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Sample records for maximus cingulata dasypodidae

  1. Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Chlamyphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Tracy S.; Superina, Mariella; Leslie,, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792), called the giant armadillo, is monotypic and by far the largest extant armadillo. Average adult weight is about 30kg (in captivity, as high as 80kg). Its carapace extends about halfway down its sides, making it impossible to curl up tightly. It is dark brown to black dorsally, with a broad light band around the lower part of its carapace. It primarily digs to escape, enhanced by its 20-cm, sickle-shaped nail on its 3rd forefingers. P. maximus is widely distributed in South America but nowhere abundant. It is affected by habitat loss and fragmentation, agriculture, hunting, collection for museum specimens, and illegal animal trafficking. P. maximus is listed as “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  2. The correct name of the endemic Dasypus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We show that Dasypus mazzai Yepes 1933 is a senior synonym of Dasypus yepesi Vizcaíno 1995. We present morphological evidence that the holotype of D. mazzai is not a juvenile of Dasypus novemcinctus or any other species of this genus, but a distinct endemic species from northwestern Argentina undistinguishable from D. yepesi. Therefore, the correct name for the long-nosed armadillo of intermediate size occurring in the Argentinean provinces of Jujuy and Salta is Dasypus mazzai Yepes 1933. PMID:25543926

  3. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Stanhope, Michael J; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2003-08-01

    The 30 living species of armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra) represent one of the three major clades of placentals. Armadillos (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) are the earliest and most speciose xenarthran lineage with 21 described species. The question of their tricky phylogeny was here studied by adding two mitochondrial genes (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [ND1] and 12S ribosomal RNA [12S rRNA]) to the three protein-coding nuclear genes (alpha2B adrenergic receptor [ADRA2B], breast cancer susceptibility exon 11 [BRCA1], and von Willebrand factor exon 28 [VWF]) yielding a total of 6869 aligned nucleotide sites for thirteen xenarthran species. The two mitochondrial genes were characterized by marked excesses of transitions over transversions-with a strong bias toward CT transitions for the 12S rRNA-and exhibited two- to fivefold faster evolutionary rates than the fastest nuclear gene (ADRA2B). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Dasypodinae, Tolypeutinae, and Euphractinae, with the latter two armadillo subfamilies strongly clustering together. Conflicting branching points between individual genes involved relationships within the subfamilies Tolypeutinae and Euphractinae. Owing to a greater number of informative sites, the overall concatenation favored the mitochondrial topology with the classical grouping of Cabassous and Priodontes within Tolypeutinae, and a close relationship between Euphractus and Chaetophractus within Euphractinae. However, low statistical support values associated with almost equal distributions of apomorphies among alternatives suggested that two parallel events of rapid speciation occurred within these two armadillo subfamilies.

  4. Microbial transformation of Isopimpinellin by Glomerella cingulata.

    PubMed

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Microbial transformation studies conducted on isopimpinellin (1) by the fungus Glomerella cingulata have revealed that 1 was metabolized to give the corresponding reduced acid, 5,8-dimethoxy-6,7-furano-hydrocoumaric acid (2). The structure of metabolite 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), extensive NMR techniques, including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) and heteonuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC). The biotransformed product 2 showed weak a in vitro β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory effect. PMID:22027023

  5. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  6. Biotransformation of bergapten and xanthotoxin by Glomerella cingulata.

    PubMed

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-07-14

    The biotransformation of bergapten (1) by the fungus Glomerella cingulata gave the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-methoxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), a new compound. Xanthotoxin (3) was also converted to the corresponding reduced acid cnidiol b (4) and demethylated metabolite xanthotoxol (5) by G. cingulata. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, extensive NMR techniques, including (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteonuclear multiple bond coherence. The methyl ester or methyl ether or methyl ester and ether derivatives of 2 and 4 were synthesized. All compounds were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro. The methyl ester and ether derivative 8 was shown to possess BACE1 inhibitory activity, and a IC(50) value was 0.64 +/- 0.04 mM. PMID:20527746

  7. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus. PMID:24552210

  8. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus.

  9. Microstructure of dental hard tissues in fossil and recent xenarthrans (Mammalia: Folivora and Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Kalthoff, Daniela C

    2011-06-01

    A striking difference between xenarthrans and other mammals is the complete loss of tooth enamel in all members but the earliest armadillos. However, sloth and armadillo teeth show structured wear facets, which in all other mammals are formed by tooth enamel. How is that possible? Here, I report about an analysis of fossil and recent xenarthran dental hard tissue microstructure. It shows that osteodentine is not exclusive to fossil Cingulata, but also occurs in some recent taxa. Furthermore, I found profound modifications of orthodentine architecture in comparison to other mammals. Remarkable features are (a) a larger proportion of the highly mineralized, collagen-free peritubular dentine, and (b) a modified architecture of the odontoblastic process with frequent interconnections between the extensions and unusually intensive branching of the extensions forming a complex meshwork, penetrating the intertubular dentine matrix. The orthodentine microstructural build-up is unique in Folivora and Cingulata. PMID:21456028

  10. Site-saturation mutagenesis of Glomerella cingulata cutinase gene for enhanced enzyme thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanapi, Wan Nurhidayah Wan; Iuan-Sheau, Chin; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu

    2015-09-01

    Cutinase is an important biocatalyst for various industrial applications. This enzyme which has dual functionality comparable to esterases and lipases, is efficient in the hydrolysis of soluble esters and emulsified triacylglycerols. Naturally-occurring enzymes usually have disadvantages when applied in non-natural catalysis due to Glomerella cingulata cutinase enzyme thermostability. It is postulated that by increasing the rigidity at certain amino acid positions showing high mobility based on the three-dimensional structure of G. cingulata cutinase, the improvement in thermostability will be achieved. The amino acid N82 of G. cingulata cutinase was selected based on its high B-factor value determined via the B-FITTER program. Megaprimer PCR was employed to introduce mutations at the chosen site by randomization using NNK degenerate primers. About 300 transformants were selected for screening of positive cutinase variants. The N82_V14 cutinase variant was observed to be more thermostable at an almost 2-fold increase when exposed at 50°C for 1 hr as compared to the wild-type enzyme. This study may provide valuable information regarding thermal stability of cutinases denaturation at high temperatures.

  11. Biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by Glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by Glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by G. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. The structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. The metabolites 2 and 4 were tested for the beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory activity in vitro, and metabolite 2 slightly inhibited the beta-secretase activity with an IC(50) value of 185.6+/-6.8 microM. The metabolite 4 was less potent activity than compounds 1-3. In addition, methyl ester (2Me), methyl ether (2a) and methyl ester and ether (2aMe) of 2 were synthesized, and investigated for the ability to inhibit beta-secretase. Compound 2aMe exhibited the best beta-secretase inhibitory activity at the IC(50) value 16.2+/-1.2 microM and found to be the 2aMe showed competitive mode of inhibition against beta-secretase with K(i) value 11.3+/-2.8 microM. PMID:19939683

  12. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum) spp. Results Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L-1 of GDH activity (57 mg L-1). Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. Conclusions The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies. PMID:22151971

  13. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Funke, Sebastian; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wesener, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra.

  14. The evolutionary history of the rediscovered Austrian population of the giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Funke, Sebastian; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wesener, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra. PMID:25251436

  15. The Evolutionary History of the Rediscovered Austrian Population of the Giant Centipede Scolopendra cingulata Latreille 1829 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Funke, Sebastian; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wesener, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The thermophilous giant centipede Scolopendra cingulata is a voracious terrestrial predator, which uses its modified first leg pair and potent venom to capture prey. The highly variable species is the most common of the genus in Europe, occurring from Portugal in the west to Iran in the east. The northernmost occurrences are in Hungary and Romania, where it abides in small isolated fringe populations. We report the rediscovery of an isolated Austrian population of Scolopendra cingulata with the first explicit specimen records for more than 80 years and provide insights into the evolutionary history of the northernmost populations utilizing fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, comprising 1,155 base pairs. We test the previously proposed hypothesis of a speciation by distance scenario, which argued for a simple range expansion of the species from the southeast, via Romania, Hungary and finally to Austria, based on a comprehensive taxon sampling from seven countries, including the first European mainland samples. We argue that more complex patterns must have shaped the current distribution of S. cingulata and that the Austrian population should be viewed as an important biogeographical relict in a possible microrefugium. The unique haplotype of the Austrian population could constitute an important part of the species genetic diversity and we hope that this discovery will initiate protective measures not only for S. cingulata, but also for its habitat, since microrefugia are likely to host further rare thermophilous species. Furthermore, we take advantage of the unprecedented sampling to provide the first basic insights into the suitability of the COI fragment as a species identifying barcode within the centipede genus Scolopendra. PMID:25251436

  16. Chromosomal localization of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence in four species of Armadillo (Dasypodidae) from Argentina: an approach to explaining karyotype evolution in the Xenarthra.

    PubMed

    Lizarralde, M S; Bolzán, A D; Poljak, S; Pigozzi, M I; Bustos, J; Merani, M S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)(n) in four species of armadillos (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra), i.e. Chaetophractus villosus (2n = 60), Chaetophractus vellerosus (2n = 62), Dasypus hybridus (2n = 64) and Zaedyus pichiy (2n = 62) was examined by FISH with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Besides the expected telomeric hybridization, interstitial (centromeric) locations of the (TTAGGG)n sequence were observed in one chromosome pair of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Zaedyus pichiy, suggesting chromosome fusion of ancestral chromosomes occurring during the evolution of Dasypodidae. In addition, all the species analysed showed one to four apparently telocentric chromosomes, exhibiting only two telomeric signals. However, the immunodetection study of kinetochore proteins on synaptonemal complex spreads from C. villosus showed that the apparently telocentric chromosomes have a tiny short arm that can be resolved only in the more elongated pachytene bivalents. This finding suggests that none of the species of armadillos possess true telocentric chromosomes. Our present results support a reduction in the diploid number by fusion of acrocentrics with loss of chromosome material as a tendency in Dasypodidae.

  17. Osteoderm histology of the Pampatheriidae (Cingulata, Xenarthra, Mammalia): Implications for systematics, osteoderm growth, and biomechanical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dominik; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Sander, P Martin

    2012-04-01

    Pampatheres are extinct, large-bodied cingulates, which share morphological characters with both armadillos and glyptodonts but are considered to be more closely related to the latter. The osteoderm histology of six pampathere taxa was examined and compared to the histology of other cingulate osteoderms. This study investigates the development and functional adaptation of pampathere osteoderms as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the Pampatheriidae within the Cingulata. We found that pampathere osteoderms share a uniform histological organization based on a basic diploe-like structure. After initial stages of intramembranous growth, metaplastic ossification, that is, the direct incorporation and mineralization of pre-existing protein fibers, plays an important role in osteoderm development and provides information on various kinds of soft tissue otherwise not preserved. The latest stages of osteoderm growth are dominated by periosteal bone formation especially in the superficial cortex. Movable band osteoderms show regular arrangements of incorporated fibers that may increase the resistance of particularly weak areas against strain. The histological composition of pampathere osteoderms is plesiomorphic in its basic structure but shows a number of derived features. A unique array of Sharpey's fibers that are incorporated into the bone matrix at sutured osteoderm margins is interpreted as a synapomorphy of pampatheres. The arrangement of dermal fibers in the deep and superficial cortexes supports the close relationship between pampatheres and glyptodonts.

  18. The human gluteus maximus and its role in running.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Raichlen, David A; Pontzer, Herman; Bramble, Dennis M; Cutright-Smith, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    The human gluteus maximus is a distinctive muscle in terms of size, anatomy and function compared to apes and other non-human primates. Here we employ electromyographic and kinematic analyses of human subjects to test the hypothesis that the human gluteus maximus plays a more important role in running than walking. The results indicate that the gluteus maximus is mostly quiescent with low levels of activity during level and uphill walking, but increases substantially in activity and alters its timing with respect to speed during running. The major functions of the gluteus maximus during running are to control flexion of the trunk on the stance-side and to decelerate the swing leg; contractions of the stance-side gluteus maximus may also help to control flexion of the hip and to extend the thigh. Evidence for when the gluteus maximus became enlarged in human evolution is equivocal, but the muscle's minimal functional role during walking supports the hypothesis that enlargement of the gluteus maximus was likely important in the evolution of hominid running capabilities. PMID:16709916

  19. Isolation and characterization of Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Ya; Tao, Jian-Jun; Gui, Lang; Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Ruan, Hong-Mei; Li, Zhen-Qiu; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2007-02-28

    A rhabdovirus associated with a lethal hemorrhagic disease in cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus was isolated. The virus induced typical cytopathogenic effects (CPE) in 9 of 15 fish cell lines examined and was then propagated and isolated from infected carp leucocyte cells (CLC). Electron microscopy observations revealed that the negatively stained virions had a typical bullet-shaped morphology with one rounded end and one flat base end. The bullet-shaped morphology was more obvious and clear in ultrathin sections of infected cells. Experimental infections also indicated that the S. maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) was not only a viral pathogen for cultured turbot, but also had the ability to infect other fish species, such as freshwater grass carp. A partial nucleotide sequence of the SMRV polymerase gene was determined by RT-PCR using 2 pairs of degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences of rhabdovirus polymerase genes. Homology analysis, amino acid sequence alignment, and phylogenetic relationship analysis of the partial SMRV polymerase sequence indicated that SMRV was genetically distinct from other rhabdoviruses. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the purified SMRV revealed 5 major structural proteins, and their molecular masses were estimated to be about 250, 58, 47, 42, and 28 kDa. Significant serological reactivity differences were also observed between SMRV and its nearest neighbor, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). The data suggest that SMRV is likely a novel fish rhabdovirus, although it is closely related to rhabdoviruses in the genus Vesiculovirus.

  20. A novel organic solvent- and detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Trametes cingulata strain CTM10101.

    PubMed

    Omrane Benmrad, Maroua; Moujehed, Emna; Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Mechri, Sondes; Rekik, Hatem; Kourdali, Sidali; El Hattab, Mohamed; Badis, Abdelmalek; Sayadi, Sami; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2016-10-01

    A protease-producing fungus was isolated from an alkaline wastewater of chemical industries and identified as Trametes cingulata strain CTM10101 on the basis of the ITS rDNA gene-sequencing. It was observed that the fungus strongly produce extracellular protease grown at 30°C in potato-dextrose-broth (PDB) optimized media (13500U/ml). The pure serine protease isolated by Trametes cingulata (designated SPTC) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation-dialysis followed by heat-treatment and UNO S-1 FPLC cation-exchange chromatography. The chemical characterization carried on include phisico-chemical determination and spectroscopie analysis. The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 31405.16-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of ALTTQTEAPWALGTVSHKGQAST, thus sharing high homology with those of fungal-proteases. The optimum pH and temperature values of its proteolytic activity were pH 9 and 60°C, respectively, and its half-life times at 60 and 70°C were 9 and 5-h, respectively. It was completely inhibited by PMSF and DFP, which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine protease family. Compared to Flavourzyme(®)500L from Aspergillus oryzae and Thermolysin typeX from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, SPTC displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency as well as elevated organic solvent tolerance and considerable detergent stability. Finally, SPTC could potentially be used in peptide synthesis and detergent formulations. PMID:27296442

  1. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side. PMID:25950650

  2. Ontogenetic variation in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) in relation to the development of cornified scales.

    PubMed

    Krmpotic, Cecilia M; Carlini, Alfredo A; Galliari, Fernando C; Favaron, Phelipe; Miglino, María A; Scarano, Alejo C; Barbeito, Claudio G

    2014-12-01

    The epidermis of mammals is characterized by having a stratum granulosum that produces an orthokeratotic stratum corneum, different from the typical reptilian parakeratotic stratum. Nonetheless, some mammals show distinct degrees of parakeratosis in epidermal regions with few or no pilose follicles (e.g., areas subjacent to cornified scales). With respect to the epidermis and the development of cornified scales in the Dasypodidae, previous studies have supported the presence of a continuous stratum granulosum without any variations during ontogeny. This condition, in which the cornified scales develop without a loss of the stratum granulosum, was interpreted as primitive for eutherians. The present contribution expands the knowledge on the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus in distinct ontogenetic stages in order to determine whether the cornified scales show the same developmental pattern as in other eutherians. The presence of a stratum granulosum in C. vellerosus neonates and its reduction in more advanced ontogenetic stages, in direct relationship with cornified scale development, supports the hypothesis that the partial parakeratosis in the xenarthran integument is secondary, as in other eutherians, and can be interpreted as a derived character state. PMID:25307183

  3. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation. PMID:24519005

  4. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side.

  5. Ontogenetic variation in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) in relation to the development of cornified scales.

    PubMed

    Krmpotic, Cecilia M; Carlini, Alfredo A; Galliari, Fernando C; Favaron, Phelipe; Miglino, María A; Scarano, Alejo C; Barbeito, Claudio G

    2014-12-01

    The epidermis of mammals is characterized by having a stratum granulosum that produces an orthokeratotic stratum corneum, different from the typical reptilian parakeratotic stratum. Nonetheless, some mammals show distinct degrees of parakeratosis in epidermal regions with few or no pilose follicles (e.g., areas subjacent to cornified scales). With respect to the epidermis and the development of cornified scales in the Dasypodidae, previous studies have supported the presence of a continuous stratum granulosum without any variations during ontogeny. This condition, in which the cornified scales develop without a loss of the stratum granulosum, was interpreted as primitive for eutherians. The present contribution expands the knowledge on the epidermis of Chaetophractus vellerosus in distinct ontogenetic stages in order to determine whether the cornified scales show the same developmental pattern as in other eutherians. The presence of a stratum granulosum in C. vellerosus neonates and its reduction in more advanced ontogenetic stages, in direct relationship with cornified scale development, supports the hypothesis that the partial parakeratosis in the xenarthran integument is secondary, as in other eutherians, and can be interpreted as a derived character state.

  6. The Dasypodidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) from the Urso Fóssil Cave (Quaternary), Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil: paleoecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo V; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Oliveira, Edison V; Viana, Maria Somália S

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with xenarthrans osteoderms assigned to Dasypus aff. D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cabassous sp. The material was collected in subsurface, from 0.10 to 0.60 m in the Urso Fóssil Cave, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The ages of sediment samples from levels 4 and 5 (depths of 0.40 and 0.50 m) were determined by thermoluminescence technique, and indicated ages of 8,000 and 8,200 years BP for each layer respectively. The presence in these layers of early Holocene xenarthrans taxa can contribute to the understanding of the biotic evolution of the northwest region of Ceará during the last 10,000 years. Two of the three identified taxa still occur in the region: Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus. The Dasypodidae fauna here reported includes animals with generalist feeding habits and current wide geographical distribution. It is suggested, therefore, that the climatic and environmental conditions in the early Holocene were very similar the actual ones, and that the absence of Cabassous may be conditioned to other factors, such as anthropogenic action and loss of habitat by fragmentation of the vegetation.

  7. Calcific Tendinitis of the Gluteus Maximus in a Golfer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ariel A; Stang, Thomas S; Fritz, Jan; Papp, Derek F

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a relatively rare condition in which calcium is inappropriately deposited in tendons, resulting in a local inflammatory reaction that can cause severe symptoms in certain cases. The cause of this disease process is not completely understood, although repetitive microtrauma likely plays a role in its development. Although the disorder most often involves the rotator cuff, it can affect other structures throughout the body, such as the tendons about the ankle and hip-including the rectus femoris and gluteus maximus. Nonoperative management typically involves using an anti-inflammatory medication and activity modification and can be augmented with formal physical therapy and modalities. Although nonoperative management provides adequate relief for many patients, sometimes operative debridement of the calcific deposit with or without repair of the involved tendon is required. The authors report an unusual case of calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus insertion in a golfer. The patient had tried nonoperative treatment for approximately 2 years with no real relief, and a recent exacerbation of the pain was significantly delaying his return to sport. Although plain radiographs did not show abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging showed a calcific deposit in the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon. After discussing further treatment options with the patient, the decision was made to remove the deposit and repair the insertion. He recovered completely and was able to return to play. The frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of this condition are discussed in this case report, as well as the possible link to golf in this patient. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e997-e1000.]. PMID:27337668

  8. Gluteus maximus muscle function and the origin of hominid bipedality.

    PubMed

    Marzke, M W; Longhill, J M; Rasmussen, S A

    1988-12-01

    Bipedality not only frees the hands for tool use but also enhances tool use by allowing use of the trunk for leverage in applying force and thus imparting greater final velocity to tools. Since the weight and acceleration of the trunk and forelimbs on the hindlimbs must be counteracted by muscles such as m. gluteus maximus that control pelvic and trunk movements, it is suggested that the large size of the cranial portion of the human gluteus maximus muscle and its unique attachment to the dorsal ilium (which is apparent in the Makapan australopithecine ilium) may have contributed to the effectiveness with which trunk movement was exploited in early hominid foraging activities. To test this hypothesis, the cranial portions of both right and left muscles were investigated in six human subjects with electromyography during throwing, clubbing, digging, and lifting. The muscles were found to be significantly recruited when the trunk is used in throwing and clubbing, initiating rotation of the pelvis and braking it as trunk rotation ceases and the forelimb accelerates. They stabilize the pelvis during digging and exhibit marked and prolonged activity when the trunk is maintained in partial flexion during lifting of heavy objects. PMID:3223519

  9. Low coverage sequencing of two Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three species of elephant that exist, the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and two species of African elephant (Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis). The populations of all three species are dwindling, and are under threat due to factors, such as habitat destruction and ivory hunting. The species differ in many respects, including in their morphology and response to disease. The availability of elephant genome sequence data from all three elephant species will complement studies of behaviour, genetic diversity, evolution and disease resistance. Findings We present low-coverage Illumina sequence data from two Asian elephants, representing approximately 5X and 2.5X coverage respectively. Both raw and aligned data are available, using the African elephant (L. africana) genome as a reference. Conclusions The data presented here are an important addition to the available genetic and genomic information on Asian and African elephants. PMID:25053995

  10. Low worldwide genetic diversity in the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Rus Hoelzel, A; Shivji, Mahmood S; Magnussen, Jennifer; Francis, Malcolm P

    2006-01-01

    The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is found in temperate waters throughout the world's oceans, and has been subjected to extensive exploitation in some regions. However, little is known about its current abundance and genetic status. Here, we investigate the diversity of the mitochondrial DNA control region among samples from the western North Atlantic, eastern North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean and western Pacific. We find just six haplotypes defined by five variable sites, a comparatively low genetic diversity of π=0.0013 and no significant differentiation between ocean basins. We provide evidence for a bottleneck event within the Holocene, estimate an effective population size (Ne) that is low for a globally distributed species, and discuss the implications. PMID:17148309

  11. Identification of bifidobacteria isolated from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Rada, Vojtech; Killer, Jiri; Kmet, Vladimir

    2013-06-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered as one of the key genera in intestinal tracts of animals, and their species composition vary depending on the host. The aim of this study was to identify faecal bifidobacteria from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), housed in Zoological gardens (Ostrava, Czech Republic). Using culturing, bifidobacteria were found in counts 7.60+/-0.56 log CFU/g. Twenty-six pure strains were isolated from faeces of Asian elephant. The isolates were clustered into two groups according to fingerprinting profiles and fermentation characteristic. Bacteria were identified by a combination of MALDI-TOF MS, PCR methods and sequencing as B. boum (12 isolates) and B. adolescentis (14 isolates). Elephant strains showed different fingerprinting profiles than type and collection strains. Since these two species are frequently isolated from gastrointestinal tract of herbivores, they seem to be typical of animals fed plant diets. PMID:23660657

  12. Probable effect of photoperiod on seasonal variation in the nuclear volume of the adrenal cortex of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus).

    PubMed

    Ribes, A C; Mohamed, F; Dominguez, S; Delgado, M; Scardapane, L; Guzman, J; Piezzi, R

    1999-09-01

    The neuroendocrine system regulates several organic functions such as reproduction, metabolism and adaptation to the environment. This system shows seasonal changes linked to the environment. The experimental model used in the present study was Lagostomus maximus maximus (viscacha). The reproduction of males of this species is photoperiod dependent. Twenty-four adult male viscachas were captured in their habitat at different times during one year. The adrenal glands were processed for light microscopy. Serial cuts were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for the morphometric study, and 100 nuclei of each zone of the adrenal cortex were counted per animal. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and the Tukey test. The cells of the glomerulosa zone are arranged in a tube-shaped structure. The fasciculata zone has large cells with central nuclei and clearly visible nucleoli and with a vacuolar cytoplasm. In the reticularis zone there are two of types of cells, one with a nucleus of fine chromatin and a clearly visible nucleolus and the other with nuclear pycnosis. Morphometric analysis showed maximum nuclear volumes during the February-March period with values of 133 +/- 7.3 microm3 for the glomerulosa, 286.4 +/- 14.72 microm3 for the fasciculata, and 126.3 +/- 9.49 microm3 for the reticularis. Minimum nuclear volumes were observed in August with values of 88.24 +/- 9.9 microm3 for the glomerulosa, 163.7 +/- 7.78 microm3 for the fasciculata and 64.58 +/- 4.53 microm3 for the reticularis. The short winter photoperiod to which viscacha is subjected could inhibit the adrenal cortex through a melatonin increase which reduces the nuclear volume as well as the cellular activity.

  13. Respiratory response to combined heat and hypoxia in the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus spp.

    PubMed

    Artigaud, Sébastien; Lacroix, Camille; Pichereau, Vianney; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly disturbed by the increase of mean sea surface temperature and expansion of hypoxic areas. The objectives of the present work were to describe and compare the respiratory responses to combined heat and hypoxia in two bivalve species (Pecten maximus and Mytilus spp.) living in two contrasted coastal habitats (subtidal and intertidal, respectively). Results were consistent with the vertical zonation of both species. Mytilus spp. seemed to cope better with a temperature increase than P. maximus, which was found to be outside of its optimal thermal window at 25°C. Concerning respiratory responses to hypoxia at a given temperature, P. maximus displayed greater oxyregulation capacity that was maintained over a larger range of O2 levels, as compared to Mytilus spp. When acclimation temperatures increased, both species showed a decrease in their oxyregulation capacities alongside a reduction in aerobic performance, especially in P. maximus. The comparison between species suggests that subtidal species, such as P. maximus, might be more vulnerable to a combination of heat and hypoxia than intertidal species, such as Mytilus spp. Lastly, this study highlighted the utility of segmented linear models to estimate PcO2 and regulation percentages in marine organisms exposed to hypoxia.

  14. A Microsatellite Genetic Map of the Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Fernández, Carlos; Fortes, Gloria G.; Castro, Jaime; Sánchez, Laura; Presa, Pablo; Pérez, Montse; Sanjuán, Andrés; de Carlos, Alejandro; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Ezcurra, Susana; Cal, Rosa M.; Piferrer, Francesc; Martínez, Paulino

    2007-01-01

    A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was constructed from two unrelated families. The mapping panel was derived from a gynogenetic family of 96 haploid embryos and a biparental diploid family of 85 full-sib progeny with known linkage phase. A total of 242 microsatellites were mapped in 26 linkage groups, six markers remaining unlinked. The consensus map length was 1343.2 cM, with an average distance between markers of 6.5 ± 0.5 cM. Similar length of female and male maps was evidenced. However, the mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed significant differences between sexes, ∼1.6 times higher in the female than in the male. The comparison of turbot microsatellite flanking sequences against the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome revealed 55 significant matches, with a mean length of 102 bp and high sequence similarity (81–100%). The comparative mapping revealed significant syntenic regions among fish species. This study represents the first linkage map in the turbot, one of the most important flatfish in European aquaculture. This map will be suitable for QTL identification of productive traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in fish and vertebrate species. PMID:18073440

  15. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot. PMID:26745327

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Chondrichthyes, Cetorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Hester, Jennifer; Atwater, Kimberly; Bernard, Andrea; Francis, Malcolm; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2015-01-01

    The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world's second largest fish and the subject of strong conservation concern. Minimal genetic assessment exists for this globally distributed but regionally endangered species. We describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. maximus, obtained via polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,670 bp and consists of 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes. The base composition has an A + T bias (63.6%), as is often seen in other sharks. Gene order is equivalent to that found in most vertebrates.

  17. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in a centipede, Scolopendra cingulata (Chilopoda, Scolopendridae), with the special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chajec, Lukasz; Sonakowska, Lidia; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra cingulata has a tube-shaped digestive system that is divided into three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The midgut is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. Hemocytes also appear between the digestive cells of the midgut epithelium. The ultrastructure of three types of epithelial cells and hemocytes of the midgut has been described with the special emphasis on the role of regenerative cells in the protection of midgut epithelium. The process of midgut epithelium regeneration proceeds due to the ability of regenerative cells to proliferate and differentiate according to a circadian rhythm. The regenerative cells serve as unipotent stem cells that divide in an asymmetric manner. Additionally, two types of hemocytes have been distinguished among midgut epithelial cells. They enter the midgut epithelium from the body cavity. Because of the fact that numerous microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells, we discuss the role of hemocytes in elimination of pathogens from the midgut epithelium. The studies were conducted with the use of transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescent methods.

  18. The morphology of the cibarial armature and sensilla of Mansonia titillans, Psorophora cingulata, Coquillettidia arribalzagae, Culex coronator and Limatus durhamii (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Boza, Sandra; Vargas, Mario

    2006-09-01

    A detailed description of the cibarial armature of the Neotropical mosquitoes Mansonia titillans, Psorophora cingulata, Coquillettidia arribalzagae, Culex coronator and Limatus durhamii, is presented. A sample of 15 specimens of each species was taken from the collections of two mosquito ecological projects located at Santa Clara, San Carlos, Alajuela and from La Selva, Sarapiqui, Heredia, Costa Rica. Each specimen, preserved in alcohol, was cleared, put into a mounting medium, head separated from body and eyes pinched to expose the cibarial armature and sense organs; finally a coverslip was added for a permanent slide. The bodies of all the mosquitoes were also mounted onto slides. The descriptions of the cibarial armatures were based on the characteristics of the dome, body, transversal bar, lateral flanges and cibarial teeth. Also the number, distribution and type of the sense organs are given. From the analysis, and comparison with known descriptions of other neotropical species, we conclude that the five species studied show enough characteristics for species recognition purposes.

  19. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. PMID:26881925

  20. The fine structure of the midgut epithelium in a centipede, Scolopendra cingulata (Chilopoda, Scolopendridae), with the special emphasis on epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chajec, Lukasz; Sonakowska, Lidia; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra cingulata has a tube-shaped digestive system that is divided into three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The midgut is lined with a pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. Hemocytes also appear between the digestive cells of the midgut epithelium. The ultrastructure of three types of epithelial cells and hemocytes of the midgut has been described with the special emphasis on the role of regenerative cells in the protection of midgut epithelium. The process of midgut epithelium regeneration proceeds due to the ability of regenerative cells to proliferate and differentiate according to a circadian rhythm. The regenerative cells serve as unipotent stem cells that divide in an asymmetric manner. Additionally, two types of hemocytes have been distinguished among midgut epithelial cells. They enter the midgut epithelium from the body cavity. Because of the fact that numerous microorganisms occur in the cytoplasm of midgut epithelial cells, we discuss the role of hemocytes in elimination of pathogens from the midgut epithelium. The studies were conducted with the use of transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescent methods. PMID:23831526

  1. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south. PMID:27397557

  2. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south.

  3. Tuberculosis surveillance of elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal at the captive-wild interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive elephant tuberculosis (TB) survey using culture and four serological screening tests was conducted in Nepal. Private and government-owned male and female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were included in the study. The mean reported age was 38 years (range 5-60 years). A tot...

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Houck, M L; Kumamoto, A T; Gallagher, D S; Benirschke, K

    2001-01-01

    G- and C-banded karyotypes of the two extant species of the mammalian order Proboscidea are presented for the first time. Chromosome complements were 2n = 56 in both Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus. Comparisons between the species demonstrated a high level of chromosome band homology, with 26 conserved autosomal pairs. The normal diploid karyotype of L. africana had 25 acrocentric/telocentric and two metacentric/submetacentric autosomal pairs. E. maximus differed by having one less acrocentric and one additional submetacentric pair due to either a heterochromatic arm addition or deletion involving autosomal pair 27. Several acrocentric autosomes of L. africana exhibited small short arms that were absent in homologous chromosomes of E. maximus. The X chromosomes in both species were large submetacentric elements and were homologous. However, the small acrocentric Y chromosomes differed; in E. maximus it was slightly larger and had more distinct G-bands than its counterpart in L. africana. Extant Elephantidae appear to be relatively conservative in their rates of chromosomal change compared to some other mammalian families. The high-quality banded karyotypes presented here should prove useful as references in future chromosome analyses of elephant populations and in comparative cytogenetic studies with other ungulate orders.

  5. A new species of Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata): the oldest record of the genus and morphological and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matias; Zamorano, Martin; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo J; Luna, Carlos; Boh, Daniel; Saffer, Mariano Magnussen

    2013-01-01

    Among South American Quaternary Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Cingulata), Neosclerocalyptus Paula Couto represents one of the best known genera. Prior to this contribution, four species were recognized. N. pseudornatus (Ameghino) and N. ornatus (Owen) (Ensenadan Age/Stage, early-middle Pleistocene); N. gouldi Zurita (Bonaerian Age/Stage, middle Pleistocene-late Pleistocene), and N. paskoensis (Zurita) (Lujanian Age/Stage, late Pleistocene-early Holocene). One of the most notable characters of the species of the genus is a modified area located in the distal part of the nasals, recently interpreted as a neomorphic structure derived from the ossification of the nasal cartilages. In this contribution, a new species of Neosclerocalyptus (N. castellanosi sp. nov.), which in turn represents the oldest record of the genus, is presented and described. In addition, a cladistic analysis is carried out to test the monophyly of Neosclerocalyptus and the phylogenetic position of this new species. The material comes from Vorohuean (late Pliocene) levels in the surroundings of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Among other morphological characters, this new species has ossified nasal cartilages restricted to the latero-dorsal area of the nasals, whereas in the remaining species these structures are more expanded and both sides contact in the midline of the skull. In turn, the phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of Neosclerocalyptus, whereas N. castellanosi sp. nov. appears closely related to N. pseudornatus, being N. ornatus the sister taxa of this clade. On the other hand, N. gouldi + N. paskoensis constitute the other clade. The clade constituted by Hoplophorus euphractus Lund + Panochthus intermedius Lydekker constitutes the sister taxa of Neosclerocalyptus.

  6. Diet and niche overlap of southern populations of brill Scophthalmus rhombus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, C; Silva, A; Lara, M; Cabral, H N

    2011-11-01

    The diets of adult brill Scophthalmus rhombus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus from the Portuguese coast relied mostly on fishes. There was a higher diversity of food items compared to their northern counterparts, and several of the identified prey are the first records of these species, including a brown alga, echinoderms, nematodes, oligochaetes, gastropods, bivalves and various fish species. The diet of the two species was significantly different and niche overlap was low. PMID:22026615

  7. Exposure to domoic acid affects larval development of king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S; Campbell, Dirk A; Dong, Shuang Lin; Zhu, Jian Xin; Wang, Su Feng

    2007-02-28

    Domoic acid (DA) is a highly toxic phycotoxin produced by bloom forming marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Bivalves can accumulate this toxin to a high level through their feeding activities, and thus illness or death in can occur in consumers of bivalves. In this study, king scallop, Pecten maximus, larvae were exposed to dissolved domoic acid (DA) for 25d, and the toxin accumulation and effects of harbouring this toxin were investigated. Scallop larvae incorporated DA continuously during the larval culture period and accumulated a maximum DA level of 5.21pgind(-1) when exposed to a solution of 50ngml(-1) dissolved DA. As a result of the DA treatment, larval growth, measured in terms of shell length and the appearance of the eye-spot, and larval survival were significantly compromised. This is the first study on DA incorporation dynamics in P. maximus larvae, signifying the potential of using shellfish larvae for the study on mechanisms of phycotoxin accumulation. The negative effect of DA exposure suggests that this toxin could possibly influence natural recruitment in P. maximus, and it may be necessary to protect hatchery-cultured scallop larvae from DA during toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms.

  8. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Bret; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG) of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90°) hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE), to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE). Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg), before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52%) and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12%) for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects. Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples. PMID:26417543

  9. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG) of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90°) hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE), to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE). Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg), before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52%) and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12%) for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects. Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples.

  10. The amino acid sequence of elephant (Elephas maximus) myoglobin and the phylogeny of Proboscidea.

    PubMed

    Dene, H; Goodman, M; Romero-Herrera, A E

    1980-02-13

    The complete amino acid sequence of skeletal myoglobin from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is reported. The functional significance of variations seen when this sequence is compared with that of sperm whale myoglobin is explored in the light of the crystallographic model available for the latter molecule. The phylogenetic implications of the elephant myoglobin amino acid sequence are evaluated by using the maximum parsimony technique. A similar analysis is also presented which incorporates all of the proteins sequenced from the elephant. These results are discussed with respect to current views on proboscidean phylogeny.

