategy with CYP1A phylogeny in Chaetodon, but generally unaltered expression of CYP1A and CYP2N following dietary treatment with an extract from a chemically defended soft coral suggesting an inconclusive role of these isoforms in the detoxification of chemicals in these extracts.

  9. Transcriptional responses of cancer-related genes in turbot Scophthalmus maximus and mussels Mytilus edulis exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Orbea, Amaia; Rotchell, Jeanette M; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2012-04-01

    Recent spills in European waters have released polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, important components of heavy fuel oil, and the hydrocarbon styrene. Heavy fuel oil and styrene are classified as potentially genotoxic and carcinogenic. Here we investigate transcription of genes involved in cancer development in the liver of juvenile turbots and in the digestive gland of mussels exposed to heavy fuel oil and to styrene and after a recovery period. In turbot, oil produced a significant up-regulation of p53 and gadd45α after 14 days exposure. cyclin G1 was up-regulated after 7 days treatment with styrene. In mussels, ras was down-regulated in both treatments after the recovery periods. No mutations in ras hotspots were detected in exposed mussels. gadd45α was up-regulated after the recovery period of the styrene experiment. Overall, transcriptional responses differed in mussels compared to turbot. Turbot responded to hydrocarbon exposure by triggering cell cycle arrest (p53) and DNA repair (gadd45α).

  10. Pretreatment of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins and glycerol addition at 4°C improves cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Asano, Atsushi; Travis, Alexander J; Schmitt, Dennis L; Brown, Janine L; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2012-01-01

    Asian elephant spermatozoa are sensitive to chilling and do not respond well to cryopreservation. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) determine whether cholesterol content can be modified by preincubation of Asian elephant spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC); and (2) assess the effects of CLC concentration(s), temperature at time of glycerol addition (22°C vs 4°C) and dilution medium on post-thaw sperm survival. Spermatozoa incubated with ≥1.5 mg CLC exhibited increased (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentrations. Pretreatment of spermatozoa with 1.5 mg CLC resulted in improvements (P < 0.05) in all post-thaw parameters. Glycerol addition at 4°C also improved all post-thaw parameters compared with 22°C. Dilution of thawed spermatozoa in an egg yolk-based medium improved (P < 0.05) motility compared with Ham's F-10 culture medium. In summary, our findings indicate that modifying cholesterol content within the plasma membrane improves the cryosurvival of Asian elephant spermatozoa. The development of an improved cryopreservation method that includes modification of membrane cholesterol and the addition of glycerol at 4°C, as reported in the present study, is an important step towards utilisation of cryopreserved spermatozoa in captive management of this species.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of the matricellular protein Sparc/osteonectin in flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus, and its developmental stage-dependent transcriptional regulation during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Núñez, E; Suarez-Bregua, P; Cal, L; Cal, R; Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Rotllant, J

    2015-09-01

    SPARC/osteonectin is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein, which is expressed in embryonic and adult tissues that undergo active proliferation and dynamic morphogenesis. Recent studies indicate that Sparc expression appears early in development, although its function and regulation during development are largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, characterization, post-embryonic developmental expression and environmental thermal regulation of sparc in turbot. The full-length turbot sparc cDNA contains 930 bp and encodes a protein of 310 amino acids, which shares 77, 75 and 80% identity with human, frog and zebrafish, respectively. Results of whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal a dynamic expression profile during post-embryonic turbot development. Sparc is expressed differentially in the cranioencephalic region; mainly in jaws, branchial arches, fin folds and rays of caudal, dorsal and anal fins. Furthermore, ontogenetic studies demonstrated that Sparc gene expression is dynamically regulated during post-embryonic turbot development, with high expression during stage-specific post-embryonic remodeling. Additionally, the effect of thermal environmental conditions on turbot development and on ontogenetic sparc expression was evaluated.

  12. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also compiled. Further, 2,976 putative natural antisense transcripts (NATs) including microRNAs were also identified. Conclusions The combined sequencing strategies employed here significantly increased the turbot genomic resources available, including 34,400 novel sequences. The generated database contains a larger number of genes relevant for reproduction- and immune-associated studies, with an excellent coverage of most genes present in many relevant physiological pathways. This database also allowed the identification of many microsatellites and SNP markers that will be very useful for population and genome screening and a valuable aid in marker assisted selection programs. PMID:23497389

  13. 77 FR 298 - Endangered Species Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... elephant (Elephas maximus). Applicant: Topeka Zoological Park, Topeka, KS; PRT-52995A The applicant... pardus), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to enhance their... elephant (Elephas maximus), to enhance their propagation or survival. This notification covers activities...