  11. Abductor Reconstruction with Gluteus Maximus Transfer in Primary Abductor Deficiency during Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se Ang; Byun, Young Soo; Gu, Tae Hoe

    2016-01-01

    Abductor deficiency in native hip joint may cause severe limping and pain. It is more serious situation in case of arthroplasty due to instability and recurrent dislocation. Well-known causes of abductor deficiency are repeated surgery, chronic trochanteric bursitis, superior gluteal nerve injury, failure of repair of abductor tendon insertion to the greater trochanter. Author had experienced primary abductor deficiency during total hip replacement and treated successfully with the transfer of gluteus maximus. We'd like to introduce the operation technique with the review of literature. PMID:27777922

  12. Dynamic sonography of snapping hip due to gluteus maximus subluxation over greater trochanter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Connie Y; Kreher, Jeffrey; Torriani, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We report on the dynamic sonographic findings of a 10-year-old avid female dancer who presented with symptoms of abrupt left hip motion and associated painful snapping sensation while performing lateral motions of the pelvis suggesting external snapping hip syndrome. Dynamic sonographic evaluation of both hips demonstrated that symptoms were due to gluteus maximus subluxation over the greater trochanter. This etiology of external snapping hip syndrome is rare with limited imaging descriptions in the literature. We present case history, physical examination, and dynamic ultrasound examination, including multiple still images and cine clips, comprehensively characterizing this uncommon source of external snapping hip syndrome. PMID:26490678

  13. Congenital gluteus maximus contracture syndrome - a case report with review of imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kotha, Vamshi Krishna; Reddy, Rajasekhar; Reddy, M. Venkateshwar; Moorthy, Rangubatla Sathyanrayana; Kishan, Tatikonda Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Although the clinical features of gluteus maximus contracture syndrome have been frequently described, imaging features have been seldom described. Most commonly reported cases are those following intramuscular injection in the gluteal region although congenital contracture is an uncommon but important occurrence. This condition has most often been reported in children of school going age. These patients often present with difficulty in squatting, limitation of hip motion or specific deformities and often require surgical correction. We describe the plain radiography, ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this condition in a patient with no previous known history of intramuscular injections. PMID:24967033

  14. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF GLUTEUS MEDIUS AND GLUTEUS MAXIMUS DURING REHABILITATION EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Boren, Kristen; Conrey, Cara; Le Coguic, Jennifer; Voight, Michael; Robinson, T. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Previous research studies by Bolga, Ayotte, and Distefano have examined the level of muscle recruitment of the gluteal muscles for various clinical exercises; however, there has been no cross comparison among the top exercises from each study. The purpose of this study is to compare top exercises from these studies as well as several other commonly performed clinical exercises to determine which exercises recruit the gluteal muscles, specifically the gluteus medius and maximus, most effectively. Methods: Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on gluteus medius and maximus to measure muscle activity during 18 exercises. Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVIC) was established for each muscle group in order to express each exercise as a percentage of MVIC and allow standardized comparison across subjects. EMG data were analyzed using a root-mean-square algorithm and smoothed with a 50 millisecond time reference. Rank ordering of the exercises was performed utilizing the average percent MVIC peak activity for each exercise. Results: Twenty-four subjects satisfied all eligibility criteria and consented to participate in the research study. Five of the exercises produced greater than 70%MVIC of the gluteus medius muscle. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (103%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (89%MVIC), single limb squat (82%MVIC), clamshell (hip clam) progression 4 (77%MVIC), and font plank with hip extension (75%MVIC). Five of the exercises recruited gluteus maximus with values greater than 70%MVIC. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: front plank with hip extension (106%MVIC), gluteal squeeze (81%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (73%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (71%MVIC), and single limb squat (71%MVIC). Four of

  15. Eccrine carcinoma in the foot of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Grabarević, Zeljko; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Hohsteter, Marko; Artuković, Branka; Hinke-Bruckmann, Angelica; Dzaja, Petar; Hutinec, Zdenka; Seiwerth, Sven; Bata, Ingeborg

    2013-12-01

    A case of eccrine carcinoma of the interdigital foot glands in a 39-yr-old female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) from Zagreb Zoo is described. The tumor between the toenails of the right forefoot was surgically removed 3 yr before postmortem examination (2003), and the histopathologic diagnosis was compound eccrine carcinoma characterized with glandular tubular and papillary proliferations, mild cellular pleomorphism, proliferation of the myoepithelial cells with mucoid secretions, and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity to S-100 protein, estrogen, and high-molecular weight cytokeratin. This elephant also had chronic renal fibrosis with uremia. PMID:24450067

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new oxygenated homoditerpenoid from leaves of Centaurothamnus maximus with antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Alam, Perwez; Al-Anezi, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Haque, Anzarul; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    A new bioactive oxygenated homoditerpenic compound along with one known compound from the antimicrobial active ethanol extract of leaves of an endemic plant Centaurothamnus maximus was isolated. The n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of C. maximus leaves were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential by using standard agar well diffusion method against various microorganisms viz. B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and M. smegmatis. The results revealed that only ethanol extract was active against all microbes except the fungus C. albicans. A new compound 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-8α-methoxy-15-hydroxy-methylene- pimar-5,9 (11)-diene (CM-1) was isolated along with a known compound α-D-xylose (CM-2) from ethanol extract by reverse phase (RP-18) column chromatography and 1D and 2D NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HSQC) aided by EIMS mass and IR spectra were used to establish the structure. CM-1 was found to be active against B. subtilis, S. aureus and M. smegmatis (P>0.005) at MIC 20 μg/ml. Findings of this study may provide a lead for synthesis of more potent antimicrobial agents to serve the humanity against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  17. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait. PMID:27134383

  18. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species.

  19. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  20. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    PAUDEL, Sarad; VILLANUEVA, Marvin A.; MIKOTA, Susan K.; NAKAJIMA, Chie; GAIRHE, Kamal P.; SUBEDI, Suraj; RAYAMAJHI, Nabin; SASHIKA, Mariko; SHIMOZURU, Michito; MATSUBA, Takashi; SUZUKI, Yasuhiko; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants. PMID:26983683

  1. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sarad; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mikota, Susan K; Nakajima, Chie; Gairhe, Kamal P; Subedi, Suraj; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Matsuba, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants.

  2. Esophageal dissection and hematoma associated with obstruction in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus).

    PubMed

    Phair, Kristen A; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Pye, Geoffrey W; Pessier, Allan P; Clippinger, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    A 42-year-old female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) developed a sudden onset of excessive salivation and dysphagia. Esophageal obstruction was suspected; possibly related to palm frond ingestion. Esophageal endoscopy revealed a mat of plant material in the distal esophagus. An initial attempt at relieving the obstruction was unsuccessful, but subsequent use of custom-made instruments along with insufflation and hydropulsion enabled partial removal of the material. Postimmobilization care included aggressive intravenous and rectal fluids, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic administration, and fasting. Despite treatment, the dysphagia persisted and the elephant was euthanized due to lack of improvement and grave prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed remaining plant material in the esophagus, complicated by an esophageal dissection, mural hematoma, and secondary bacterial infection. Iatrogenic trauma may have contributed to the extent of esophageal injury. Although treatment was ultimately unsuccessful, the supportive care employed could potentially aid recovery in cases of less severe esophageal trauma. PMID:25000713

  3. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at different ages.

    PubMed

    Arya, Nlin; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Cheewamongkolnimit, Nareerat; Keratikul, Nutcha; Poon-Iam, Sawinee; Routh, Andrew; Bumpenpol, Pitikarn; Angkawanish, Taweepoke

    2015-11-01

    Bone turnover markers could offer a potential alternative means for the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in young growing elephants although the baseline of bone turnover markers in elephant is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine any relationship between the age of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and markers of bone formation. Serum samples from 24 female Asian elephants were collected to evaluate levels of two bone formation markers, namely, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Both intact and N-terminal midfragment OC and BAP were negatively correlated with age. The findings demonstrate that younger elephants have a higher rate of bone turnover than older elephants. Use of these and additional bone markers could lead to the establishment of validated protocols for the monitoring of bone disease in elephants. PMID:26361748

  4. Prenatal passive transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.

    PubMed

    McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis. PMID:25632691

  5. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sarad; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mikota, Susan K; Nakajima, Chie; Gairhe, Kamal P; Subedi, Suraj; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Matsuba, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants. PMID:26983683

  6. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species. PMID:27468009

  7. Characterization of the mantle transcriptome in bivalves: Pecten maximus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Yarra, Tejaswi; Gharbi, Karim; Blaxter, Mark; Peck, Lloyd S; Clark, Melody S

    2016-06-01

    The calcareous shells secreted by bivalve molluscs display diverse and species specific structural compositions, which indicates possible divergent biomineralization processes. Thus, studying multiple mollusc species will provide a more comprehensive understanding of shell formation. Here, the transcriptomes of the mantle tissues responsible for shell deposition were characterized in three commercially relevant bivalve species. Using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools, de novo transcriptome assemblies of mantle tissues were generated for the mussel Mytilus edulis, the oyster Crassostrea gigas and the scallop Pecten maximus. These transcriptomes were annotated, and contigs with similarity to proteins known to have shell formation roles in other species were identified. Comparison of the shell formation specific proteins in the three bivalves indicates the possibility of species specific shell proteins.

  8. Helmintofauna of turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern Baltic Sea including new data.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, M; Rolbiecki, L

    2015-01-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans. PMID:26618593

  9. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mikota, S K; Peddie, L; Peddie, J; Isaza, R; Dunker, F; West, G; Lindsay, W; Larsen, R S; Salman, M D; Chatterjee, D; Payeur, J; Whipple, D; Thoen, C; Davis, D S; Sedgwick, C; Montali, R J; Ziccardi, M; Maslow, J

    2001-03-01

    The deaths of two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in August 1996 led the United States Department of Agriculture to require the testing and treatment of elephants for tuberculosis. From August 1996 to September 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was confirmed by culture in 12 of 118 elephants in six herds. Eight diagnoses were made antemortem on the basis of isolation of M. tuberculosis by culture of trunk wash samples; the remainder (including the initial two) were diagnosed postmortem. We present the case histories, epidemiologic characteristics, diagnostic test results, and therapeutic plans from these six herds. The intradermal tuberculin test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, the blood tuberculosis test, and nucleic acid amplification and culture are compared as methods to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in elephants.

  10. Neutrophils of Scophthalmus maximus produce extracellular traps that capture bacteria and inhibit bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophils constitute an essential part of the innate immune system. Recently, neutrophils have been found to produce a complex extracellular structure called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In fish, a few studies on NETs production have been reported, however, the function of fish NETs is unknown. In this study, we examined the ability of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) neutrophils to produce NETs and investigated the effect of turbot NETs on bacterial infection. We found that upon lipopolysaccharides treatment, turbot head kidney neutrophils produced typical NETs structures that contained DNA and histones. Bacteria treatment also induced production of NETs, which in turn entrapped the bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial replication. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot, NETs-trapped bacteria exhibited significantly weakened ability of tissue dissemination and colonization. These results indicate for the first time that teleost NETs possess apparent antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26586641

  11. Low temperature stress on the hematological parameters and HSP gene expression in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liqin; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Han, Longjiang; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To study the effect of low temperature stress on hematological parameters and HSP gene expression in the turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), water temperature was lowered rapidly from 18 to 1°C. During the cooling process, three individuals were removed from culture tanks at 18, 13, 8, 5, 3, and 1°C. Blood samples and tissues were taken from each individual, hematological indices and HSP gene expression in tissues were measured. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) as temperature decreased. Enzyme activities of plasma alanine transaminase and creatine kinase increased as temperature decreased, whereas aspartic transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities displayed no obvious changes above 1°C and lactate dehydrogenase activity increased first and then decreased. Blood urea nitrogen and uric acid levels were highest at 8°C, and creatinine concentration was highest at 3°C. The concentrations of plasma cortisol, cholesterol, and triglyceride all increased significantly ( P < 0.05) as temperature decreased. The serum glucose concentration increased first and then decreased to the initial level. The HSP70 mRNA expression showed various patterns in different tissues, whereas HSP90 mRNA expression showed the same tendency in all tissues. Overall, these results indicate that temperature decreases in the range of 8 to 5°C may induce a stress response in S. maximus and that temperature should be kept above 8°C in the aquaculture setting to avoid damage to the fish.

  12. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    PubMed Central

    Lynsdale, Carly L.; Santos, Diogo J. Franco dos; Hayward, Adam D.; Mar, Khyne U.; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  13. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  14. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Lynsdale, Carly L; Santos, Diogo J Franco Dos; Hayward, Adam D; Mar, Khyne U; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am-2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  15. Juvenile King Scallop, Pecten maximus, Is Potentially Tolerant to Low Levels of Ocean Acidification When Food Is Unrestricted

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Matthew Burton; Bean, Tim P.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Le Quesne, Will J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The decline in ocean water pH and changes in carbonate saturation states through anthropogenically mediated increases in atmospheric CO2 levels may pose a hazard to marine organisms. This may be particularly acute for those species reliant on calcareous structures like shells and exoskeletons. This is of particular concern in the case of valuable commercially exploited species such as the king scallop, Pecten maximus. In this study we investigated the effects on oxygen consumption, clearance rates and cellular turnover in juvenile P. maximus following 3 months laboratory exposure to four pCO2 treatments (290, 380, 750 and 1140 µatm). None of the exposure levels were found to have significant effect on the clearance rates, respiration rates, condition index or cellular turnover (RNA: DNA) of individuals. While it is clear that some life stages of marine bivalves appear susceptible to future levels of ocean acidification, particularly under food limiting conditions, the results from this study suggest that where food is in abundance, bivalves like juvenile P. maximus may display a tolerance to limited changes in seawater chemistry. PMID:24023928

  16. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant.

  17. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant. PMID:26648035

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF PEAK PELVIS ROTATION SPEED, GLUTEUS MAXIMUS AND MEDIUS STRENGTH IN HIGH VERSUS LOW HANDICAP GOLFERS DURING THE GOLF SWING

    PubMed Central

    Glaws, Kate; Mitchell, Melissa; Scerbo, Heather; Voight, Michael; Sells, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Hypothesis: The kinematic sequence of the golf swing is an established principle that occurs in a proximal-to-distal pattern with power generation beginning with rotation of the pelvis. Few studies have correlated the influence of peak pelvis rotation to the skill level of the golfer. Furthermore, minimal research exists on the strength of the gluteal musculature and their ability to generate power during the swing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and a golfer's handicap. Subjects: 56 healthy subjects. Material/Methods: Each subject was assessed using a hand-held dynamometry device per standardized protocol to determine gluteus maximus and medius strength. The K-vest was placed on the subject with electromagnetic sensors at the pelvis, upper torso, and gloved lead hand to measure the rotational speed at each segment in degrees/second. After K-vest calibration and 5 practice swings, each subject hit 5 golf balls during which time, the sensors measured pelvic rotation speed. Results: A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the relationships between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and golf handicap. A significant difference was found between the following dependent variables and golf handicap: peak pelvis rotation (p=0.000), gluteus medius strength (p=0.000), and gluteus maximus strength (p=0.000). Conclusion: Golfers with a low handicap are more likely to have increased pelvis rotation speed as well as increased gluteus maximus and medius strength when compared to high handicap golfers. Clinical Relevance: The relationships between increased peak pelvis rotation and gluteus maximus and medius strength in low handicap golfers may have implications in designing golf training programs. Further research needs to be conducted in order to further explore these relationships. PMID:22666643

  19. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Zachariah, Arun; Kalaivannan, N; Ling, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world.

  20. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta.

  1. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.

  2. PROPOSED SIMPLE METHOD FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM RECORDING IN FREE-RANGING ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Bouvard, Jonathan; Sillero, Leonor Camacho; Huynh, Minh; Segalini, Vincent; Point, Lisa; Croce, Veronica; Rigaux, Goulven; Highwood, Jack; Chetboul, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography represents a relevant diagnostic tool for detecting cardiac disease in animals. Elephants can present various congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases. However, few electrophysiologic studies have been reported in captive elephants, mainly due to challenging technical difficulties in obtaining good-quality electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings, and no data are currently available for free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The purpose of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a simple method for recording ECG tracings in wild, apparently healthy, unsedated Asian elephants (n = 7) in the standing position. Successful six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were obtained, with the aVL lead providing the best-quality tracings in most animals. Variables measured in the aVL lead included heart rate, amplitudes and duration of the P waves, QRS complexes, T and U waves, and duration of the PR, QT, and QU intervals. A negative deflection following positive P waves, representative of an atrial repolarization wave (Ta wave), was observed for five out of the seven elephants.

  3. Proteomic responses to hypoxia at different temperatures in the great scallop (Pecten maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Camille; Richard, Joëlle; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Bargelloni, Luca; Pichereau, Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia and hyperthermia are two connected consequences of the ongoing global change and constitute major threats for coastal marine organisms. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the changes induced by hypoxia in the great scallop, Pecten maximus, subjected to three different temperatures (10 °C, 18 °C and 25 °C). We did not observe any significant change induced by hypoxia in animals acclimated at 10 °C. At 18 °C and 25 °C, 16 and 11 protein spots were differentially accumulated between normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. Moreover, biochemical data (octopine dehydrogenase activity and arginine assays) suggest that animals grown at 25 °C switched their metabolism towards anaerobic metabolism when exposed to both normoxia and hypoxia, suggesting that this temperature is out of the scallops’ optimal thermal window. The 11 proteins identified with high confidence by mass spectrometry are involved in protein modifications and signaling (e.g., CK2, TBK1), energy metabolism (e.g., ENO3) or cytoskeleton (GSN), giving insights into the thermal-dependent response of scallops to hypoxia. PMID:25861557

  4. Elephant (Elephas maximus) Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, David; Jackson, Bradford; Riddle, Heidi S; Stremme, Christopher; Schmitt, Dennis; Miller, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey's results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants. PMID:25688328

  5. Refractive state, corneal curvature, accommodative range and ocular anatomy of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Murphy, C J; Kern, T J; Howland, H C

    1992-11-01

    The resting refractive state of six mature, female, Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) was determined using streak retinoscopy and neutralizing video retinoscopy. The amplitude of accommodation was also measured by neutralizing video retinoscopy of two animals and the corneal curvatures of three animals was measured by photokeratoscopy. The net spherical refraction was found to be +0.23 D. No difference was observed between cyclopleged and non-cyclopleged eyes (data from three animals), nor was there any difference between right and left eyes. Nine of the twelve eyes refracted had > or = 0.5 D astigmatism. The mean corneal power, as measured by photokeratometry was 21.3 D (SD = 1.8 D). There was a tendency towards with-the-rule corneal astigmatism in our sample (mean value: 1.2 D), though it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Two elephants were examined using neutralizing video photoretinoscopy. They were able to accommodate through 3 D. Three fixed eyes from three different elephants were obtained for gross and microscopic examination. The mean axial length of the eye was 38.75 mm and the lens had an axial diameter of approx. 10 mm. The posterior sclera was thick (8.0-8.5 mm). Histologically, the cornea was comprised of five distinct layers. A thin, meridionally oriented smooth ciliary muscle was identified. Individual muscle fibers were also observed associated with the posterior trabeculae of the uveal meshwork.

  6. Elephant (Elephas maximus) Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David; Jackson, Bradford; Riddle, Heidi S.; Stremme, Christopher; Miller, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey's results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants. PMID:25688328

  7. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Moon, Suk Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae

    2016-01-01

    The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients' age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%). Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.087). Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity. PMID:27366755

  8. Anti-predator adaptations in a great scallop (Pecten maximus) - a palaeontological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof Roman; Szopa, Krzysztof; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Shelly fauna was exposed to increased pressure exerted by shell-crushing durophagous predators during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution that was initiated in the Triassic. As a result of evolutionary `arms race', prey animals such as bivalves, developed many adaptations to reduce predation pressure (e.g. they changed lifestyle and shell morphology in order to increase their mechanical strength). For instance, it was suggested that Pectinidae had acquired the ability to actively swim to avoid predator attack during the early Mesozoic. However, pectinids are also know to have a specific shell microstructure that may effectively protect them against predators. For instance, we highlight that the shells of some recent pectinid species (e.g. Pecten maximus) that display cross-lamellar structures in the middle part playing a significant role in the energy dissipation, improve the mechanical strength. In contrast, the outer layers of these bivalves are highly porous, which allow them to swim more efficiently by reducing the shell weight. Pectinids are thus perfect examples of animals optimising their skeletons for several functions. We suggest that such an optimisation of their skeletons for multiple functions likely occurred as a results of increased predation pressure during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  9. Digestive enzyme activities of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) during early developmental stages under culture condition.

    PubMed

    Tong, X H; Xu, S H; Liu, Q H; Li, J; Xiao, Z Z; Ma, D Y

    2012-06-01

    Digestive enzyme activities were analysed in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from hatching until 60 days after hatching (DAH). Trypsin sharply increased to the climax at 17 DAH and decreased until 31 DAH followed by a stable level thereafter. Amylase was determined at 4 DAH, reached the maximum value at 19 DAH and declined sharply to 39 DAH and remained at a low level thereafter, suggesting the carbohydrate component should remain at a low level in formulated diets. Pepsin was detected at 9 DAH and increased to 34 DAH and then remained at a stable level. The above results revealed pancreatic enzymes are no longer main enzymes for food digestion after the formation of functional stomach. Leucine-alanine peptidase (Leu-ala) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and leucine aminopeptidase N (LAP) were found in newly hatched larvae. Both AP and LAP activities markedly increased to 23 DAH, decreased abruptly to 50 DAH and increased gradually to 60 DAH. Leu-ala reached the plateau from 23 to 39 DAH, followed by a decline to 46 DAH and an increase until 60 DAH. The brush border membrane (BBM)-bound enzyme activities increased from 30% at 31 DAH to 81% at 38 DAH of the total activities, indicating the maturation of intestinal tract.

  10. Enhancing the culturability of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of farmed adult turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Mengxin; Hou, Zhanhui; Qu, Yanmei; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Eighteen agar media were tested for the culture of gut-associated bacteria from farmed adult turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), including 16 agar media with or without 1% gastrointestinal (GI) supernatant, or with 2% or 4% GI supernatant. A total of 1 711 colonies were analyzed and 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. The greatest bacterial diversity was isolated on Zobell 2216E/Zobell 2216E+ agar media, whereas MRS/MRS+ agar media produced a low diversity of colonies. Agar media with GI supernatant (1%, 2%, or 4%) showed increased diversity and yielded different profiles of OTUs from the corresponding original media, suggesting that GI supernatant provides substances that enhance the culture efficiency of bacteria from the turbot GI tract. The large majority of the colonies (82%) were γ-Proteobacteria, whereas 15.6% and 2.4% of colonies were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively. At the genus level, 49.4% of all colonies were assigned to Vibrio. Other potential pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Photobacterium, and Enterobacter, and potential probiotics, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas, were also isolated on agar media. Most cultured bacteria belonged to species that were first described in the turbot GI tract. The impact of these species on turbot physiology and health should be investigated further.

  11. Elephant (Elephas maximus) Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, David; Jackson, Bradford; Riddle, Heidi S; Stremme, Christopher; Schmitt, Dennis; Miller, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey's results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants.

  12. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-12-01

    A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:22204067

  13. Identification of the Major Sex-Determining Region of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén; Millán, Adrián; Fernández, Carlos; Vilas, Román; Viñas, Ana; Sánchez, Laura; Felip, Alicia; Piferrer, Francesc; Ferreiro, Isabel; Cabaleiro, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in fish is a labile character in evolutionary terms. The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. This group is an interesting model for studying the evolution of the SD region and the gonadal differentiation pathway. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish of great commercial value, where a strong sexual dimorphism exists for growth rate. Following a QTL and marker association approach in five families and a natural population, we identified the main SD region of turbot at the proximal end of linkage group (LG) 5, close to the SmaUSC-E30 marker. The refined map of this region suggested that this marker would be 2.6 cM and 1.4 Mb from the putative SD gene. This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. Comparative genomics of LG5 marker sequences against five model species showed no similarity of this chromosome to the sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and fugu, but suggested a similarity to a sex-associated QTL from Oreochromis spp. The segregation analysis of the closest markers to the SD region demonstrated a ZW/ZZ model of sex determination in turbot. A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. PMID:19786621

  14. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) vs. VHSV (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a very valuable fish species both in Europe and China. The culture of this flatfish is well-established but several bacteria, viruses, and parasites can produce mortality or morbidity episodes in turbot farms. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting turbot, because neither vaccines nor treatments are commercially available. Although the mortality in the turbot farms is relatively low, when this virus is detected all the stock have to be destroyed. The main goals that need to be improved in order to reduce the incidence of this disease is to know what are the strategies or molecules the host use to fight the virus and, in consequence, try to potentiate this response using different ways. Certain molecules can be selected as potential antiviral treatments because of their high protective effect against VHSV. On the other hand, the use of resistance markers for selective breeding is one of the most attractive approaches. This review englobes all the investigation concerning the immune interaction between turbot and VHSV, which until the last years was very scarce, and the knowledge about VHSV-resistance markers in turbot. Nowadays, the availability of abundant transcriptomic information and the recent sequencing of the turbot genome open the door to a more exhaustive and profuse investigation in these areas. PMID:27303308

  15. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) Rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Li, Zheng-Qiu; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2006-01-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 1G8, 1H9, 2D2, 2D3, and 2F5, against Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) were prepared. Characterization of the mAbs included indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, isotyping, viral inhibition assay, immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cell cultures, and Western blot analysis. Isotyping revealed that 1G8 and 1H9 were of the IgG2b subclass and that the other three were IgM. 2D2, 2D3, and 2F5 partially inhibited SMRV infection in epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cell culture. Western blotting showed that all five mAbs could react with two SMRV proteins with molecular masses of approximately 30 kDa (P) and 26 kDa (M). These two proteins were localized within the cytoplasm of SMRV-infected EPC cells by immunofluorescence assay. Also, progressive foci of viral replication in cell cultures were monitored from 6 to 24 h, using mAb 2D3 as the primary antibody. A flow cytometry procedure was used to detect and quantify SMRV-infected (0.01 PFU/cell) EPC cells with mAb 2D3, and 10.8% of cells could be distinguished as infected 36 h postinfection. Moreover, mAb 2D3 was successfully applied for the detection of viral antigen in cryosections from flounder tissues by immunohistochemistry tests.

  16. Bafilomycins and Odoriferous Sesquiterpenoids from Streptomyces albolongus Isolated from Elephas maximus Feces.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Jiang, Yi; Han, Li; Chen, Xiu; Ma, Jian; Qu, Xiaodan; Mu, Yu; Liu, Jiang; Li, Liya; Jiang, Chenglin; Huang, Xueshi

    2016-04-22

    From a fermentation broth of Streptomyces albolongus obtained from Elephas maximus feces, nine bafilomycins (1-9) and seven odoriferous sesquiterpenoids (10-16) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds, including three bafilomycins, 19-methoxybafilomycin C1 amide (1), 21-deoxybafilomycin A1 (2), and 21-deoxybafilomycin A2 (3), and two sesquiterpenoid degradation products, (1β,4β,4aβ,8aα)-4,8a-dimethyloctahydronaphthalene-1,4a(2H)-diol (10) and (1β,4β,4aβ,7α,8aα)-4,8a-dimethyloctahydronaphthalene-1,4a,7(2H)-triol (11), were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data analysis. The cytotoxicity activity against four human cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activities against a panel of bacteria and fungi of all compounds isolated were evaluated. Compounds 1, 7, and 8 were cytotoxic, with IC50 values ranging from 0.54 to 5.02 μM. Compounds 2, 7, 8, and 10 showed strong antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis, with MIC values of 3.13, 1.56, 1.56, and 3.13 μg/mL respectively. PMID:26933756

  17. PROPOSED SIMPLE METHOD FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM RECORDING IN FREE-RANGING ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Bouvard, Jonathan; Sillero, Leonor Camacho; Huynh, Minh; Segalini, Vincent; Point, Lisa; Croce, Veronica; Rigaux, Goulven; Highwood, Jack; Chetboul, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography represents a relevant diagnostic tool for detecting cardiac disease in animals. Elephants can present various congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases. However, few electrophysiologic studies have been reported in captive elephants, mainly due to challenging technical difficulties in obtaining good-quality electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings, and no data are currently available for free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The purpose of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a simple method for recording ECG tracings in wild, apparently healthy, unsedated Asian elephants (n = 7) in the standing position. Successful six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were obtained, with the aVL lead providing the best-quality tracings in most animals. Variables measured in the aVL lead included heart rate, amplitudes and duration of the P waves, QRS complexes, T and U waves, and duration of the PR, QT, and QU intervals. A negative deflection following positive P waves, representative of an atrial repolarization wave (Ta wave), was observed for five out of the seven elephants. PMID:27010258

  18. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Sinphithakkul, P; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Giorgi, M; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) trihydrate in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, following intramuscular administration at two dosages of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected from 0.5 up to 72 h. The concentration of AMX in elephant plasma was measured using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AMX was measurable up to 24 h after administration at two dosages. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 1.20 ± 0.39 μg/mL after i.m. administration at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas it was 3.40 ± 0.63 μg/mL at a dosage of 11 mg/kg b.w. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the disposition of AMX in Asian elephants. Based on the preliminary findings found in this research, the dosage of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg b.w. produced drug plasma concentrations higher than 0.25 mg/mL for 24 h after i.m. administration. Thereafter, i.m. administration with AMX at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w. appeared a more suitable dose than 11 mg/kg b.w. However, more studies are needed to determine AMX clinical effectiveness in elephants. PMID:26411748

  19. Molecular identification of the strongyloid nematode Oesophagostomum aculeatum in the Asian wild elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, O; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Yindee, M; Kosoltanapiwat, N; Nuamtanong, S; Ponlawat, A; Adisakwattana, P

    2016-07-01

    The transmission of zoonoses by wildlife, including elephants, is a growing global concern. In this study, we screened for helminth infections among Asian wild elephants (Elephas maximus) of the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary, Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Elephant faecal samples (45) were collected from the sanctuary grounds during January through November 2013 and assayed individually using the tetranucleotide microsatellite technique. Microscopic examination indicated a high prevalence of strongylids (93.0%) and low prevalences of trichurids (2.3%) and ascarids (2.3%). To identify the strongylid species, small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were amplified from copro-DNA and compared with sequences in GenBank. The generated SSU-rDNA sequences comprised five distinct haplotypes that were closely related to Oesophagostomum aculeatum. A phylogenetic analysis that incorporated related nematodes yielded a tree separated into two main clades, one containing our samples and human and domestic animal hookworms and the other consisting of Strongyloides. The present results indicate that O. aculeatum in local elephants is a potential source of helminthiasis in human and domestic animals in this wild-elephant irrupted area. PMID:26213101

  20. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants. PMID:24063088

  1. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Josefin; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperate in an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioning procedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodal stimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odor stimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of recess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in tests of odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method for assessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodal stimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats, and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion that Asian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  2. Identification of the major sex-determining region of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Vera, Manuel; Pardo, Belén; Millán, Adrián; Fernández, Carlos; Vilas, Román; Viñas, Ana; Sánchez, Laura; Felip, Alicia; Piferrer, Francesc; Ferreiro, Isabel; Cabaleiro, Santiago

    2009-12-01

    Sex determination in fish is a labile character in evolutionary terms. The sex-determining (SD) master gene can differ even between closely related fish species. This group is an interesting model for studying the evolution of the SD region and the gonadal differentiation pathway. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish of great commercial value, where a strong sexual dimorphism exists for growth rate. Following a QTL and marker association approach in five families and a natural population, we identified the main SD region of turbot at the proximal end of linkage group (LG) 5, close to the SmaUSC-E30 marker. The refined map of this region suggested that this marker would be 2.6 cM and 1.4 Mb from the putative SD gene. This region appeared mostly undifferentiated between males and females, and no relevant recombination frequency differences were detected between sexes. Comparative genomics of LG5 marker sequences against five model species showed no similarity of this chromosome to the sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and fugu, but suggested a similarity to a sex-associated QTL from Oreochromis spp. The segregation analysis of the closest markers to the SD region demonstrated a ZW/ZZ model of sex determination in turbot. A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species. PMID:19786621

  3. Identification and characterization of pathogen to bacterial septicaemia in cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guomin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Cuizhen; Fang, Hai; Zhan, Wenbin

    2007-10-01

    Bacteria-infected turbots Scophthalmus maximus with septicaemia were examined between 2001 and 2004 in aspects of the conditions of disease occurrence, clinical syndromes and pathological changes. The phenotypic information of pathogenic bacteria was studied, including morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the mol% G+C of the DNA. In addition, representative strains (S010623-1, LH031120-1) were selected for molecular identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results show that the isolates (LH031120-1 to LH031120-6, HT040308-1 to HT040308-6, HT040620-1 to HT040620-6) from three farms were identified as Edwardsiella tarda. The isolates (S010610-1 to S010610-10, S010623-1 to S010623-20) from one farm were identified as Listonella anguillarum. We conducted studies on the pathogenicity of isolates by artificial infection, and revealed all infected groups in morbidity and mortality. The septicaemia infected turbot showed a syndrome similar to that of the naturally infected fish. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that of 37 antimicrobial agents, E. tarda was sensitive to 27 agents, and L. anguillarum was sensitive to 21 agents.

  4. Turbot Scophthalmus maximus: stocking density on growth, pigmentation and feed conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Aijun; Chen, Chao; Lei, Jilin; Chen, Siqing; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Wang, Yingeng

    2006-09-01

    Juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) were reared in five different experiment groups in the initial stock densities at 0.28, 0.87, 1.12, 1.16, 2.75 kg/m2 respectively for the study of the density effect on growth, pigmentation and feed coefficient rate. The experiment lasted for 60 days with final stock densities at 1.91, 6.31, 8.86, 11.97, 17.67 kg/m2 respectively. Result showed that, in the same experiment condition, the stocking density has a positive effect on growth in low density and negative in high density. The SGR (special growth rate) was 3.189, 3.304, 3.447, 3.341, and 3.087 respectively. The uniformity of weight distributing among experiment groups decreased with increasing density. The stocking density had positive effect on feed coefficient rate. Group 1 had the least feed coefficient rate 0.96, and highest at 1.25 in Group 5, the highest density group. High stocking density inhibited the growth and increased the feed coefficient rate. The stocking density had negative relationship to pigmentation improvement for whitened fish.

  5. Stomatin-like protein 2 of turbot Scopthalmus maximus: Gene cloning, expression profiling and immunoregulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a novel and unusual member of the stomatin gene superfamily. In this study, we obtained a full-length SLP-2 (SmSLP-2) cDNA from turbot (Scopthalmus maximus) spleen cDNA library. The cDNA sequence of SmSLP-2 contains a 5'-UTR of 107 bp, an ORF of 1050 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 959 bp. The ORF encodes a putative protein of 349 residues, which has a calculated molecular mass of 38.7 kDa. The SmSLP-2 protein possesses a prohibitin-homology (PHB) domain (residues 40 to 198) and shares 72.4-87.6% overall sequence identity with that of the teleost species. The highest expression of SmSLP-2 mRNA was found in the skin, followed by the head kidney, gut, spleen, liver, heart, gill and muscle. Moreover, both viral and bacterial pathogen infection resulted in the up-regulation of SmSLP-2 mRNA in the turbot head kidney and spleen in vivo. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that the SmSLP-2 proteins are mainly located in the peripheral membrane of ZF4 cells. This study also demonstrated that SmSLP-2 modulates IL-2 expression via active NFκB signaling pathway, and is possibly involved in host immune defense against bacterial and viral pathogens. PMID:26806162

  6. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) vs. VHSV (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus): A Review.

    PubMed

    Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a very valuable fish species both in Europe and China. The culture of this flatfish is well-established but several bacteria, viruses, and parasites can produce mortality or morbidity episodes in turbot farms. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting turbot, because neither vaccines nor treatments are commercially available. Although the mortality in the turbot farms is relatively low, when this virus is detected all the stock have to be destroyed. The main goals that need to be improved in order to reduce the incidence of this disease is to know what are the strategies or molecules the host use to fight the virus and, in consequence, try to potentiate this response using different ways. Certain molecules can be selected as potential antiviral treatments because of their high protective effect against VHSV. On the other hand, the use of resistance markers for selective breeding is one of the most attractive approaches. This review englobes all the investigation concerning the immune interaction between turbot and VHSV, which until the last years was very scarce, and the knowledge about VHSV-resistance markers in turbot. Nowadays, the availability of abundant transcriptomic information and the recent sequencing of the turbot genome open the door to a more exhaustive and profuse investigation in these areas. PMID:27303308

  7. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  8. Control of musth in an Asian elephant bull (Elephas maximus) using leuprolide acetate.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claudio A; West, Gary D; Houck, Richard; Leblanc, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    The results of long-term administration of leuprolide acetate (LA) depot in a 52-yr-old Asian elephant bull (Elephas maximus) for control of musth are presented. Twelve injections were administered for 6 yr during our interpretation of early musth or "premusth." Intervals between musth periods during the study varied from 2 to 34 mo. Blood samples, drawn weekly, were assayed for serum testosterone concentrations; mean levels were 11.78 +/- 1.97 nmol/L throughout the first 26 mo of the study, 7.28 +/- 1.28 nmol/L during the following 21 mo, and 0.45 +/- 0.035 nmol/L in the last 34 mo of this study. Early musth signs ceased within 3 days of drug administration after 10 of 12 injections. The mean serum testosterone concentrations were significantly decreased by the last 34 mo of the study. The results suggest leuprolide is a suitable alternative for controlling or preventing (or both) musth in captive Asian elephants, although permanent reproductive effects may occur. Zoos and wildlife conservation institutions could benefit from the use of LA in Asian elephants to increase the male availability in captivity, consequently ensuring genetic diversity and the perpetuation of the species.

  9. Population differentiation within and among Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in southern India.

    PubMed

    Vidya, T N C; Fernando, P; Melnick, D J; Sukumar, R

    2005-01-01

    Southern India, one of the last strongholds of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), harbours about one-fifth of the global population. We present here the first population genetic study of free-ranging Asian elephants, examining within- and among-population differentiation by analysing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellite DNA differentiation across the Nilgiris-Eastern Ghats, Anamalai, and Periyar elephant reserves of southern India. Low mtDNA diversity and 'normal' microsatellite diversity were observed. Surprisingly, the Nilgiri population, which is the world's single largest Asian elephant population, had only one mtDNA haplotype and lower microsatellite diversity than the two other smaller populations examined. There was almost no mtDNA or microsatellite differentiation among localities within the Nilgiris, an area of about 15,000 km2. This suggests extensive gene flow in the past, which is compatible with the home ranges of several hundred square kilometres of elephants in southern India. Conversely, the Nilgiri population is genetically distinct at both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers from the two more southerly populations, Anamalai and Periyar, which in turn are not genetically differentiated from each other. The more southerly populations are separated from the Nilgiris by only a 40-km-wide stretch across a gap in the Western Ghats mountain range. These results variably indicate the importance of population bottlenecks, social organization, and biogeographic barriers in shaping the distribution of genetic variation among Asian elephant populations in southern India.

  10. Microvascular responses to body tilt in cutaneous maximus muscle of conscious rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puri, Rohit K.; Segal, Steven S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated microvascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) and head-down tilt (HDT) in striated muscle of conscious male rats. To observe the microcirculation in the cutaneous maximus muscle, a transparent polycarbonate chamber was implanted aseptically into a skin fold created between the shoulders. Rats were trained to sit quietly during HUT and HDT while positioned on a horizontal microscope that rotated in the sagittal plane. At 4-5 days after surgery, arteriole and venule diameters were recorded using videomicroscopy while the rat experienced 10 min each (in random order) of HUT or HDT at 20 deg or 40 deg separated by 2-h rest periods. HUT had no affect on microvessel diameter; 20 deg HDT had little affect. In response to 40 deg HDT, 'large' arterioles constricted by 18 +/- 2% and 'small' arterioles dilated by 21 +/- 3%; this difference suggested variation in mechanisms controlling arteriolar responses. Venules exhibited a larger fluctuation in diameter during 40 deg HDT compared with other body positions, suggesting that venomotor activity may be induced with sufficient fluid shift or change in central venous pressure. These observations illustrate a viable model for studying microvascular responses to gravitational stress in conscious rats.

  11. Cloning, expression and characterization of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Guo, Huarong; Zhang, Shicui; Yin, Licheng; Guo, Bin; Wang, Shaojie

    2008-05-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding translationally controlled tumor protein of marine flatfish turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus), SmTCTP, was isolated with rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). SmTCTP consisted of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 84 bp, a 3' UTR of 451 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 513 bp, encoding a protein of 170 amino acid residues, which contained two signature sequences of TCTP family. The 5'UTR of SmTCTP started with a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5'-TOP), a typical feature for translationally controlled mRNAs. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmTCTP was similar to the other known vertebrate TCTPs in a range of 58.8% to 64.1%. The length of fish TCTPs was diverse among species, e.g., TCP of turbot and sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) is 170 aa in length, while that of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) and rohu ( Labeo rohita) is 171 aa in length. Northern blot analysis revealed that SmTCTP has only one type of mRNA. Its expression level in albino skin was slightly higher than that in normal skin. We constructed the pET30a- SmTCTP expression plasmid. The recombinant protein of His-tag SmTCTP was over-expressed in E. coli, purified and identified with peptide mass fingerprinting. These results may pave the way of further investigation of the biological function of TCTP in fish.

  12. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Pecten maximus hemocytes: a genomic resource for bivalve immunology.

    PubMed

    Pauletto, Marianna; Milan, Massimo; Moreira, Rebeca; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-03-01

    Pecten maximus, the king scallop, is a bivalve species with important commercial value for both fisheries and aquaculture, traditionally consumed in several European countries. Major problems in larval rearing, however, still limit hatchery-based seed production. High mortalities during early larval stages, likely related to bacterial pathogens, represent the most relevant bottleneck. To address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms against microbes is extremely important. In this study next-generation RNA-sequencing was carried on scallop hemocytes. To enrich for immune-related transcripts, cDNA libraries from hemocytes challenged in vivo with inactivated-Vibrio anguillarum and in vitro with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as well as unchallenged controls, were sequenced yielding 216,444,674 sequence reads. De novo assembly of the scallop hemocyte transcriptome consisted of 73,732 contigs (31% annotated). A total of 934 contigs encoded proteins with a known immune function, grouped into several functional categories. Particular attention was reserved to Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in non-self recognition. Through mining the scallop hemocyte transcriptome, at least four TLRs could be identified. The organization of canonical TLR domains demonstrated that single cysteine cluster and multiple cysteine cluster TLRs co-exist in this species. In addition, preliminary data concerning their mRNA level following bacterial challenge suggested that different members of this family could exhibit opposite responses to pathogenic stimuli. Finally, a global analysis of differential expression comparing gene-expression levels in in vitro and in vivo stimulated hemocytes against controls provided evidence on a large set of transcripts involved in the great scallop immune response.