  14. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K

    2016-07-01

    Three types of cells have been distinguished in the midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata: digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. According to the results of our previous studies, we decided to analyze the relationship between apoptosis and necrosis in their midgut epithelium and circadian rhythms. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these processes proceed in a continuous manner that is independent of the circadian rhythm in L. forficatus, while in S. cingulata necrosis is activated at midnight. Additionally, the description of apoptosis and necrosis showed no differences between males and females of both species analyzed. At the beginning of apoptosis, the cell cytoplasm becomes electron-dense, apparently in response to shrinkage of the cell. Organelles such as the mitochondria, cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum transform and degenerate. Nuclei gradually assume lobular shapes before the apoptotic cell is discharged into the midgut lumen. During necrosis, however, the cytoplasm of the cell becomes electron-lucent, and the number of organelles decreases. While the digestive cells of about 10 % of L. forficatus contain rickettsia-like pathogens, the corresponding cells in S. cingulata are free of rickettsia. As a result, we can state that apoptosis in L. forficatus is presumably responsible for protecting the organism against infections, while in S. cingulata apoptosis is not associated with the elimination of pathogens. Necrosis is attributed to mechanical damage, and the activation of this process coincides with proliferation of the midgut regenerative cells at midnight in S. cingulata.

  15. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grech, Marta; Visintin, Andrés; Laurito, Magdalena; Estallo, Elizabet; Lorenzo, Pablo; Roccia, Irene; Korin, Maximiliano; Goya, Facundo; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2012-04-01

    The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

  16. Effects of the PPARα agonist WY-14,643 on plasma lipids, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes in a marine flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2015-07-01

    Fibrates and other lipid regulator drugs are widespread in the aquatic environment including estuaries and coastal zones, but little is known on their chronic effects on non-target organisms as marine fish. In the present study, turbot juveniles were exposed to the PPARα model agonist WY-14,643 for 21 days by repeated injections at the concentrations of 5mg/kg (lo-WY) and 50mg/kg (hi-WY), and samples taken after 7 and 21 days. Enzyme activity and mRNA expression of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase in the liver were analyzed as first response, which validated the experiment by demonstrating interactions with the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress pathways in the hi-WY treatment. In order to get mechanistic insights, alterations of plasma lipids (free cholesterol, FC; HDL associated cholesterol, C-HDL; triglycerides, TG; non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA) and hepatic mRNA expression of 17 genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were studied. The exposure to hi-WY reduced the quantity of plasma FC, C-HDL, and NEFA. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression were higher in hi-WY, and indicated an increased formation of VLDL particles and energy mobilization from liver. It is speculated that energy depletion by PPARα agonists may contribute to a higher susceptibility to environmental stressors.

  17. Influence of immunostimulant polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and Bacillus strains on the innate immune and acute stress response in turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) fed soy bean- and wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, V I; Schmidt, J; Slater, M J; Buck, B H; Steinhagen, D

    2017-08-10

    Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS). The basal diet (C-LF) and a high FM (59%) control (C-HF) were maintained. All six diets were fed to juvenile turbots for 84 days in experiment I and for additional 28 days prior to experiment II. Immunological and hematological parameters were determined in experiment I. In experiment II, physical stress response to a typical short-term (<1 day) aquaculture handling procedure (combination of capture, netting/transfer, and crowding) was investigated. For this, turbot blood was sampled before and at 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h post stress. Plasma lysozyme activity, neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and total plasma protein levels did not significantly differ between treatment groups; however, plasma cholesterol increased significantly in fish fed GM, AC, NR, and C-HF compared to C-LF (I). A significant increase in plasma glucose and triglyceride was observed in GM and NR treatments, while glucose levels were significantly higher in C-HF compared to C-LF. Moreover, the immunostimulant-supplemented diets exhibited significantly lower cortisol levels compared to controls C-LF (at 0.5 h) and C-HF (at 1 h) post stress, respectively (II). According to our findings, FM substitution did not modulate the innate immune response but was associated with reduced levels of cholesterol. Dietary immunostimulants were not effective enough to boost the immune response, but we believe they might be helpful to trigger metabolic advantages during stressful handling events on fish farms.

  18. Seasonal effects on the endocrine pattern of semi-captive female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): timing of the anovulatory luteinizing hormone surge determines the length of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Thitaram, C; Brown, J L; Pongsopawijit, P; Chansitthiwet, S; Wongkalasin, W; Daram, P; Roongsri, R; Kalmapijit, A; Mahasawangkul, S; Rojansthien, S; Colenbrander, B; van der Weijden, G C; van Eerdenburg, F J C M