  13. Olfactory discrimination ability of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) for structurally related odorants.

    PubMed

    Rizvanovic, Alisa; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm, we assessed the ability of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, to discriminate between 2 sets of structurally related odorants. We found that the animals successfully discriminated between all 12 odor pairs involving members of homologous series of aliphatic 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, 2-ketones, and n-carboxylic acids even when the stimuli differed from each other by only 1 carbon. With all 4 chemical classes, the elephants displayed a positive correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length. The animals also successfully discriminated between all 12 enantiomeric odor pairs tested. An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomers. Compared with other species tested previously on the same sets of odor pairs (or on subsets thereof), the Asian elephants performed at least as well as mice and clearly better than human subjects, squirrel monkeys, pigtail macaques, South African fur seals, and honeybees. Further comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. In contrast, we found a positive correlation between the number of functional olfactory receptor genes and the proportion of discriminable enantiomeric odor pairs. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in regulating the behavior of Asian elephants.

  14. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE AFTER RECTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Ziegler, Jessie; Lee, Elizabeth; Tell, Lisa; Murray, Suzan

    2016-03-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug with bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of anaerobic bacteria. It is a recognized treatment for elephants diagnosed with anaerobic bacterial infection or protozoal disease or exhibiting signs of colonic impaction, diarrhea, and colic. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of rectally administered metronidazole (15 mg/kg) in five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples were collected from each animal for 96 hr after rectal administration of metronidazole. Serum concentrations of metronidazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole, were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. Results indicated that serum levels of metronidazole were quantifiable at the 0.25 hr time point and absent in all elephants by the 96 hr time point. The serum peak concentration (mean ± SD, 13.15 ± 2.59 μg/ml) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (mean ± SD, 108.79 ± 24.77 hr × μg/ml) were higher than that reported in domestic horses after similar usage. Concurrently, the time of maximum serum concentration (mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.45 hr) and terminal elimination half-life (harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD, 7.85 ± 0.93 hr) were longer when compared to equine reports. Rectal administration of metronidazole was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed in all study elephants. Based on the findings in this study, metronidazole administered at a single dose of 15 mg/kg per rectum in the Asian elephant is likely to result in serum concentrations above 4 μg/ml for 8 hr and above 2 μg/ml for 24 hr after treatment is administered. Dosing recommendations should reflect the mean inhibitory concentration of metronidazole for each pathogen.

  15. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants.

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): histologic lesions with correlation to local immune responses.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, J A; Terio, K A; Miller, M; Junecko, B F; Reinhart, T

    2015-05-01

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an important health concern for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), no studies have evaluated the associated local immune responses or histologic lesions. In primates including humans, latent tuberculosis is distinguished by well-organized granulomas with TH1 cytokine expression, whereas active disease is characterized by poorly organized inflammation and local imbalance in TH1/TH2 cytokines. This study examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung samples from 5 tuberculosis-negative and 9 tuberculosis-positive Asian elephants. Lesions were assessed by light microscopy, and lymphoid infiltrates were characterized by CD3 and CD20 immunolabeling. Expression of TH1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and TH2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) cytokines was determined using in situ hybridization. In 6 of 9 samples, inflammation was similar to the pattern of primate active disease with low to moderate numbers of lymphocytes, most of which were CD20 positive. In 1 sample, inflammation was most similar to latent tuberculosis in primates with numerous CD3-positive lymphocytes. Expression of IFN-γ was detected in 3 of 8 tuberculosis-positive samples. Expression of TNF-α was detected in 3 of 8 positive samples, including the one with latent morphology. Low-level expression of IL-4 was present in 4 of 8 positive samples. Only single positive samples displayed expression of IL-10 and TGF-β. Tuberculosis-negative samples generally lacked cytokine expression. Results showed heterogeneity in lesions of elephant tuberculosis similar to those of latent and active disease in primates, with variable expression of both TH1 and TH2 cytokines.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection and gene expression of TNFα in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) enteromyxosis.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pardo, Belén G; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa) constitutes one of the most devastating pathogens for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. This parasite causes a severe intestinal parasitosis that leads to a cachectic syndrome with high morbidity and mortality rates for which no therapeutic options are available. Presence of inflammatory infiltrates, increased apoptotic rates and epithelial detaching have been described at intestinal level, as well as leukocyte depletion in lymphohaematopoietic organs. Previous investigations on enteromyxosis in turbot showed the high susceptibility of this species to the parasite and reported the existence of a dysregulated immune response against the parasite. The pleiotropic cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a major role in immune response and is involved in a wide range of biological activities. In teleost, the gene expression of this cytokine has been found regulated under several pathological conditions. Teleost TNFα shows some analogous functions with its mammalian counterparts, but the extent of its activities is still poorly understood. Cytokines are generally considered as a double-edge sword and TNFα has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases as well as in wasting syndromes described in mammals. The aim of this work was to analyse the expression of TNFα during enteromyxosis with molecular (Q-PCR) and morphological (immunohistochemistry) tools. Kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from turbot with moderate and severe infections were analysed and compared to healthy naïve fish. TNFα expression was increased in both spleen and kidney in the earlier stages of the disease, whereas in severely infected fish, the expression decreased, especially in kidney. At the intestinal level, an increase in the number of TNFα-positive cells was noticed, which was proportional to the infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrate the involvement of TNFα in the immune response to

  18. Digestive physiology of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus): A large herbivorous hystricomorph rodent.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Katharina B; Besselmann, Dorothea; Cyrus-Eulenberger, Ulrike; Vendl, Catharina; Ortmann, Sylvia; Zingg, Robert; Kienzle, Ellen; Kreuzer, Michael; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) are large South American, fossorial rodents susceptible to diabetic cataracts. Various aspects of their digestive physiology were studied in three different experiments with nine male and seven female adult animals and six different diets (total n of feeding trials = 35). Viscachas achieved mean retention times of 23–31 hr, which is of a magnitude also recorded in horses; these did not differ for solute or small particle (<2 mm) markers. Secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagy, and were rarer on high-protein as compared to grass hay-only diets. Mean resting metabolic rate was, at 229 kJ/kg0.75/day, lower than expected for a mammal of this size. Digestible energy requirement for maintenance was 445 kJ/kg0.75/day. At 1.6–2.7 L/day, viscachas produced more methane than expected for a hindgut fermenter of their size. On diets that included concentrate feeds, viscachas excreted glucose in their urine, corroborating reports on the susceptibility of this species for diabetes when kept on energy-dense food. Viscachas had a similar apparent digestibility of protein, lipids, and macrominerals as other rodents, rabbits, or domestic horses. This suggests that whether or not a species practices coprophagy does not have a major influence on these measures. Viscachas resemble other hindgut fermenters in their high apparent calcium digestibility. With respect to a digestibility-reducing effect of dietary fiber, viscachas differed from rabbits and guinea pigs but were similar to horses, suggesting that small body size needs not necessarily be linked to lower digestive efficiency on high-fiber diets.

  19. Fine Mapping and Evolution of the Major Sex Determining Region in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Xoana; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Vera, Manuel; Piferrer, Francesc; Viñas, Ana; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Fish sex determination (SD) systems are varied, suggesting evolutionary changes including either multiple evolution origins of genetic SD from nongenetic systems (such as environmental SD) and/or turnover events replacing one genetic system by another. When genetic SD is found, cytological differentiation between the two members of the sex chromosome pair is often minor or undetectable. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a valuable commercial flatfish, has a ZZ/ZW system and a major SD region on linkage group 5 (LG5), but there are also other minor genetic and environmental influences. We here report refined mapping of the turbot SD region, supported by comparative mapping with model fish species, to identify the turbot master SD gene. Six genes were located to the SD region, two of them associated with gonad development (sox2 and dnajc19). All showed a high association with sex within families (P = 0), but not at the population level, so they are probably partially sex-linked genes, but not SD gene itself. Analysis of crossovers in LG5 using two families confirmed a ZZ/ZW system in turbot and suggested a revised map position for the master gene. Genetic diversity and differentiation for 25 LG5 genetic markers showed no differences between males and females sampled from a wild population, suggesting a recent origin of the SD region in turbot. We also analyzed associations with markers of the most relevant sex-related linkage groups in brill (S. rhombus), a closely related species to turbot; the data suggest that an ancient XX/XY system in brill changed to a ZZ/ZW mechanism in turbot. PMID:25106948

  20. Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Cheeran, Jacob Varghese; Sukumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. Methodology/Principal Findings Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test) and new (four in-house ELISA) tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3–97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI): 74.8–99.9) and diagnostic specificity were 89.6–98.5% (95% CI: 79.4–99.9) based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6–62.8) of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0) tested positive on all five tests. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures. PMID:23166708

  1. Aging alters reactivity of microvascular resistance networks in mouse gluteus maximus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sinkler, Shenghua Y.

    2014-01-01

    Aging occurs with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial dysfunction; however, little is known of how successive branches of microvascular resistance networks are affected in vivo. We questioned whether vascular reactivity is altered differentially along resistance networks with advanced age. The left gluteus maximus muscle of anesthetized 4-mo-old and 24-mo-old male C57BL/6 mice (Young and Old, respectively) was exposed for intravital microscopy and superfused with physiological salt solution (3 ml/min; pH 7.4, 34°C). Spontaneous vasomotor tone increased progressively from proximal feed arteries (FA) and first-order (1A) arterioles through distal second-order (2A) and third-order (3A) arterioles and was ∼15% greater in 2A and 3A of Old versus Young. Vasoconstriction during elevated superfusion Po2 increased with branch order and to a greater extent in Young. Peak constrictions to phenylephrine [α1 adrenoreceptor (α1AR) agonist] were similar for FA and 1A of both ages and ∼20% greater for 2A and 3A of Young. Across arterioles (but not FA), constrictions to UK 14304 (α2AR agonist) were depressed ∼30% in Old versus Young. Thus advanced age attenuated vasoconstriction to O2 throughout networks while blunting vasoconstriction to α1AR and α2AR activation in arterioles. With ACh, endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) was ∼20% greater in FA of Young yet was approximately twofold greater for 2A and 3A of Old. Sodium nitroprusside evoked maximal dilations similar to ACh. Thus, with advanced age, EDD was attenuated in FA while robust in distal arterioles having enhanced vasomotor tone. We conclude that advanced age differentially alters reactivity among branches of microvascular resistance networks. PMID:25015968

  2. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): histologic lesions with correlation to local immune responses.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, J A; Terio, K A; Miller, M; Junecko, B F; Reinhart, T

    2015-05-01

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an important health concern for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), no studies have evaluated the associated local immune responses or histologic lesions. In primates including humans, latent tuberculosis is distinguished by well-organized granulomas with TH1 cytokine expression, whereas active disease is characterized by poorly organized inflammation and local imbalance in TH1/TH2 cytokines. This study examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung samples from 5 tuberculosis-negative and 9 tuberculosis-positive Asian elephants. Lesions were assessed by light microscopy, and lymphoid infiltrates were characterized by CD3 and CD20 immunolabeling. Expression of TH1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and TH2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) cytokines was determined using in situ hybridization. In 6 of 9 samples, inflammation was similar to the pattern of primate active disease with low to moderate numbers of lymphocytes, most of which were CD20 positive. In 1 sample, inflammation was most similar to latent tuberculosis in primates with numerous CD3-positive lymphocytes. Expression of IFN-γ was detected in 3 of 8 tuberculosis-positive samples. Expression of TNF-α was detected in 3 of 8 positive samples, including the one with latent morphology. Low-level expression of IL-4 was present in 4 of 8 positive samples. Only single positive samples displayed expression of IL-10 and TGF-β. Tuberculosis-negative samples generally lacked cytokine expression. Results showed heterogeneity in lesions of elephant tuberculosis similar to those of latent and active disease in primates, with variable expression of both TH1 and TH2 cytokines. PMID:25228055

  4. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Zachariah, Arun; Kalaivannan, N; Ling, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world. PMID:24484479

  5. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE AFTER RECTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Ziegler, Jessie; Lee, Elizabeth; Tell, Lisa; Murray, Suzan

    2016-03-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug with bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of anaerobic bacteria. It is a recognized treatment for elephants diagnosed with anaerobic bacterial infection or protozoal disease or exhibiting signs of colonic impaction, diarrhea, and colic. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of rectally administered metronidazole (15 mg/kg) in five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples were collected from each animal for 96 hr after rectal administration of metronidazole. Serum concentrations of metronidazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole, were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. Results indicated that serum levels of metronidazole were quantifiable at the 0.25 hr time point and absent in all elephants by the 96 hr time point. The serum peak concentration (mean ± SD, 13.15 ± 2.59 μg/ml) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (mean ± SD, 108.79 ± 24.77 hr × μg/ml) were higher than that reported in domestic horses after similar usage. Concurrently, the time of maximum serum concentration (mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.45 hr) and terminal elimination half-life (harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD, 7.85 ± 0.93 hr) were longer when compared to equine reports. Rectal administration of metronidazole was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed in all study elephants. Based on the findings in this study, metronidazole administered at a single dose of 15 mg/kg per rectum in the Asian elephant is likely to result in serum concentrations above 4 μg/ml for 8 hr and above 2 μg/ml for 24 hr after treatment is administered. Dosing recommendations should reflect the mean inhibitory concentration of metronidazole for each pathogen. PMID:27010257

  6. Consolidation of the genetic and cytogenetic maps of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) using FISH with BAC clones.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Xoana; Pansonato-Alves, Jose C; Foresti, Fausto; Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana; Pardo, Belén G; Bouza, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) have been widely used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of chromosome landmarks in different organisms, including a few in teleosts. In this study, we used BAC-FISH to consolidate the previous genetic and cytogenetic maps of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a commercially important pleuronectiform. The maps consisted of 24 linkage groups (LGs) but only 22 chromosomes. All turbot LGs were assigned to specific chromosomes using BAC probes obtained from a turbot 5× genomic BAC library. It consisted of 46,080 clones with inserts of at least 100 kb and <5 % empty vectors. These BAC probes contained gene-derived or anonymous markers, most of them linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to productive traits. BAC clones were mapped by FISH to unique marker-specific chromosomal positions, which showed a notable concordance with previous genetic mapping data. The two metacentric pairs were cytogenetically assigned to LG2 and LG16, and the nucleolar organizer region (NOR)-bearing pair was assigned to LG15. Double-color FISH assays enabled the consolidation of the turbot genetic map into 22 linkage groups by merging LG8 with LG18 and LG21 with LG24. In this work, a first-generation probe panel of BAC clones anchored to the turbot linkage and cytogenetical map was developed. It is a useful tool for chromosome traceability in turbot, but also relevant in the context of pleuronectiform karyotypes, which often show small hardly identifiable chromosomes. This panel will also be valuable for further integrative genomics of turbot within Pleuronectiformes and teleosts, especially for fine QTL mapping for aquaculture traits, comparative genomics, and whole-genome assembly.

  7. Immunolocalization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) tissues.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Villamarín, Antonio; Bermúdez, Roberto; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine involved in a broad spectrum of cellular and organismal responses. Its main function, as a potent pro-inflammatory mediator, has been demonstrated in numerous teleost species and there are many reports on the modulation of TNFα gene expression under pathological conditions. Nevertheless, there is still scarce knowledge about the tissue distribution and type of cells that express this cytokine in fish species, which would help to further investigate its biological activities. These studies are hampered by the lack of molecular markers for teleost that hinder the development of morphological techniques, like immunohistochemistry. The aim of this work was to develop an immunohistochemical technique for the detection of TNFα in paraffin-embedded organs from healthy turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), an economically-important marine fish species. A commercial anti-human TNFα antibody, whose specificity was confirmed by western blot analysis, was used. Immunoreactive cells were observed in higher numbers in the lymphohematopoietic organs, kidney, spleen and thymus, although TNFα-positive cells were also present in the digestive tract, liver, heart, gills and skin. Similarly to non-fish species, monocytes/macrophages appeared to be the main producers of this cytokine; nevertheless, the presence of immunoreactive rodlet cells in different tissues was also reported. The nature and distribution of the labeled cells appeared to be related with a strategic localization for defense response to antigenic challenge. The relative abundance of TNFα-positive cells in the lymphohematopoietic organs also suggests that this cytokine may have a broader role in the normal physiology of those organs. The immunohistochemical technique allowed the in-situ characterization of TNFα expression, representing a valid tool to investigate the immune response of turbot.

  8. Myofascial force transmission between the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus muscles: an in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Viviane Otoni do Carmo; Ocarino, Juliana de Melo; Araújo, Vanessa Lara; Souza, Thales Rezende; Silva, Paula Lanna Pereira; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2013-03-15

    There are extensive connections between the latissimus dorsi (LD) and gluteus maximus (GMax) muscles and the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF), which suggests a possible pathway for myofascial force transmission. The present study was designed to provide empirical evidence of myofascial force transmission from LD to contralateral GMax through TFL in vivo. To accomplish this goal, we evaluated whether active or passive tensioning of the LD results in increased passive tension of the contralateral GMax, indexed by changes in the hip resting position (RP) or passive stiffness. The hip RP was defined as the angular position in which the passive joint torque equals zero, and passive hip stiffness was calculated as the change in passive torque per change in joint angle. Thirty-seven subjects underwent an assessment of their passive hip torque against medial rotation by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. These measures were carried out under three test conditions: (1) control, (2) passive LD tensioning and (3) active LD tensioning. Electromyography was used to monitor the activity of the hip muscles and the LD under all conditions. Repeated measures analyses of variance demonstrated that passive LD tensioning shifted the hip RP towards lateral rotation (p=0.009) but did not change the passive hip stiffness (p>0.05). Active LD tensioning shifted the hip RP towards lateral rotation (p<0.001) and increased the passive hip stiffness (p≤0.004). The results demonstrated that manipulation of the LD tension modified the passive hip variables, providing evidence of myofascial force transmission in vivo. PMID:23394717

  9. Variation in the immunoglobulin levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) after vaccination with Streptococcus iniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Liu, Hongming; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2009-09-01

    A pathogenic bacterium (S636), identified as Streptococcus iniae, was isolated from turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in 2005. We immunized turbot with formalin-killed S. iniae four times (on days 1, 14, 21, and 28) by intraperitoneal inoculation. After each vaccination, we obtained serum samples and isolated the lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, spleen, pronephros, and mesonephros. We measured surface Ig-positive (sIg+) lymphocytes and serum antibody levels from these organs using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively, using monoclonal antibodies against turbot immunoglobulin. We confirmed that the antibody reacted with both the surface and plasma Ig by confocal laser scanning microscopy and electron microscopy. The percentage of sIg+ in the lymphocytes increased following each successive vaccination. The mean percentage increased from 31.96% (control) to 37.49%, 38.36%, 42.9%, and 51.63% in the peripheral blood; from 27.09% to 36.63%, 36.81%, 39.28%, and 46.0% in the spleen; from 22.2% to 28.99%, 29.21%, 32.83%, and 41.58% in pronephros; and from 18.12% to 22.17%, 22.45%, 25.69%, and 31.68% in the mesonephros. The ELISA results were consistent with these results. Both the total and specific antibody levels increased with each vaccination. The mean OD value of the specific antibody assay increased from 0.094, to 0.269, 0.283, 0.333, and 0.421; for total antibody the mean OD value increased from 0.133, to 0.292, 0.323, 0.413, and 0.527.

  10. Stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Feng, Wen-Rong; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Fish skin and its mucus provide the first line of defense against chemical, physical and biological stressors, but little is known about the role of skin and its mucus in immune response to crowding stress. In the present study, we investigated the stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities. Turbot (average weight 185.4 g) were reared for 120 days under three densities: low density (LD), medium density (MD), and high density (HD). After 120 days, fish were weighed and sampled to obtain blood, mucus and skin tissues which were used for analyses of biochemical parameters and genes expression. The results showed HD treatment significantly suppressed growth and enhanced plasma cortisol and glucose levels (P < 0.05). In mucus, the activities of lysozyme (LZM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and esterase in HD treatment were lower than LD and MD treatments (P < 0.05) In skin, HD treatment resulted in up-regulation in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) mRNA level, and down-regulation in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the transcriptions of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-) and LZM (P < 0.05). Overall, the data suggested that overly high stocking density was a stressor which caused an immunosuppression in skin of turbot. Moreover, this information would help to understand the skin immunity and their relation with stress and disease in fish. PMID:27235366

  11. Fecundity regulation by atresia in turbot Scophthalmus maximus in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nissling, A; Thorsen, A; da Silva, F F G

    2016-04-01

    Down-regulation of fecundity through oocyte resorption was assessed in Baltic Sea turbot Scophthalmus maximus at three locations in the period from late vitellogenesis in April to spawning during June to July. The mean ± s.d. total length of the sampled fish was 32.7 ± 3.1 cm and mean ± s.d. age was 6.2 ± 1.5 years. Measurements of atresia were performed using the 'profile method' with the intensity of atresia adjusted according to the 'dissector method' (10.6% adjustment; coefficient of determination was 0.675 between methods). Both prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average proportion of atretic cells in fish displaying atresia) of atresia were low in prespawning fish, but high from onset of spawning throughout the spawning period. Atretic oocytes categorized as in early alpha and in late alpha state occurred irrespective of maturity stage from late prespawning individuals up to late spawning fish, showing that oocytes may become atretic throughout the spawning period. Observed prevalence of atresia throughout the spawning period was almost 40% with an intensity of c. 20%. This indicates extensive down-regulation, i.e. considerably lower realized (number of eggs spawned) v. potential fecundity (number of developing oocytes), suggesting significant variability in reproductive potential. The extent of fecundity regulation in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor) is discussed, suggesting an association between levels of atresia and fish condition. PMID:26928526

  12. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  13. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): cloning, characterization and its responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Zhou, Shuhong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3, a member of the G protein-coupled receptors superfamily, regulates the responses of many immune responses. In this experiment, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of CXCR3 in Scophthalmus maximus (turbot). A 5'-UTR of 216-bp, a 259-bp 3'-UTR with a poly (A) tail and a 1089-bp CDS encoding 362 amino acids form the cDNA of CXCR3, which is 1564-bp long. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that turbot CXCR3 shared a high similarity with other CXCR3s and shared more similarity with CXCR5 than the other subfamilies of chemokines. The CXCR3 protein in turbot showed the highest similarity with the CXCR3b from rainbow trout (44.5%), which indicated that this CXCR3 gene/protein may be a CXCR3b isoform. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CXCR3 transcripts were constitutively expressed in all the tissues of the non-injected turbot used in this study, with the highest expression occurring in blood. Several immune-related tissues of fish, such as the spleen, head kidney, liver and blood, tissues, which were abundant of lymphocyte, were investigated in this study. CXCR3 gene was expressed at the highest level in blood than the other tested tissues. The injection experiment suggested that the CXCR3 expression level after LPS injection was significantly up-regulated in all immune-related tissues in turbot. These results improve our understanding of the functions of CXCR3 in the turbot immune response. PMID:26585996

  14. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yun; Hu, Guo-Bin; Liu, Da-Hai; Li, Song; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2015-08-01

    The interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is strongly induced in many cell types by double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid, poly I:C) and viral infection. In this study, we described the nucleotide, mRNA tissue distribution and regulation of an ISG15 gene from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (SmISG15). SmISG15 gene is 862 bp in length, composed of two exons and one intron, and encodes 158 amino acids. The deduced protein exhibits the highest homology (44.7-71.2% identity) with ISG15s from other fishes and possesses two conserved tandem ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and a C-terminal RLRGG conjugating motif known to be important for the functions of ISG15s in vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped SmISG15 into fish ISG15. SmISG15 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with higher levels observed in immune organs. Gene expression analysis was performed for SmISG15 in the spleen, head kidney, gills and muscle of turbots challenged with poly I:C or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) over a 7-day time course. The result showed that SmISG15 was upregulated by both stimuli in all four tissues, with induction by poly I:C apparently stronger and initiated more quickly. A two-wave induced expression of SmISG15 was seen in the spleen, head kidney and gills, suggesting an induction of SmISG15 either by IFN-dependent or -independent pathway. These results provide insights into the roles of fish ISG15 in antiviral immunity. PMID:26095010

  16. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  17. Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of a single dose of butorphanol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Tana, Leann M; Isaza, Ramiro; Koch, David E; Hunter, Robert P

    2010-09-01

    Captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are susceptible to lameness resulting from foot and joint pain, including chronic arthritis. In the past, opioid analgesics, such as butorphanol, have been used clinically for pain management. However, dosages used in treating elephants were often extrapolated from data in horses, with no pharmacokinetic information on the specific agents used in elephant species. In this pharmacokinetic study, six adult captive Asian elephants (5 female, 1 male castrate) were administered a 0.015 mg/kg dose of butorphanol by both i.v. and i.m. routes. A complete crossover design was used with a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Serial blood samples were collected immediately prior to butorphanol administration and at 5, 10, 20, and 40 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 h after administration. The butorphanol analysis was performed using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometric assay with a limit of quantitation of 0.025 ng/ml. The mean Cmax after i.m. administration was 7.9 ng/ml, with a corresponding Tmax, of 40 min and t(1/3), of 7.1 h. After i.v. administration, the mean Vd(ss) was 1.4 L/kg and the mean Cl(p) was 0.26 L/kg/h. Mean i.m. bioavailability was 37%. The results indicate that butorphanol used at 0.015 mg/kg i.m. or i.v. could be useful in elephants when given for pain control. PMID:20945638

  18. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  19. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyographic Activity in the Back Squat and Barbell Hip Thrust Exercises.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2015-12-01

    The back squat and barbell hip thrust are both popular exercises used to target the lower body musculature; however, these exercises have yet to be compared. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis between the back squat and barbell hip thrust. Thirteen trained women (n = 13; age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; mass = 58.2 kg) performed estimated 10-repetition maximums (RM) in the back squat and barbell hip thrust. The barbell hip thrust elicited significantly greater mean (69.5% vs 29.4%) and peak (172% vs 84.9%) upper gluteus maximus, mean (86.8% vs 45.4%) and peak (216% vs 130%) lower gluteus maximus, and mean (40.8% vs 14.9%) and peak (86.9% vs 37.5%) biceps femoris EMG activity than the back squat. There were no significant differences in mean (99.5% vs 110%) or peak (216% vs 244%) vastus lateralis EMG activity. The barbell hip thrust activates the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris to a greater degree than the back squat when using estimated 10RM loads. Longitudinal training studies are needed to determine if this enhanced activation correlates with increased strength, hypertrophy, and performance.

  20. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity. PMID:27065555

  1. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  2. Effect of increased pCO2 on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, S.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Harboe, T.

    2013-02-01

    As a result of high anthropogenic emission of CO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the oceans has increased causing a drop in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects on embryo and larvae of great scallop (Pecten maximus L.), using mean pCO2-levels of 477 (ambient), 821, 1184, and 1627 ppm. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Growth was reduced with 5-10% when pCO2 increased from ambient 477 ppm to 1627 ppm, and survival based on egg number was reduced from 40.4% in the ambient group to 10.7% in the highest pCO2-group. Larvae/embryos stained with calcein one day after fertilization, showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area indicating calcification of the shell already at the trochophore stage. Shell hinge deformities were observed at elevated pCO2-levels in trochophore larvae after two days. After seven days, deformities in both shell hinge and shell edge were observed in veliger larvae at elevated pCO2-levels. Although the growth showed a moderate reduction, survival rate and increased amount of deformed larvae indicates that P. Maximus larvae are affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected for the next century.

  3. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of metallic compounds on the flatfish Scophthalmus maximus: biomarkers of neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Brandão, Fátima; Sérgio, Tânia; Rodrigues, Sara; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-06-01

    Flatfish species, such as the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), are common targets for toxic effects, since they are exposed through the food chain (ingestion of contaminated preys) and are in direct contact with the waterborne contaminant and sediments. Furthermore, these fish species live in close proximity to interstitial water that frequently dissolves high amounts of contaminants, including metals. Despite this significant set of characteristics, the present knowledge concerning flatfish contamination and toxicity by metals is still scarce. To attain the objective of assessing the effects of metals on a flatfish species, S. maximus specimens were chronically exposed to lead, copper and zinc, at ecologically relevant concentrations, and biochemical (oxidative stress: catalase and glutathione S-transferases activities, and lipid peroxidation; neurotoxicity: cholinesterase activity) parameters were assessed on selected tissues (gills and liver). Copper had no significant effects on all tested parameters; lead was causative of significant increases in liver GSTs activities and also in lipoperoxidation of gill tissue; exposure to zinc caused a significant increase in catalase activity of gill tissue. None of the tested metals elicited noteworthy effects in terms of neurotoxicity. The obtained results showed that only the metal lead is of some environmental importance, since it was able to cause deleterious modifications of oxidative nature at relevant concentrations.

  4. Isolation and characterization of 45 Polymorphie microsatellite loci of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) and cross-species amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shiying; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Huang, Zhihui; Xue, Baogui; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2011-03-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) is a flatfish species commercially important for aquaculture. In this study, we generated a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library for Scophthalmus maximus, and then isolated and characterized 45 microsatellite loci by genotyping 30 individuals. The observed number of alleles ranged from 2 to 19 with an average of 6.24, while the effective number of alleles ranged from 1.30 to 11.11 with an average of 3.66. The expected heterozygosities varied from 0.235 to 0.925 4 and Polymorphie information content ranged from 0.2044 to 0.903 3, with an average of 0.622. Twelve loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between any pair of loci after Bonferroni correction. In cross-species amplification, five flatfish species ( Paralichthys lethostigma, Verasper moseri, platichthys stellatus, Hippoglossoides dubius and Cynoglossus semilaevis) showed at least one Polymorphie locus. These Polymorphie microsatellite loci should prove useful for Population analysis of turbot and other related species.

  5. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of metallic compounds on the flatfish Scophthalmus maximus: biomarkers of neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Brandão, Fátima; Sérgio, Tânia; Rodrigues, Sara; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-06-01

    Flatfish species, such as the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), are common targets for toxic effects, since they are exposed through the food chain (ingestion of contaminated preys) and are in direct contact with the waterborne contaminant and sediments. Furthermore, these fish species live in close proximity to interstitial water that frequently dissolves high amounts of contaminants, including metals. Despite this significant set of characteristics, the present knowledge concerning flatfish contamination and toxicity by metals is still scarce. To attain the objective of assessing the effects of metals on a flatfish species, S. maximus specimens were chronically exposed to lead, copper and zinc, at ecologically relevant concentrations, and biochemical (oxidative stress: catalase and glutathione S-transferases activities, and lipid peroxidation; neurotoxicity: cholinesterase activity) parameters were assessed on selected tissues (gills and liver). Copper had no significant effects on all tested parameters; lead was causative of significant increases in liver GSTs activities and also in lipoperoxidation of gill tissue; exposure to zinc caused a significant increase in catalase activity of gill tissue. None of the tested metals elicited noteworthy effects in terms of neurotoxicity. The obtained results showed that only the metal lead is of some environmental importance, since it was able to cause deleterious modifications of oxidative nature at relevant concentrations. PMID:24595748

  6. Shell extracts from the marine bivalve Pecten maximus regulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in primary cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the -112/-61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  7. Shell Extracts from the Marine Bivalve Pecten maximus Regulate the Synthesis of Extracellular Matrix in Primary Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Latire, Thomas; Legendre, Florence; Bigot, Nicolas; Carduner, Ludovic; Kellouche, Sabrina; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Carreiras, Franck; Marin, Frédéric; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Galéra, Philippe; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mollusc shells are composed of more than 95% calcium carbonate and less than 5% of an organic matrix consisting mostly of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Previous studies have elucidated the biological activities of the shell matrices from bivalve molluscs on skin, especially on the expression of the extracellular matrix components of fibroblasts. In this work, we have investigated the potential biological activities of shell matrix components extracted from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus on human fibroblasts in primary culture. Firstly, we demonstrated that shell matrix components had different effects on general cellular activities. Secondly, we have shown that the shell matrix components stimulate the synthesis of type I and III collagens, as well as that of sulphated GAGs. The increased expression of type I collagen is likely mediated by the recruitment of transactivating factors (Sp1, Sp3 and human c-Krox) in the −112/−61 bp COL1A1 promoter region. Finally, contrarily to what was obtained in previous works, we demonstrated that the scallop shell extracts have only a small effect on cell migration during in vitro wound tests and have no effect on cell proliferation. Thus, our research emphasizes the potential use of shell matrix of Pecten maximus for dermo-cosmetic applications. PMID:24949635

  8. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Crassostrea gigas and Pecten maximus reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A

    2012-11-01

    Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted

  9. Effect of stocking density on performances of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Blancheton, Jean-Paul

    2013-05-01

    Limited information has been available about the influence of loading density on the performances of Scophthalmus maximus, especially in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In this study, turbot (13.84±2.74 g; average weight±SD) were reared at four different initial densities (low 0.66, medium 1.26, sub-high 2.56, high 4.00 kg/m2) for 10 weeks in RAS at 23±1°C. Final densities were 4.67, 7.25, 14.16, and 17.47 kg/m2, respectively, which translate to 82, 108, 214, and 282 percent coverage of the tank bottom. Density had both negative and independent impacts on growth. The final mean weight, specific growth rate (SGR), and voluntary feed intake significantly decreased and the coefficient of variation (CV) of final body weight increased with increase in stocking density. The medium and sub-high density groups did not differ significantly in SGR, mean weight, CV, food conversion rate (FCR), feed intake, blood parameters, and digestive enzymes. The protease activities of the digestive tract at pH 7, 8.5, 9, and 10 were significantly higher for the highest density group, but tended to be lower (not significantly) at pH 4 and 8.5 for the lowest density group. The intensity of protease activity was inversely related to feed intake at the different densities. Catalase activity was higher (but not significantly) at the highest density, perhaps because high density started to induce an oxidative effect in turbot. In conclusion, turbot can be cultured in RAS at a density of less than 17.47 kg/m2. With good water quality and no feed limitation, initial density between 1.26 and 2.56 kg/m2 (final: 7.25 and 14.16 kg/m2) would not negatively affect the turbot cultured in RAS. For culture at higher density, multi-level feeding devices are suggested to ease feeding competition.

  10. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care.

  11. [Hemoglobins, XLVIII: the primary structure of hemoglobin of the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus, Proboscidea): beta 2 = Asn].

    PubMed

    Braunitzer, G; Jelkmann, W; Stangl, A; Schrank, B; Krombach, C

    1982-07-01

    The primary structure of the hemoglobin of the Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus) is given. The sequence was determined automatically in a sequenator. By homologous comparison with adult human HbA, the alpha-chains differ by 24 exchanges and the beta-chains by 27 exchanges. Furthermore, we report p(O2)50 values with regard to altered contact sites with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate in Indian elephant hemoglobin. Our findings explain the low p(O2)50 and the reduced interaction with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Elephant hemoglobin has, like that of the Llama, only five phosphate binding sites. In addition, we have made an attempt to relate these results to aspects of respiratory physiology. Some implications of these biochemical and physiological results, concerning the Second Punic War and Hannibal's Alp transition, are given.

  12. a Method for Virtual Anastylosis: the Case of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Falcolini, C.; Buonfiglio, M.; Pergola, S.; Saccone, M.; Mammì, B.; Romito, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper is the first report about the development of a methodology for the virtual Anastylosis of elements belonging to an archaeological site, based on the 3d modeling of fragments. This research is the result of the cooperation between Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Architettura and Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali; several 3D survey, modeling, information systems and archaeology experts were involved. The purpose of the research was to study the complex and stratified site of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus aiming, first of all, at completing the existing traditional graphic documentation using cataloguing and survey innovative methodologies, and, secondly, at supporting new proposals for the reconstruction and Anastylosis of the Arch itself. This tested methodology whose fundamental element is the three-dimensional textured model of each fragment, can also be used in other sites and contexts.

  13. Detection of cutaneous antibodies in excised skin explants from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Lü, A-J; Li, Z-Q; Zhang, Q-Y

    2008-08-01

    This study determined whether cutaneous antibodies were present in excised skin explants of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Culture fluid from immune skin explants were assayed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), Western blot, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and flow cytometry (FCM). iELISA showed that cutaneous antibody titres were much lower (1:12) than antiserum titres (1:1458) from intraperitoneally immunized grass carp. The phosphoprotein and matrix protein antigens of purified SMRV proteins were recognized by cutaneous antibodies from skin culture fluid using Western blot. The skin culture fluid produced staining signals in viral assembly sites and cytoplasm of SMRV-infected epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells by IFA. FCM showed that 4.39% SMRV-infected EPC cells were detected, while non-specific reaction was seen in 2% of control cells. This is the first description of cutaneous antibodies against SMRV in grass carp.

  14. Reference intervals for acute phase protein and serum protein electrophoresis values in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Isaza, Ramiro; Wiedner, Ellen; Hiser, Sarah; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Acute phase protein (APP) immunoassays and serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) are assays for evaluating the inflammatory response and have use as diagnostic tools in a variety of species. Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation that are highly conserved across different species while SPEP separates and quantifies serum protein fractions based on their physical properties. In the current study, serum samples from 35 clinically healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were analyzed using automated assays for C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin and SPEP. Robust methods were used to generate reference intervals for the APPs: C-reactive protein (1.3-12.8 mg/l), serum amyloid A (0-47.5 mg/l), and haptoglobin (0-1.10 mg/ml). In addition, SPEP was performed on these samples to establish reference intervals for each protein fraction. A combination of APPs and SPEP measurements are valuable adjunctive diagnostic tools in elephant health care. PMID:25057161

  15. Investigation of individual and group variability in estrous cycle characteristics in female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the Oregon Zoo.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, S S; Hunt, K E; Martin, M S; Finnegan, M; Brown, J L

    2012-07-15

    Evaluating ovarian cycle activity through longitudinal progestagen monitoring is important for optimizing breeding management of captive elephants and understanding impact of life events (births, deaths, and transfers) on reproductive function. This study summarized serum progestagen profiles for eight Asian mainland elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) and one Bornean elephant (E. maximus borneensis) at the Oregon Zoo over a 20-yr interval, and represents the longest longitudinal dataset evaluated to date. Estrous cycle characteristics were more varied than previously reported for this species, with an overall duration of 12 to 19 wk, luteal phase duration of 4 to 15 wk, and follicular phase duration of 2 to 12 wk. In general, there was more cycle variability across than within individual elephants. Compared with other elephants in the group, the Borneo female exhibited consistently longer cycle lengths, higher progestagen concentrations, and greater cycle variability; however, it is not known if this represents a subspecies or an individual difference. Cycle durations did not appear to change over time or with age, and the first pubertal cycle was similar to subsequent cycles. Variability in duration of the follicular phase was greater than that of the luteal phase. In addition, there was a significant negative relationship between luteal and follicular phase durations, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the follicular phase in maintaining a relatively consistent cycle duration within individuals. Overall, we found these elephants to be highly resilient in that major life events (births, deaths, and changes in herd structure) had minimal effect on cycle dynamics over time. In conclusion, the higher range in cycle phase characteristics is likely because of the larger number of elephants studied and longer duration of longitudinal monitoring, and may be more representative of the captive population as a whole. Furthermore, identification of significant

  16. Spatial changes in fatty acids signatures of the great scallop Pecten maximus across the Bay of Biscay continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerot, Caroline; Meziane, Tarik; Schaal, Gauthier; Grall, Jacques; Lorrain, Anne; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Kraffe, Edouard

    2015-10-01

    The spatial variability of food resources along continental margins can strongly influence the physiology and ecology of benthic bivalves. We explored the variability of food sources of the great scallop Pecten maximus, by determining their fatty acid (FA) composition along an inshore-offshore gradient in the Bay of Biscay (from 15 to 190 m depth). The FA composition of the digestive gland showed strong differences between shallow and deep-water habitats. This trend was mainly driven by their content in diatom-characteristic fatty acids, which are abundant near the coast. Scallops collected from the middle of the continental shelf were characterized by higher contents of flagellate markers than scallops from shallow habitats. This could be related to a permanent vertical stratification in the water column, which reduced vertical mixing of waters, thereby enhancing organic matter recycling through the microbial loop. In the deeper water station (190 m), FA compositions were close to the compositions found in scallops from shallow areas, which suggest that scallops could have access to the same resources (i.e. diatoms). Muscle FA composition was more indicative of the physiological state of scallops over this depth range, revealing contrasting reproductive strategies among the two coastal sites and metabolic or physiological adaptation at greater depth (e.g. structural and functional adjustments of membrane composition). This study therefore revealed contrasted patterns between shallow and deeper habitats for both P. maximus muscle and digestive gland tissues. This emphasizes the variability in the diet of this species along its distribution range, and stresses the importance of analyzing different tissues for their FA composition in order to better understand their physiology and ecology.