    2008-01-15

    Better breeding strategies for captive Asian elephants in range countries are needed to increase populations; this requires a thorough understanding of their reproductive physiology and factors affecting ovarian activity. Weekly blood samples were collected for 3.9 years from 22 semi-captive female Asian elephants in Thai elephant camps to characterize LH and progestin patterns throughout the estrous cycle. The duration of the estrous cycle was 14.6+/-0.2 weeks (mean+/-S.E.M.; n=71), with follicular and luteal phases of 6.1+/-0.2 and 8.5+/-0.2 weeks, respectively. Season had no significant effect on the overall length of the estrous cycle. However, follicular and luteal phase lengths varied among seasons and were negatively correlated (r=-0.658; P<0.01). During the follicular phase, the interval between the decrease in progestin concentrations to baseline and the anovulatory LH (anLH) surge varied in duration (average 25.9+/-2.0 days, range 7-41, n=23), and was longer in the rainy season (33.4+/-1.8 days, n=10) than in both the winter (22.2+/-4.5 days, n=5; P<0.05) and summer (18.9+/-2.6 days, n=8; P<0.05). By contrast, the interval between the anLH and ovulatory LH (ovLH) surge was more consistent (19.0+/-0.1 days, range 18-20, n=14). Thus, seasonal variation in estrous cycle characteristics were mediated by endocrine events during the early follicular phase, specifically related to timing of the anLH surge. Overall reproductive hormone patterns in Thai camp elephants were not markedly different from those in western zoos. However, this study was the first to more closely examine how timing of the LH surges impacted estrous cycle length in Asian elephants. These findings, and the ability to monitor reproductive hormones in range countries (and potentially in the field), should improve breeding management of captive and semi-wild elephants.

  19. Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov., two novel species isolated from a Great scallop (Pecten maximus) hatchery in Norway and emended description of the genus Neptuniibacter.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, Ana L; Balboa, Sabela; Magnesen, Thorolf; Romalde, Jesús L

    2017-03-01

    Nine isolates obtained from a great scallop hatchery in Norway were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strains were Gram-negative, aerobic and motile rods with oxidative metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes showed that these strains formed two different groups associated with members of the genus Neptuniibacter. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) demonstrated that the isolates constituted two novel species of this genus, which can be phenotypically differentiated from their closest relatives. The names Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov are proposed, with ATR 1.1(T) (=CECT 8938(T)=DSM 100783(T)) and LFT 1.8(T) (=CECT 8936(T)=DSM 100781(T)) as respective type strains.

  20. The effect of winter length on duration of dormancy and survival of specialized herbivorous Rhagoletis fruit flies from high elevation environments with acyclic climatic variability.

    PubMed

    Rull, J; Tadeo, E; Lasa, R; Aluja, M

    2017-09-19

    Dormancy can be defined as a state of suppressed development allowing insects to cope with adverse conditions and plant phenology. Among specialized herbivorous insects exploiting seasonal resources, diapause frequently evolves as a strategy to adjust to predictable plant seasonal cycles. To cope with acyclic and unpredictable climatic events, it has been found for some insects that a proportion of the population undergoes prolonged dormancy. We compared the response of three species in the Rhagoletis cingulata species group exploiting plants differing in fruiting phenology from environments varying in frequency and timing of acyclic climatic catastrophic events (frost during flowering and fruit set) and varying also in the time of the onset of the rainy season. Small proportions (10 months), and large proportions of pupae died without emerging as adults. The number of days elapsed from the end of artificial winter and adult eclosion was longer for R. cingulata exploiting late fruiting Prunus serotina in Northeastern Mexico than for flies recovered from earlier fruiting plants in the central Altiplano. Rhagoletis turpiniae and northeastern R. cingulata pupae suffered high proportions of parasitism. Large proportions of R. cingulata from central Mexico engaging in prolonged dormancy may be explained by the fact that flowering and fruit set for its host, P. serotina var capuli, driven by the timing of maximum precipitation, matches a period of highest probability of frost often resulting in large areas with fruitless trees at unpredictable time intervals. As a consequence of differences in host plant fruiting phenology, central and northeastern Mexican R. cingulata were found to be allochronically isolated. Prolonged dormancy may have resulted in escape from parasitism.

  1. Wolbachia in Parasitoids Attacking Native European and Introduced Eastern Cherry Fruit Flies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Hannes; Kern, Peter; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Vogt, Heidrun; Fischer, Maximilian; Stauffer, Christian; Riegler, Markus

    2016-12-01

    The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids. Here we describe for the first time that two braconid wasps, Psyttalia rhagoleticola Sachtleben (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Utetes magnus Fischer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), naturally parasitizing R. cerasi, use the invasive R. cingulata in Europe as a new host. In contrast, no parasitoids that parasitize R. cingulata in its native American range were detected in the introduced European range. Diagnostic Wolbachia PCR screening and sequence analyses demonstrated that all P. rhagoleticola individuals were infected with the newly described Wolbachia strain wRha while all U. magnus individuals were uninfected. wRha is different from wCer1 but had an Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene sequence that was identical to wCer2 of R. cerasi and wCin2 of R. cingulata. However, multi locus sequence typing revealed differences in all loci between wRha and the tephritid's strains. The horizontal transmission of wCer1 between the two tephritid species did not result in fixed heritable infections in the parasitoids. However, the parasitoids may have acted as a transient wCer1 vector. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Armadillos exhibit less genetic polymorphism in North America than in South America: nuclear and mitochondrial data confirm a founder effect in Dasypus novemcinctus (Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Huchon, D; Delsuc, F; Catzeflis, F M; Douzery, E J