  17. Comparison of the soluble organic matrices of healthy and diseased shells of Pinctada margaritifera (L.) and Pecten maximus L. (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Y

    2000-07-01

    Pinctada margaritifera and Pecten maximus are among the mollusks of commercial value. Both are known to show abnormal calcification processes that strongly increase the mortality rate. Several parameters of the soluble organic matrices extracted from the shells of P. margaritifera and P. maximus are analyzed: bulk composition, molecular weights, and acidity. The composition of the matrices of healthy and diseased shells were compared, showing that the protein and the sugar contents are variously modified. Differences between healthy and diseased shells are dissimilar in the two species. This is in accordance with the previously described macroscopic and microscopic alterations (red color, numerous brown membranes). This study does not allow identification the origin of the disease, but provides new insights on the role of sugars in biomineralization processes.

  18. Biochemical composition of the ovarian fluid and its effects on the fertilization capacity of turbot Scophthalmus maximus during the spawning season.

    PubMed

    Jia, Y D; Niu, H X; Meng, Z; Liu, X F; Lei, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the biochemical composition of ovarian fluid and its effect on the fertilization capacity of turbot Scophthalmus maximus during the spawning season. The fertilization rate and pH of ovarian fluid varied throughout the spawning season, with the highest values recorded at the mid-season. Positive correlations were found between the fertilization rate and the ovarian fluid pH. The composition of major inorganic ions (Na(+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) and Cl(-) ) showed no significant changes during the spawning season. Alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was significantly higher during mid-season than other seasons. The lowest levels of protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) were in the ovarian fluid released at the mid-season. Moreover, significant relationships were observed between the fertilization rate and the levels of protein, ACP, AKP and AAT. These observations suggest that the biochemical profile of ovarian fluid affects the insemination microenvironment as well as the fertilization capacity of S. maximus eggs. Determination of such profiles may prove to be a useful strategy to improve S. maximus breeding techniques.

  19. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude for the Barbell, Band, and American Hip Thrust Variations.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-06-01

    Bridging exercise variations are well researched and commonly employed for both rehabilitation and sport performance. However, resisted bridge exercise variations have not yet been compared in a controlled experimental study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in upper and lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography (EMG) amplitude for the barbell, band, and American hip thrust variations. Thirteen healthy female subjects (age = 28.9 y; height = 164.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg) familiar with the hip thrust performed 10 repetitions of their 10-repetition maximum of each variation in a counterbalanced and randomized order. The barbell hip thrust variation elicited statistically greater mean gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the American and band hip thrusts, and statistically greater peak gluteus maximus EMG amplitude than the band hip thrust (P ≤ .05), but no other statistical differences were observed. It is recommended that resisted bridging exercise be prescribed according to the individual's preferences and desired outcomes.

  20. Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans. PMID:24551126

  1. Arthritis in a glyptodont (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza; Porpino, Kleberson de Oliveira; Fragoso, Ana Bernadete Lima; Oliveira, Edison Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Arthritic lesions have been frequently diagnosed in the fossil record, with spondyloarthropathy (a type of erosive and pan-mammalian arthritis) being one of the most common types described to date for mammals, though not restricted to this group. Here, we identify spondyloarthropathy in fossil bones from the late Pleistocene in Brazil assignable to a large glyptodont individual. Bone erosions in the peripheral joints (viz., the ulna, radius, left femur and tibiae-fibulae) associated with osteosclerosis allow the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. The presence of osteophytes in seven bones of the forelimbs (viz., the ulna and radius) and hind limbs (viz., the tibiae-fibulae, left femur and patellae) and a subchondral cyst in one element (viz., the left femur) indicate secondary osteoarthritis. A calcified deposition on the articular surface of the left patella indicates the presence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, which, like the observed osteoarthritic alterations, likely represents a complication of spondyloarthropathy. This is the first report of spondyloarthropathy for xenarthrans.

  2. Skeletal development and abnormalities of the vertebral column and of the fins in hatchery-reared turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tong, X H; Liu, Q H; Xu, S H; Ma, D Y; Xiao, Z Z; Xiao, Y S; Li, J

    2012-03-01

    To describe the skeletal development and abnormalities in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, samples were collected every day from hatching to 60 days after hatching (DAH). A whole-mount cartilage and bone-staining technique was used. Vertebral ontogeny started with the formation of anterior haemal arches at 5·1 mm standard length (L(S) ) c. 11 DAH, and was completed by the full attainment of parapophyses at 16·9 mm L(S) c. 31 DAH. Vertebral centra started to develop at 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH and ossification in all centra was visible at 11·0 mm L(S) c. 25 DAH. The caudal fin appeared at 5·1 mm L(S) c. 11 DAH and ossification was visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The onset of dorsal and anal fin elements appeared at 5·8 mm L(S) c. 15 DAH and 6·3 mm L(S) c. 16 DAH, respectively. Ossifications of both dorsal fin and anal fin were visible at 20·6 mm L(S) c. 37 DAH. The pectorals were the only fins present before first feeding, their ossifications were completed at 23·5 mm L(S) c. 48 DAH. Pelvic fins began forming at 7·2 mm L(S) c. 19 DAH and calcification of the whole structure was visible at 19·8 mm L(S) c. 36 DAH. In the present study, 24 types of skeletal abnormalities were observed. About 51% of individuals presented skeletal abnormalities, and the highest occurrence was found in the haemal region of the vertebral column. As for each developmental stage, the most common abnormalities were in the dorsal fin during early metamorphic period (stage 2), vertebral fusion during climax metamorphosis (stage 3) and caudal fin abnormality during both late-metamorphic period (stage 4) and post-metamorphic period (stage 5). Such research will be useful for early detection of skeletal malformations during different growth periods of reared S. maximus.

  3. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  4. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  5. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1{beta} in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Yingmei; Huang Xiaohang . E-mail: xiaohanghuang@yahoo.ca; Cong Bailin; Liu Shenghao; Chen Kui; Li Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2006-04-07

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1{beta}, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1{beta} of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1{beta} secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Glycosylation Pattern of the Jejunum and Ileum of the Wild Rodent Lagostomus maximus.

    PubMed

    Tano De La Hoz, María Florencia; Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Díaz, Alcira Ofelia

    2016-05-01

    Morphological and histochemical analyses were performed to characterize the histology, ultrastructure, and glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum of the wild rodent Lagostomus maximus. Enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells were identified in both intestinal epithelia. Two morphological types of enterocytes were identified only in the ileum based on their cytoplasm electron density. Although the histological and ultrastructural examination showed that the epithelia of both anatomical regions were morphologically similar, a certain specialization in their secretory products was evident. The glycosylation pattern of the jejunum and ileum was characterized in situ by histochemical and lectin histochemical methods. Histochemical results revealed the presence of carboxylated and sulfated gycoconjugates in both regions, although sulfomucins were clearly prevalent in the ileum. Sialic acid was highly O-acetylated and particularly abundant in the jejunum. The KOH/PA*/Bh/PAS technique evidenced a more intense histochemical reaction in the jejunal than in the ileum goblet cells, demonstrating a reduction of neutral mucin secretion in the distal small intestine. Further specific differences were revealed by lectin histochemistry. These data evidenced that the nature of mucus varies at different anatomical regions, probably adapted to physiological requirements.

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling participates in the regulation of lipogenesis in the liver of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the mechanism that Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits lipogenesis was investigated in the liver of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) by LiCl or XAV939 treatment. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated by LiCl treatment or inhibited by XAV939 treatment through regulating the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Wnt10b. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) was inhibited by LiCl treatment, but induced by XAV939 treatment. In the plasma of juvenile turbot, the level of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glycerol, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was decreased by LiCl treatment, which was related to the decrease of the activity of LPL and FAS. Thus the inhibitory effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on lipogenesis was associated with the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors. Wnt/β-catenin signaling may participate in inhibiting lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the liver of juvenile turbot.

  8. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  9. The occurrence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): first case of EEHV4 in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sripiboon, Supaphen; Tankaew, Pallop; Lungka, Grishda; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is a type of herpesvirus that causes acute hemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and is often fatal, especially in calves. This study describes the postmortem evaluation of two captive-born Asian elephants (2 and 3 yr of age, respectively) diagnosed with EEHV in Thailand. Both elephants presented only mild depression, lethargy, and anorexia before death within 24 hr of symptom onset. Necropsies were performed, and tissue samples were tested for EEHV viral presence using polymerase chain reaction. Molecular and phylogenetic evidence illustrated two types of EEHV, which were closely related to EEHV1A in Case 1 and EEHV4 in Case 2. Pathologic findings differed between the cases. More specific organ tropism was found in Case 1, where mainly the cardiovascular system was affected. In contrast, in Case 2, hemorrhages were noted in most organs, including in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. This report is the first to document EEHV4 in Asia and the second case of this strain to be identified in an elephant worldwide.

  10. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  11. Comparison of the morphometric dynamics of fast-growing and slow-growing strains of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin'an; Ma, Aijun

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of changes in body shape of fast-growing and slow-growing strains of turbot Scophthalmus maximus, and of the differences in body shape between the two strains, were evaluated from 3 to 27 months of age. The ratios of total length/body length, body width/body length and total length/body width were used as morphometric indices. The two strains exhibited different temporal trends in total length/body length but similar trends in body width/body length and total length/body width. Generally, body width/body length of the two strains increased with time and total length/body width decreased. Thus, the bodies of both fast-growing and slow-growing strains of turbot changed from a narrow to a more rounded shape. However, the ratio total length/body length was generally lower, body width/body length was mostly higher and total length/body width was consistently lower in the fast-growing strain than in the slow-growing strain. Correlation analysis of the three shape ratios with body weight showed that total length/body length and total length/body width were unsuitable, and that width/body length was suitable, for use as a phenotypic marker for selective breeding of turbot for growth in weight.

  12. Morphological comparison between a selected fast-growing strain and the common cultured strain of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xingming; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Li, Juan; Huang, Zhihui; Shang, Xiaomei

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genetic improvement of the turbot Scophthalmus maximus, we analyzed morphological differences between a fast-growing strain obtained by family selection and the common cultured strain, by principal component analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis, and t -tests. Although they clearly differed morphologically, plots of the principal components of the two strains partially overlapped. However, the difference between the strains was supported with very high precision by discriminant analysis. The t -tests revealed that 4 of the 13 morphological traits analyzed were highly significantly different ( P <0.01), 4 traits also differed significantly ( P <0.05), and the remainder did not differ significantly. The coefficients of difference of the 13 traits were all lower than the threshold value between subspecies (1.28). Together, the results indicate that a trend for segregation of characters from the common cultured strain have already appeared in the selected fast-growing strain but the degree of segregation have not risen to subspecies level.

  13. Wnt/β-catenin signaling participates in the regulation of lipogenesis in the liver of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the mechanism that Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits lipogenesis was investigated in the liver of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) by LiCl or XAV939 treatment. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated by LiCl treatment or inhibited by XAV939 treatment through regulating the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Wnt10b. In addition, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) was inhibited by LiCl treatment, but induced by XAV939 treatment. In the plasma of juvenile turbot, the level of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glycerol, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was decreased by LiCl treatment, which was related to the decrease of the activity of LPL and FAS. Thus the inhibitory effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on lipogenesis was associated with the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors. Wnt/β-catenin signaling may participate in inhibiting lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the liver of juvenile turbot. PMID:26545985

  14. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal. PMID:26586314

  15. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1 beta in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yingmei; Huang, Xiaohang; Cong, Bailin; Liu, Shenghao; Chen, Kui; Li, Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2006-04-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1beta, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1beta of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1beta secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish.

  16. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in southern India.

    PubMed

    Vidya, T N C; Sukumar, R

    2002-09-01

    Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons across seasons and habitats revealed that parasite loads were significantly higher during the dry season than the wet season, but were not different between the dry-deciduous and dry-thorn forests in either season. After accounting for the effect of age on body condition, there was no correlation between body condition, assessed visually using morphological criteria, and parasite load in either season. Individuals of different elephant herds were not characterized by distinct parasite communities in either season. When intra-individual variation was examined, samples collected from the same individual within a day differed significantly in egg densities, while the temporal variation over several weeks or months (within a season) was much less. Egg densities within dung piles were uniform, enabling a simpler collection method henceforth.

  17. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation. PMID:23613804

  18. Horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus between turbot Scophthalmus maximus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using cohabitation challenge.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Karlsbakk, Egil; Nylund, Are; Nerland, Audun Helge

    2012-05-15

    Experimental horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) originating from halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was studied through cohabitation of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected fish with uninfected fish for 125 d. The experimental groups consisted of i.p. injected turbot Scophthalmus maximus or i.p. injected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with turbot, salmon or Atlantic cod Gadus morhua cohabitants. The initial weights were cod 10 g, salmon 40 g and turbot 3 g. NNV was detected in brain, eye and spleen by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in cod cohabitated with i.p. injected turbot after 90 and 125 d, suggesting NNV infection was transmitted horizontally from the turbot to cod. NNV was not detected in salmon that were cohabitated with i.p. challenged turbot or salmon. This study shows that NNV strains belonging to the Barfin Flounder Nervous Necrosis Virus (BFNNV) clade may be transmitted from halibut to cod via water. Hence there is a potential risk of horizontal transmission of the virus from farmed halibut to farmed and wild cod. The lack of detection of NNV in cohabitant salmon suggests that this fish species is less susceptible than cod, or not susceptible, to horizontal NNV transmission. This result might be influenced by the size of salmon, viral load in i.p. injected cohabitants or insufficient duration of the experiment.

  19. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  20. Variation in progesterone receptors and GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Saucedo, Lucía; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Fraunhoffer, Nicolás; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Halperín, Julia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, elevated levels of progesterone (P4) throughout gestation maintain a negative feedback over the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (H-H-G) axis, avoiding preovulatory follicular growth and preventing ovulation. Recent studies showed that in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) folliculogenesis progresses to preovulatory stages during gestation, and an ovulatory process seems to occur at midgestation. The aim of this work was to analyze hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and P4 receptors (PR) expression and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and correlate these with the functional state of the ovary in nonovulating and ovulating females and gestating females with special emphasis in the supposedly ovulating females at midgestation. We investigated P4 and LH serum levels as well as the distribution, localization, and expression of PR and GnRH in the hypothalamus of L. maximus at different time points during gestation and in nongestating, ovulating and nonovulating, females. A significant increment in GnRH, P4, and LH was detected in midpregnant vizcachas with respect to early-pregnant and to ovulating females. PR was also significantly increased in midpregnant animals. PR was detected in neurons of the preoptic and hypothalamic areas. Coexistence of both PR and GnRH in neurons of medial preoptic area and supraoptic nucleus was detected. Midpregnant animals showed increased number of PR immunoreactive cells at median eminence, localized adjacently to GnRH immunoreactive fibers. High expression of hypothalamic GnRH and PR, despite an increased level of P4, was correlated with the presence of antral, preovulatory follicles, and luteinized unruptured follicles at midgestation that suggest a possible role of the H-H-G axis in the modulation of ovulation during gestation in L. maximus.

  1. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics.

    PubMed

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours. PMID:27508498

  2. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics

    PubMed Central

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours. PMID:27508498

  3. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting. PMID:26384568

  4. Coupling experimental and field-based approaches to decipher carbon sources in the shell of the great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchais, V.; Richard, J.; Jolivet, A.; Flye-Sainte-Marie, J.; Thébault, J.; Jean, F.; Richard, P.; Paulet, Y.-M.; Clavier, J.; Chauvaud, L.

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated how the carbon isotopic composition of food source (δ13Cfood) and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) influences the carbon isotopic composition of Pecten maximus shells (δ13Cshell) under both experimental and natural conditions. The objectives are to better understand the relationship between P. maximus and its environment, and to specifically distinguish conditions under which calcification is influenced by respired CO2 derived from food sources versus conditions in which calcification uses inorganic carbon from seawater. Laboratory experiment investigated carbon incorporation into shell carbonates by maintaining scallops under conditions where the stable carbon isotopic composition of food sources was considerably depleted (-54‰), relative to values observed in the natural environment (-21‰). Laboratory experiment ran for 78 days under three temperature conditions, 15 °C, 21 °C and 25 °C. A survey of the environmental parameters and stable carbon isotopic composition into shell carbonate of natural population of P. maximus was also realized during the same year in the Bay of Brest, France. Data collected from both laboratory experiment and the natural environment confirmed that both δ13CDIC and δ13Cfood influence δ13Cshell values and that organic carbon incorporation (CM) averages about 10% (4.3-6.8% under experimental conditions and 1.9-16.6% in the natural environment). The shift in stable carbon isotopic composition from the uptake of depleted food sources under experimental conditions realized a marked divergence in the predicted equilibrium between calcium carbonate and ambient bicarbonate, relative to the natural environment. This offset was 1.7 ± 0.6‰ for scallops in their natural environment and 2.5 ± 0.5 and 3.2 ± 0.9‰ for scallops under experimental conditions at water temperatures of 15 °C and 21 °C, respectively. The offset of 3‰ for scallops subjected to laboratory experiment could not be explained

  5. Effects of temperature and salinity on embryonic development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) from the North Sea, and comparisons with Baltic populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karås, P.; Klingsheim, V.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum temperature and salinity conditions for viable hatch were studied for turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) from the North Sea. Temperatures ranging from 6 to 22°C and salinities from 5 to 35‰ were used. Optimum conditions were observed to be between 12 and 18°C at salinities between 20 and 35‰. This contrasted with corresponding data for turbot from the southern Baltic proper, according to which survival sharply decreased in temperatures below 14°C and was high in salinities of 10 to 15‰. Thus, it is concluded that Baltic and Atlantic turbot should be considered as different races.

  6. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity.

  7. Kinetics of viral loads and genotypic analysis of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 infection in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E; Weber, Martha A; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elphas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants.

  8. Visual Cues Given by Humans Are Not Sufficient for Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) to Find Hidden Food

    PubMed Central

    Plotnik, Joshua M.; Pokorny, Jennifer J.; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F.; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J.; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L.; Morrison, Violet M. B.; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K.; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S.; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L.; Duchatelier, Alicia P.; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species – due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits – are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants’ inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation. PMID:23613804

  9. Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Alan F.; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M.; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C.; Mikulski, Rose L.; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Ling, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  10. [Biochemical, physicochemical and functional characterization of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Study of the changes occurring during the 4 degrees C storage].

    PubMed

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristian; Aravena, María Elena; López, Luis; Ramírez, Alberto; Oyarzo, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a kind of flatfish that is well adapted to intensive farm culture. After the harvest it is necessary to know the physicochemical, biochemical and technological properties and if during the refrigerated storage, changes of these properties are developed. The main objective of the study was the assessment of the proximal composition, the biochemical, physicochemical and functional properties, and how they are influenced during the 16 days storage at 4 degrees C. Parameters such as centesimal composition, PAGE-SDS, and protein thermal stability through a DSC were carried out. pH, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) dripping, texture, holding water capacity (WHC), emulsification (EC) and gelification (GC) were also determined. Results for the proximal composition were: humidity 76.3%; fat content 2.71%; proteins 19.6%; and ashes 1.3%. Two different thermal transitions at 47.5 degrees C (myosin) and 76.9 degrees C (actin) were observed. The PAGE-SDS showed profiles corresponding to myofibrilars and sarcoplasmatic proteins, which presented no changes during the storage. pH experimented an increase from 5.9 to 6.6; TVB-N showed a variation from 20.0 to 39.5 mg TVB-N/100 g of muscle at the day 16. The WHC started with a 10.5% and ended in 58.1%; no GC was observed. The increase of the EC and WHC during the storage was due to conformational changes of proteins. The compression force presented a fluctuation between 111.2 and 106.0 N and the shear strain decreased during the storage from 148.6 to 95.2 N. The dripping showed a variation between 1.7% and 2.5%. According to the results of the storage during 16 days at 4 degrees C, the NBV-T content determined a shelf life of 14 days. PMID:22308947

  11. RNA-seq analysis of early enteromyxosis in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): new insights into parasite invasion and immune evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Robledo, Diego; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Pardo, Belén G; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Quiroga, María Isabel; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-07-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi, an intestinal myxozoan parasite, is the causative agent of a threatening disease for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. The colonisation of the digestive tract by this parasite leads to a cachectic syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This myxosporidiosis has a long pre-patent period and the first detectable clinical and histopathological changes are subtle. The pathogenic mechanisms acting in the early stages of infection are still far from being fully understood. Further information on the host-parasite interaction is needed to assist in finding efficient preventive and therapeutic measures. Here, a RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from experimentally-infected and control turbot was performed. Only infected fish with early signs of infection, determined by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of E. scophthalmi, were selected. The RNA-seq analysis revealed, as expected, less intense transcriptomic changes than those previously found during later stages of the disease. Several genes involved in IFN-related pathways were up-regulated in the three organs, suggesting that the IFN-mediated immune response plays a main role in this phase of the disease. Interestingly, an opposite expression pattern had been found in a previous study on severely infected turbot. In addition, possible strategies for immune system evasion were suggested by the down-regulation of different genes encoding complement components and acute phase proteins. At the site of infection (pyloric caeca), modulation of genes related to different structural proteins was detected and the expression profile indicated the inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation. These transcriptomic changes provide indications regarding the mechanisms of parasite attachment to and invasion of the host. The current results contribute to a better knowledge of the events that characterise the early

  12. Expression of insulin-like growth factors at mRNA levels during the metamorphic development of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Hu, Peng; Lei, Jilin; Jia, Yudong

    2016-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important regulators of vertebrate growth and development. This study characterized the mRNA expressions of igf-i and igf-ii during turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) metamorphosis to elucidate the possible regulatory role of the IGF system in flatfish metamorphosis. Results showed that the mRNA levels of igf-i significantly increased at the early-metamorphosis stage and then gradually decreased until metamorphosis was completed. By contrast, mRNA levels of igf-ii significantly increased at the pre-metamorphosis stage and then substantially decreased during metamorphosis. Meanwhile, the whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels varied during larval metamorphosis, and the highest value was observed in the climax-metamorphosis. The mRNA levels of igf-i significantly increased and decreased by T4 and thiourea (TU, inhibitor of endogenous thyroid hormone) during metamorphosis, respectively. Conversely, the mRNA levels of igf-ii remained unchanged. Furthermore, TU significantly inhibited the T4-induced mRNA up-regulation of igf-i during metamorphosis. The whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly increased and decreased by T4 and TU during metamorphosis, respectively. These results suggested that igf-i and igf-ii may play different functional roles in larval development stages, and igf-i may have a crucial function in regulating the early metamorphic development of turbot. These findings may enhance our understanding of the potential roles of the IGF system to control flatfish metamorphosis and contribute to the improvement of broodstock management for larvae.

  13. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  14. Effects of dietary stachyose on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haibin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Li, Yanxian; Liu, Jintao

    2015-10-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary stachyose on the growth performance, digestive enzymes activities and intestinal structures of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L). Five isonitrogenous (49.58% crude protein) and isolipidic (10.50% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 0 (Control), 0.625% (S-0.625), 1.25% (S-1.25), 2.5% (S-2.5) and 5% (S-5) stachyose, respectively. With the increase of stachyose level, the growth performance and feed utilization of turbot, such as the specific growth rate, final mean body weight, weight gain rate and feed efficiency, increased significantly ( P< 0.05) and then stabilized. The feed intake of fish fed S-5 was significantly higher ( P< 0.05) than that of fish in other groups. The activities of trypsin, intestinal caseinolytic, stomach and intestinal amylase were significantly influenced by stachyose ( P<0.05). The highest values of trypsin and intestinal caseinolytic activities were observed in group S-1.25, while the highest activity of stomach amylase and the lowest activity of intestine amylase were observed in group S-5. No lesion or damage was found on the distal intestine structures of fish from all treatments, while the height of simple folds in the distal intestine was significantly increased ( P< 0.05) when 1.25% or 2.5% stachyose was added in the diets. These results indicated that moderate level of stachyose (1.25%) improves the growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities and the distal intestine structures of juvenile turbot.

  15. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  16. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  17. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity.

  18. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mauvis A; Frey, Peter H; Ormond, Rupert F; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals' dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6-9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494-1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143-340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111-317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks.

  19. Protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus reared at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lin; Lei, Jilin; Ai, Chunxiang; Hong, Wanshu; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) reared at five salinities (12, 18, 24, 30, and 36). The fish were fed three isocaloric and isolipidic diets for 60 days. The results show that specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were higher in fish reared at salinities of 18 and 36, but lower at 12. Fish fed with diet C25P40 (25% carbohydrate and 40% protein) had lower SGR and FCE values compared with those fed with the C5P52 (5% carbohydrate and 52% protein) and C15P46 (15% carbohydrate and 46% protein) diets; however, there was no statistical difference between diet C5P52 and C15P46. SGR and FCE values were unaffected by diet composition in fish reared at salinity 36. Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities were higher in fish reared at 18 and 36, but lower at 12, while glucokinase (GK) activity was higher in fish reared at 12, and lower at 18 and 36. Dietary starch enhanced GK activity while depressing lipogenic enzyme activity. However, lipogenic enzyme activity increased with increasing dietary starch in fish reared at 36. It is recommended that salinity should be maintained >12 in the farming of juvenile turbot. In addition, an increase in gelatinized starch from 5% to 15% could spare 6% dietary protein in fish reared at salinities of 18-30, while higher salinity (36) could improve dietary carbohydrate use and enhance the protein-sparing effect, which is linked with the induction of lipogenic capacities.

  20. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. PMID:26393308

  1. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  2. Supression of testicular function in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lueders, Imke; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd; Gray, Charles; Botha, Stephan; Rich, Peter; Niemuller, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    The ability to control testosterone concentrations and sperm production is of great interest in both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. GnRH vaccination may pose an alternative to surgical castration. This is a case report of a male Asian elephant treated with two commercial GnRH vaccines (Equity and Improvac). Beginning at the age of 7 yr, the male was vaccinated monthly for 6 consecutive months, then every 6 mo and, finally, every 12 to 24 mo over a period of 6 yr. In order to evaluate the GnRH vaccine as a potential method of immunologic castration, behavioral observations, testosterone level analysis, body weights, ultrasound examinations, and semen collection were part of the routine monitoring of this bull (no. 1) and a half-brother (bull 2) who remained untreated and served as control. The results showed a decrease in serum testosterone concentrations after the second booster. Levels stayed continuously below 5.0 ng/ml within the study period. The combined testicle diameter of 9.03 +/- 0.3 cm prior to treatment had decreased to a size of 6.93 +/- 0.19 cm (P < 0.001) when measured 2 yr later. Accessory sex gland fluid content disappeared and penile atrophy was observed. Semen collections yielded no spermatozoa 1 yr after the initial treatment. Bull 1 showed slowed weight gain as compared to bull 2 and, due to its friendly temperament and the absence of musth, remained in free contact. This report documents the GnRH vaccine as a possible noninvasive and inexpensive method for immune-castration. PMID:25314829

  3. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. PMID:25516334

  4. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  5. Expression of insulin-like growth factors at mRNA levels during the metamorphic development of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Hu, Peng; Lei, Jilin; Jia, Yudong

    2016-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important regulators of vertebrate growth and development. This study characterized the mRNA expressions of igf-i and igf-ii during turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) metamorphosis to elucidate the possible regulatory role of the IGF system in flatfish metamorphosis. Results showed that the mRNA levels of igf-i significantly increased at the early-metamorphosis stage and then gradually decreased until metamorphosis was completed. By contrast, mRNA levels of igf-ii significantly increased at the pre-metamorphosis stage and then substantially decreased during metamorphosis. Meanwhile, the whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels varied during larval metamorphosis, and the highest value was observed in the climax-metamorphosis. The mRNA levels of igf-i significantly increased and decreased by T4 and thiourea (TU, inhibitor of endogenous thyroid hormone) during metamorphosis, respectively. Conversely, the mRNA levels of igf-ii remained unchanged. Furthermore, TU significantly inhibited the T4-induced mRNA up-regulation of igf-i during metamorphosis. The whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly increased and decreased by T4 and TU during metamorphosis, respectively. These results suggested that igf-i and igf-ii may play different functional roles in larval development stages, and igf-i may have a crucial function in regulating the early metamorphic development of turbot. These findings may enhance our understanding of the potential roles of the IGF system to control flatfish metamorphosis and contribute to the improvement of broodstock management for larvae. PMID:27255364

  6. RNA-seq analysis of early enteromyxosis in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): new insights into parasite invasion and immune evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Robledo, Diego; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Pardo, Belén G; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Quiroga, María Isabel; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-07-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi, an intestinal myxozoan parasite, is the causative agent of a threatening disease for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. The colonisation of the digestive tract by this parasite leads to a cachectic syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This myxosporidiosis has a long pre-patent period and the first detectable clinical and histopathological changes are subtle. The pathogenic mechanisms acting in the early stages of infection are still far from being fully understood. Further information on the host-parasite interaction is needed to assist in finding efficient preventive and therapeutic measures. Here, a RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from experimentally-infected and control turbot was performed. Only infected fish with early signs of infection, determined by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of E. scophthalmi, were selected. The RNA-seq analysis revealed, as expected, less intense transcriptomic changes than those previously found during later stages of the disease. Several genes involved in IFN-related pathways were up-regulated in the three organs, suggesting that the IFN-mediated immune response plays a main role in this phase of the disease. Interestingly, an opposite expression pattern had been found in a previous study on severely infected turbot. In addition, possible strategies for immune system evasion were suggested by the down-regulation of different genes encoding complement components and acute phase proteins. At the site of infection (pyloric caeca), modulation of genes related to different structural proteins was detected and the expression profile indicated the inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation. These transcriptomic changes provide indications regarding the mechanisms of parasite attachment to and invasion of the host. The current results contribute to a better knowledge of the events that characterise the early

  7. Cloning and expression analysis of a Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) gene from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Yang, Xi; Liu, Da-Hai; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2015-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) exists exclusively in aquatic animals and recognizes double stranded RNA (dsRNA). In the present study, a tlr22 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its immune responsive expression was subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr22 gene spans over 5.6 kb with a structure of 4 exon-3 intron and encodes 962 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76.7%) to Japanese flounder Tlr22 and possesses a signal peptide sequence, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain composed of 27 LRR motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis grouped it with other teleost Tlr22s. The interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding site important for the basal transcriptional activity of TLR3 were predicted in the 5'-flanking sequence of smtlr22 gene. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis demonstrated the constitutive expression of smtlr22 mRNA in all examined tissues with higher levels in the head kidney, kidney and spleen. Further, smtlr22 expression was significantly up-regulated following challenge with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle, with maximum increases ranging from 2.56 to 6.24 fold upon different immunostimulants and organs. These findings suggest a possible role of Smtlr22 in the immune responses to the infections of a broad range of pathogens that include DNA and RNA viruses and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25770871

  8. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001). Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001). Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001). There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05). The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  9. Effects of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shuyan; Nie, Qin; Miao, Huijun; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-08-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio (CHO:LIP) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (initial body weight 8.75 g ± 0.04 g). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic low protein level (39%) diets were formulated with increasing ratios of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (2:18, 6:18, 18:12 and 28:6). A high protein level (50%) diet with the 2:12 ratio of carbohydrate to lipid was used as the control. Results showed that the survival rate, contents of moisture, crude protein and ash in muscle were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. With the dietary CHO:LIP ratio increased from 2:18 to 18:12, weight gain rate significantly increased ( P < 0.05). Higher dietary CHO:LIP ratio (28:6) resulted in the significantly decreased weight gain rate ( P < 0.05). Meanwhile, this treatment also resulted in the highest daily feed intake and liver glycogen content, as well as the lowest feed efficiency ( P < 0.05). Muscle glycogen content in fish fed the diet with 2:12 or 2:18 CHO:LIP ratio was significantly lower than those fed with the other three diets ( P < 0.05). The present results confirmed that the juvenile turbot can utilize carbohydrate. Furthermore, the appropriate ratio of dietary carbohydrate to lipid was important to the growth and feed utilization of turbot. The proper CHO:LIP ratio based on the growth performance in the present study was determined to be 18:12 when the dietary protein level was 39%.

  10. A Comparison of Gluteus Maximus, Biceps Femoris, and Vastus Lateralis Electromyography Amplitude in the Parallel, Full, and Front Squat Variations in Resistance-Trained Females.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Bret; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Beardsley, Chris; Cronin, John

    2016-02-01

    Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 y; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed 10 repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no statistical (P ≤ .05) differences between full, front, and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar EMG amplitudes. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals use a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lighter loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junping; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Liu, Ping; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus, an important aquaculture species in China, currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture. Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections. However, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight, at 16°C and 10°C water temperatures. The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma, muscle, liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC. The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration. Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures. The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent. The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration, whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16°C and 10°C, respectively. The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16°C than that at 10°C, and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues. The plasma C max /MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16°C; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10°C. The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16°C, and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10°C. These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy. Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected. The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  12. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mauvis A; Frey, Peter H; Ormond, Rupert F; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals' dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6-9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494-1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143-340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111-317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks. PMID:26930611

  13. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with a newborn calf.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, Larry; Hulst, Frances; Thompson, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Herrin, Kimberly A Vinette

    2015-03-01

    In 2006, five Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were imported to Taronga Zoo, Australia, from Thailand. Pre-import and initial postarrival tuberculosis screening was performed by trunk wash (TW) culture and was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In April 2009, the ElephantTB STAT-PAK (SP) assay was used to test the elephants. A 15.5-yr-old pregnant cow was reactive. TW frequency for this cow was increased from annually to quarterly. TW cultures remained negative on all other elephants. In February 2010, the Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB assay was used for the first time, and the SP-reactive cow also reacted on the DPP. A SP was run concurrently and was reactive. All other elephants were nonreactive on both assays. Treatment was not initiated due to concern about the effect of antituberculous drugs on the fetus. Quarterly TW cultures continued. The cow gave birth on 2 November 2010. A routine TW on 24 November 2010 was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Although previous shedding could not be ruled out, reactivation of latent infection or exacerbation of subclinical disease due to parturition was suspected. Treatment with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol commenced. A 12-mo treatment course was completed within a 15-mo period. The isolate was susceptible to these drugs and genotyped as a Beijing strain. Stored serum samples from 2004 and 2006 were tested retrospectively and were reactive on SP and DPP. TW, SP, and DPP screening frequency increased to monthly for the positive cow on commencement of treatment in January 2011. Monthly serum biochemistry indicated drug-induced hepatitis. Therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted to ensure therapeutic levels were achieved. The infant calf was reactive on DPP, but TW culture negative, and was not treated. Serial DPP results for the cow and calf during and after treatment indicated that the antibody levels were declining, suggesting a favorable response to therapy in the dam, and that the origin

  14. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Mauvis A.; Frey, Peter H.; Ormond, Rupert F.; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals’ dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6–9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494–1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143–340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111–317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks. PMID

  15. Responses of conventional and molecular biomarkers in turbot Scophthalmus maximus exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Theron, Michael; Le Floch, Stéphane; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2012-07-15

    Several accidental spills in European coastal areas have resulted in the release of different toxic compounds into the marine environment, such as heavy fuel oil type no. 6 in the "Erika" and "Prestige" oil spills and the highly toxic styrene after the loss of the "Ievoli Sun". There is a clear need to develop tools that might allow assessing the biological impact of these accidental spills on aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects and recovery after exposure of juvenile fish (Scophthalmus maximus) to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene by using a battery of molecular, cell and tissue level biomarkers. Turbots were exposed to styrene for 7 days and to the diluted soluble fraction of the oil (10%) for 14 days, and then allowed to recover in clean seawater for the same time periods. cyp1a1 transcript was overexpressed in turbots after 3 and 14 days of exposure to heavy fuel oil, whereas ahr transcription was not modulated after heavy fuel oil and styrene exposure. pparα transcription level was significantly up-regulated after 3 days of treatment with styrene. Liver activity of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) was significantly induced after 14 days of oil exposure, but it was not affected by styrene. Hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was significantly reduced after exposure to both treatments, indicating that the tested compounds significantly impaired fish health. Both AOX and LMS values returned to control levels after the recovery period. No differences in gamete development were observed between fuel- or styrene- exposed fish and control fish, and vitellogenin plasma levels were low, suggesting no xenoestrogenic effects of fuel oil or styrene. While styrene did not cause any increase in the prevalence of liver histopathological alterations, prevalence of extensive cell vacuolization increased after exposure to heavy fuel oil for 14 days. In conclusion, the suite of selected biomarkers proved to be

  16. Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) with a newborn calf.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, Larry; Hulst, Frances; Thompson, Paul; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Herrin, Kimberly A Vinette

    2015-03-01

    In 2006, five Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were imported to Taronga Zoo, Australia, from Thailand. Pre-import and initial postarrival tuberculosis screening was performed by trunk wash (TW) culture and was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In April 2009, the ElephantTB STAT-PAK (SP) assay was used to test the elephants. A 15.5-yr-old pregnant cow was reactive. TW frequency for this cow was increased from annually to quarterly. TW cultures remained negative on all other elephants. In February 2010, the Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB assay was used for the first time, and the SP-reactive cow also reacted on the DPP. A SP was run concurrently and was reactive. All other elephants were nonreactive on both assays. Treatment was not initiated due to concern about the effect of antituberculous drugs on the fetus. Quarterly TW cultures continued. The cow gave birth on 2 November 2010. A routine TW on 24 November 2010 was culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Although previous shedding could not be ruled out, reactivation of latent infection or exacerbation of subclinical disease due to parturition was suspected. Treatment with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol commenced. A 12-mo treatment course was completed within a 15-mo period. The isolate was susceptible to these drugs and genotyped as a Beijing strain. Stored serum samples from 2004 and 2006 were tested retrospectively and were reactive on SP and DPP. TW, SP, and DPP screening frequency increased to monthly for the positive cow on commencement of treatment in January 2011. Monthly serum biochemistry indicated drug-induced hepatitis. Therapeutic drug monitoring was conducted to ensure therapeutic levels were achieved. The infant calf was reactive on DPP, but TW culture negative, and was not treated. Serial DPP results for the cow and calf during and after treatment indicated that the antibody levels were declining, suggesting a favorable response to therapy in the dam, and that the origin

  17. Transcriptome Analysis for Identification of Genes Related to Gonad Differentiation, Growth, Immune Response and Marker Discovery in The Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Deyou; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Wang, Guangning; Wang, Ting; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe

    2016-01-01

    Background Turbot Scophthalmus maximus is an economically important species extensively aquacultured in China. The genetic selection program is necessary and urgent for the sustainable development of this industry, requiring more and more genome background knowledge. Transcriptome sequencing is an excellent alternative way to identify transcripts involved in specific biological processes and exploit a considerable quantity of molecular makers when no genome sequences are available. In this study, a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of S. maximus was produced on basis of an Illumina platform. Results Total RNA was isolated from liver, spleen, kidney, cerebrum, gonad (testis and ovary) and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each type of tissues were pooled to construct two cDNA libraries (male and female). Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, nearly 44.22 million clean reads in length of 100 bp were generated and then assembled into 106,643 contigs, of which 71,107 were named unigenes with an average length of 892 bp after the elimination of redundancies. Of these, 24,052 unigenes (33.83% of the total) were successfully annotated. GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis were performed to predict potential genes and their functions. Based on our sequence analysis and published documents, many candidate genes with fundamental roles in sex determination and gonad differentiation (dmrt1), growth (ghrh, myf5, prl/prlr) and immune response (TLR1/TLR21/TLR22, IL-15/IL-34), were identified for the first time in this species. In addition, a large number of credible genetic markers, including 21,192 SSRs and 8,642 SNPs, were identified in the present dataset. Conclusion This informative transcriptome provides valuable new data to increase genomic resources of Scophthalmus maximus. The future studies of corresponding gene functions will be very useful for the management of reproduction, growth and disease control in turbot aquaculture

  18. The identification, localization, and pharmacology of FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB in the penis and crop of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, K G; Greenberg, M J; Price, D A; Doble, K E; Lee, T D

    1989-01-01

    1. The molluscan neuropeptides FMRFamide, pQDPFLRFamide, and SCPB were tested on the isolated crop and penis of the terrestraial slug, Limax maximus. FMRFamide and pQDPFLRFamide stimulated the penis and inhibited contractions of the crop. In contrast, SCPB either stimulated or relaxed the penis and increased the tone of the crop. 2. Fibers and varicosities containing immunoreactive (ir-) FMRFamide and ir-SCPB were located in the penis and crop. 3. Extracts of penes, crops, ganglia, and whole animals all contained FMRFamide, FLRFamide, SDPFLRFamide, NDPFLRFamide, and pQDPFLRFamide. 4. These results suggest that the FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB are involved in the regulation of the reproductive and digestive activities of Limax. PMID:2576783

  19. The identification, localization, and pharmacology of FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB in the penis and crop of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Krajniak, K G; Greenberg, M J; Price, D A; Doble, K E; Lee, T D

    1989-01-01

    1. The molluscan neuropeptides FMRFamide, pQDPFLRFamide, and SCPB were tested on the isolated crop and penis of the terrestraial slug, Limax maximus. FMRFamide and pQDPFLRFamide stimulated the penis and inhibited contractions of the crop. In contrast, SCPB either stimulated or relaxed the penis and increased the tone of the crop. 2. Fibers and varicosities containing immunoreactive (ir-) FMRFamide and ir-SCPB were located in the penis and crop. 3. Extracts of penes, crops, ganglia, and whole animals all contained FMRFamide, FLRFamide, SDPFLRFamide, NDPFLRFamide, and pQDPFLRFamide. 4. These results suggest that the FMRFamide-related peptides and SCPB are involved in the regulation of the reproductive and digestive activities of Limax.