    1999-10-01

    Heterozygosity at eight nuclear enzymatic loci and mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) sequence polymorphism was compared between North and South American nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus: Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). All markers revealed a striking genetic homogeneity amongst Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi individuals, vs. the usual level of polymorphism for the French Guiana population. This may reflect a founder effect during colonization of North America. Occurrence of polymorphism in the D-loop microsatellite motif of North American armadillos suggests a recent recovery of mitochondrial variability. Phylogeographic analyses using Dasypus kappleri as outgroup provides evidence for a clear separation between North and South American control region haplotypes.

  3. Macrobenthos habitat potential mapping using GIS-based artificial neural network models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye; Koo, Bon Joo; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Woo, Han Jun

    2013-02-15

    This paper proposes and tests a method of producing macrobenthos habitat potential maps in Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea based on an artificial neural network. Samples of macrobenthos were collected during field work, and eight control factors were compiled as a spatial database from remotely sensed data and GIS analysis. The macrobenthos habitat potential maps were produced using an artificial neural network model. Macrobenthos habitat potential maps were made for Macrophthalmus dilatatus, Cerithideopsilla cingulata, and Armandia lanceolata. The maps were validated by compared with the surveyed habitat locations. A strong correlation between the potential maps and species locations was revealed. The validation result showed average accuracies of 74.9%, 78.32%, and 73.27% for M. dilatatus, C. cingulata, and A. lanceolata, respectively. A GIS-based artificial neural network model combined with remote sensing techniques is an effective tool for mapping the areas of macrobenthos habitat potential in tidal flats.

  4. Two new mosquito species and six new provincial records in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Andrés M; Laurito, Magdalena; Stein, Marina; Ramirez, Patricia; Molina, Gustavo; Lorenzo, Pablo R; Almirón, Walter R

    2010-03-01

    ABSTRACT. The geographical distribution of Aedes pennai, Anopheles galvaoi, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. nigricans, Culex usquatissimus, Cx. apicinus, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. coronator s.l., Cx. interfor, Cx. maxi, Cx. pipiens, Cx. saltanensis, Cx. educator, Cx. serratimarge, Cx. theobaldi, Psorophora cyanescens, Ps. cilipes, Ps. cingulata, Ps. pallescens, Uranotaenia lanei, Ur. nataliae, Wyeomyia diabolica, and Wy. melanocephala is extended, including new records for 6 provinces and 2 new records for the country, increasing the number of species in Argentina from 226 to 228.

  5. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  6. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  7. 77 FR 2314 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... permit to import one captive-born male snow leopard (Uncia uncia) from Canada for the purpose of... 50 CFR 17.21(g) for leopard (Panthera pardus) and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), to enhance their...

  8. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Sandbar, Carcharhinus plumbeus Silky, Carcharhinus falciformis Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier 2. Non-ridgeback..., Squatina dumerili Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye sixgill... signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill, Hexanchus griseus Smalltail...

  9. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Sandbar, Carcharhinus plumbeus Silky, Carcharhinus falciformis Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier 2. Non-ridgeback..., Squatina dumerili Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye sixgill... signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill, Hexanchus griseus Smalltail...

  10. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brevipinna Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier B. Small Coastal Sharks Atlantic sharpnose, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae... angel, Squatina dumeril Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye... brachyurus Night, Carcharhinus signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill...

  11. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Sandbar, Carcharhinus plumbeus Silky, Carcharhinus falciformis Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier 2. Non-ridgeback..., Squatina dumerili Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye sixgill... signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill, Hexanchus griseus Smalltail...

  12. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... brevipinna Tiger, Galeocerdo cuvier B. Small Coastal Sharks Atlantic sharpnose, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae... angel, Squatina dumeril Basking, Cetorhinus maximus Bigeye sand tiger, Odontaspis noronhai Bigeye... brachyurus Night, Carcharhinus signatus Sand tiger, Carcharias taurus Sevengill, Heptranchias perlo Sixgill...