  20. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: the case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Coppola, Daniele; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Panti, Cristina; de Sabata, Eleonora; Clò, Simona

    2014-09-01

    The impact of microplastics (plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm) on large filter feeding marine organisms such as baleen whales and sharks are largely unknown. These species potentially are ingesting micro-litter by filter feeding activity. Here we present the case studies of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) exploring the toxicological effects of microplastics in these species measuring the levels of phthalates in both species. The results show higher concentration of MEHP in the muscle of basking shark in comparison to fin whale blubber. These species can be proposed as indicators of microplastics in the pelagic environment in the implementation of Descriptor 8 and 10 of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:24612776

  1. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Ganswindt, André; Seshagiri, Polani B; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen) and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress) metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants. PMID:24358371

  2. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: the case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Coppola, Daniele; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Panti, Cristina; de Sabata, Eleonora; Clò, Simona

    2014-09-01

    The impact of microplastics (plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm) on large filter feeding marine organisms such as baleen whales and sharks are largely unknown. These species potentially are ingesting micro-litter by filter feeding activity. Here we present the case studies of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) exploring the toxicological effects of microplastics in these species measuring the levels of phthalates in both species. The results show higher concentration of MEHP in the muscle of basking shark in comparison to fin whale blubber. These species can be proposed as indicators of microplastics in the pelagic environment in the implementation of Descriptor 8 and 10 of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  3. Histological characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus of the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Fraunhoffer, Nicolás; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Loidl, César Fabián; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to most mammalian species, females of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, show an extensive suppression of apoptosis-dependent follicular atresia, continuous folliculogenesis, and massive polyovulation. These unusual reproductive features pinpoint to an eventual peculiar modulation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis through its main regulator, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We explored the hypothalamic histological landscape and cellular and subcellular localization of GnRH in adult non-pregnant L. maximus females. Comparison to brain atlases from mouse, rat, guinea pig and chinchilla enabled us to histologically define and locate the preoptic area (POA), the ventromedial nucleus, the median eminence (ME), and the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus in vizcacha's brain. Specific immunolocalization of GnRH was detected in soma of neurons at medial POA (MPA), ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, septohypothalamic nucleus (SHy) and Arc, and in beaded fibers of MPA, SHy, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area and ME. Electron microscopy examination revealed GnRH associated to cytoplasmic vesicles of the ME and POA neurons, organized both in core and non-core vesicles within varicosities, and in neurosecretory vesicles within the myelinated axons of the MPA. Besides the peculiar and unusual features of folliculogenesis and ovulation in the vizcacha, these results show that hypothalamus histology and GnRH immune-detection and localization are comparable to those found in other mammals. This fact leads to the possibility that specific regulatory mechanisms should be in action to maintain continuous folliculogenesis and massive polyovulation. PMID:21660456

  4. Expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factors I and II during embryonic and early larval development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haishen; Qi, Qian; Hu, Jian; Si, Yufeng; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important proteins involved in fish growth and development. Here, we report the isolation of IGF-II and expression analysis of IGFs in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, aiming to clarify their function in embryonic and larval development of fish. The deduced IGF-II gene is 808 bp in full length, which encodes a protein of 219 amino acids and is 93% similar with that of Paralichthys olicaceus in amino acid sequence. The tissue abundance and the expression pattern of IGFs in a turbot at early development stages were investigated via reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction. Result showed that the IGF-I and IGF-II genes were widely expressed in tissues of S. maximus. IGF-I was detected in all tissues except intestines with the highest level in liver, while IGF-II transcript presented in all tissues except muscle. At the stages of embryonic and larval development, the mRNA levels of IGFs sharply increased from the stage of unfertilized egg to post larva, followed by a decrease with larval development. However, there was an increase in IGF-I at the embryonic stage and IGF-II at the gastrula stage, respectively. These results suggested that IGFs play important roles in cell growth and division of the turbot. Our study provides reference data for further investigation of growth regulation in turbot, which can guarantee better understanding of the physiological role that IGFs play in fish.

  5. Effect of mine discharge on the pattern of riverine habitat use of elephants Elephas maximus and other mammals in Singhbhum forests, Bihar, India

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.K.; Chowdhury, S.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to access the influence of water quality both on the occurrence of, and utilization by, elephants (Elephas maximus) in a riverine habitat. Mining operations and other anthropogenic changes to natural river systems have caused degradation of the ecosystem for elephants. A decline in their numbers has been seen throughout the Singhbhum Forests, India due to fragmentation and loss of habitat. The need to preserve and restore the habitat of the elephant is accepted, but until the factors that influence their distribution are known and understood, suitable management plans cannot be implemented. The study area was the catchment of the river Koina where waste discharge from an iron oremine and processing plant impact upon water quality. The study period from April 1995 to March 1996 looked at sections of the river where unregulated mine discharge was made, and where regulation through tailing ponds controlled total suspended solids (TSS) output from the mine waste water to the river system. Various physico-chemical parameters recorded at seven sampling stations were quantified. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) segregated the key parameters in determining the discharge levels of both regulated and unregulated discharge at various sites.

  6. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae.

  7. The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants.

  8. The distribution, density and three-dimensional histomorphology of Pacinian corpuscles in the foot of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and their potential role in seismic communication.

    PubMed

    Bouley, D M; Alarcón, C N; Hildebrandt, T; O'Connell-Rodwell, C E

    2007-10-01

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants produce low-frequency, high-amplitude rumbles that travel well through the ground as seismic waves, and field studies have shown that elephants may utilize these seismic signals as one form of communication. Unique elephant postures observed in field studies suggest that the elephants use their feet to 'listen' to these seismic signals, but the exact sensory mechanisms used by the elephant have never been characterized. The distribution, morphology and tissue density of Pacinian corpuscles, specialized mechanoreceptors, were studied in a forefoot and hindfoot of Asian elephants. Pacinian corpuscles were located in the dermis and distal digital cushion and were most densely localized to the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral region of each foot, with the highest numbers in the anterior region of the forefoot (52.19%) and the posterior region of the hindfoot (47.09%). Pacinian corpuscles were encapsulated, had a typical lamellar structure and were most often observed in large clusters. Three-dimensional reconstruction through serial sections of the dermis revealed that individual Pacinian corpuscles may be part of a cluster. By studying the distribution and density of these mechanoreceptors, we propose that Pacinian corpuscles are one possible anatomic mechanism used by elephants to detect seismic waves.

  9. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michele A.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Meehan, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  10. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  11. Less invasive blood sampling in the animal laboratory: clinical chemistry and haematology of blood obtained by the Triatominae bug Dipetalogaster maximus.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, S N; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Ritz, C; Sørensen, D B

    2012-04-01

    Dipetalogaster maximus (Dipmax), a blood-sucking bug belonging to the family Reduviidae, has been used to obtain blood samples, for example for clinical chemistry and haematology, in a variety of zoo animals and wildlife. Using this bug allows stress-free blood sampling as the bug is able to draw blood without the mammal noticing the bug. In laboratory animal science, the need for blood samples from unstressed animals may arise, especially in animal behaviour research. The use of Dipmax bugs may prove a valuable tool for this purpose. To validate the method, we compared an array of standard blood parameters sampled from New Zealand White rabbits, sampled either by the use of bugs or by the conventional method; puncture of vena auricularis caudalis. The overall hypothesis was that there was no significant difference in clinical chemistry and haematological parameters between the bug method and the conventional method. A total of 17 clinical parameters as well as 12 haematological parameters were measured and compared in New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed that for 13 of these 29 analysed parameters, the bug method and the conventional method did not give significantly different results, and the obtained results were thus directly comparable. For the remaining parameters the obtained results were significantly different. However, all parameters were measurable in the bug samples. The influences of the bug metabolism on these parameters are discussed.

  12. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health. PMID:27415763

  13. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae. PMID:25831589

  14. The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. PMID:24684601

  15. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  16. Tissue Localization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Receptor-27.8 kDa and Its Expression Kinetics Induced by the Viral Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Wu, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The 27.8 kDa membrane protein expressed in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill cells was proved to be a receptor mediating lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection. In this study, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting demonstrated that 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was shared by flounder and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and immunohistochemistry showed that 27.8R was widely expressed in tested tissues of healthy turbot. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that 27.8R expression was relatively higher in stomach, gill, heart, and intestine, followed by skin, head kidney, spleen, blood cells, kidney and liver, and lower in ovary and brain in healthy turbot, and it was significantly up-regulated after LCDV infection. Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that LCDV was detected in heart, peripheral blood cells, and head kidney at 3 h post infection (p.i.), and then in other tested tissues at 12 h p.i. LCDV copies increased in a time-dependent manner, and were generally higher in the tissues with higher 27.8R expression. Additionally, IIFA showed that 27.8R and LCDV were detected at 3 h p.i. in some leukocytes. These results suggested that 27.8R also served as a receptor in turbot, and LCDV can infect some leukocytes which might result in LCDV spreading to different tissues in turbot. PMID:26556346

  17. Tissue Localization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Receptor-27.8 kDa and Its Expression Kinetics Induced by the Viral Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Wu, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The 27.8 kDa membrane protein expressed in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill cells was proved to be a receptor mediating lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection. In this study, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting demonstrated that 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was shared by flounder and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and immunohistochemistry showed that 27.8R was widely expressed in tested tissues of healthy turbot. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that 27.8R expression was relatively higher in stomach, gill, heart, and intestine, followed by skin, head kidney, spleen, blood cells, kidney and liver, and lower in ovary and brain in healthy turbot, and it was significantly up-regulated after LCDV infection. Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that LCDV was detected in heart, peripheral blood cells, and head kidney at 3 h post infection (p.i.), and then in other tested tissues at 12 h p.i. LCDV copies increased in a time-dependent manner, and were generally higher in the tissues with higher 27.8R expression. Additionally, IIFA showed that 27.8R and LCDV were detected at 3 h p.i. in some leukocytes. These results suggested that 27.8R also served as a receptor in turbot, and LCDV can infect some leukocytes which might result in LCDV spreading to different tissues in turbot.

  18. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening.

  19. Tissue Localization of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) Receptor-27.8 kDa and Its Expression Kinetics Induced by the Viral Infection in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Wu, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The 27.8 kDa membrane protein expressed in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill cells was proved to be a receptor mediating lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection. In this study, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting demonstrated that 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) was shared by flounder and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and immunohistochemistry showed that 27.8R was widely expressed in tested tissues of healthy turbot. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that 27.8R expression was relatively higher in stomach, gill, heart, and intestine, followed by skin, head kidney, spleen, blood cells, kidney and liver, and lower in ovary and brain in healthy turbot, and it was significantly up-regulated after LCDV infection. Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that LCDV was detected in heart, peripheral blood cells, and head kidney at 3 h post infection (p.i.), and then in other tested tissues at 12 h p.i. LCDV copies increased in a time-dependent manner, and were generally higher in the tissues with higher 27.8R expression. Additionally, IIFA showed that 27.8R and LCDV were detected at 3 h p.i. in some leukocytes. These results suggested that 27.8R also served as a receptor in turbot, and LCDV can infect some leukocytes which might result in LCDV spreading to different tissues in turbot. PMID:26556346

  20. Tumour necrosis factor-α inhibits hepatic lipid deposition through GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the mechanism that TNFα inhibits lipid deposition through GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling was investigated in the liver of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) by injection of TNFα or TNFα inhibitor pomalidomide (POM). It was found that TNFα inhibited the expression of GSK-3β and induced β-catenin expression. TNFα inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), as well as the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS). In addition, the level of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and glycerol was decreased by TNFα treatment in the liver. In the plasma, the level of TG, TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), NEFA, and glycerol was decreased, but high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by TNFα treatment. However, compared to TNFα, POM had the opposite effect on the biochemical indexes and genes related to lipid deposition in the liver. The results indicated that TNFα may regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and fat distribution through GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling as well as transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα in juvenile turbot. PMID:26747182

  1. Trophic transfer and accumulation of TiO2 nanoparticles from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along a marine benthic food chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yin, Liyun; Zhao, Jian; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, we investigated the potential benthic trophic transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and their related distribution and toxicity. TiO2 NPs (at 10, 50 and 100 mg/L) could be taken up by clamworms, and mainly accumulated in the lower-digestive tract. TiO2 NPs were able to transfer from clamworms to juvenile turbots. The accumulation of TiO2 NPs in juvenile turbots increased with increasing Ti contents in clamworms during the dietary exposure, however, no biomagnification (BMFs, 0.30-0.33) of TiO2 NPs was observed. For both dietary and waterborne exposure, accumulation of TiO2 NPs was higher in the gill, intestine and stomach of juvenile turbot, following by skin, liver, and muscle. During dietary exposure at Day 20, the growth of turbots was reduced, and abnormal symptoms of liver and spleen were detected. Moreover, both dietary (50 and 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs-treated clamworms) and waterborne (100 mg/L TiO2 NPs) exposures led to significantly lower protein and higher lipid contents, suggesting the nutrition quality reduction of turbots. The findings from this work highlighted the trophic transfer of TiO2 NPs in marine benthic food chain, leading to the potential negative impact on marine aquaculture and food quality. PMID:27010785

  2. Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination ( R 2 =0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values ( P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant ( P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant ( P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

  3. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening. PMID:25707601

  4. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  5. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele A; Hogan, Jennifer N; Meehan, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  6. Trophic transfer and accumulation of TiO2 nanoparticles from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along a marine benthic food chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yin, Liyun; Zhao, Jian; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, we investigated the potential benthic trophic transfer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis) to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and their related distribution and toxicity. TiO2 NPs (at 10, 50 and 100 mg/L) could be taken up by clamworms, and mainly accumulated in the lower-digestive tract. TiO2 NPs were able to transfer from clamworms to juvenile turbots. The accumulation of TiO2 NPs in juvenile turbots increased with increasing Ti contents in clamworms during the dietary exposure, however, no biomagnification (BMFs, 0.30-0.33) of TiO2 NPs was observed. For both dietary and waterborne exposure, accumulation of TiO2 NPs was higher in the gill, intestine and stomach of juvenile turbot, following by skin, liver, and muscle. During dietary exposure at Day 20, the growth of turbots was reduced, and abnormal symptoms of liver and spleen were detected. Moreover, both dietary (50 and 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs-treated clamworms) and waterborne (100 mg/L TiO2 NPs) exposures led to significantly lower protein and higher lipid contents, suggesting the nutrition quality reduction of turbots. The findings from this work highlighted the trophic transfer of TiO2 NPs in marine benthic food chain, leading to the potential negative impact on marine aquaculture and food quality.

  7. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot.

  8. Prediction of estrus cyclicity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) through estimation of fecal progesterone metabolite: development of an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, R; Sukumar, R; Seshagiri, P B

    2010-05-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), prominent "flagship species", are listed under the category of endangered species (EN - A2c, ver. 3.1; IUCN Red List 2009) and there is a need for their conservation. This requires understanding demographic and reproductive dynamics of the species. Monitoring reproductive status of any species is traditionally being carried out through invasive blood sampling and this is restrictive for large animals such as wild or semi-captive elephants due to legal, ethical, and practical reasons. Hence, there is a need for a non-invasive technique to assess reproductive cyclicity profiles of elephants, which will help in the species' conservation strategies. In this study, we developed an indirect competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate the concentration of one of the progesterone-metabolites i.e., allopregnanolone (5 alpha-P-3OH) in fecal samples of Asian elephants. We validated the assay which had a sensitivity of 0.25 microM at 90% binding with an EC(50) value of 1.37 microM. Using female elephants, kept under semi-captive conditions in the forest camps of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu and Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, India, we measured fecal progesterone-metabolite (5 alpha-P-3OH) concentrations in six animals and showed their clear correlation with those of serum progesterone, measured by a standard radio-immuno assay. Statistical analyses using a Linear Mixed Effect model showed a positive correlation (P<0.1) between the profiles of fecal 5 alpha-P-3OH (range: 0.5-10 microg/g) and serum progesterone (range: 0.1-1.8 ng/mL). Therefore, our studies show, for the first time, that the fecal progesterone-metabolite assay could be exploited to predict estrus cyclicity and to potentially assess the reproductive status of captive and free-ranging female Asian elephants, thereby helping to plan their breeding strategy.

  9. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5, a newly recognized elephant herpesvirus associated with clinical and subclinical infections in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y; Nofs, Sally A; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R; Hoffman, Daryl S; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals.

  10. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  11. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    PubMed

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

    2014-03-01

    The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.

  12. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities and detection of potential pathogens in a recirculating aquaculture system for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F R; Pires, Ana C C; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-01-01

    The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments.

  13. Gene expression analyses of essential catch factors in the smooth and striated adductor muscles of larval, juvenile and adult great scallop (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Øivind; Torgersen, Jacob S; Pagander, Helene H; Magnesen, Thorolf; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    The scallop adductor muscle consists of striated fibres responsible for the fast closure of the shells, and smooth fibres able to maintain tension in a prolonged state of contraction called catch. Formation of the force-bearing catch linkages has been demonstrated to be initiated by dephosphorylation of the key catch-regulating factor twitchin by a calcineurin-like phosphatase, while the involvement of other thick filament proteins is uncertain. Here we report on the development of catchability of the adductor smooth muscle in the great scallop (Pecten maximus) by analysing the spatio-temporal gene expression patterns of the myosin regulatory light chain (MLCr), twitchin, myorod and calcineurin using whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. The MLCr signal was identified in the retractor and adductor muscles of the pediveliger larvae, and the juvenile and adult scallop displayed abundant mRNA levels of MLCr in the smooth and striated adductor muscles. Twitchin was mainly expressed in the smooth adductor muscle during metamorphosis, whereas the adult striated adductor muscle contained seven-folds higher twitchin mRNA levels compared to the smooth portion. Calcineurin expression predominated in the gonads and in the smooth adductor, and five-folds higher mRNA levels were measured in the smooth than in the striated fibres at the adult stage. In contrast to the other genes examined, the expression of myorod was confined to the smooth adductor muscle suggesting that myorod plays a permissive role in the molluscan catch muscles, which are first required at the vulnerable settlement stage as a component of the predator defence system.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Communities and Detection of Potential Pathogens in a Recirculating Aquaculture System for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments. PMID:24278329

  15. Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and molecular physiology of the GnRH preprogonadotrophin in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Charif, Santiago Elías; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Schmidt, Alejandro Raúl; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Dorfman, Verónica Berta

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea. Such features should occur under a special modulation of the HHG axis, guided by GnRH. The aim of this study was to sequence hypothalamic GnRH preprogonadotrophin mRNA in the vizcacha, to compare it with evolutionarily related species and to identify its expression, distribution and pulsatile pattern of secretion. The GnRH1variant was detected and showed the highest homology with that of chinchilla, its closest evolutionarily related species. Two isoforms of transcripts were identified, carrying the same coding sequence, but different 5' untranslated regions. This suggests a sensitive equilibrium between RNA stability and translational efficiency. A predominant hypothalamic localization and a pulsatile secretion pattern of one pulse of GnRH every hour were found. The lower homology found for GAP, also among evolutionarily related species, depicts a potentially different bioactivity. PMID:26704854

  16. Effects of dietary glucose and dextrin on activity and gene expression of glucokinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in liver of turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qin; Miao, Huijun; Miao, Shuyan; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    Glucokinase (GK) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) play crucial role in glucose metabolism. In the present study, the cDNA encoding GK and FBPase was cloned from the liver of turbot Scophthalmus maximus by rapid amplification of cDNA end technique. Effects of dietary glucose and dextrin on the activities and gene expressions of these two enzymes were also studied. Results showed that the full length of GK cDNA was 2226 bp, consisting of an open reading frame (ORF) of 1434 bp. The full-length cDNA coding FBPase was 1314 bp with a 1014 bp ORF encoding 337 amino acids. Analyses of gene expression of GK and FBPase were conducted in gill, liver, the whole intestine, the whole kidney, heart, the dorsal white muscle and brain. The highest expression of GK was found in liver, followed by muscle. The expression of FBPase was found higher in liver than heart and gill. Both hepatic GK activity and mRNA expression were highly induced in turbot after being fed with dietary carbohydrates (p < 0.05). However, the GK activity and mRNA expression in the group with dietary glucose did not significantly differ from those in the group with dietary dextrin (p > 0.05). Compared with the control group, there were no significant differences in FBPase activity and mRNA expression in the glucose as well as dextrin group (p > 0.05). The increased hepatic GK activity and gene expression indicated that the first step of glycolysis was activated in turbot by dietary carbohydrates.

  17. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.

  18. Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and molecular physiology of the GnRH preprogonadotrophin in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Charif, Santiago Elías; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Schmidt, Alejandro Raúl; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Dorfman, Verónica Berta

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea. Such features should occur under a special modulation of the HHG axis, guided by GnRH. The aim of this study was to sequence hypothalamic GnRH preprogonadotrophin mRNA in the vizcacha, to compare it with evolutionarily related species and to identify its expression, distribution and pulsatile pattern of secretion. The GnRH1variant was detected and showed the highest homology with that of chinchilla, its closest evolutionarily related species. Two isoforms of transcripts were identified, carrying the same coding sequence, but different 5' untranslated regions. This suggests a sensitive equilibrium between RNA stability and translational efficiency. A predominant hypothalamic localization and a pulsatile secretion pattern of one pulse of GnRH every hour were found. The lower homology found for GAP, also among evolutionarily related species, depicts a potentially different bioactivity.

  19. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    PubMed

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

    2014-03-01

    The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days. PMID:24257195

  20. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  1. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-09-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual population enhancement, with detectable effects on genetic diversity and effective population size, or consists of sea ranching with limited genetic consequences on the wild stock. To address this question, microsatellite-based genetic monitoring of three hatchery-born and naturally recruited populations was conducted over a 5-year period. Results showed a limited reduction in allelic richness but a strong alteration of allelic frequencies in hatchery populations, while genetic diversity appeared very stable over time in the wild populations. A temporal increase in relatedness was observed in both cultured stock and wild populations. Effective population size (Ne) estimates were low and variable in the wild population. Moreover, the application of the Ryman-Laikre model suggested a high contribution of hatchery-born scallops to the reproductive output of the wild population. Overall, the data suggest that the main objective of the seeding program, which is stock enhancement, is fulfilled. Moreover, gene flow from surrounding populations and/or the reproductive input of undetected sub-populations within the bay may buffer the Ryman-Laikre effect and ensure the retention of the local genetic variability.

  2. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  3. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. PMID:26564474

  4. Induction of the ovulatory LH surge in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a novel aid in captive breeding management of an endangered species.

    PubMed

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chansitthiwet, Saran; Brown, Janine L; Nimtragul, Kannikar; Boonprasert, Khajhonpat; Homkong, Pongpon; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Colenbrander, Ben; van der Weijden, Gysbert C; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M

    2009-01-01

    A unique feature of the reproductive physiology of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is the occurrence of two LH surges before ovulation, instead of one. An anovulatory LH (anLH) surge, the function of which is unknown, occurs consistently 3 weeks before the ovulatory LH (ovLH) surge that induces ovulation. Thus, the ability to induce an ovLH surge would be useful for scheduling natural mating or artificial insemination. The present study tested the efficacy of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-Ag) to induce LH surges during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, which resulted in varied LH responses, but generally none were as high as previously documented natural surges. Thus, for the ovulation-induction trials, nine females were administered 80 microg GnRH-Ag intravenously at three time periods during the oestrous cycle, namely the anovulatory follicular phase, the ovulatory follicular phase and the luteal phase. During the late anovulatory follicular phase, nine of 10 females (90%) responded with an immediate LH surge followed 15-22 days later by an ovLH surge or a post-ovulatory increase in progestagens. In contrast, despite responding to the GnRH-Ag with an immediate increase in LH, none of the females treated during other periods of the oestrous cycle exhibited subsequent ovLH surges. One cow got pregnant from natural mating following the induced ovLH surge. In conclusion, ovLH induction is possible using a GnRH-Ag, but only during a specific time of the anovulatory follicular phase.

  5. High-density genetic linkage mapping in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) based on SNP markers and major sex- and growth-related regions detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiji; Hu, Yulong; Ma, Yu; Xu, Liyong; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high density consensus genetic linkage map of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) family composed of 149 mapping individuals using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) developed using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing technique with the restriction enzyme, PstI. A total of 6,647 SNPs were assigned to 22 linkage groups, which is equal to the number of chromosome pairs in turbot. For the first time, the average marker interval reached 0.3958 cM, which is equal to approximately 0.1203 Mb of the turbot genome. The observed 99.34% genome coverage indicates that the linkage map was genome-wide. A total of 220 Quantitative Traits Locus (QTLs) associated with two body length traits, two body weight traits in different growth periods and sex determination were detected with an LOD > 5.0 in 12 linkage groups (LGs), which explained the corresponding phenotypic variance (R2), ranging from 14.4-100%. Among them, 175 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining 45 were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. According to the QTLs related to growth trait distribution and the changing of LGs during different growth periods, the growth traits are likely controlled by multi-SNPs distributed on several LGs; the effect of these SNPs changed during different growth periods. Most sex-related QTLs were detected at LG 21 with a linkage span of 70.882 cM. Additionally, a small number of QTLs with high feasibility and a narrow R2 distribution were also observed on LG7 and LG14, suggesting that multi LGs or chromosomes might be involved in sex determination. High homology was recorded between LG21 in Cynoglossus semilaevis and turbot. This high-saturated turbot RAD-Seq linkage map is undoubtedly a promising platform for marker assisted selection (MAS) and flatfish genomics research.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression studies of the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yun; Hu, Guo-Bin; Yu, Chang-Hong; Li, Song; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2015-10-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adapter protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In this study, a full length cDNA of MyD88 was cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. It is 1619 bp in length and contains an 858-bp open reading frame that encodes a peptide of 285 amino acid residues. The putative turbot (Sm)MyD88 protein possesses a N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain known to be important for the functions of MyD88 in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis grouped SmMyD88 with other fish MyD88s. SmMyD88 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of healthy turbots, with higher levels observed in immune-relevant organs. To explore the role of SmMyD88, its gene expression profile in response to stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was studied in the head kidney, spleen, gills and muscle over a 7-day time course. The results showed an up-regulation of SmMyD88 transcript levels by the three immunostimulants in all four examined tissues, with the induction by CpG-ODN strongest and initiated earliest and inducibility in the muscle very weak. Additionally, TRBIV challenge resulted in a quite high level of SmMyD88 expression in the spleen, whereas the two synthetic immunostimulants induced the higher levels in the head kidney. These data provide insights into the roles of SmMyD88 in the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway of the innate immune system in turbot. PMID:26025195

  7. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs. PMID:27468010

  8. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Brian J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jen N.; Leighty, Katherine A.; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  9. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  10. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jen N; Leighty, Katherine A; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) farming.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Magadán, Susana; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Santos, Ysabel; Cintas, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is an important commercial marine flatfish. Its production may be affected by bacterial diseases that cause severe economical losses, mainly tenacibaculosis and vibriosis, provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimum and Vibrio splendidus, respectively. An alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for the control of these diseases is the use of probiotics. In this work, we report the in vitro and in vivo potential of eight lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from fish, seafood and fish products intended for human consumption, as turbot probiotics. Seven out of the eight LAB exerted direct antimicrobial activity against, at least, four strains of T. maritimum and V. splendidus. All LAB survived in seawater at 18 °C for 7 days, and withstood exposure to pH 3.0 and 10% (v/v) turbot bile; however, they differed in cell surface hydrophobicity (8.2-21.7%) and in their ability to adhere to turbot skin (1.2-21.7%) and intestinal (0.7-2.1%) mucus. Most of the tested strains inhibited the binding of turbot pathogens to the mucus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris SMM69 and Weissella cibaria P71 were selected based on their strong antimicrobial activity against T. maritimum and V. splendidus, good probiotic properties, and different adhesion ability to skin mucus and capacity to inhibit the adhesion of turbot pathogens to mucus. These two LAB strains were harmless when administered by bath to turbot larvae and juveniles; moreover, real-time PCR on the transcription levels of the immunity-related genes encoding IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme, C3, MHC-Iα and MHC-IIα in five organs (head-kidney, spleen, liver, intestine and skin) revealed the ability of these LAB to stimulate their expression in turbot juveniles, especially the non-specific immunity associated genes in mucosal tissues. Based on our results, Lc. cremoris SMM69 and W. cibaria P71 may be considered as suitable probiotic candidates for turbot

  12. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and testosterone (6.71 ± 1.62 ng/mL; P = 0.019) concentrations after GnRH were higher than the respective baselines (0.57 ± 0.07 ng/mL, 3.05 ± 0.60 ng/mL). Although basal- and GnRH-induced LH secretion were similar across the stages, evaluation of the area under the curve in GnRH-treated bulls indicated that the testosterone response was greatest during premusth (2.84 ± 0.76 area units; P = 0.019) compared to postmusth (2.02 ± 0.63 area units), and nonmusth (2.01 ± 0.46 area units). This confirms earlier reports that GnRH stimulates LH release and subsequent testosterone production in bull elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal

  13. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jen N; Leighty, Katherine A; Mellen, Jill; Mason, Georgia J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus]) at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian) was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding), making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015). For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009), and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175), increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985), and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988). At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987) and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752) corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115) increased this risk. Overall, our results indicate

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) farming.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Magadán, Susana; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Santos, Ysabel; Cintas, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) is an important commercial marine flatfish. Its production may be affected by bacterial diseases that cause severe economical losses, mainly tenacibaculosis and vibriosis, provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimum and Vibrio splendidus, respectively. An alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for the control of these diseases is the use of probiotics. In this work, we report the in vitro and in vivo potential of eight lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from fish, seafood and fish products intended for human consumption, as turbot probiotics. Seven out of the eight LAB exerted direct antimicrobial activity against, at least, four strains of T. maritimum and V. splendidus. All LAB survived in seawater at 18 °C for 7 days, and withstood exposure to pH 3.0 and 10% (v/v) turbot bile; however, they differed in cell surface hydrophobicity (8.2-21.7%) and in their ability to adhere to turbot skin (1.2-21.7%) and intestinal (0.7-2.1%) mucus. Most of the tested strains inhibited the binding of turbot pathogens to the mucus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris SMM69 and Weissella cibaria P71 were selected based on their strong antimicrobial activity against T. maritimum and V. splendidus, good probiotic properties, and different adhesion ability to skin mucus and capacity to inhibit the adhesion of turbot pathogens to mucus. These two LAB strains were harmless when administered by bath to turbot larvae and juveniles; moreover, real-time PCR on the transcription levels of the immunity-related genes encoding IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme, C3, MHC-Iα and MHC-IIα in five organs (head-kidney, spleen, liver, intestine and skin) revealed the ability of these LAB to stimulate their expression in turbot juveniles, especially the non-specific immunity associated genes in mucosal tissues. Based on our results, Lc. cremoris SMM69 and W. cibaria P71 may be considered as suitable probiotic candidates for turbot

  15. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains. PMID:27118073

  16. Characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) producing bacteria isolated from vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and possible influence of exogenous AHLs on bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Zeng, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication mechanism through which microbial cells communicate and regulate their wide variety of biological activities. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are considered to be the most important QS signaling molecules produced by several Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to screen the AHLs-producing bacteria from spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by biosensor assays, and the profiles of AHLs produced by these bacteria were determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Effects of exogenous AHLs and QS inhibitor (QSI) on the phenotypes (i.e., extracellular proteolytic activity and biofilm formation) of the AHLs-producing bacteria were also evaluated. Our results demonstrated that eight out of twenty-two isolates were found to produce AHLs. Three of the AHLs-producing isolates were identified as Serratia sp., and the other five were found to belong to the family of Aeromonas. Two isolates (i.e., S. liquefaciens A2 and A. sobria B1) with higher AHLs-producing activities were selected for further studies. Mainly, RP-TLC and GC-MS analysis revealed three AHLs, i.e., 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL and C10-HSL were produced by S. liquefaciens A2, while five AHLs, i.e., C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, and C12-HSL, were produced by A. sobria B1. Moreover, production of AHLs in both bacterial strains were found to be density-dependent, and the AHLs activity reached a maximum level in their middle logarithmic phase and decreased in the stationary phase. The addition of exogenous AHLs and QSI decreased the specific protease activity both of the Serratia A2 and Aeromonas B1. Exogenous AHLs inhibited the biofilm formation of Serratia A2 while it enhanced the biofilm formation in Aeromonas B1. QSI inhibited the specific protease activity and biofilm formation in both bacterial strains.

  17. Expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of the South American plains Vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    González, Candela Rocío; Muscarsel Isla, María Laura; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Willis, Miguel Alfredo; Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptor play a critical role in spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals, and estrogens and their receptors contribute to regulation of testicular function through initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis and germ cell division and survival. However, results from different species are still far from establishing a clear understanding of these receptors in the different cell types from the testis. We analyzed the expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors α and β and aromatase protein by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, in relation to proliferation followed by the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and germinal identity by VASA protein, in fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent with sustained germ cell proliferation and an increasing number of OCT-4-expressing gonocytes in the developing ovary. AR expression was restricted to Leydig cells and peritubular cells before sexual maturity, at which point it also became expressed in Sertoli cells. ERα and ERβ were expressed in seminiferous tubules and the interstitium, respectively, in both fetal and prepubertal testes. In adult testes, both ERα and ERβ co-localized in Leydig and peritubular cells. The aromatase enzyme, which converts androgenic precursors into estrogens, was detectable in all developmental stages analyzed and was restricted to Leydig cells. PCNA remained high until sexual maturity. ERα nuclear detection in germ cells and AR in Leydig cells in PCNA-positive cells suggest the possibility of a stimulatory effect of estrogens on spermatogonia proliferation. This effect might explain the increase found in VASA-expressing cells in the adult testis.

  18. Spermatogenesis is seasonal in the large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Juan P; Rossi, Luis F; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Redi, Carlo A; Solari, Alberto J; Merani, Maria S; Garagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the distinct reproductive biology of armadillos. Very few studies have investigated armadillo spermatogenesis, with data available only for Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus. In the present study, we analysed male germ cell differentiation in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus throughout the year, describing a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium made of eight different stages. Evaluation of the testis/body mass ratio, analysis of the architecture of the seminiferous epithelium and the frequency of defective seminiferous tubules allowed identification of a temporal interruption of spermatogenesis during the period between mid-May to July (mid-end autumn) in correlation with very low testosterone levels. Overall, these results suggest that spermatogenesis is seasonal in C. villosus. PMID:22951275

  19. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina. PMID:22663347

  20. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa. PMID:25754485

  1. Presence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars in Chaetophractus villosus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae), La Pampa province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Fort, Marcelo; Delgado, Fernando; Bedotti, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of antibodies against 21 Leptospira reactive serovars in Chaetophractus villosus in La Pampa province, Argentina, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Pathologic changes compatible with leptospirosis and in situ detection of the agent by immunohistochemistry were studied in 24 and 3 individuals respectively. Only 35/150 (23.3%) serum samples had antibodies against Leptospira sp. Six percent of the samples reacted with serovar Canicola, 4.7% with serovar Castellonis, 1.3% with serovar Icterohemorrhagieae and 0.7% with serovar Hardjo. Sixteen (10.6%) serum samples agglutinated with Castellonis-Icterohemorrhagiae and Canicola-Castellonis serovars, both with 4.7%, and Canicola-Hardjo and Castellonis-Canicola-Icterohemorrhagiae both with 0.6%. Fourteen animals had variable degrees of lesions, which were more severe in animals with higher serological titers (3200), and Leptospira sp. was detected in 3 animals by immunohistochemistry. These results represent the first record of the presence of Leptospira in C. villosus in La Pampa.

  2. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina.

  3. Spermatogenesis is seasonal in the large hairy armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Juan P; Rossi, Luis F; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Redi, Carlo A; Solari, Alberto J; Merani, Maria S; Garagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the distinct reproductive biology of armadillos. Very few studies have investigated armadillo spermatogenesis, with data available only for Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus. In the present study, we analysed male germ cell differentiation in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus throughout the year, describing a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium made of eight different stages. Evaluation of the testis/body mass ratio, analysis of the architecture of the seminiferous epithelium and the frequency of defective seminiferous tubules allowed identification of a temporal interruption of spermatogenesis during the period between mid-May to July (mid-end autumn) in correlation with very low testosterone levels. Overall, these results suggest that spermatogenesis is seasonal in C. villosus.