  13. Re-Engineering the Enrollment Management System at the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District (MPUSD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    to learn about county history through poetry , reading, art and drama. But educators are concerned that the substitute program is not challenging...system, such as SchoolMax (DMG MAXIMUS , 2001), would be a benefit to the district. SchoolMax is discussed in chapter IV. 56...module available in June 2001, centralized registration could be realized within the District (DMG Maximus , 2001). • Introduced two additional thesis

  14. An armadillo-like sphagesaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Thiago S.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2009-02-01

    The Sphagesauridae is a family of Crocodyliformes exclusively known for the Brazilian Late Cretaceous Bauru Basin. This lineage reveals how diverse was the morphology and ecology of terrestrial Crocodyliformes during the Late Cretaceous of Gondwana. Here is described Armadillosuchus arrudai gen. et sp. nov., a sphagesaurid that presents some mammal-like morphological features, such as propalinal and alternate unilateral jaw occlusion pattern and heavy body armor, composed of a rigid shield and mobile-banded section as in extant armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). These unusual morphological features contrast to the double row of osteoderms observed on the closest relatives of A. arrudai. As its mammal analogs, A. arrudai presents some evidence of fossoriality and an exclusive terrestrial life style in contrast to the extant alligatorids and crocodylids.

  15. Evolutionary sperm morphology and morphometry in armadillos.

    PubMed

    Cetica, P D; Solari, A J; Merani, M S; De Rosas, J C; Burgos, M H

    1998-04-01

    Little is known about the evolution of vertebrate spermatozoa. In most eutherian taxa a high degree of uniformity in sperm shapes and dimensions among species was observed. The aim of this work is to trace a possible evolutionary change in sperm morphology and morphometry in dasypodids. The main difference between the spermatozoa of the studied armadillos is the shape of the sperm heads. We have classified the spermatozoa into 4 different groups according with their head shapes. Sperm from group 1 (Dasypus) are considered ancestral and are clearly separated from the others. The remaining sperm types are derivative ones; those from group 2 (Tolypeutes) are farther from those of groups 3 (Priodontes and Cabassous) and 4 (Chaetopractus, Zaedyus and Euphractus) which would have recently differentiated from each other. The sperm shape and size are not constant across taxa in armadillos; an important evolutive differentiation was established on the sperm morphology and morphometry between the different genera in Dasypodidae.

  16. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  17. Studies on the cardiac physiology of Onychophora and Chilopoda.

    PubMed

    Hertel, W; Wirkner, C S; Pass, G

    2002-11-01

    Cardiac physiology in Onychophora and Chilopoda has not yet been studied by electrophysiological methods. Here we present ECGs and the first intracellular recordings from dorsal vessel muscle cells in Scolopendra cingulata, Lithobius forficatus and Peripatopsis sp. In Onychophora, a myogenic automatism generates the heart function. In the Chilopoda examined, heartbeat is triggered by a neurogenic automatism that is superimposed over a basic myogenic rhythm, which occurs under experimental conditions. The neuropeptide proctolin and the head peptide have no significant effects in the species investigated. The results are discussed from the viewpoints of comparative physiology and phylogenetics.

  18. Muscle contributions to propulsion and braking during walking and running: insight from external force perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard G; Sumner, Bonnie J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-09-01

    There remains substantial debate as to the specific contributions of individual muscles to center of mass accelerations during walking and running. To gain insight, we altered the demand for muscular propulsion and braking by applying external horizontal impeding and aiding forces near the center of mass as subjects walked and ran on a treadmill. We recorded electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus (superior and inferior portions), the gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus/membrinosus, vastus medialis, lateral and medial gastrocnemius and soleus. We reasoned that activity in a propulsive muscle would increase with external impeding force and decrease with external aiding force whereas activity in a braking muscle would show the opposite. We found that during walking the gastrocnemius and gluteus maximus provide propulsion while the vasti are central in providing braking. During running, we found that the gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and soleus all contribute to propulsion.

  19. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    PubMed

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  20. Brackish-water mollusks of Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Harada, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Brackish-water mollusks inhabiting the mangrove areas along the Gulf of Thailand of Surat Thani Province were investigated for distribution, abundance and natural infections. Nine families and 32 species of brackish-water snails were recovered from 14 sampling stations. Species belonging to the genus Ceritidea of the family Potamididae were mainly examined and Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) Cingulata, C. (C.) djadjariensis, and C. (Cerithidea) charbonnieri were naturally infected with 2 types of trematode cercariae, and one which was undetermined. C. (C.) cingulata had the highest infection rate (38.5%). Viewing two snail communities, the first community on the mainland and the second on Samui Island in Surat Thani Province, 28 brackish-water mollusk species were present on the mainland, 15 species were evident on Samui Island, and 11 snail species were common to both the mainland and Samui Island. Measurement of community similarity based on species presence revealed an index of similarity of 0.51. Concerning land use by the local people in the station areas investigated, brackish-water snails in Surat Thani Province are facing habitat degradation by human use.

  1. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  2. Molecular identification of Probolocoryphe uca (Sarkisian, 1957; Digenea: Microphallidae) from Kuwait Bay using ITS1 and ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Wafa Y; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A

    2010-04-01

    Probolocoryphe species occur primarily as intestinal parasites of birds and mammals. Infection of the crab Nanosesarma minutum with the metacercarial cyst stages of Probolocoryphe uca is common in Kuwait Bay. In this study, the snail Cerithidea cingulata was used to determine if it would serve as first intermediate host in the parasite's life cycle. To determine the snail-crab link in the life cycle of P. uca based on rDNA molecular data, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the metacercarial cyst stage from the crab N. minutum and the sporocyst stage from the snail C. cingulata were sequenced and compared. Sequence alignment clearly demonstrated that the sporocysts and metacercariae belonged to P. uca. Comparisons were also made between the ITS sequences of P. uca and other digenean species available in GenBank. NCBI databases were used for sequence homology analysis using BLAST, ClustalW, and MUSCLE. The phylogenetic trees based on the homology analysis of the ITS (1 and 2) sequences constructed using PHYLIP and MEGA 4.0 confirmed the identification and positioned P. uca in the Microphallidae family.

  3. Molecular characterization of Stictodora tridactyla (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from Kuwait Bay using rDNA ITS and mtCO1.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Wafa Y; Alnaqeeb, Majed A; Isaac, Asha M; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A

    2015-11-01

    Stictodora tridactyla is an intestinal fluke in the family Heterophyidae that parasitizes shorebirds and mammals, including humans. Its metacercarial cyst stage was reported in the Arabian killifish, Aphanius dispar, at Kuwait Bay. In the present study, Cerithidea cingulata was found to serve as the first intermediate host of S. tridactyla. In order to establish the snail-fish link in the life cycle of S. tridactyla, complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 2 (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 were obtained for metacercarial cysts isolated from the fish A. dispar and rediae isolated from the snail C. cingulata. Sequence alignment demonstrated that these larval stages belong to the same heterophyid species, S. tridactyla. Phylogenetic analysis based on rDNA ITS1, ITS2, and mtCO1 confirmed the position of S. tridactyla within the Heterophyidae and found it to cluster with Haplorchis spp. The present study represents the first molecular study correlating the larval stages of S. tridactyla using rDNA ITS1, ITS2, and mtCO1 and examining the phylogenetic relationships of S. tridactyla with different heterophyid species.

  4. In vivo moment arm lengths for hip extensor muscles at different angles of hip flexion.

    PubMed

    Németh, G; Ohlsén, H

    1985-01-01

    Moment arm lengths of three hip extensor muscles, the gluteus maximus, the hamstrings and the adductor magnus, were determined at hip flexion angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees by combining data from ten autopsy specimens and from twenty patients, the latter examined by computed tomography. A straight-line muscle model for muscle force was used for the hamstrings and adductor magnus, and for the gluteus maximus a two-segment straight-line muscle force model was used. With the joint in its anatomical position the moment arm of the gluteus maximus to the bilateral motion axis averaged 79 mm, for the hamstrings 61 mm and for the adductor magnus 15 mm. The moment arm of gluteus maximus decreased with increasing hip flexion angle. The hamstrings showed an increase in moment arm length up to an average of 35 degrees hip flexion and then a decrease with increasing hip flexion angle. The corresponding figures for the adductor magnus moment arm showed an increase up to 75 degrees and then a decrease. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in moment arm length between men and women.

  5. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 60, Number 2, February 1924

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1924-02-01

    8217 put in a state of defense. In the absence of the remaining consul, Q. Fabius Maximus was elected pro-dictator with 1\\1. 1\\1inucius Rufus as ~-1aster...beginning with History, Science, and Philosophy, through Travel, Archreo,logy, and Imaginative Literature together with Poetry and World Politics. Each list

  6. Advanced Development of an Active Neuromusculature Response to Mechanical Stress.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-31

    iliac crest of pelvis Iliotibial tract of femur Abduction flexion of thigh 2.48 Obtaratus internus Obturatus foramen area of pelvis...externus Obturator foramen area of pelvis Trochanteric fossa of femur Adduction of thigh 4.95 Gluteus maximus Iliac crest of sacrum Iliotibial

  7. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, A L; Romalde, J L

    2017-02-02

    We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation.

  9. Effect of a gluteal activation warm-up on explosive exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Matt; Price, Phil DB; Cleather, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of a gluteal activation warm-up on the performance of an explosive exercise (the high hang pull (HHP)). Methods Seventeen professional rugby union players performed one set of three HHPs (with 80% of their one repetition maximum load) following both a control and activation warm-up. Peak electrical activity of the gluteus maximus and medius was quantified using electromyography (EMG). In addition, the kinematics and kinetics of nine players was also recorded using force plate and motion capture technology. These data were analysed using a previously described musculoskeletal model of the right lower limb in order to provide estimates of the muscular force expressed during the movement. Results The mean peak EMG activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly lower following the activation warm-up as compared with the control (p<0.05, effect size d=0.30). There were no significant differences in the mean peak estimated forces in gluteus maximus and medius, the quadriceps or hamstrings (p=0.053), although there was a trend towards increased force in gluteus maximus and hamstrings following the activation warm-up. There were no differences between the ground reaction forces following the two warm-ups. Conclusion This study suggests that a gluteal activation warm-up may facilitate recruitment of the gluteal musculature by potentiating the glutes in such a way that a smaller neural drive evokes the same or greater force production during movement. This could in turn potentially improve movement quality. PMID:28761719