  4. The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Placental characters vary among Xenarthra, one of four supraordinal clades of Eutheria. Armadillos are known for villous, haemochorial placentas similar to humans. Only the nine-banded armadillo has been well studied so far. Methods Placentas of three species of armadillos were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry including proliferation marker, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results The gross anatomy differed: Euphractus sexcinctus and Chaetophractus villosus had extended, zonary placentas, whereas Chaetophractus vellerosus had a disk. All taxa had complex villous areas within the maternal blood sinuses of the endometrium. Immunohistochemistry indicated the validity of former interpretations that the endothelium of the sinuses was largely intact. Tips of the villi and the columns entering the maternal tissue possessed trophoblast cell clusters with proliferation activity. Elsewhere, the feto-maternal barrier was syncytial haemochorial with fetal vessels near the surface. Conclusions Differences among armadillos occurred in regard to the extension of the placenta, whereas the fine structure was similar. Parallels to the human suggest that armadillos are likely to be useful animal models for human placentation. PMID:22559925

  5. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  6. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo's Diets.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fochs, Sílvia; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; Fariña, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework. PMID:25919313

  7. Distribution of tolypeutes illiger, 1811 (xenarthra: cingulata) with comments on its biogeography and conservation.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Campos, Bruno A T P; Rocha, Patrício A; Ferrari, Stephen F; Langguth, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the data available on the distribution of three-banded armadillos of the genus Tolypeutes, identifying potential geographic barriers and evaluating possible biogeographic processes that may account for the present-day distribution of the species and its conservation status. The database was derived from published records, interviews, and voucher specimens, over a timescale ranging from the fossil record to specimens collected in 2013. A total of 236 localities were recorded, with 68 attributed to Tolypeutes matacus and 168 to Tolypeutes tricinctus. The vegetation within the range of the genus is predominantly a xerophytic mosaic of grassland, savannas, open woodland, and xeric thorn forest. The marine transgressions of the Miocene and the uplifting of the Brazilian Shield may have contributed to the vicariant separation of the ancestral populations of T. matacus, to the west and south, and T. tricinctus, to the north and east. The three-banded armadillo is possibly one of the most threatened of Brazilian mammals, considering the low number of recent records and the fact that it is hunted intensively throughout its range. PMID:25660700

  8. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Paraglyptodon Castellanos, 1932 (Mammalia, Cingulata, Glyptodontia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Laura E.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Taglioretti, Matias; Toledo, Nestor

    2016-03-01

    Castellanos described and published about new genera of glyptodonts, according to a phylogenetic scheme mainly based on the evolution of the external surface of the dorsal carapace. Among these new genera, Castellanos proposed Paraglyptodon as the predecessor of Glyptodon, and included within Paraglyptodon all known species of Glyptodontinae recovered from "horizontes pre-Ensenadenses", and within Glyptodon all known species from "Horizontes pampeanos", restricting the latter to the Quaternary. All the species that belong to Paraglyptodon, that is Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Paraglyptodon dubius, and Paraglyptodon paranensis were established based on one, two or few osteoderms, mostly from the dorsal carapace. Regarding P. paranensis and P. dubius, Oliva and collaborators consider the first as a nomen vanum, representing an indeterminate Glyptodontinae, and the second as a synonym of P. chapalmalensis. Upon re-examination of the holotypes of P. chapalmalensis and P. uquiensis together with their comparison with other well-known specimens of glyptodonts, mainly with Glyptodon (of both juvenile and adult stages), we found the same ornamentation in different sections of the dorsal carapaces, particularly in P. chapalmalensis and in juvenile stages of Glyptodon spp. We could not identify features that would allow us to make a distinction between the holotype of P. uquiensis and Glyptodon spp. Therefore, we consider that a new taxon guide for naming the Upper Chapadmalalan biozone is necessary. The biostratigraphic range of Glyptodon could possibly be extended to the late Pliocene. However, new records and studies are needed to verify the existence of this taxon in the Chapadmalalan Stage/Age in its type locality.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo’s Diets

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fochs, Sílvia; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; Fariña, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework. PMID:25919313

  10. Distribution of tolypeutes illiger, 1811 (xenarthra: cingulata) with comments on its biogeography and conservation.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Anderson; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Campos, Bruno A T P; Rocha, Patrício A; Ferrari, Stephen F; Langguth, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This study reviews the data available on the distribution of three-banded armadillos of the genus Tolypeutes, identifying potential geographic barriers and evaluating possible biogeographic processes that may account for the present-day distribution of the species and its conservation status. The database was derived from published records, interviews, and voucher specimens, over a timescale ranging from the fossil record to specimens collected in 2013. A total of 236 localities were recorded, with 68 attributed to Tolypeutes matacus and 168 to Tolypeutes tricinctus. The vegetation within the range of the genus is predominantly a xerophytic mosaic of grassland, savannas, open woodland, and xeric thorn forest. The marine transgressions of the Miocene and the uplifting of the Brazilian Shield may have contributed to the vicariant separation of the ancestral populations of T. matacus, to the west and south, and T. tricinctus, to the north and east. The three-banded armadillo is possibly one of the most threatened of Brazilian mammals, considering the low number of recent records and the fact that it is hunted intensively throughout its range.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Cingulata Jaw: An Ecomorphological Approach to Armadillo's Diets.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fochs, Sílvia; De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Fortuny, Josep; Fariña, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were applied to assess the lower jaw biomechanics of cingulate xenarthrans: 14 species of armadillos as well as one Pleistocene pampathere (11 extant taxa and the extinct forms Vassallia, Eutatus and Macroeuphractus). The principal goal of this work is to comparatively assess the biomechanical capabilities of the mandible based on FEA and to relate the obtained stress patterns with diet preferences and variability, in extant and extinct species through an ecomorphology approach. The results of FEA showed that omnivorous species have stronger mandibles than insectivorous species. Moreover, this latter group of species showed high variability, including some similar biomechanical features of the insectivorous Tolypeutes matacus and Chlamyphorus truncatus to those of omnivorous species, in agreement with reported diets that include items other than insects. It remains unclear the reasons behind the stronger than expected lower jaw of Dasypus kappleri. On the other hand, the very strong mandible of the fossil taxon Vassallia maxima agrees well with the proposed herbivorous diet. Moreover, Eutatus seguini yielded a stress pattern similar to Vassalia in the posterior part of the lower jaw, but resembling that of the stoutly built Macroeuphractus outesi in the anterior part. The results highlight the need for more detailed studies on the natural history of extant armadillos. FEA proved a powerful tool for biomechanical studies in a comparative framework.

  12. Colour preferences of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Chi, Liang; Tian, Huiqin; Meng, Lingjie; Zheng, Jimeng; Gao, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    The background colour of aquaculture tanks is normally chosen based on practical experience and/or observations of fish behaviour and the growth rates achieved. However, some farmed species, including turbot, are sentient and can show a preference for a particular environment. In the current study, a self-referent colour preference device was developed and the self-referent colour preference of farmed fish investigated. In experiment 1, the background colour preference of juvenile turbot cultured under a grey background for >3months post-incubation was evaluated. Based on these results, in experiment 2, juvenile turbot were adapted to blue, pink, white, or black backgrounds for 50days and their preferences established. Meanwhile, the growth rates, feed intake, and metabolic rates (including oxygen consumption rate, and ammonia excretion rate) of the turbot were evaluated. The results showed that turbot farmed under a grey background, or after long-term white, blue, pink and black colour adaptation, always displayed a preference for a white background and a dislike for black, red, or brown backgrounds, although their body colour was greyish. Long-term adaptation influenced the frequency of juveniles selecting white, black, pink or blue backgrounds. They showed the highest growth rate, feed intake, and metabolic rates under blue and white backgrounds, and the lowest under a black background in accordance with their preferences shown in experiment 1. Although it is unclear how turbot determine their self-referent colour preferences over such a short period of time, these results indicate that dark colours are unsuitable for the aquaculture of turbot culture in terms of the welfare of the fish. PMID:26792527

  13. Reassessment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo "Dasypus" pilosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) and revalidation of the genus Cryptophractus Fitzinger, 1856.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Ciancio, Martín R; Pacheco, Víctor; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo M; Bostelmann, J Enrique; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-01-01

    The hairy long-nosed armadillo, currently referred as Dasypus (Cryptophractus) pilosus, is an enigmatic species endemic to montane cloud forests and subparamo of Peruvian Andes. Its strikingly different external features, which include the carapace concealed by abundant hair, the presence of more movable bands, and a slender skull, have raised questions regarding its taxonomic status as subgenus or as genus. This paper assesses this issue based on a cladistic study and provides a detailed comparative description of the species, including the first account on the distinctive ornamentation of its osteoderms. Based on several unique characters in the carapace, skull, mandible, and teeth, as well as on the external phylogenetic position relative to other Dasypus, we favor the assignment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo to other genus. As result, we revalidate the original generic epithet, so that the valid name of the species is Cryptophractus pilosus Fitzinger, 1856. PMID:25947717

  14. Reassessment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo "Dasypus" pilosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) and revalidation of the genus Cryptophractus Fitzinger, 1856.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Ciancio, Martín R; Pacheco, Víctor; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo M; Bostelmann, J Enrique; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-04-14

    The hairy long-nosed armadillo, currently referred as Dasypus (Cryptophractus) pilosus, is an enigmatic species endemic to montane cloud forests and subparamo of Peruvian Andes. Its strikingly different external features, which include the carapace concealed by abundant hair, the presence of more movable bands, and a slender skull, have raised questions regarding its taxonomic status as subgenus or as genus. This paper assesses this issue based on a cladistic study and provides a detailed comparative description of the species, including the first account on the distinctive ornamentation of its osteoderms. Based on several unique characters in the carapace, skull, mandible, and teeth, as well as on the external phylogenetic position relative to other Dasypus, we favor the assignment of the hairy long-nosed armadillo to other genus. As result, we revalidate the original generic epithet, so that the valid name of the species is Cryptophractus pilosus Fitzinger, 1856.

  15. A new species of Cyclobulura (Nematoda: Subuluridae) from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navone, Graciela T; Ezquiaga, María C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2010-12-01

    Cyclobulura superinae n. sp. collected from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus is herein described as the second species in Cyclobulura Quentin, 1977, and the first subulurid in armadillos. The species is unique in the spur-like structures present at the tip of both spicules, yet they conform to the description of Cyclobulura in the structure of the buccal parts. Specimens of the new species show longer chordal lobes and more conspicuous radial lobes and are smaller than specimens of C. lainsoni. In addition, males of C. superinae exhibit a spur-like process in the distal end of the spicules and a shorter tail (170 vs. 300 µm) with no spine. Finally, the eggs of C. superinae are smaller (60-89 × 45-71 vs. 95-100 × 80-85). To our knowledge, the new species is the first subulurid nematode found in an armadillo.

  16. Seasonal reproduction in male pichis Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) estimated by fecal androgen metabolites and testicular histology.

    PubMed

    Superina, Mariella; Jahn, Graciela A

    2009-06-01

    Poaching poses a threat to a wide variety of wildlife, and basic information about the biology of hunted species needs to be collected before their populations decline to the extent that requires drastic human intervention. As the survival of a species is related to its ability to reproduce, data on its reproductive cycle are necessary for the development of management strategies. The hypothesis was tested that the reproductive season of pichis (Zaedyus pichiy), small hibernating armadillos that inhabit arid environments in Argentina and Chile, is limited to spring months. Gonadal competence of semi-captive and wild-caught male pichis of Mendoza Province, Argentina was studied, by measuring fecal immunoreactive testosterone concentrations and evaluating spermatogenic activity. Results suggest that Z. pichiy is a seasonal breeder that regulates reproduction through photoperiodic cues. Gonadal competence was limited to a period of 3-5 months in spring and early summer and was reflected in enlarged testes, increased spermatogenesis, and significantly elevated fecal immunoreactive testosterone concentrations. The reproductive season for males from southern Mendoza was almost 6 weeks shorter than in the north. This fact, along with significant morphological differences between both groups, suggests that northern and southern pichis belong to two distinct populations. It is concluded that prolonged breeding seasons and more favorable environmental conditions in northern Mendoza favor a prolongation of the reproductive season that may allow pichis to breed later in the year, thus maximizing reproductive opportunities.

  17. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Mariela C.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative ( Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America ( D. bellus) and South America ( Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional.

  18. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Carlini, Alfredo A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative (Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America (D. bellus) and South America (Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional.

  19. Late Pliocene Glyptodontinae (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) of South and North America: Morphology and paleobiogeographical implications in the GABI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, Alfredo E.; Carlini, Alfredo A.; Gillette, David; Sánchez, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the main aspects of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) concerning the glyptodontine Glyptodontidae (Xenarthra) is very scarce. A bidirectional dispersal process was recently proposed for this clade, with the presence of the North American genus Glyptotherium Osborn recognized in latest Pleistocene sediments of northern South America (Venezuela and Brazil). However, the earliest stages of this paleobiogeographical process remain poorly understood, mainly because of the limited fossil record on this clade in late Pliocene sediments. The goals of this contribution are: a) to present and describe the first record of a glyptodontine glyptodontid from the late Pliocene of northern South America, tentatively assigned to a new species of Boreostemma Carlini et al. ( Boreostemma? sp. nov); and b) to analyze its paleobiogeographical implications with respect to the GABI. This new material was recovered from the San Gregorio Formation (late Pliocene, prior the GABI) in northern Venezuela, where it is represented by several osteoderms of the dorsal carapace. A comparison among the three known late Pliocene glyptodontine glyptodontids of a) southern South America ( Paraglyptodon), b) northern South America ( Boreostemma), and c) southern North America (" Glyptotherium"), reveals a series of shared characters between (b) and (c), not present in (a). The most important of these shared characters in (b) and (c) are: all the osteoderms present a great development of the central figure, which is always larger than the peripherals; the sulcus that delimits the central and peripheral figures is narrower and shallower; and all the osteoderms present are relatively thin. This evidence suggests that the lineage of Glyptodontinae which participated in the GABI and subsequently diversified in North America originated in northern South America. Moreover, the evident morphological differences between these glyptodontines with respect to the southern South American forms show a significant separation of both lineages since at least latest Miocene-early Pliocene.

  20. A new Dasypodini armadillo (Xenarthra: Cingulata) from San Gregorio Formation, Pliocene of Venezuela: affinities and biogeographic interpretations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mariela C; Carlini, Alfredo A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2014-02-01

    We describe Pliodasypus vergelianus gen. et sp. nov., a Dasypodini armadillo from the middle Pliocene of Venezuela (Vergel Member, San Gregorio Formation). Although scarce, the remains are remarkable because of their geochronologic proximity to the main phase of Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The cladistic analysis conducted reveals that Pliodasypus groups with Dasypus and both are sister taxa of Propraopus, whereas Anadasypus is at a basal position. With respect to the records of tribe Dasypodini, after its oldest representative (Anadasypus, middle and late Miocene), the chronologically subsequent form is Pl. vergelianus (middle Pliocene), followed by Dasypus bellus in higher northern latitudes (late Pliocene), and then by widespread occurrences in the Pleistocene of North America (D. bellus) and South America (Propraopus, Dasypus punctatus, and Dasypus novemcinctus). Thus, we infer that Dasypus differentiated in the late Pliocene at low latitudes in the northern South America. It leads to two alternative hypotheses of dispersal: (a) some early Dasypus remained cryptically in South America until the Pleistocene, whereas others dispersed to North America between 2.2 and 2.7 Ma, or (b) they dispersed to North America subsequently to the emersion of the Panamanian isthmus and D. bellus differentiated there; later, during the Pleistocene, D. bellus entered South America and experienced speciation. The same process of re-ingression has been proposed to other xenarthrans, breaking with the traditional assumption that the GABI was unidirectional. PMID:24414134

  1. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  2. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

    PubMed

    Góis, Flávio; González Ruiz, Laureano Raúl; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  3. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene–lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene–lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower–middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene–early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age. PMID:26083486

  4. A Peculiar New Pampatheriidae (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Cingulata) from the Pleistocene of Argentina and Comments on Pampatheriidae Diversity.

    PubMed

    Góis, Flávio; González Ruiz, Laureano Raúl; Scillato-Yané, Gustavo Juan; Soibelzon, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Pampatheriidae are a group of cingulates native to South American that are known from the middle Miocene to the lower Holocene. Two genera have been recognized between the lower Pleistocene and the lower Holocene: Pampatherium Gervais and Ameghino (Ensenadan, Bonaerian and Lujanian, lower Pleistocene-lower Holocene) and Holmesina Simpson (Blancan, Irvingtonian, upper Pliocene-lower Holocene). They have been mainly differentiated by their osteoderm morphology and cranio-dental characters. These taxa had a wide latitudinal distribution, extending from the southern part of South America (Península Valdés, Argentina) to North America (Florida, USA). In this contribution, we describe a new genus and species of Pampatheriidae for the lower and middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province and for the upper Pleistocene of Santa Fe Province (Argentina).The new taxon is represented by disarticulated osteoderms, one skull element, two thoracic vertebrae and a right femur and patella. It has extremely complex osteoderm ornamentations and particular morphological characters of the cranial element and femur that are not found in any other species of the family. This new taxon, recorded in the lower-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Stage/Age) and in the upper Pleistocene-early Holocene (Lujanian Stage/Age), is incorporated to the Pleistocene mammal assemblage of South America. Finally, the Pampatheriidae diversity is greater during the Lujanian Stage/Age than the Ensenadan Stage/Age.

  5. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.

  6. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272640

  7. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.

  9. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  10. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  11. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  12. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Joshua M; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-01-01

    Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants' behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities. PMID:24688856

  13. Heritability and genetic correlation of survival in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin'an; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Zhou, Zhou

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed the survival data of the offspring from 21 sires and 42 dams of turbot. The results show that the cumulative survival rates for turbot from 2 to 18 months range from 17.5% to 28.5%; main mortality occurred during months 2-5; and the highest survival rates of families were 97.9%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 99.7% during months 2-5, 5-6, 6-8, 8-11, and 11-18, respectively, and 99.5%, being 53.5%, 23.8%, 19.5%, 14.9%, and 13.2% higher, respectively, than the mean values in each period. In all periods, the estimated heritabilities for survival were very low without significant difference from zero ( P≫0.05) (values ranged from 0.06 to 0.12), indicating low additive genetic effects. The genetic correlations of survival among families in different periods were all positive, but low in magnitude (values range from 0.03 to 0.31). Genetic correlations between long-term survival and other periods’ survival had negative values (-0.06 and -0.15) and three positive values (0.16, 0.12 and 0.14). Genetic correlations between survival and weight were all positive, except for survival at months 2-5 and weight at 18 months, which was not significantly negative (-0.18).

  14. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on the pars tuberalis of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Romera, Edith Perez; Mohamed, Fabian; Fogal, Teresa; Dominguez, Susana; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary pars tuberalis (PT) is a glandular zone exhibiting well-defined structural characteristics. Morphologically, it is formed by specific secretory cells, folliculostellate cells, and migratory cells coming from the pars distalis. The purpose of this work was to investigate differences in specific cellular characteristics in the PT of viscachas captured in summer (long photoperiod) and winter (short photoperiod), as well as the effects of chronic melatonin administration in viscachas captured in summer and kept under long photoperiod. In summer, the PT-specific cells exhibited cell-like characteristics with an important secretory activity and a moderate amount of glycogen. In winter, the PT-specific granulated cells showed ultrastructural variations with signs of a reduced synthesis activity. Also, PT showed a high amount of glycogen and a great number of cells in degeneration. After melatonin administration, the ultrastructural characteristics were similar to those observed in winter, but the amount of glycogen was higher. These results suggest possible functional implications as a result of morphological differences between long and short photoperiods, and are in agreement with the variations of the pituitary-gonadal axis, probably in response to the natural photoperiod changes through the pineal melatonin. The ultrastructural differences observed in PT, after melatonin administration, were similar to those observed in the short photoperiod, thus supporting the hypothesis that these cytological changes are induced by melatonin.

  15. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody. PMID:23617773

  16. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody.

  17. Seasonal morphological variations and age-related changes of the seminal vesicle of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eduardo M; Aguilera-Merlo, Claudia; Cruceño, Albana; Fogal, Teresa; Piezzi, Ramón; Scardapane, Luis; Dominguez, Susana

    2012-05-01

    The viscacha is a seasonal rodent that exhibit an annual reproductive cycle with periods of maximum reproductive activity and gonadal regression. We studied seasonal variations in the morphology and cellular population of the seminal vesicles (SVs) during both periods and in impuber animals. Seminal vesicles were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Measurements of epithelial height, nuclear diameter, luminal diameter, and muscular layer were performed. Also, we studied the distribution of androgen receptors (AR) in this gland during the reproductive cycle and in impuber animal. During gonadal regression, principal and clear cells showed signs of reduced functional activity. These were characterized by an epithelium of smaller height, irregular nuclei, and cytoplasm with few organelles, dilated cisterns, and glycogen granules. In impuber animals, the principal cells showed large nuclei with chromatin lax and cytoplasm with small mitochondria, poorly developed Golgi apparatus, and granules of glycogen. On the other hand, the cells exhibited seasonal variations in the distribution and percentage of immunolabeled cells to AR throughout the annual reproductive cycle. During the gonadal regression period, glandular mucosa exhibited numerous epithelial cells with intense nuclear staining. However, fibromuscular stromal cells were weakly positive for AR in contrast to what was observed during the activity period. Considering that testosterone values are lower in adult animals during the period of gonadal regression and in impuber animals, our immunohistochemical results show a significant correlation with the percentage of AR-immunopositive cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the structure of the SVs changes in the activity period of viscacha, probably because of elevated levels of testosterone leading to an increase in the secretory activity of epithelial cells.

  18. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures.

  19. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  20. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S; Cox, Sherry K; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases--and the successful treatment regimen used--will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future.

  1. Dung as a potential medium for inter-sexual chemical signaling in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Seshagiri, P B; Sukumar, R

    2012-09-01

    Chemical signaling is a prominent mode of male-female communication among elephants, especially during their sexually active periods. Studies on the Asian elephant in zoos have shown the significance of a urinary pheromone (Z7-12:Ac) in conveying the reproductive status of a female toward the opposite sex. We investigated the additional possibility of an inter-sexual chemical signal being conveyed through dung. Sixteen semi-captive adult male elephants were presented with dung samples of three female elephants in different reproductive phases. Each male was tested in 3 separate trials, within an interval of 1-3 days. The trials followed a double-blind pattern as the male and female elephants used in the trials were strangers, and the observer was not aware of the reproductive status of females during the period of bioassays. Males responded preferentially (P<0.005), in terms of higher frequency of sniff, check and place behavior toward the dung of females close to pre-ovulatory period (follicular-phase) as compared to those in post-ovulatory period (luteal-phase). The response toward the follicular phase samples declined over repeated trials though was still significantly higher than the corresponding response toward the non-ovulatory phase in each of the trials performed. This is the first study to show that male Asian elephants were able to distinguish the reproductive phase of the female by possibly detecting a pre-ovulatory pheromone released in dung.

  2. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant.

  3. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-06-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and acetylation of sulfamethoxazole in turbot Scophthalmus maximus after intravascular administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fei; Lian, Chun'ang; Zhai, Qianqian; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) acetylation process in turbot reared at 18°C were investigated. Either SMX (parent drug) or its acetylized metabolite, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole (AcSMX), was administered intravascularly to turbot at a dosage of 50 mg/kg BW. Serum concentrations of the parent drug and its metabolite were both measured by HPLC, and the changes in concentration over time were analyzed in two- and non-compartment models because SMX treatment produced multiple peaks. The results demonstrated that the elimination half-life of the parent drugs, SMX and AcSMX, were 159.2 and 5.9 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.2 and 0.8 L/kg, and the clearance was 0.038 and 0.222 L/(h·kg), for SMX and AcSMX, respectively. SMX acetylation in turbot was 2.8%, and the deacetylation of AcSMX was 0.2%. These findings may be useful in optimizing SMX dosage regimens in turbot aquaculture.

  5. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    PubMed Central

    Thongtip, Nikorn; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr, Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Jansittiwate, Saran; Rungsri, Ronnachit; Boonprasert, Khajornpat; Wongkalasin, Warut; Homkong, Pongpon; Dejchaisri, Suthathip; Wajjwalku, Worawit; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. PMID:19615097

  6. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G.; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-01-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. PMID:26951068

  7. New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

    2006-12-01

    Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict.

  8. New challenges facing traditional nature reserves: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) conservation in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ma, Lichao; Feng, Limin

    2006-12-01

    Traditional conservation strategies can effectively preserve biodiversity within nature reserves, but may fail to mitigate the conflicts between rural development and wildlife conservation. This paper discusses the magnitude of the conflict and its development over time, focusing on elephant conservation and land resource management within and around nature reserves. We suggest that regulations alone can satisfy neither the demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services nor the demands to achieve human welfare. More innovative tools such as informed land-use planning and integrated conservation development projects are called for to reduce the agricultural interface with elephant range, and therefore to alleviate the damage caused by the conflict. PMID:21396011

  9. Heart rate variability in relation to stress in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Vézina-Audette, Raphaël; Herry, Christophe; Burns, Patrick; Frasch, Martin; Chave, Emmanuelle; Theoret, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a safe, reliable, and accessible means to measure heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and evaluates the use of HRV as a physiological correlate of stress in the Asian elephant. A probabilistic model indicates that HRV measurements may adequately distinguish between stressed and non-stressed elephants. PMID:26933266

  10. Heart rate variability in relation to stress in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Vézina-Audette, Raphaël; Herry, Christophe; Burns, Patrick; Frasch, Martin; Chave, Emmanuelle; Theoret, Christine

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a safe, reliable, and accessible means to measure heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and evaluates the use of HRV as a physiological correlate of stress in the Asian elephant. A probabilistic model indicates that HRV measurements may adequately distinguish between stressed and non-stressed elephants. PMID:26933266

  11. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S; Cox, Sherry K; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases--and the successful treatment regimen used--will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future. PMID:27010293

  12. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease. PMID:27010294

  13. A visual system for scoring body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Wijeyamohan, Shanmugasundaram; Treiber, Kibby; Schmitt, Dennis; Santiapillai, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A body condition score (BCS) may provide information on the health or production potential of an animal; it may also reflect the suitability of the environment to maintain an animal population. Thus assessing the BCS of Asian elephants is important for their management. There is a need for a robust BCS applicable to both wild and captive elephants of all age categories based on the minimum and maximum possible subcutaneous body fat and muscle deposits. The visually based system for scoring the body condition of elephants presented here satisfies these criteria and is quick, inexpensive, non-invasive and user-friendly in the field. The BCS scale correlates (P < 0.05) with morphometric indices such as weight, girth, and skin fold measures. PMID:25323789

  14. Causes and Correlates of Calf Mortality in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Khyne U.; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant. PMID:22396757

  15. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  16. The mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Shun; Song, Lin; Ren, Yichao; Dong, Xiaoyu; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-07-01

    The mucosal surfaces constitute the first line of host defense against infection, and also serve as the dynamic interfaces that simultaneously mediate a diverse array of critical physiological processes, while in constantly contact with a wide range of pathogens. The lysozymes are considered as key components for innate immune response to pathogen infection with their strong antibacterial activities. But their activities in mucosal immune responses were always overlooked, especially for g-type lysozymes, whose expression patterns in mucosal tissues following bacterial challenge are still limited. Towards to this end, here, we characterized the g-type lysozymes, Lyg1 and Lyg2 in turbot, and determined their expression patterns in mucosal barriers following different bacterial infection. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the turbot g-type lysozyme genes showed the closest relationship to Cynoglossus semilaevis. The two lysozyme genes showed different expression patterns following challenge. Lyg2 was significantly up-regulated in mucosal tissues following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae challenge, while Lyg1 showed a general trend of down-regulation. The significant mucosal expression signatures of g-type lysozyme genes indicated their key roles to prevent pathogen attachment and entry in the first line of host defense system. Further functional studies should be carried out to better characterize the availability of utilization of g-type lysozyme to increase the disease resistance in the mucosal surfaces and facilitate the disease resistant breeding selection. PMID:27189917

  17. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the process of gonadal sex differentiation in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Ribas, L; Robledo, D; Gómez-Tato, A; Viñas, A; Martínez, P; Piferrer, F

    2016-02-15

    The turbot is a flatfish with a ZW/ZZ sex determination system but with a still unknown sex determining gene(s), and with a marked sexual growth dimorphism in favor of females. To better understand sexual development in turbot we sampled young turbot encompassing the whole process of gonadal differentiation and conducted a comprehensive transcriptomic study on its sex differentiation using a validated custom oligomicroarray. Also, the expression profiles of 18 canonical reproduction-related genes were studied along gonad development. The expression levels of gonadal aromatase cyp19a1a alone at three months of age allowed the accurate and early identification of sex before the first signs of histological differentiation. A total of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEG) that had not previously been related to sex differentiation in fish were identified within the first three months of age, of which 44 were associated with ovarian differentiation (e.g., cd98, gpd1 and cry2), and 12 with testicular differentiation (e.g., ace, capn8 and nxph1). To identify putative sex determining genes, ∼4.000 DEG in juvenile gonads were mapped and their positions compared with that of previously identified sex- and growth-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). Although no genes mapped to the previously identified sex-related QTLs, two genes (foxl2 and 17βhsd) of the canonical reproduction-related genes mapped to growth-QTLs in linkage group (LG) 15 and LG6, respectively, suggesting that these genes are related to the growth dimorphism in this species. PMID:26586209

  18. The physiological performance and immune response of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to nitrite exposure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite (NO(2-)) is the most common toxic nitrogenous compound in aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nitrite physiological performance and immune response of turbot. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8 mM nitrite for 96 h. After 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure, blood were collected to measure the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), complement C3 (C3), complement C4 (C4), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme (LYS); gill samples were taken to analyze mRNA levels of LYS, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP 90), metallothionein (MT), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The results showed that nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, ALP, C3 and C4, reduced the levels of IgM and LYS, up-regulated the gene expressions of HSP 70, HSP 90, MT, TLR-3, TNF-α and IL-1β, and down-regulated the gene expressions of LYS and IGF-1 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Based on the results, it can be concluded that high level nitrite exposure results in dysfunction of the blood physiology and immunity in turbot. Further, this study will be helpful to understand the mechanism of aquatic toxicology induced by nitrite in marine fish. PMID:26802553

  19. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-06-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. PMID:26951068

  20. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals.

  1. Isolation and characterization of dinucleotide microsatellite loci in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Kongrit, C; Siripunkaw, C; Brockelman, W Y; Akkarapatumwong, V; Wright, T F; Eggert, L S

    2008-01-01

    The endangered Asian elephant is found today primarily in protected areas. We characterized 18 dinucleotide microsatellite loci in this species. Allelic diversity ranged from three to eight per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.200 to 0.842 in a wild population. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but linkage disequilibrium was detected between two loci in the wild, but not in the zoo elephants. These loci will be useful for the population-level studies of this species.

  2. Social life of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: implications for elephant welfare.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, Varadharajan; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Asian elephants in the wild live in complex social societies; in captivity, however, management often occurs in solitary conditions, especially at the temples and private places of India. To investigate the effect of social isolation, this study assessed the social group sizes and the presence of stereotypies among 140 captive Asian elephants managed in 3 captive systems (private, temple, and forest department) in Tamil Nadu, India, between 2003 and 2005. The majority of the facilities in the private (82%) and temple (95%) systems held a single elephant without opportunity for social interaction. The forest department managed the elephants in significantly larger groups than the private and temple systems. Among the 3 systems, the proportion of elephants with stereotypies was the highest in temple (49%) followed by private system (26%) and the forest department facility (6%); this correlates with the social isolation trend observed in the 3 systems and suggests a possible link between social isolation and abnormal elephant behavior separate from other environmental factors. The results of this study indicate it would be of greater benefit to elephant well being to keep the patchily distributed solitary temple and private elephants who are socially compatible and free from contagious diseases in small social groups at "common elephant houses" for socialization.

  3. Secretory pattern of inhibin during estrous cycle and pregnancy in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yuto, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Narushima, Etsuo; Katayanagi, Masayuki; Sugimura, Keisuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The ovary of female elephants has multiple corpora lutea (CL) during the estrous cycle and gestation. The previous reports clearly demonstrated that inhibin was secreted from lutein cells as well as granulosa cells of antral follicles in cyclic Asian elephants. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibin secretion during the pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Two African elephants and two Asian elephants were subjected to this study. Circulating levels of immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Four pregnant periods of an African elephant and three pregnant periods of an Asian elephant were analyzed in this study. Circulating levels of ir-inhibin started to increase at 1 or 2 week before the ovulation and reached the peak level 3 or 4 weeks earlier than progesterone during the estrous cycle in both African and Asian elephants. After last luteal phase, the serum levels of ir-inhibin remained low throughout pregnancy in both an African and an Asian elephant. The mean levels of ir-inhibin during the pregnancy were lower than the luteal phase in the estrous cycle despite high progesterone levels were maintained throughout the pregnancy. These results strongly suggest that CL secrete a large amount of progesterone but not inhibin during the pregnancy in elephants.

  4. Results of the third reproductive assessment survey of North American Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) female elephants.

    PubMed

    Dow, T L; Holásková, I; Brown, J L

    2011-01-01

    A written survey assessed reproductive status of female Asian and African elephants in AZA/SSP facilities in 2008, and data were compared to surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005. Results showed that ovarian acyclicity rates across the surveys remained unchanged for Asian (13.3, 10.9 and 11.1%) and African (22.1, 31.2 and 30.5%) elephants, respectively (P > 0.05), but were higher overall for African compared to Asian elephants (P < 0.05). In 2008, the percentages of Asian and African elephants with irregular cycles (14.3 and 15.8%) and irregular + no cycles (25.4 and 46.4%) was similar to 2005 (7.6 and 11.8%; 18.5 and 43.0%), but were increased compared to 2002 (2.6 and 5.2%; 16.0 and 27.3%), respectively (P < 0.05). For both species, ovarian acyclicity increased with age (P < 0.05). Reproductive tract pathologies did not account for the majority of acyclicity, although rates were higher in noncycling females (P < 0.05). Bull presence was associated with increased cyclicity rates (P < 0.05) for Asian (92.5 vs. 58.3%) and African (64.9 vs. 57.8%) elephants compared to females at facilities with no male, respectively. Cyclicity rates were higher for Asian (86.8 vs. 65.2%) and African (67.9 vs. 56.7%) elephants managed in free compared to protected contact programs (P < 0.05), respectively. Geographical facility location had no effect on cyclicity (P > 0.05). In summary, incidence of ovarian cycle problems continues to predominantly affect African elephants. Although percentages of acyclicity did not increase between 2005 and 2008, 42.2% Asian and 30.2% African females were no longer being hormonally monitored; thus, reproductive cycle abnormalities could be worse than current data suggest.

  5. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis.

  6. The secretory pattern and source of immunoreactive prolactin in pregnant African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yuto, Natsuki; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Lueders, Imke; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Sugimura, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Sayuri; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant African and Asian elephants. Levels of immunoreactive (ir-) PRL in serum and placental homogenates were measured by a heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on an ovine and human RIA system, and the localization of ir-PRL in the placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-human PRL. Circulating ir-PRL clearly showed a biphasic pattern during pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Serum levels of ir-PRL started to increase from the 4 - 6th month of gestation and reached the first peak level around the 11-14th month. A second peak of circulating ir-PRL levels was observed around the 18-20th month of gestation followed by an abrupt decline after parturition. In contrast, in a case of abortion of an African elephant, the second peak of ir-PRL was not observed, and the levels remained low for about four months until parturition. The weight of the fetus delivered at the 17th month of gestation was 23.5 kg, which was quite small compared with normal fetuses in previous reports. Ir-PRL was detected in placental homogenates, and immunolocalization was observed in trophoblasts in both the African and Asian elephants, indicating that the placenta is the source of ir-PRL during pregnancy in elephants. The present results clearly demonstrated that circulating ir-PRL shows a biphasic pattern during normal pregnancy and that the placenta appears to be an important source of circulating ir-PRL during pregnancy in both African and Asian elephants.

  7. Transcriptomic profiling revealed the signatures of intestinal barrier alteration and pathogen entry in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) following Vibrio anguillarum challenge.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chengbin; Fu, Qiang; Su, Baofeng; Zhou, Shun; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Zhang, Min; Ren, Yichao; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tan, Fenghua; Li, Chao

    2016-12-01

    The mucosal immune system serves as the frontline barriers of host defense against pathogen infection, especially for the fishes, which are living in the pathogen rich aquatic environment. The intestine constitutes the largest surface body area in constantly contact with the external pathogens, and plays a vital role in the immune defense against inflammation and pathogen infection. Previous studies have revealed that fish intestine might serves as the portal of entry for Vibrio anguillarum. To characterize the immune actors and their associated immune activities in turbot intestine barrier during bacterial infection, here we examined the gene expression profiles of turbot intestine at three time points following experimental infection with V. anguillarum utilizing RNA-seq technology. A total of 122 million reads were assembled into 183,101 contigs with an average length of 1151 bp and the N50 size of 2302 bp. Analysis of differential gene expression between control and infected samples at 1 h, 4 h, and 12 h revealed 2079 significantly expressed genes. Enrichment and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the centrality of the pathogen attachment and recognition, antioxidant/apoptosis, mucus barrier modification and immune activation/inflammation in the pathogen entry and host immune responses. The present study reported the novel gene expression patterns in turbot mucosal immunity, which were overlooked in previous studies. Our results can help to understand the mechanisms of turbot host defense, and may also provide foundation to identify the biomarkers for future selection of disease-resistant broodstock and evaluation of disease prevention and treatment options. PMID:27431928

  8. Effects of chemical stress and food limitation on the energy reserves and growth of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Kerambrun, E; Henry, F; Rabhi, K; Amara, R

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine the growth and energetic performance of juvenile turbot after exposure to contaminated sediment and during the subsequent recovery period with or without food limitation. We designed a two-step experiment by first exposing juvenile turbot to harbour sediment for 26 days and then transferring them to clean sea water with different frequencies of feeding for 35 days. Without food limitation, fish previously exposed to contaminated sediment compensated for weight, length and lipid reserve losses; we did not record any differences in size, Fulton's K condition index and triacylglycerol/sterol (TAG/ST) ratio after the 35-day depuration period compared to the reference fish. This result could be related to the compensatory growth mechanism observed in a wide range of fish species following a period of growth depression. With food limitation during the 35-day depuration period, recovery growth was not sufficient to restore length and weight values similar to the reference fish. Moreover, turbot previously exposed to contaminated sediment and subsequently fed twice or once a week exhibited extremely low TAG/ST ratios, but the reference fish submitted to the same restrictive feeding conditions did not. This study indicates that juvenile fish affected by chemical pollution can improve their biological performance if pollution events are followed by a period of abundant food. However, if pollution events occur during periods of food scarcity, e.g. in winter, storage of energy reserves will be compromised. PMID:25015714

  9. Lateralization in trunk and forefoot movements in a population of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Keerthipriya, P; Tewari, Rachna; Vidya, T N C

    2015-11-01

    We examined side preferences in trunk and forefoot movement during feeding in a wild population of Asian elephants. Trunk sweeping movements to pluck/uproot/gather vegetation and forefoot scuffing movements to uproot vegetation were scored in 206 individuals. We found a much stronger side preference in trunk use than in forefoot use, supporting a modified task complexity hypothesis. The forefoot and trunk appeared to be coordinated while feeding and, among individuals that had significant forefoot preferences, the proportion of right forefoot use was higher among right trunkers than left trunkers. Trunk and forefoot preferences were not dependent on individuals' social associates, and trunk preferences were also not dependent on feeding associates. There was a significant effect of individual identity on forefoot preference strength but no population-level side preference in trunk or forefoot movement, suggesting no dominant eye control over the task, which might be true of feeding-related foot movement in other herbivores also. There was no effect of age or sex on trunk or forefoot side preference or strength. The onset of trunk side preference, however, was very early compared with that observed in other species studied and calls for a comparison of the ontogeny of side preferences in precocial and altricial species. Based on 57 mother-offspring pairs, we found that offspring trunk side preferences were independent of their mothers' preferences, suggesting that these preferences are not maternally inherited.

  10. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality.

  11. Elemental Analysis of Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Teeth Using X-ray Fluorescence and a Comparison to Other Species.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Brown, Janine L; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-03-01

    Elemental composition in bone of the different species has variation depending on genetic and environmental factors especially their food habitat. The aims of this study were to conduct an elemental analysis of Asian elephant teeth, both deciduous (first molar, second molar, and tusk) and permanent (molar and tusk), and compare the elemental composition of permanent teeth among 15 species, mostly mammalian. These teeth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence at two voltages: 15 and 50 kV. In Asian elephants, deciduous tusk showed a lower Ca/Zn ratio compared to permanent tusk, because of the lack of Zn in permanent molars. Ca/Fe ratio was higher in deciduous than permanent molars. For permanent teeth, elephant molars presented a high Ca/Pb ratio but no Ca/Zn, Ca/Sr, and Zn/Fe ratios because of the lack of Zn and Sr in the samples tested. The key elemental ratios for differentiating elephant deciduous and permanent tusk were Ca/P and Ca/Zn. The considerable variation in elemental ratio data across 15 species was observed. All tooth samples contained Ca and P, which was not surprising; however, Pb also was present in all samples and Cd in a large majority, suggesting exposure to environmental contaminants. From discriminant analysis, the combination of Ca/P+Ca/Zn+Ca/Pb+Ca/Fe+Ca/Sr+Zn/Fe can generate two equations that successfully classified six (dog, pig, goat, tapir, monkey, and elephant) out of 15 species at 100 % specificity. In conclusion, determining the elemental profile of teeth may serve as a tool to identify the tooth "type" of elephants and to potentially classify other species.

  12. Hypoosmoregulation of larvae of the turbot, Scophthalamus maximus: drinking and gut function in relation to environmental salinity.

    PubMed

    Brown, J A; Tytler, P

    1993-04-01

    Measurement of blood osmolarity of pre-metamorphic turbot larvae demonstrated that hypoosmoregulation is well established in larvae 6 days post-hatch (121 degree-days) and older. Blood osmolarity of 121-420 degree-day larvae reared in 100% seawater was significantly greater than blood osmolarity of larvae reared in 50% seawater. Hypoosmoregulation involved drinking, but instantaneous drinking rates of 340 degree-day larvae reared in 100% seawater were only slightly more than those of similarly aged larvae reared in 50% seawater. Adaptation to environmental salinity involved changes in gut water absorption; 65-74% water absorption occurred in larvae reared in seawater compared to 30-35% water absorption in larvae reared in 50% seawater. Gastrointestinal water absorption occurred prior to the rectum. In seawater this occurred alongside a decrease in gut fluid osmolarity but desalting was apparently less significant than in adult fish. Absolute water absorption by the gut of 340 degree-day larvae reared in seawater was about 2-fold that of larvae held in 50% seawater, while the osmotic gradient between internal body fluids and environmental media differed by 4-fold, which implies changes the in water permeability of skin and/or developing gills. PMID:24214447

  13. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  14. Molecular Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-8 in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Vijay, Anushri; Nagarajan, Govindasamy; Kaur, Ramneek; Srivastava, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 are pro-inflammatory cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages in response to a variety of microbial and nonmicrobial agents. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. The open reading frame (ORF) of Asian elephant IL-1β is 789 bp in length, encoded a propeptide of 263 amino acid polypeptide. The predicted protein revealed the presence of IL-1 family signature motif and an ICE cut site. Whereas, IL-8 contained 321 bp of open reading frame. Interestingly, the predicted protein sequence of 106 aa, contains an ELR motif immediately upstream of the CQC residues, common in all vertebrate IL-8 molecules. Identity levels of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences of Asian elephant IL-1β ranged from 68.48 (Squirrel monkey) to 98.57% (African elephant), and 57.78 (Sheep) to 98.47% (African elephant), respectively, whereas that of IL-8 ranged from 72.9% (Human) to 87.8% (African elephant), and 63.2 (human, gorilla, chimpanzee) to 74.5% (African elephant, buffalo), respectively. The phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequenced showed that the Asian elephant IL-1β and IL-8 were most closely related to African elephant. Molecular characterization of these two cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8, in Asian elephant provides fundamental information necessary to progress the study of functional immune responses in this animal and gives the potential to use them to manipulate the immune response as recombinant proteins.

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Spatial Distribution of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the Lower Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Siders, Zachary A.; Westgate, Andrew J.; Johnston, David W.; Murison, Laurie D.; Koopman, Heather N.

    2013-01-01

    The local distribution of basking sharks in the Bay of Fundy (BoF) is unknown despite frequent occurrences in the area from May to November. Defining this species’ spatial habitat use is critical for accurately assessing its Special Concern conservation status in Atlantic Canada. We developed maximum entropy distribution models for the lower BoF and the northeast Gulf of Maine (GoM) to describe spatiotemporal variation in habitat use of basking sharks. Under the Maxent framework, we assessed model responses and distribution shifts in relation to known migratory behavior and local prey dynamics. We used 10 years (2002-2011) of basking shark surface sightings from July-October acquired during boat-based surveys in relation to chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, bathymetric features, and distance to seafloor contours to assess habitat suitability. Maximum entropy estimations were selected based on AICc criterion and used to predict habitat utilizing three model-fitting routines as well as converted to binary suitable/non-suitable habitat using the maximum sensitivity and specificity threshold. All models predicted habitat better than random (AUC values >0.796). From July-September, a majority of habitat was in the BoF, in waters >100 m deep, and in the Grand Manan Basin. In October, a majority of the habitat shifted southward into the GoM and to areas >200 m deep. Model responses suggest that suitable habitat from July - October is dependent on a mix of distance to the 0, 100, 150, and 200 m contours but in some models on sea surface temperature (July) and chlorophyll-a (August and September). Our results reveal temporally dynamic habitat use of basking sharks within the BoF and GoM. The relative importance of predictor variables suggests that prey dynamics constrained the species distribution in the BoF. Also, suitable habitat shifted minimally from July-September providing opportunities to conserve the species during peak abundance in the region. PMID:24324747

  16. Longitudinal study of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, indicates intermittent shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Laura; Dunham, Stephen; Yon, Lisa; Chapman, Sarah; Kenaghan, Megan; Purdie, Laura; Tarlinton, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction EEHV-1 is a viral infection of elephants that has been associated with a fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. Previous studies have suggested that pregnant animals may shed more virus than non-pregnant animals. Methods This study examined whether pregnancy affected the frequency or magnitude of shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1) using Taq man real-time PCR on trunk washes from four female elephants from a UK collection over three time periods between 2011 and 2014. These periods included pregnancies in two animals (period 1 and period 3). Behavioural observations made by keepers were also assessed. Results During period 1 there was a high degree of social hierarchical instability which led to a hierarchy change, and was associated with aggressive behaviour. Also during period 1 EEHV-1 shedding was of a higher magnitude and frequency than in the latter two time periods. Conclusions These results suggest that there is no clear relationship between shedding and pregnancy, and that behavioural stressors may be related to an increase in EEHV-1 shedding. PMID:26392899

  17. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  18. Molecular Characterization of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-8 in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Vijay, Anushri; Nagarajan, Govindasamy; Kaur, Ramneek; Srivastava, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 are pro-inflammatory cytokines produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages in response to a variety of microbial and nonmicrobial agents. As yet, no molecular data have been reported for IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding IL-1β and IL-8 of the Asian elephant. The open reading frame (ORF) of Asian elephant IL-1β is 789 bp in length, encoded a propeptide of 263 amino acid polypeptide. The predicted protein revealed the presence of IL-1 family signature motif and an ICE cut site. Whereas, IL-8 contained 321 bp of open reading frame. Interestingly, the predicted protein sequence of 106 aa, contains an ELR motif immediately upstream of the CQC residues, common in all vertebrate IL-8 molecules. Identity levels of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences of Asian elephant IL-1β ranged from 68.48 (Squirrel monkey) to 98.57% (African elephant), and 57.78 (Sheep) to 98.47% (African elephant), respectively, whereas that of IL-8 ranged from 72.9% (Human) to 87.8% (African elephant), and 63.2 (human, gorilla, chimpanzee) to 74.5% (African elephant, buffalo), respectively. The phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequenced showed that the Asian elephant IL-1β and IL-8 were most closely related to African elephant. Molecular characterization of these two cytokines, IL-1β and IL-8, in Asian elephant provides fundamental information necessary to progress the study of functional immune responses in this animal and gives the potential to use them to manipulate the immune response as recombinant proteins. PMID:26849252

  19. Intestinal ciliated protozoa of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 with the description of Triplumaria izmirae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Ito, Akira

    2014-02-01

    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates excreted in the feces of three Asian elephants living in Sasalı National Park, Izmir, Turkey, were investigated. Seven ciliate genera consisting of 36 species were identified. This is the first report on intestinal ciliates in elephants living in Turkey; one new species, T. izmirae n. sp., was described. This new species has a special macronucleus shape, skeletal rod plates with two wings and posterior contractile vacuole lying beneath the dorsal left base of the tail flap. The buccal infraciliary bands of T. izmirae are similar to those of T. selenica and T. suwako known from elephants. Triplumaria ovina and Raabena bella occurred in highest percentages in two elephants, whereas Latteuria polyfaria was highest in the third one. Ciliate densities in the three fecal samples were 3.5, 1.5 and 5.0 × 10(4)/mL. PMID:24280461

  20. Elemental Analysis of Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Teeth Using X-ray Fluorescence and a Comparison to Other Species.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Brown, Janine L; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Somgird, Chaleamchat; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-03-01

    Elemental composition in bone of the different species has variation depending on genetic and environmental factors especially their food habitat. The aims of this study were to conduct an elemental analysis of Asian elephant teeth, both deciduous (first molar, second molar, and tusk) and permanent (molar and tusk), and compare the elemental composition of permanent teeth among 15 species, mostly mammalian. These teeth were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence at two voltages: 15 and 50 kV. In Asian elephants, deciduous tusk showed a lower Ca/Zn ratio compared to permanent tusk, because of the lack of Zn in permanent molars. Ca/Fe ratio was higher in deciduous than permanent molars. For permanent teeth, elephant molars presented a high Ca/Pb ratio but no Ca/Zn, Ca/Sr, and Zn/Fe ratios because of the lack of Zn and Sr in the samples tested. The key elemental ratios for differentiating elephant deciduous and permanent tusk were Ca/P and Ca/Zn. The considerable variation in elemental ratio data across 15 species was observed. All tooth samples contained Ca and P, which was not surprising; however, Pb also was present in all samples and Cd in a large majority, suggesting exposure to environmental contaminants. From discriminant analysis, the combination of Ca/P+Ca/Zn+Ca/Pb+Ca/Fe+Ca/Sr+Zn/Fe can generate two equations that successfully classified six (dog, pig, goat, tapir, monkey, and elephant) out of 15 species at 100 % specificity. In conclusion, determining the elemental profile of teeth may serve as a tool to identify the tooth "type" of elephants and to potentially classify other species. PMID:26194819

  1. Lateralization in trunk and forefoot movements in a population of free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Keerthipriya, P; Tewari, Rachna; Vidya, T N C

    2015-11-01

    We examined side preferences in trunk and forefoot movement during feeding in a wild population of Asian elephants. Trunk sweeping movements to pluck/uproot/gather vegetation and forefoot scuffing movements to uproot vegetation were scored in 206 individuals. We found a much stronger side preference in trunk use than in forefoot use, supporting a modified task complexity hypothesis. The forefoot and trunk appeared to be coordinated while feeding and, among individuals that had significant forefoot preferences, the proportion of right forefoot use was higher among right trunkers than left trunkers. Trunk and forefoot preferences were not dependent on individuals' social associates, and trunk preferences were also not dependent on feeding associates. There was a significant effect of individual identity on forefoot preference strength but no population-level side preference in trunk or forefoot movement, suggesting no dominant eye control over the task, which might be true of feeding-related foot movement in other herbivores also. There was no effect of age or sex on trunk or forefoot side preference or strength. The onset of trunk side preference, however, was very early compared with that observed in other species studied and calls for a comparison of the ontogeny of side preferences in precocial and altricial species. Based on 57 mother-offspring pairs, we found that offspring trunk side preferences were independent of their mothers' preferences, suggesting that these preferences are not maternally inherited. PMID:26389557

  2. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality. PMID:24832106

  3. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:26656504

  4. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C4–HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C6–HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C8–HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10–HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12–HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C8–HSL, rather than C6–HSL. Exogenous C4–HSL and C8–HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C6–HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot. PMID:27420072

  5. Inter-species transmission of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schönherz, Anna A; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2013-04-01

    Successful viral infection is a complex mechanism, involving many host-pathogen interactions that developed during coevolution of host and pathogen, and often result in host-species specificity. Nevertheless, many viruses are able to infect several host species and sporadically cross species barriers. The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry, has developed an exceptionally wide host range across marine and freshwater environments. Transmission of VHSV between host species therefore represents a potential risk for aquaculture, which currently is not addressed in biosecurity managements. The objective of this study was to investigate the inter-species transmission potential of VHSV and evaluate whether infected marine wild fish pose a potential risk on marine cultured rainbow trout. A cohabitation infection trial with turbot as donor and rainbow trout as recipient host species was conducted. Turbot were intraperitoneally injected with either a marine-adapted (MA) or a trout-adapted (TA) VHSV isolate and subsequently grouped with naïve rainbow trout. Both VHSV isolates were able to replicate and cause mortality in turbot, while only the TA isolate was able to cross the species barrier and infect rainbow trout with fatal outcome. The results demonstrate that a marine fish species can function as reservoir and transmitter of TA VHSV isolates.

  6. Identification and expression analysis of TLR2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengqiao; Su, Baofeng; Gao, Chengbin; Zhou, Shun; Song, Lin; Tan, Fenghua; Dong, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yichao; Li, Chao

    2016-08-01

    The pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which can recognize the conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the bacteria, play key roles in the mucosal surfaces for pathogen recognition and activation of immune signaling pathways. However, our understanding of the PRRs and their activities in mucosal surfaces in the critical early time points during pathogen infection is still limited. Towards to this end, here, we sought to identify the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in turbot as well as its expression profiles in mucosal barriers following bacterial infection in the early time points. The full-length TLR2 transcript consists of open reading frame (ORF) of 2451 bp encoding the putative peptide of 816 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the turbot TLR2 showed the closest relationship to Paralichthys olivaceus. The TLR2 mRNA expression could be detected in all examined tissues, with the most abundant expression level in liver, and the lowest expression level in skin. In addition, TLR2 showed different expression patterns following Vibrio anguillarum and Streptococcus iniae infection, but was up-regulated following both challenge, especially post S. iniae challenge. Characterization of TLR2 will probably contribute to understanding of a number of infectious diseases and broaden the knowledge of interactions between host and pathogen, which will eventually help in the development of novel intervention strategies for farming turbot. PMID:27368539

  7. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₄-HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₆-HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₈-HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C₈-HSL, rather than C₆-HSL. Exogenous C₄-HSL and C₈-HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C₆-HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot. PMID:27420072

  8. Growth, oxygen consumption and activity of juvenile turbot ( scophthalmus maximus L.) reared under different temperatures and photoperiods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imsland, Albert K.; Folkvord, A.; Stefansson, S. O.

    Juvenile turbot (5-125 g) were reared under two experimental temperatures: 10°C and 16°C, and three experimental photoperiods: LDN (natural photoperiod), LD 16:8 (16 h light: 8 h darkness), LD24:0 (continuous light), to study effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth, activity and oxygen consumption. Growth was strongly affected by temperature and was higher at 16°C than at 10°C. Continuous light had a growth-promoting effect at 10°C from mid-December to late March, while at 16°C this effect was restricted to December and January. A seasonal change in the condition index was found. The groups reared in continuous light had higher condition indices in winter. The experimental groups held at 16°C had higher O 2 consumption than those at 10°C. The LD24:0 groups invariably had a higher overall O 2 consumption than did the LDN and LD16:8 groups, the differences being caused by reduced O 2 consumption in the latter groups during darkness. The LD24:0 groups displayed higher activity than the LDN groups, in which activity was very low at night.

  9. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  10. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet. PMID:22496296

  11. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos.

    PubMed

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05) between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05). Other differences (p<0.05) included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  12. Determination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in scallops (Pecten maximus) by UV fluorescence and HPLC combined with UV and fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friocourt, M.P.; Bodennec, G.; Berthou, F.

    1985-02-01

    During the last few years, the northern coasts of Brittany (France) were heavily polluted with several oil spills. This area of considerable economic importance for its oyster and scallop production is heavily dependent on the quality of its coastline and inshore waters. After the Amoco Cadiz oil spill, studies have been conducted on oysters from defined areas to determine the fate and effects of the hydrocarbons. No work was done on scallop samples. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the level of hydrocarbon pollution in areas concerned with scallop breeding. It is an attempt to use these organisms as biomonitors.

  13. Seasonal variation in the spatial distribution of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in the lower Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siders, Zachary A; Westgate, Andrew J; Johnston, David W; Murison, Laurie D; Koopman, Heather N

    2013-01-01

    The local distribution of basking sharks in the Bay of Fundy (BoF) is unknown despite frequent occurrences in the area from May to November. Defining this species' spatial habitat use is critical for accurately assessing its Special Concern conservation status in Atlantic Canada. We developed maximum entropy distribution models for the lower BoF and the northeast Gulf of Maine (GoM) to describe spatiotemporal variation in habitat use of basking sharks. Under the Maxent framework, we assessed model responses and distribution shifts in relation to known migratory behavior and local prey dynamics. We used 10 years (2002-2011) of basking shark surface sightings from July-October acquired during boat-based surveys in relation to chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, bathymetric features, and distance to seafloor contours to assess habitat suitability. Maximum entropy estimations were selected based on AICc criterion and used to predict habitat utilizing three model-fitting routines as well as converted to binary suitable/non-suitable habitat using the maximum sensitivity and specificity threshold. All models predicted habitat better than random (AUC values >0.796). From July-September, a majority of habitat was in the BoF, in waters >100 m deep, and in the Grand Manan Basin. In October, a majority of the habitat shifted southward into the GoM and to areas >200 m deep. Model responses suggest that suitable habitat from July - October is dependent on a mix of distance to the 0, 100, 150, and 200 m contours but in some models on sea surface temperature (July) and chlorophyll-a (August and September). Our results reveal temporally dynamic habitat use of basking sharks within the BoF and GoM. The relative importance of predictor variables suggests that prey dynamics constrained the species distribution in the BoF. Also, suitable habitat shifted minimally from July-September providing opportunities to conserve the species during peak abundance in the region.

  14. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-07-13

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₄-HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₆-HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C₈-HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C₈-HSL, rather than C₆-HSL. Exogenous C₄-HSL and C₈-HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C₆-HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot.

  15. Effect of temperature and short chain fructooligosaccharides supplementation on the hepatic oxidative status and immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Inês; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Costas, Benjamín; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2014-10-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with different levels of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on the hepatic oxidative status, hematology and innate immune parameters was evaluated in turbot reared at 15 °C and 20 °C. Four practical diets containing half of the protein provided by plant ingredients and the other half by fish meal were supplemented with scFOS at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% and fed to turbot juveniles for 9 weeks. Independently of the rearing temperature, diet with 1% scFOS increased the haematocrit (Ht) while 2% scFOS augmented the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), white blood cells (%) and lysozyme were higher in fish reared at 15 °C, whereas red blood cells and neutrophil numbers increased in fish reared at 20 °C. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were affected by rearing temperature being lower in fish reared at 20 °C. Compared to the control diet, at 15 °C, turbot fed 0.5 or 1% scFOS presented lower activities of CAT and glutathione reductase (GR). At 20 °C turbot fed the 2% scFOS diet presented lower activities of CAT and GPX. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity were not affected by temperature nor dietary prebiotic incorporation. Results of this study suggest scFOS has no effect on innate immunology or hematology. High temperature (20 °C) does not induce turbot oxidative stress, but the recommended dietary scFOS incorporation level for counteracting oxidative stress may differ with other rearing temperature. PMID:25149593

  16. Molecular identification, polymorphism, and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class IIA and B genes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xi; Chen, Song-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II has a central role in the adaptive immune system by presenting foreign peptides to the T-cell receptor. The full lengths of MHC class II A and B cDNA were cloned from turbot by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR), and genomic organization, molecular polymorphism, and expression of turbot class IIB gene were examined to study the function of class IIB gene in fish. The deduced amino acid sequence of turbot class II A (GenBank accession no.DQ001730) and turbot class IIB (GenBank accession no. DQ094170) had 69.8%, 67.6%, 65.5%, 59.2%, 54.5%, 52.8%, 46.2%, 46.6%, 28.3%, 28.5%, 22.2% identity and 71.5%, 70.7%, 67.1%, 68.4%, 46.7%, 53.5%, 46.7%, 50.0%, 25.2%, 29.2%, 27.6% identity with those of Japanese flounder, striped sea bass, red sea bream, cichlid, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, carp, zebrafish, nurse shark, mouse and human, respectively. Eleven class IIB alleles were identified from three turbot individuals. The amino acid sequence of turbot class IIB designated as Scma-DAB*0101 had 86.9%, 88.6%, 88.6%, 89.4%, 87.8%, 86.9%, 84.1%, 86.5%, 87.3%, 77.1%, and 86.9% identity with those of turbot class IIB 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 (Scma-DAB*0201- Scma-DAB*1201), respectively. Six different class IIB alleles observed in a single individual may infer the existence of three loci at least. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that turbot class IIA and B were ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues. Challenge of turbot with pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio anguillarum, resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of MHC class IIB mRNA from 24 h to 48 h after infection in liver and head kidney, and a significant decrease from 24 h to 72 h after infection in spleen, followed by an increase after 96 h, respectively.

  17. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  18. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and humans in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Stephens, N; Vogelnest, L; Lowbridge, C; Christensen, A; Marks, G B; Sintchenko, V; McAnulty, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily a pathogen of humans. Infections have been reported in animal species and it is emerging as a significant disease of elephants in the care of humans. With the close association between humans and animals, transmission can occur. In November 2010, a clinically healthy Asian elephant in an Australian zoo was found to be shedding M. tuberculosis; in September 2011, a sick chimpanzee at the same zoo was diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by an indistinguishable strain of M. tuberculosis. Investigations included staff and animal screening. Four staff had tuberculin skin test conversions associated with spending at least 10 hours within the elephant enclosure; none had disease. Six chimpanzees had suspected infection. A pathway of transmission between the animals could not be confirmed. Tuberculosis in an elephant can be transmissible to people in close contact and to other animals more remotely. The mechanism for transmission from elephants requires further investigation.

  19. Effect of feeding different levels of wheat roti on nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in semi-captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Saini, M; Katole, S; Kullu, S S; Swarup, D; Sharma, A K

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of wheat roti (WR) on nutrient utilization and blood metabolites in Asian elephants fed roughages ad libitum. Nine (3 M, 6 F) Asian elephants (14-52 years of age, 1909-3968 kg BW) were used in an experiment based on replicated Latin square design. Animals in each group (n = 3) were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a manner that animals in all the three groups were exposed to all the three treatments in three different periods. Each feeding trial comprised 30 days (25 days of adaptation and 5 days collection period). The amount of WR fed to the elephants was 0.18, 0.12 and 0.06% of BW in groups I, II and III, respectively. They were allowed to forage in the nearby forests for 6 h/day and to bathe for 2 h/day. The animals had ad libitum access to cut Rohini (Mallotus philippensis) trees in their night shelter. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn were measured. Feed consumption was not significantly different among the groups. Significant (p < 0.01) decrease in digestibility of DM and GE and blood glucose concentration was observed with decreased level of WR in the diet. Feeding of WR at 0.06% of BW supplied adequate amount of DE, CP, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn to meet requirement for adult maintenance. Feeding of WR in excess of 0.06% of BW supplied DE in excess of requirement, increased blood glucose concentration which may cause obesity and other associated health problems. It was concluded that the amount of WR should be restricted to 0.06% of BW in the diet of captive Asian elephants.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen. PMID:27431586

  1. Characterization and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein gene, SmPGRP2 in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linan; Gao, Chengbin; Liu, Fengqiao; Song, Lin; Su, Baofeng; Li, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), can recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) of the bacteria cell wall and play an important role in host immune defense against pathogen infection. They are highly structurally conserved through evolution, but with different function in innate immunity between invertebrates and vertebrates. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of PGRPs in mucosal immunity of teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a PGRPs gene (SmPGRP2) of turbot and investigated its expression patterns in mucosal tissues after challenge with Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Phylogenetic analysis showed the strongest relationship of turbot PGRP to halibut, which was consistent with their phylogenetic relationships. In addition, SmPGRP2 was ubiquitously expressed in turbot tissues, and constitutive expression levels were higher in classical immune tissues (including liver, spleen, and head-kidney) than mucosal tissues (intestine, gill and skin). After bacterial challenge, the expression of SmPGRP2 was induced and showed a general trend of up-regulation in mucosal tissues, except in intestine following V. anguillarum infection. These different expression patterns varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting its distinct roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogen. PMID:27461422

  2. The three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lei; Hutchinson, John R

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether elephants shift to using bouncing (i.e. running) mechanics at any speed. To do this, we measured the three-dimensional centre of mass (CM) motions and torso rotations of African and Asian elephants using a novel multisensor method. Hundreds of continuous stride cycles were recorded in the field. African and Asian elephants moved very similarly. Near the mechanically and metabolically optimal speed (a Froude number (Fr) of 0.09), an inverted pendulum mechanism predominated. With increasing speed, the locomotor dynamics quickly but continuously became less like vaulting and more like bouncing. Our mechanical energy analysis of the CM suggests that at a surprisingly slow speed (approx. 2.2 m s−1, Fr 0.25), the hindlimbs exhibited bouncing, not vaulting, mechanics during weight support. We infer that a gait transition happens at this relatively slow speed: elephants begin using their compliant hindlimbs like pogo sticks to some extent to drive the body, bouncing over their relatively stiff, vaulting forelimbs. Hence, they are not as rigid limbed as typically characterized for graviportal animals, and use regular walking as well as at least one form of running gait. PMID:17594960

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus ): a comparison between bacterium, parasite and virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; De La Herrán, Roberto; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Pereiro, Patricia; Figueras, Antonio; Bouza, Carmen; Toro, Miguel A; Martínez, Paulino; Fernández, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    One of the main objectives of genetic breeding programs in turbot industry is to reduce disease-related mortality. In the present study, a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting resistance and survival to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was carried out. Three full-sib families with approximately 90 individuals each were genotyped and evaluated by linear regression and maximum likelihood approaches. In addition, a comparison between QTL detected for resistance and survival time to other important bacterial and parasite diseases affecting turbot (furunculosis and scuticociliatosis) was also carried out. Finally, the relationship between QTL affecting resistance/survival time to the virus and growth-related QTL was also evaluated. Several genomic regions controlling resistance and survival time to VHS were detected. Also significant associations between the evaluated traits and genotypes at particular markers were identified, explaining up to 14 % of the phenotypic variance. Several genomic regions controlling general and specific resistance to different diseases in turbot were detected. A preliminary gene mining approach identified candidate genes related to general or specific immunity. This information will be valuable to develop marker-assisted selection programs and to discover candidate genes related to disease resistance to improve turbot production.

  4. Proline with or without hydroxyproline influences collagen concentration and regulates prolyl 4-hydroxylase α (I) gene expression in juvenile turbo ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaikai; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao; Peng, Mo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary proline (Pro), and Pro and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in combination on the growth performance, total Hyp and collagen concentrations of tissues, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase α(I) (P4H α(I)) gene expression in juvenile turbot feeding high plant protein diets. A diet containing 50% crude protein and 12% crude lipid was formulated as the basal and control, on which other two protein and lipid contents identical experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the basal with either 0.75% Pro (Pro-0.75) or 0.75% Pro and 0.75% Hyp (Pro+Hyp). Four groups of fish in indoor seawater recirculating systems, 35 individuals each, were fed twice a day to apparent satiation for 10 weeks. The results showed that dietary Pro and Hyp supplementation had no significant effect on growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile turbot (P > 0.05). Total Hyp and collagen concentrations in muscle were significantly increased when dietary Pro and Hyp increased (P <0.05), and fish fed diet Pro+Hyp showed significantly higher free Hyp content in plasma than those fed other diets (P <0.05). The expression of P4H a(I) gene in liver and muscle was significantly up regulated in fish fed diet Pro-0.75 in comparison with control (P <0.05); however the gene was significantly down regulated in fish fed diet Pro+Hyp in muscle in comparison with fish fed diet Pro-0.75 (P <0.05). It can be concluded that supplement of crystal L-Pro and L-Hyp to high plant protein diets did not show positive effects on growth performance of juvenile turbot, but enhanced total collagen concentrations in muscle.

  5. Effect of the early temperature on the growth of larvae and postlarvae turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L.: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, María D; Martínez, Juan M; Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Cal, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Turbot specimens were kept at three temperatures (T s ): warm (W) (21-22 °C), ambient (A) (17-18 °C) and cold (C) (13-14 °C) during the larval and early postlarval stages. At 90 days posthatching (dph), all of them were transferred to ambient T until 190 dph. At 2-3 dph, the specimens showed a monolayer of red muscle and immature white fibres; external or dermomyotome cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were observed on the surface of the red muscle. In the following stages, many myogenic cells and presumptive myogenic precursors were observed within the myotome, presumably derived of the dermomyotome. When comparing the growth at the same age (2, 10, 25, 37 dph), the body length and the muscle growth were positively influenced by the warm T, being the hyperplasia the muscle parameter more significantly influenced. The development rate was also positively correlated with the high T: the beginning of the metamorphosis took place at 15, 23 and 25 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at ambient temperature. The metamorphosis finished at 25, 30 and 37 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at warm temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar in all the groups at the end of the metamorphosis. At 90 and 190 dph, the largest body length was observed at W temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar between A and W; the number of fibres was similar in all the groups at 190 dph, which shows the beginning of a compensatory muscle growth in A and C, mainly in A.

  6. Immunohistochemical study of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor alpha response in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Coscelli, Germán; Bermúdez, Roberto; Ronza, Paolo; Losada, Ana Paula; Quiroga, María Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens. In this study, the distribution and kinetic of iNOS and TNFα-producing cells of kidney and spleen of turbot experimentally inoculated with A. salmonicida was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In control and challenged fish, individual iNOS(+) and TNFα(+) cells, showing a similar pattern of distribution, were detected. In challenged fish, the number of immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the evaluated organs, as well as the melanomacrophage centres showed variable positivity for both antigens. These results indicate that A. salmonicida induced an immune response in challenged turbot, which involved the increase of the activity of iNOS and TNFα in the leukocytic population from kidney and spleen.

  7. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  8. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Xiuhua; Huang, Jie; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L) than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05), but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05). Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route. PMID:26950114

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of the matricellular protein Sparc/osteonectin in flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus, and its developmental stage-dependent transcriptional regulation during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Núñez, E; Suarez-Bregua, P; Cal, L; Cal, R; Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Rotllant, J

    2015-09-01

    SPARC/osteonectin is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein, which is expressed in embryonic and adult tissues that undergo active proliferation and dynamic morphogenesis. Recent studies indicate that Sparc expression appears early in development, although its function and regulation during development are largely unknown. In this report, we describe the isolation, characterization, post-embryonic developmental expression and environmental thermal regulation of sparc in turbot. The full-length turbot sparc cDNA contains 930 bp and encodes a protein of 310 amino acids, which shares 77, 75 and 80% identity with human, frog and zebrafish, respectively. Results of whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal a dynamic expression profile during post-embryonic turbot development. Sparc is expressed differentially in the cranioencephalic region; mainly in jaws, branchial arches, fin folds and rays of caudal, dorsal and anal fins. Furthermore, ontogenetic studies demonstrated that Sparc gene expression is dynamically regulated during post-embryonic turbot development, with high expression during stage-specific post-embryonic remodeling. Additionally, the effect of thermal environmental conditions on turbot development and on ontogenetic sparc expression was evaluated.

  10. A Single Residue Change in Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin Results in the Loss of Phospholipase and Hemolytic Activities and Pathogenicity for Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)▿

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boguang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Shushan; Zhong, Yingbin; Chen, Jixiang; Austin, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi hemolysin, an important virulence determinant in fish pathogenesis, was further characterized, and the enzyme was identified as a phospholipase B by gas chromatography. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a specific residue, Ser153, was critical for its enzymatic activity and for its virulence in fish. PMID:17220231

  11. A combined strategy involving Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing increases genomic resources to aid in the management of reproduction, disease control and genetic selection in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genomic resources for plant and animal species that are under exploitation primarily for human consumption are increasingly important, among other things, for understanding physiological processes and for establishing adequate genetic selection programs. Current available techniques for high-throughput sequencing have been implemented in a number of species, including fish, to obtain a proper description of the transcriptome. The objective of this study was to generate a comprehensive transcriptomic database in turbot, a highly priced farmed fish species in Europe, with potential expansion to other areas of the world, for which there are unsolved production bottlenecks, to understand better reproductive- and immune-related functions. This information is essential to implement marker assisted selection programs useful for the turbot industry. Results Expressed sequence tags were generated by Sanger sequencing of cDNA libraries from different immune-related tissues after several parasitic challenges. The resulting database (“Turbot 2 database”) was enlarged with sequences generated from a 454 sequencing run of brain-hypophysis-gonadal axis-derived RNA obtained from turbot at different development stages. The assembly of Sanger and 454 sequences generated 52,427 consensus sequences (“Turbot 3 database”), of which 23,661 were successfully annotated. A total of 1,410 sequences were confirmed to be related to reproduction and key genes involved in sex differentiation and maturation were identified for the first time in turbot (AR, AMH, SRY-related genes, CYP19A, ZPGs, STAR FSHR, etc.). Similarly, 2,241 sequences were related to the immune system and several novel key immune genes were identified (BCL, TRAF, NCK, CD28 and TOLLIP, among others). The number of genes of many relevant reproduction- and immune-related pathways present in the database was 50–90% of the total gene count of each pathway. In addition, 1,237 microsatellites and 7,362 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also compiled. Further, 2,976 putative natural antisense transcripts (NATs) including microRNAs were also identified. Conclusions The combined sequencing strategies employed here significantly increased the turbot genomic resources available, including 34,400 novel sequences. The generated database contains a larger number of genes relevant for reproduction- and immune-associated studies, with an excellent coverage of most genes present in many relevant physiological pathways. This database also allowed the identification of many microsatellites and SNP markers that will be very useful for population and genome screening and a valuable aid in marker assisted selection programs. PMID:23497389

  12. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  13. Effect of feeding different levels of wheat roti on nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in semi-captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Saini, M; Katole, S; Kullu, S S; Swarup, D; Sharma, A K

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of wheat roti (WR) on nutrient utilization and blood metabolites in Asian elephants fed roughages ad libitum. Nine (3 M, 6 F) Asian elephants (14-52 years of age, 1909-3968 kg BW) were used in an experiment based on replicated Latin square design. Animals in each group (n = 3) were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a manner that animals in all the three groups were exposed to all the three treatments in three different periods. Each feeding trial comprised 30 days (25 days of adaptation and 5 days collection period). The amount of WR fed to the elephants was 0.18, 0.12 and 0.06% of BW in groups I, II and III, respectively. They were allowed to forage in the nearby forests for 6 h/day and to bathe for 2 h/day. The animals had ad libitum access to cut Rohini (Mallotus philippensis) trees in their night shelter. Intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn were measured. Feed consumption was not significantly different among the groups. Significant (p < 0.01) decrease in digestibility of DM and GE and blood glucose concentration was observed with decreased level of WR in the diet. Feeding of WR at 0.06% of BW supplied adequate amount of DE, CP, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn to meet requirement for adult maintenance. Feeding of WR in excess of 0.06% of BW supplied DE in excess of requirement, increased blood glucose concentration which may cause obesity and other associated health problems. It was concluded that the amount of WR should be restricted to 0.06% of BW in the diet of captive Asian elephants. PMID:24821439

  14. Diet composition, food intake, apparent digestibility, and body condition score of the captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus): a pilot study in two collections in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Romain, Sophie; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Bampenpol, Pitikarn; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Sombatphuthorn, Petthisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona

    2014-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the nutrition and feeding of captive Asian elephants in range countries. In this study, feeding regimens of two collections in northern Thailand and their actual diets shaped by availability of forage and mahout preferences were assessed for nutritional quality. The composition of dietary intake, fecal output, and the dietary regimen were individually recorded for 5 days in 10 elephants. The proportion of forage in the diet represented 41 to 62% of the dry matter intake (DMI) in one collection whereas in the other collections it varied between 68 and 72%. Between 8.5 and 24% of the diet consisted of commercial pellets, and hulled rice represented up to 25% of the DMI in one collection. Sugar cane, corn cobs, and fruits such as bananas were eaten in smaller amounts. Body condition scores and weights were measured, which revealed that nine animals were in good condition. Representative samples of each food as well as fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, fat, crude fiber, gross energy, ash, calcium, and phosphorus. Diet adequacy was assessed by calculating the digestible nutrients in the rations and by comparing them to the recommendations from literature. The digestible energy (DE) intake varied between 0.6 and 1.4 megajoules (MJ) per kg(0.75) per day; therefore, higher than the estimated recommendations of 0.65 MJ per kg(0.75) per day for nine of the elephants. In all elephants the crude protein intake was less than the maintenance recommendations and ranged between 6.01 and 7.56% of the DMI. Calcium intake was low in one collection and there was an inverse calcium: phosphorus ratio, which was inadequate. The present study adds to the knowledge of captive elephant diets in Asia and is a starting point for further research, which is necessary to design optimum diet plans for captive Asian elephants in Thailand. PMID:24712156

  15. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  16. The in vitro quality of frozen-thawed Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) spermatozoa in semen supplemented with Equex STM paste and oxytocin during and after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Buranaamnuay, Kakanang; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Equex STM paste (Equex) and oxytocin (OT) on the in vitro quality of frozen-thawed Asian elephant sperm were investigated in the study. The viability of frozen-thawed sperm was significantly higher in the Equex-treated (1 and 2%) groups than in the control group. There were no differences in the examined sperm parameters among the control and OT-treated (0.05-5IU) groups. PMID:23719124

  17. Adjuvant Effect of Quillaja saponaria Saponin (QSS) on Protective Efficacy and IgM Generation in Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) upon Immersion Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Xiuhua; Huang, Jie; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of Quillaja saponaria saponin (QSS) on protection of turbot fry was investigated with immersion vaccination of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum O1 and various concentrations of QSS (5, 25, 45 and 65 mg/L). Fish were challenged at days 7, 14 and 28 post-vaccination. Significantly high relative percent of survival (RPS) ((59.1 ± 13.6)%, (81.7 ± 8.2)%, (77.8 ± 9.6)%) were recorded in the fish that received bacterins immersion with QSS at 45 mg/L, which is comparable to the positive control group vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Moreover, a remarkably higher serum antibody titer was also demonstrated after 28 days in the vaccinated fish with QSS (45 mg/L) than those vaccinated fish without QSS (p < 0.05), but lower than the IP immunized fish (p < 0.05). Significant upregulation of IgM gene expression has also been identified in the tissues of skin, gill, spleen and kidney from the immunized fish in comparison to the control fish. Taken together, the present study indicated that QSS was able to dramatically evoke systemic and mucosal immune responses in immunized fish. Therefore, QSS might be a promising adjuvant candidate for fish vaccination via an immersion administering route. PMID:26950114

  18. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  19. Influence of light and feeding conditions on swimming activity rhythms of larval and juvenile turbot. Scophthalmus maximus L.: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champalbert, Gisèle; Le Direach-Boursier, Laurence

    1998-12-01

    Turbot larvae are transported towards coastal nursery areas and live in very shallow waters. Food availability is assumed to be an important factor that retains them in such areas. To study the effects of a biotic factor (food) and an abiotic factor (light) that strongly influence behavioural mechanisms, experiments were carried out on laboratory-reared animals: larvae (1 cm), post-larvae (1.2 to 2.5 cm) and early juveniles (6 to 7 cm). Three kinds of apparatus and methods were used to record variations in swimming activity: (1) a phototaxis device to study orientation reactions in horizontal tanks; (2) actographs with infrared photoelectric barriers fitted around vertical cylindrical tanks; and (3) video cameras and cylindrical tanks. Observations were performed in total darkness and under dark-light regimes. Different types and quantities of food were provided to the fish. Larvae and juveniles of turbot exhibited a positive phototaxis from 1 to 1000 μW cm -2. At intensities lower than or equal to 0.1 μW cm -2, they did not exhibit clear reactions toward or away from the light. Turbot larvae and juveniles kept in total darkness did not show a clear rhythm of activity. Under natural illumination as well as in artificial LD conditions of similar periodicity, larvae swam by day and night. Live food ( Artemia nauplii or juvenile mysids) induced an immediate increase in activity or the maintenance of a high level of activity, which decreased over the following days. Recently metamorphosed turbot kept under LD conditions exhibited a clear rhythm with a nocturnal maximum. Food given at night did not induce swimming changes as long as food density remained low. At higher prey concentrations, increased activity during feeding was followed by reduced activity for more than 24 hours. A similar response pattern was noted when active food was given in large quantities during the day: juveniles displayed an immediate increase in activity, which subsequently decreased. Regular food supply during the day induced an activity rhythm with a diurnal maximum. Despite slight differences, 6-7 cm juveniles behaved in a similar way. Our results clearly indicate the importance of trophic conditions on the swimming activity rhythms of larval and juvenile turbots and the lesser role of light conditions. They are compared with results in the literature describing the behaviour of the same species, and with juvenile sole, whose behaviour appears to be different.