  10. Peak Muscle Activation, Joint Kinematics, and Kinetics during Elliptical and Stepping Movement Pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Greany, John F.; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = 0.01), 29% more knee extension (p = 0.003), 101% higher peak…

  11. Native herbivore exerts contrasting effects on fire regime and vegetation structure

    Treesearch

    Jose L. Hierro; Kenneth L. Clark; Lyn C. Branch; Diego. Villarreal

    2011-01-01

    Although native herbivores can alter fire regimes by consuming herbaceous vegetation that serves as fine fuel and, less commonly, accumulating fuel as nest material and other structures, simultaneous considerations of contrasting effects of herbivores on fire have scarcely been addressed. We proposed that a colonial rodent, vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus...

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Neptuniibacter sp. Strains LFT 1.8 and ATR 1.1

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the draft genomes of two strains previously identified as Neptuniibacter sp. LFT 1.8 (= CECT 8936 = DSM 100781) and ATR 1.1 (= CECT 8938 = DSM 100783) isolated from larvae of great scallops (Pecten maximus) and seawater, respectively. Both strains surely constitute two novel species in this genus, with putative applications for aromatic compound degradation. PMID:28153896

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G.K.; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P.K.; Santhosh, Sam

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants. PMID:28221104

  14. Deal breaker: semaphorin and specificity in the spinal stretch reflex circuit.

    PubMed

    Maro, Géraldine S; Shen, Kang; Cheng, Hwai-Jong

    2009-07-16

    Stretch reflex circuits are a prime example of wiring specificity in the vertebrate spinal cord. Homonymous sensory afferents and motoneurons typically form monosynaptic connections, while neurons innervating antagonistic or unrelated muscles do not. Pecho-Vrieseling et al. now show that the semaphorin Sema3E and its receptor Plexin-D1 prevent monosynaptic connectivity in the cutaneous maximus muscle stretch reflex circuit.

  15. Habitat relationships of Asian elephants in shifting-cultivation landscapes of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot; Ashish Kumar; G. Talukdar; A.K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In Asia and India, Asian elephants (Elaphas maximus) attain their highest densities and numbers in Meghalaya, particularly in Garo Hills, of northeast India. Little quantitative work has been done on elephant-habitat relationships in this region where the species' distribution is known to be highly fragmented. If elephants and their habitat...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G K; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P K; Santhosh, Sam; Mikota, Susan K

    2017-03-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.

  17. Peak Muscle Activation, Joint Kinematics, and Kinetics during Elliptical and Stepping Movement Pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Greany, John F.; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = 0.01), 29% more knee extension (p = 0.003), 101% higher peak…

  18. Four events of host switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) involve convergent lineages of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Gardner, Scott L; Navone, Graciela; Ortí, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    The Great American Interchange resulted in the mixing of faunistic groups with different origins and evolutionary trajectories that underwent rapid diversification in North and South America. As a result, groups of animals of recent arrival converged into similar habits and formed ecological guilds with some of the endemics. We present a reconstruction of the evolutionary events in Aspidoderidae, a family of nematodes that infect mammals that are part of this interchange, i.e., dasypodids, opossums, and sigmodontine, geomyid, and hystricognath rodents. By treating hosts as discrete states of character and using parsimony and Bayesian inferences to optimize these traits into the phylogeny of Aspidoderidae, we reconstructed Dasypodidae (armadillos) as the synapomorphic host for the family. In addition, 4 events of host switching were detected. One consisted of the switch from dasypodids to hystricognath rodents, and subsequently to geomyid rodents. The remaining set of events consisted of a switch from dasypodids to didelphid marsupials and then to sigmodontine rodents. The reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests 3 events of dispersal into the Nearctic. Two of these invasions would suggest that 2 different lineages of dasypodid parasites entered the Northern Hemisphere at different times, which is consistent with the presence of 2 lineages of armadillos in Mexico.

  19. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals.

  20. When xenarthrans had enamel: insights on the evolution of their hypsodonty and paleontological support for independent evolution in armadillos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancio, Martín R.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Carlini, Alfredo A.

    2014-09-01

    All xenarthrans known to date are characterized by having permanent teeth that are both high crowned and open rooted, i.e., euhypsodont, and with a type of hypsodonty different from that of the rest of Placentalia: dentine hypsodonty. Also, most xenarthrans lack enamel; however, its presence has been reported in the fossil armadillo Utaetus buccatus and in living Dasypus. Considering the divergence of Xenarthra from other eutherians that possessed enameled teeth, the absence of enamel is a derived character. Diverse specializations are known in the dentition of xenarthrans, but the primitive pattern of their teeth and dentitions is still unknown. Here, we describe the mandible and teeth of a fossil armadillo, Astegotherium dichotomus (Astegotheriini, Dasypodidae), from the early Middle Eocene of Argentine Patagonia, with teeth showing both true enamel and closed roots. It is the oldest xenarthran with mandibular remains exhibiting protohypsodonty and is therefore likely representative of ancestral cingulates and xenarthrans generally. Astegotherium supports a recent hypothesis based on molecular data that enamel loss occurred independently not only within xenarthrans but also within dasypodid armadillos.

  1. Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Gillian C.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters) constitutes one of the four major clades of placental mammals. Despite their phylogenetic distinctiveness in mammals, a reference phylogeny is still lacking for the 31 described species. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 33 new complete mitochondrial genomes, establishing Xenarthra as the first major placental clade to be fully sequenced at the species level for mitogenomes. The resulting data set allowed the reconstruction of a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale that are consistent with previous studies conducted at the genus level using nuclear genes. Incorporating the full species diversity of extant xenarthrans points to a number of inconsistencies in xenarthran systematics and species definition. We propose to split armadillos into two distinct families Dasypodidae (dasypodines) and Chlamyphoridae (euphractines, chlamyphorines, and tolypeutines) to better reflect their ancient divergence, estimated around 42 Ma. Species delimitation within long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) appeared more complex than anticipated, with the discovery of a divergent lineage in French Guiana. Diversification analyses showed Xenarthra to be an ancient clade with a constant diversification rate through time with a species turnover driven by high but constant extinction. We also detected a significant negative correlation between speciation rate and past temperature fluctuations with an increase in speciation rate corresponding to the general cooling observed during the last 15 My. Biogeographic reconstructions identified the tropical rainforest biome of Amazonia and the Guiana Shield as the cradle of xenarthran evolutionary history with subsequent dispersions into more open and dry habitats. PMID:26556496

  2. Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Superina, Mariella; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Fairy armadillos or pichiciegos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) are among the most elusive mammals. Due to their subterranean and nocturnal lifestyle, their basic biology and evolutionary history remain virtually unknown. Two distinct species with allopatric distributions are recognized: Chlamyphorus truncatus is restricted to central Argentina, while Calyptophractus retusus occurs in the Gran Chaco of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. To test their monophyly and resolve their phylogenetic affinities within armadillos, we obtained sequence data from modern and museum specimens for two mitochondrial genes (12S RNA [MT-RNR1] and NADH dehydrogenase 1 [MT-ND1]) and two nuclear exons (breast cancer 1 early onset exon 11 [BRCA1] and von Willebrand factor exon 28 [VWF]). Phylogenetic analyses provided a reference phylogeny and timescale for living xenarthran genera. Our results reveal monophyletic pichiciegos as members of a major armadillo subfamily (Chlamyphorinae). Their strictly fossorial lifestyle probably evolved as a response to the Oligocene aridification that occurred in South America after their divergence from Tolypeutinae around 32 million years ago (Mya). The ancient divergence date (∼17Mya) for separation between the two species supports their taxonomic classification into distinct genera. The synchronicity with Middle Miocene marine incursions along the Paraná river basin suggests a vicariant origin for pichiciegos by the disruption of their ancestral range. Their phylogenetic distinctiveness and rarity in the wild argue in favor of high conservation priority. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When xenarthrans had enamel: insights on the evolution of their hypsodonty and paleontological support for independent evolution in armadillos.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Martín R; Vieytes, Emma C; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2014-09-01

    All xenarthrans known to date are characterized by having permanent teeth that are both high crowned and open rooted, i.e., euhypsodont, and with a type of hypsodonty different from that of the rest of Placentalia: dentine hypsodonty. Also, most xenarthrans lack enamel; however, its presence has been reported in the fossil armadillo Utaetus buccatus and in living Dasypus. Considering the divergence of Xenarthra from other eutherians that possessed enameled teeth, the absence of enamel is a derived character. Diverse specializations are known in the dentition of xenarthrans, but the primitive pattern of their teeth and dentitions is still unknown. Here, we describe the mandible and teeth of a fossil armadillo, Astegotherium dichotomus (Astegotheriini, Dasypodidae), from the early Middle Eocene of Argentine Patagonia, with teeth showing both true enamel and closed roots. It is the oldest xenarthran with mandibular remains exhibiting protohypsodonty and is therefore likely representative of ancestral cingulates and xenarthrans generally. Astegotherium supports a recent hypothesis based on molecular data that enamel loss occurred independently not only within xenarthrans but also within dasypodid armadillos.

  4. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates.

  5. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

    2014-02-01

    Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is