  20. Effect of the early temperature on the growth of larvae and postlarvae turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L.: muscle structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, María D; Martínez, Juan M; Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Cal, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Turbot specimens were kept at three temperatures (T s ): warm (W) (21-22 °C), ambient (A) (17-18 °C) and cold (C) (13-14 °C) during the larval and early postlarval stages. At 90 days posthatching (dph), all of them were transferred to ambient T until 190 dph. At 2-3 dph, the specimens showed a monolayer of red muscle and immature white fibres; external or dermomyotome cells (presumptive myogenic cells) were observed on the surface of the red muscle. In the following stages, many myogenic cells and presumptive myogenic precursors were observed within the myotome, presumably derived of the dermomyotome. When comparing the growth at the same age (2, 10, 25, 37 dph), the body length and the muscle growth were positively influenced by the warm T, being the hyperplasia the muscle parameter more significantly influenced. The development rate was also positively correlated with the high T: the beginning of the metamorphosis took place at 15, 23 and 25 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at ambient temperature. The metamorphosis finished at 25, 30 and 37 dph at W, A and C temperatures, respectively, with the highest body length values at warm temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar in all the groups at the end of the metamorphosis. At 90 and 190 dph, the largest body length was observed at W temperature. However, the muscle cellularity was similar between A and W; the number of fibres was similar in all the groups at 190 dph, which shows the beginning of a compensatory muscle growth in A and C, mainly in A. PMID:26762321

  1. Effect of pre-freeze semen quality, extender and cryoprotectant on the post-thaw quality of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) semen.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Suthanmapinanth, P; Saikhun, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Sostaric, E; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2013-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially valuable methods for supporting the breeding management of endangered species like the Asian elephant. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant semen has however proven problematic with respect to maintenance of both adequate semen quality and fertility post-thaw. In this study, nine ejaculates from three adult bulls were used to compare the influence of extender (TEST versus INRA96®) and penetrating cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, 5% glycerol and 4% methylformamide) on post-thaw semen quality. We demonstrate that not only the freezing process, but also the quality of the semen before freezing, significantly influences the freezability of Asian elephant semen. Pre-freeze motility, viability, semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and the incidence of sperm mid-piece and tail abnormalities all significantly (p<0.05) affected post-thaw semen quality. While extender and cryoprotectant did not significantly affect any of the above semen quality parameters post-thaw, the skim-milk based extender (INRA96®) preserved DNA integrity better (p<0.05) than the egg yolk extender (TEST). Considerable between-ejaculate variation in all post-thaw semen quality parameters was also noted. It is concluded that strict criteria for semen quality is essential for the selection of Asian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality.

  2. Phaeobacter and Ruegeria species of the Roseobacter clade colonize separate niches in a Danish Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)-rearing farm and antagonize Vibrio anguillarum under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2008-12-01

    Members of the Roseobacter clade colonize a Spanish turbot larval unit, and one isolate (Phaeobacter strain 27-4) is capable of disease suppression in in vivo challenge trials. Here, we demonstrate that roseobacters with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum also colonize a Danish turbot larval farm that relies on a very different water source (the Danish fiord Limfjorden as opposed to the Galician Atlantic Ocean). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene sequences revealed that different species colonized different niches in the larval unit. Phaeobacter inhibens- and Phaeobacter gallaeciensis-like strains were primarily found in the production sites, whereas strains identified as Ruegeria mobilis or Ruegeria pelagia were found only in the algal cultures. Phaeobacter spp. were more inhibitory against the general microbiota from the Danish turbot larval unit than were the Ruegeria spp. Phaeobacter spp. produced tropodithietic acid (TDA) and brown pigment and antagonized V. anguillarum when grown under shaking (200 rpm) and stagnant (0 rpm) conditions, whereas Ruegeria spp. behaved similarly to Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and expressed these three phenotypes only during stagnant growth. Both genera attached to an inert surface and grew in multicellular rosettes after stagnant growth, whereas shaking conditions led to single cells with low attachment capacity. Bacteria from the Roseobacter clade appear to be universal colonizers of marine larval rearing units, and since the Danish Phaeobacter spp. displayed antibacterial activity under a broader range of growth conditions than did Phaeobacter strain 27-4, these organisms may hold greater promise as fish probiotic organisms.

  3. Organ distribution and food safety aspects of cadmium and lead in great scallops, Pecten maximus L., and Horse Mussels, Modiolus modiolus L., from Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Frantzen, Sylvia; Torkildsen, Lise; Maage, Amund

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the levels and organ distribution of the potentially harmful inorganic elements cadmium and lead in great scallops and horse mussels from unpolluted Norwegian waters. The scallops far exceeded the EU-limit for cadmium in bivalves when all soft tissues were analysed. When only muscle and gonad were included, however, the level of cadmium was acceptable, because cadmium accumulated in the digestive gland with a mean of 52 mg/kg ww (wet weight). In horse mussel, lead was the most problematic element and the concentration varied from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/kg ww with a mean of 3.7 mg/kg ww, exceeding the EU limit of 1.5 mg Pb/kg. The highest concentration of lead was found in the kidney with an average of 120 mg/kg ww and with a maximum value of 240 mg/kg ww. The kidney tissue accounted for approximately 94% of the lead burden in the horse mussel. In order to consume these bivalves, only muscle and gonad of great scallops should be used for consumption and the kidney of horse mussel should be removed prior to consumption.

  4. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K

    2016-07-01

    Three types of cells have been distinguished in the midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata: digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. According to the results of our previous studies, we decided to analyze the relationship between apoptosis and necrosis in their midgut epithelium and circadian rhythms. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these processes proceed in a continuous manner that is independent of the circadian rhythm in L. forficatus, while in S. cingulata necrosis is activated at midnight. Additionally, the description of apoptosis and necrosis showed no differences between males and females of both species analyzed. At the beginning of apoptosis, the cell cytoplasm becomes electron-dense, apparently in response to shrinkage of the cell. Organelles such as the mitochondria, cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum transform and degenerate. Nuclei gradually assume lobular shapes before the apoptotic cell is discharged into the midgut lumen. During necrosis, however, the cytoplasm of the cell becomes electron-lucent, and the number of organelles decreases. While the digestive cells of about 10 % of L. forficatus contain rickettsia-like pathogens, the corresponding cells in S. cingulata are free of rickettsia. As a result, we can state that apoptosis in L. forficatus is presumably responsible for protecting the organism against infections, while in S. cingulata apoptosis is not associated with the elimination of pathogens. Necrosis is attributed to mechanical damage, and the activation of this process coincides with proliferation of the midgut regenerative cells at midnight in S. cingulata.

  5. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K

    2016-07-01

    Three types of cells have been distinguished in the midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata: digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. According to the results of our previous studies, we decided to analyze the relationship between apoptosis and necrosis in their midgut epithelium and circadian rhythms. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these processes proceed in a continuous manner that is independent of the circadian rhythm in L. forficatus, while in S. cingulata necrosis is activated at midnight. Additionally, the description of apoptosis and necrosis showed no differences between males and females of both species analyzed. At the beginning of apoptosis, the cell cytoplasm becomes electron-dense, apparently in response to shrinkage of the cell. Organelles such as the mitochondria, cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum transform and degenerate. Nuclei gradually assume lobular shapes before the apoptotic cell is discharged into the midgut lumen. During necrosis, however, the cytoplasm of the cell becomes electron-lucent, and the number of organelles decreases. While the digestive cells of about 10 % of L. forficatus contain rickettsia-like pathogens, the corresponding cells in S. cingulata are free of rickettsia. As a result, we can state that apoptosis in L. forficatus is presumably responsible for protecting the organism against infections, while in S. cingulata apoptosis is not associated with the elimination of pathogens. Necrosis is attributed to mechanical damage, and the activation of this process coincides with proliferation of the midgut regenerative cells at midnight in S. cingulata. PMID:26277351

  6. 77 FR 6139 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... crocodile) Iguanidae Testudinidae Species: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Andean condor (Vultur...

  7. 78 FR 76171 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Jackass penguin (Spheniscus... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74...

  8. 76 FR 68205 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... elephant (Elephas maximus). Applicant: Newport Aquarium LLC, Newport, KY; PRT- 57930A. The applicant... demersus) and African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) to enhance their propagation or...

  9. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grech, Marta; Visintin, Andrés; Laurito, Magdalena; Estallo, Elizabet; Lorenzo, Pablo; Roccia, Irene; Korin, Maximiliano; Goya, Facundo; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Almirón, Walter

    2012-04-01

    The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

  10. Effects of the PPARα agonist WY-14,643 on plasma lipids, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes in a marine flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2015-07-01

    Fibrates and other lipid regulator drugs are widespread in the aquatic environment including estuaries and coastal zones, but little is known on their chronic effects on non-target organisms as marine fish. In the present study, turbot juveniles were exposed to the PPARα model agonist WY-14,643 for 21 days by repeated injections at the concentrations of 5mg/kg (lo-WY) and 50mg/kg (hi-WY), and samples taken after 7 and 21 days. Enzyme activity and mRNA expression of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase in the liver were analyzed as first response, which validated the experiment by demonstrating interactions with the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress pathways in the hi-WY treatment. In order to get mechanistic insights, alterations of plasma lipids (free cholesterol, FC; HDL associated cholesterol, C-HDL; triglycerides, TG; non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA) and hepatic mRNA expression of 17 genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were studied. The exposure to hi-WY reduced the quantity of plasma FC, C-HDL, and NEFA. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression were higher in hi-WY, and indicated an increased formation of VLDL particles and energy mobilization from liver. It is speculated that energy depletion by PPARα agonists may contribute to a higher susceptibility to environmental stressors.

  11. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.), dab ( Limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . I. Statistical analysis of the data and estimation of parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, T. C.; Beverton, R. J. H.

    The early demersal phase of those species of flatfish with inshore nursery areas are usually accessible with relatively modest demands on gear and logistics. However, the design of the sampling programme, adjustment for gear efficiency, and statistical analysis of the resulting catch data, raise a number of questions which have not hitherto been addressed comprehensively. This paper presents a systematic analysis of all the published data known to us of demersal 0-group flatfish in nursery grounds adjacent to the North Sea and British coastal waters, together with some hitherto unpublished data. The analysis showed that in most cases catches from repeated tows of a beam trawl can be averaged, after appropriate correction for gear efficiency, to give representative estimates of fish density for a succession of sampling dates. From the time series of density estimates thus obtained a selection of the period from maximum density until the early part of the following year proved to give a consistent window for the estimation of mortality rates by use of regression methods. A total of 57 data sets was analysed (45 plaice, 11 dab and 1 turbot). Of these 48 gave essentially linear log/time trends, of which 7 showed some degree of curvature, (4 concave upwards and 3 concave downwards). In one further case the trend remained essentially horizontal (flat-topped) until near the end of the sampling window and then declined sharply. The remaining 8 trends were so erratic as to preclude any further conclusions to be drawn. There was no obvious regularity in the occurrence of either the concave or flat-topped patterns by location or in time. Estimates of density and mortality rate are presented, together with estimates of standard errors of these estimates. The interpretation of these estimates in relation to the design and frequency of the sampling procedure is discussed, with special reference to the different topographies of the areas surveyed.

  12. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( pleuronectes platessa L.) dab ( limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . II. Comparison of mortality rates and construction of life table for 0-group plaice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverton, R. J. H.; Iles, T. C.

    This paper collates and compares the available published and unpublished estimates of mortality rates of demersal 0-group plaice, dab and turbot on their nursery grounds of the North Sea and adjacent coastal waters. Seasonal and spatial variations account for some but not all of the observed differences. The consolidated phase mortality rates throughout the first year from hatching onwards are then checked against independent data of the total egg-production and numbers of age 1 recruits for the 1986, 1987 and 1988 year-classes of plaice. From this analysis a revised life-table for the first year of life of North Sea plaice is constructed. The mortality rate of dab from mid-summer to the end of the first year is well correlated with that of plaice in the same location at the same time, suggesting that the main causes of mortality during this phase of the life-history are the same in both species. The only available estimate of the mortality rate of demersal 0-group turbot is within the upper part of the range for plaice. The demographic implications of these findings are examined and significant gaps identified in the present knowledge of the quantitative early life-history of these species.

  13. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( Platessa platessa L.), dab ( Limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . III. Density dependence of mortality rates of 0-group plaice and some demographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverton, R. J. H.; Iles, T. C.

    This last of our three linked contributions on the dynamics of North Sea plaice is concerned with the detection and measurement from demographic data of the density-dependence of mortality rate during the early demersal phase of the life history. A mathematical expression is developed for the survival trajectory of a cohort subject to an instantaneous relative mortality rate which is a linear function of the algorithm of its density. This is used to analyse three independent data sets; a. pairs of densities at or soon after settlement in the Wadden Sea, b. estimates of seasonal mortality rates (M̊ d -1) and initial density of 0-group plaice cohorts derived by linear regression and c. autumn estimates 0- and 1-group fish from the ICES Young Fish Surveys. After correcting for various sources of bias, these each gave statistically significant estimates of the density-dependent mortality coefficient μ2 of 0.015, 0.0044 and 0.0010 per day, respectively. The same theoretical treatment of density-dependent mortality is used to develop an equation predicting the progressive 'damping' of the extremes of inter-year-class variation with age. The above three estimates of the density-dependent mortality coefficient μ2 applied in sequence provide more than sufficient 'damping' to explain the very low variability of recruitment and long-term stability which is characteristic of the North Sea plaice stock.

  14. The use of a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test on sperm of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), and central rock rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus).

    PubMed

    Matson, Phillip; Kappelle, Wendy; Malecki, Irek

    2009-07-01

    A hypo-osmotic swelling test using TALP-HEPES medium over a range of 50 to 300 mOsm/kg was applied to sperm from domestic and endangered species. Maximal responses of curling of the sperm tails were seen over a range of osmolalities for epididymal sperm from the pig (100 mOsm/kg), hamadryas baboon (range 50-125 mOsm/kg), and central rock rat (range 50-100 mOsm/kg), and the ejaculated sperm from the emu (50 mOsm/kg) and the Asian elephant (range 75-150 mOsm/kg). A solution of TALP-HEPES medium at 100 mOsm/kg would be suitable to obtain the maximal response in this range of mammals tested, though it would need to be diluted to at least 50 mOsm/kg when testing the viability of the emu sperm.

  15. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  16. Does autophagy in the midgut epithelium of centipedes depend on the day/night cycle?

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M

    2015-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata, is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. In L. forficatus, the autophagy occurred only in the cytoplasm of the digestive cells as a sporadic process, while in S. cingulata, it occurred intensively in the digestive, secretory and regenerative cells of the midgut epithelium. In both of the species that were analyzed, this process proceeded in a continuous manner and did not depend on the day/night cycle. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the autophagosomes and autolysosomes were located mainly in the apical and perinuclear cytoplasm of the digestive cells in L. forficatus. However, in S. cingulata, the entire cytoplasm was filled with autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Initially the membranes of phagophores surround organelles during autophagosome formation. Autolysosomes result from the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Residual bodies which are the last stage of autophagy were released into the midgut lumen due to necrosis. Autophagy in the midgut epithelia that were analyzed was confirmed using acid phosphatase and mono-dansyl-cadaverine stainings. PMID:25464151

  17. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active

  18. 75 FR 75491 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... FR 65505). The applicant subsequently submitted additional information in support of their... applications. III. Permit Applications A. Endangered Species Applicant: International Elephant Foundation, Fort... biological specimens of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) from wild animals in all range countries and...

  19. 76 FR 14985 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...- 28295A The applicant requests a permit to re-import two captive born female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive born male Asian elephant from African Lion Safari and Game Farm, Ontario,...

  20. Quadriceps effort during squat exercise depends on hip extensor muscle strategy.

    PubMed

    Bryanton, Megan A; Carey, Jason P; Kennedy, Michael D; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2015-03-01

    Hip extensor strategy, specifically relative contribution of gluteus maximus versus hamstrings, will influence quadriceps effort required during squat exercise, as hamstrings and quadriceps co-contract at the knee. This research examined the effects of hip extensor strategy on quadriceps relative muscular effort (RME) during barbell squat. Inverse dynamics-based torque-driven musculoskeletal models were developed to account for hamstrings co-contraction. Net joint moments were calculated using 3D motion analysis and force platform data. Hamstrings co-contraction was modelled under two assumptions: (1) equivalent gluteus maximus and hamstrings activation (Model 1) and (2) preferential gluteus maximus activation (Model 2). Quadriceps RME, the ratio of quadriceps moment to maximum knee extensor strength, was determined using inverse dynamics only, Model 1 and Model 2. Quadriceps RME was greater in both Models 1 and 2 than inverse dynamics only at barbell loads of 50-90% one repetition maximum. The highest quadriceps RMEs were 120 ± 36% and 87 ± 28% in Models 1 and 2, respectively, which suggests that barbell squats are only feasible using the Model 2 strategy prioritising gluteus maximus versus hamstrings activation. These results indicate that developing strength in both gluteus maximus and quadriceps is essential for lifting heavy loads in squat exercise. PMID:25895990

  1. Influence of Hip Joint Position on Muscle Activity during Prone Hip Extension with Knee Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhisa; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Osaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hisashi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the selective activation of the gluteus maximus during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise, with the hip joint in different positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 healthy, male volunteers. [Methods] Activities of the right gluteus maximus, right hamstrings, bilateral lumbar erector spinae, and bilateral lumbar multifidus were measured using surface electromyography during a prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise. Measurements were made with the hip joint in each of 3 positions: (1) a neutral hip joint position, (2) an abduction hip joint position, and (3) an abduction with external rotation hip joint position. [Results] Gluteus maximus activity was significantly higher when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. Gluteus maximus activity was also significantly higher in the abduction hip joint position than in the neutral hip joint position. Hamstring activity was significantly lower when the hip was in the abduction with external rotation hip joint position than when it was in the neutral hip joint and abduction hip joint positions. [Conclusion] Abduction and external rotation of the hip during prone hip extension with knee flexion exercise selectively activates the gluteus maximus. PMID:25540492

  2. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. PMID:27139585

  3. Studies on the cardiac physiology of Onychophora and Chilopoda.

    PubMed

    Hertel, W; Wirkner, C S; Pass, G

    2002-11-01

    Cardiac physiology in Onychophora and Chilopoda has not yet been studied by electrophysiological methods. Here we present ECGs and the first intracellular recordings from dorsal vessel muscle cells in Scolopendra cingulata, Lithobius forficatus and Peripatopsis sp. In Onychophora, a myogenic automatism generates the heart function. In the Chilopoda examined, heartbeat is triggered by a neurogenic automatism that is superimposed over a basic myogenic rhythm, which occurs under experimental conditions. The neuropeptide proctolin and the head peptide have no significant effects in the species investigated. The results are discussed from the viewpoints of comparative physiology and phylogenetics.

  4. Fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) from Brazil, with reference to classical biological control.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Claudine D S; Barreto, Robert W; Killgore, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    A survey of fungal pathogens of Miconia calvescens was carried out in Brazil aimed at finding potential classical biocontrol agents for management of this invasive alien weed in Hawaii. Coccodiella miconiae, Glomerella cingulata (= Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae) and the new species Guignardia miconiae and Korunomyces prostratus were found associated with foliar diseases and are described herein. Two previously undescribed spore stages of Coccodiella miconiae also were obtained allowing a complete description of this species. Pseudocercospora tamonae associated with leaf spots of other species of Miconia also was collected and also was proven to be pathogenic to M. calvescens. PMID:17663128

  5. An armadillo-like sphagesaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Thiago S.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2009-02-01

    The Sphagesauridae is a family of Crocodyliformes exclusively known for the Brazilian Late Cretaceous Bauru Basin. This lineage reveals how diverse was the morphology and ecology of terrestrial Crocodyliformes during the Late Cretaceous of Gondwana. Here is described Armadillosuchus arrudai gen. et sp. nov., a sphagesaurid that presents some mammal-like morphological features, such as propalinal and alternate unilateral jaw occlusion pattern and heavy body armor, composed of a rigid shield and mobile-banded section as in extant armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). These unusual morphological features contrast to the double row of osteoderms observed on the closest relatives of A. arrudai. As its mammal analogs, A. arrudai presents some evidence of fossoriality and an exclusive terrestrial life style in contrast to the extant alligatorids and crocodylids.

  6. Muscle contributions to propulsion and braking during walking and running: insight from external force perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard G; Sumner, Bonnie J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-09-01

    There remains substantial debate as to the specific contributions of individual muscles to center of mass accelerations during walking and running. To gain insight, we altered the demand for muscular propulsion and braking by applying external horizontal impeding and aiding forces near the center of mass as subjects walked and ran on a treadmill. We recorded electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus (superior and inferior portions), the gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus/membrinosus, vastus medialis, lateral and medial gastrocnemius and soleus. We reasoned that activity in a propulsive muscle would increase with external impeding force and decrease with external aiding force whereas activity in a braking muscle would show the opposite. We found that during walking the gastrocnemius and gluteus maximus provide propulsion while the vasti are central in providing braking. During running, we found that the gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and soleus all contribute to propulsion.

  7. HIP MUSCLE ACTIVATION AND KNEE FRONTAL PLANE MOTION DURING WEIGHT BEARING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, Amanda J.; Tyson, Tiffany L.; Merkitch, Kenneth W.; Reutemann, Paul; Chestnut, John Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Hip abduction strengthening exercises may be critical in the prevention and rehabilitation of both overuse and traumatic injuries where knee frontal plane alignment is considered to be important. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the muscular activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius during the double-leg squat (DLS), single-leg squat (SLS), or front step-up (FSU), and the same exercises when an added load was used to pull the knee medially. Methods: Eighteen healthy females (ages 18-26) performed six exercises: DLS, DLS with load, FSU, FSU with load, SLS, and SLS with load. Integrated and peak surface electromyography of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius of the dominant leg were recorded and normalized. Motion analysis was used to measure knee abduction angle during each exercise. Results: SLS had the highest integrated and peak activation for both muscles, regardless of load. Adding load, only increased DLS integrated gluteus maximus activation (p=0.019). Load did not increase integrated gluteus medius or peak gluteus maximus activation. Adding load decreased SLS peak gluteus medius activation (p=0.003). Adding load increased peak knee abduction angle during DLS (p=0.013), FSU (p=0.000), and SLS (p=0.011). Conclusions: Overall, the SLS was most effective exercise for activating the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. Applied knee load does not appear to increase muscle activation during SLS and FSU. DLS with an applied load may be more beneficial in activating the gluteus maximus. Overall, the use of applied loads appears to promote poorer musculoskeletal alignment in terms of peak knee valgus angle. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:21713231

  8. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

  9. Molecular characterization of Stictodora tridactyla (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from Kuwait Bay using rDNA ITS and mtCO1.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Wafa Y; Alnaqeeb, Majed A; Isaac, Asha M; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A

    2015-11-01

    Stictodora tridactyla is an intestinal fluke in the family Heterophyidae that parasitizes shorebirds and mammals, including humans. Its metacercarial cyst stage was reported in the Arabian killifish, Aphanius dispar, at Kuwait Bay. In the present study, Cerithidea cingulata was found to serve as the first intermediate host of S. tridactyla. In order to establish the snail-fish link in the life cycle of S. tridactyla, complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 2 (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and partial sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 were obtained for metacercarial cysts isolated from the fish A. dispar and rediae isolated from the snail C. cingulata. Sequence alignment demonstrated that these larval stages belong to the same heterophyid species, S. tridactyla. Phylogenetic analysis based on rDNA ITS1, ITS2, and mtCO1 confirmed the position of S. tridactyla within the Heterophyidae and found it to cluster with Haplorchis spp. The present study represents the first molecular study correlating the larval stages of S. tridactyla using rDNA ITS1, ITS2, and mtCO1 and examining the phylogenetic relationships of S. tridactyla with different heterophyid species. PMID:26268569

  10. Molecular identification of Probolocoryphe uca (Sarkisian, 1957; Digenea: Microphallidae) from Kuwait Bay using ITS1 and ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Wafa Y; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A

    2010-04-01

    Probolocoryphe species occur primarily as intestinal parasites of birds and mammals. Infection of the crab Nanosesarma minutum with the metacercarial cyst stages of Probolocoryphe uca is common in Kuwait Bay. In this study, the snail Cerithidea cingulata was used to determine if it would serve as first intermediate host in the parasite's life cycle. To determine the snail-crab link in the life cycle of P. uca based on rDNA molecular data, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the metacercarial cyst stage from the crab N. minutum and the sporocyst stage from the snail C. cingulata were sequenced and compared. Sequence alignment clearly demonstrated that the sporocysts and metacercariae belonged to P. uca. Comparisons were also made between the ITS sequences of P. uca and other digenean species available in GenBank. NCBI databases were used for sequence homology analysis using BLAST, ClustalW, and MUSCLE. The phylogenetic trees based on the homology analysis of the ITS (1 and 2) sequences constructed using PHYLIP and MEGA 4.0 confirmed the identification and positioned P. uca in the Microphallidae family. PMID:20143090

  11. Peak Muscle Activation, Joint Kinematics, and Kinetics during Elliptical and Stepping Movement Pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Greany, John F.; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = 0.01), 29% more knee extension (p = 0.003), 101% higher peak…

  12. 78 FR 38731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... period. Applicant: Greater Baton Rouge Zoo, Baker, LA; PRT-692868 The applicant requests renewal of their... brachyurus) Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Applicant: Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, GA: PRT-740398 The...

  13. 77 FR 6816 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... Applicant: Phoenix Zoo, Phoenix, AZ; PRT-678366 The applicant requests renewal of their captive-bred... maximus) Applicant: Zoo Boise, Boise, ID; PRT-781629 The applicant requests amendment of their...

  14. 77 FR 15383 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... Tragopan Species Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) ] Applicant: Oakland Zoo, Oakland, CA; PRT-199071 The... Ana Zoo, Santa Ana, CA; PRT-691733 The applicant requests renewal of their captive-bred...

  15. First report of Cobboldia elephantis (Cobbold, 1866) larvae in a free ranging wild elephant from Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Venu, R; Thoiba Singh, Th; Veeraharin, R; Rajesh, D; Srilatha, Ch

    2015-06-01

    Larvae of Cobboldia elephantis have been reported from the stomach of a free ranging wild elephant (Elephas maximus) while conducting post mortem examination at Palamner forest range, Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. This is the first report of C. elephantis in free ranging wild elephant in Andhra Pradesh state, India. PMID:26063993

  16. Romans: A Simulation of the History and Culture of Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staneart, Chuck; Baral, Wanda

    This simulation allows students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of ancient Roman life that have influenced present institutions and way of life. The phases of the unit include: (1) "Daily Life"; (2) "Forum of Roma"; (3) "Temple of Apollo"; (4) "Pax Romana"; (5) "History/Mystery: 'Who Killed Mama Roma?'"; (6) "Circus Maximus"…

  17. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity. PMID:19488520

  18. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions.

  19. Synthesis of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazones as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhinan; Lv, Min; Li, Qin; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-15

    A series of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Valsa mali, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Glomerella cingulata. Compounds 7b, 8d, 9a, 9b and 9d exhibited a good and broad-spectrum of antifungal activities against at least five phytopathogenic fungi at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. It demonstrated that addition of one double bond between the phenylsulfonylhydrazone fragment and the furan ring of 6a,b,d could afford more active compounds 9a,b,d; however, introduction of the nitro group on the phenyl ring of 6a-9a gave less potent compounds 6e-9e. PMID:26471091

  20. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf.

  1. Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Stott, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  2. [The gallery forests of the São Francisco river as corridors for Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from tropical rainforests].

    PubMed

    Moura, Debora C; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Euglossini are typical bees of Neotropical rainforests and only a few species occur in the Caatinga. The São Francisco river, which is the only permanent river in the semi-arid NE-Brazil, is bordered by a gallery forest with evergreen leaves. This environment offers flooral rewards along the year. Surveys of euglossine bees by attracting males to scent baits showed that species of the Atlantic Rainforest like Euglossa imperialis Cockerel, E. truncata Moure and Eulaema cingulata Fabricius occur in the gallery forest of the São Francisco river under the semi-arid climate of the caatinga region. These bees are restricted to the gallery forests which function as bio-corridors, and are absent at places where the forests were cut down. This emphasizes the need to protect the threatened gallery forests to maintain biodiversity.

  3. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions. PMID:26895872

  4. Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2012-10-01

    Mercury concentrations in three flatfish species - flounder (Platichtys flesus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and Baltic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), netted in the southern Baltic Sea were assessed and compared to concentrations of this metal in sediments, sea water, and flatfish food - bivalve Macoma balthica, isopod Saduria entomon, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Collected simultaneously with flatfish in 2009 and 2010. Different concentrations of mercury depending on species, tissue or organ, sex, individual length, kind of food, and region were determined. The muscle tissues of turbot had the highest concentrations of the metal. The bioaccumulation (BF) and biomagnification (BMF) factors has been counted showing that the muscle tissues of turbot have maximum affinity for mercury, and thus best reflected the metal contamination of the Baltic Sea environment. The data suggest that the common Baltic turbot (S. maximus) is an important model species, suitable and cost-effective to biomonitor environmental mercury pollution for ecological research.

  5. Comparison of the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors and erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the isolated contraction ratios of the hip extensors, erector spinae muscles of the lumbar region, and thoracic muscles during different back extension exercises. [Subjects] Twelve males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed various back extension exercises. The activities of the T7 erector spinae muscles, L3 erector spinae muscles, and the gluteus maximus were measured, and the isolation contraction ratios were calculated. [Results] The isolated contraction ratio of the T7 erector spinae muscles significantly increased during exercise 2. The isolated contraction ratio of the gluteus maximus increased by a significant degree during exercise 1 compared with the other exercises. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the back extension exercises 1 and 2 can be applied to selectively exercise the hip extensors, thoracic muscles, and muscles of the lumbar region. PMID:25729158

  6. Dynamic EMG analysis of torque transfer in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R G; Dennis, S; Dillin, W H; Schnebel, B; Schneiderman, G; Jobe, F; Farfan, H; Perry, J; Pink, M

    1989-04-01

    Fifteen professional baseball pitchers underwent active pitching motion analysis of the abdominal oblique, rectus abdominis, lumbar paraspinous and gluteus maximus muscles bilaterally via surface electrode evaluation. Baseline resting and isometric maximum values were obtained and active data referenced against these for comparison. The muscle activity then was measured during the pitching sequence and analyzed in each of the five pitching phases. The abdominal oblique, lumbar paraspinous and rectus abdominis contralateral to the pitching arm and the ipsilateral gluteus maximus all had increases in activity level of 75 to 100% during the active pitching motion. Using these data indicating specific muscle group patterns with clinical and performance data, we hope to minimize injuries and maximize pitching performance.

  7. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates. PMID:23317367

  8. When xenarthrans had enamel: insights on the evolution of their hypsodonty and paleontological support for independent evolution in armadillos.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Martín R; Vieytes, Emma C; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2014-09-01

    All xenarthrans known to date are characterized by having permanent teeth that are both high crowned and open rooted, i.e., euhypsodont, and with a type of hypsodonty different from that of the rest of Placentalia: dentine hypsodonty. Also, most xenarthrans lack enamel; however, its presence has been reported in the fossil armadillo Utaetus buccatus and in living Dasypus. Considering the divergence of Xenarthra from other eutherians that possessed enameled teeth, the absence of enamel is a derived character. Diverse specializations are known in the dentition of xenarthrans, but the primitive pattern of their teeth and dentitions is still unknown. Here, we describe the mandible and teeth of a fossil armadillo, Astegotherium dichotomus (Astegotheriini, Dasypodidae), from the early Middle Eocene of Argentine Patagonia, with teeth showing both true enamel and closed roots. It is the oldest xenarthran with mandibular remains exhibiting protohypsodonty and is therefore likely representative of ancestral cingulates and xenarthrans generally. Astegotherium supports a recent hypothesis based on molecular data that enamel loss occurred independently not only within xenarthrans but also within dasypodid armadillos. PMID:25038888

  9. [Dipetalonema lineage. New attempt at classification].

    PubMed

    Chabaud, A G; Bain, O

    1976-01-01

    Through comparing the morphological evolution to the host range and the geographical distribution we can suggest Dipetalonema sensu-largo may be interpreted as a gondwanian lineage which may have evolved after the three main austral continents drifted apart. Therefore, we propose the following systematic splitting: --Sprattia n.gen., type species: S. venacavincola parasite of Australian Marsupials, which may be related to Litomosa; --Breinlia Yorke and Maplestone, 1926, and Breinlia (Johnstonema) (Yeh, 1957), parasite of Australian Marsupials; --Skrjabinofilaria (Travassos, 1925), parasite of American Marsupials; --Macdonaldius (Khanna, 1933), parasite of American Reptiles; --Dipetalonema (Orihelia) n.sub. gen., type species: D. (O.) anticlava, parasite of Dasypodidae; --Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) (Cobbold, 1870), parasite of Insectivora, Carnivora, Pinnipedia, sometimes Rodents; --Dipetalonema (Molinema) (Freitas and Lent, 1939), parasite of Caviomorpha and Beavers; --Dipetalonema (Loxodontofilaria) (Berghe and Gillain, 1939), parasite of Ethiopian Ungulates; --Dipetalonema (Chenofilaria) (Kou, 1958), parasite of Asiatic Pholidota and Australian Marsupials; --Dipetalonema (Dipetalonema) (Diesing, 1861), parasite of American Primates; --Monanema Anteson, 1968, parasite of Rodents other than Cariomorpha; --Ackertia (Vaz, 1934), parasite of Caviomorpha; --Tetrapetalonema (Sandnema) n.sub.gen., type species: T. (S.) digitata, parasite of Asiatic Insectivora and Primates; --Tetrapetalonema (Tetrapetalonema) (Faust, 1935), parasite of Tupaidae, Platyrhinii, and, sometimes, American Rodents and Carnivora; --Tetrapetalonema (Esslingeria) n. sub.gen., type species: T. (E.) perstans, parasite of African African Anthropoidea and Humans; --Filarissima (Chabaud, 1974), parasite of Caviomorpha.

  10. Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Gillian C; Condamine, Fabien L; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters) constitutes one of the four major clades of placental mammals. Despite their phylogenetic distinctiveness in mammals, a reference phylogeny is still lacking for the 31 described species. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 33 new complete mitochondrial genomes, establishing Xenarthra as the first major placental clade to be fully sequenced at the species level for mitogenomes. The resulting data set allowed the reconstruction of a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale that are consistent with previous studies conducted at the genus level using nuclear genes. Incorporating the full species diversity of extant xenarthrans points to a number of inconsistencies in xenarthran systematics and species definition. We propose to split armadillos into two distinct families Dasypodidae (dasypodines) and Chlamyphoridae (euphractines, chlamyphorines, and tolypeutines) to better reflect their ancient divergence, estimated around 42 Ma. Species delimitation within long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) appeared more complex than anticipated, with the discovery of a divergent lineage in French Guiana. Diversification analyses showed Xenarthra to be an ancient clade with a constant diversification rate through time with a species turnover driven by high but constant extinction. We also detected a significant negative correlation between speciation rate and past temperature fluctuations with an increase in speciation rate corresponding to the general cooling observed during the last 15 My. Biogeographic reconstructions identified the tropical rainforest biome of Amazonia and the Guiana Shield as the cradle of xenarthran evolutionary history with subsequent dispersions into more open and dry habitats. PMID:26556496

  11. When xenarthrans had enamel: insights on the evolution of their hypsodonty and paleontological support for independent evolution in armadillos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancio, Martín R.; Vieytes, Emma C.; Carlini, Alfredo A.

    2014-09-01

    All xenarthrans known to date are characterized by having permanent teeth that are both high crowned and open rooted, i.e., euhypsodont, and with a type of hypsodonty different from that of the rest of Placentalia: dentine hypsodonty. Also, most xenarthrans lack enamel; however, its presence has been reported in the fossil armadillo Utaetus buccatus and in living Dasypus. Considering the divergence of Xenarthra from other eutherians that possessed enameled teeth, the absence of enamel is a derived character. Diverse specializations are known in the dentition of xenarthrans, but the primitive pattern of their teeth and dentitions is still unknown. Here, we describe the mandible and teeth of a fossil armadillo, Astegotherium dichotomus (Astegotheriini, Dasypodidae), from the early Middle Eocene of Argentine Patagonia, with teeth showing both true enamel and closed roots. It is the oldest xenarthran with mandibular remains exhibiting protohypsodonty and is therefore likely representative of ancestral cingulates and xenarthrans generally. Astegotherium supports a recent hypothesis based on molecular data that enamel loss occurred independently not only within xenarthrans but also within dasypodid armadillos.

  12. Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Gillian C.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters) constitutes one of the four major clades of placental mammals. Despite their phylogenetic distinctiveness in mammals, a reference phylogeny is still lacking for the 31 described species. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 33 new complete mitochondrial genomes, establishing Xenarthra as the first major placental clade to be fully sequenced at the species level for mitogenomes. The resulting data set allowed the reconstruction of a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale that are consistent with previous studies conducted at the genus level using nuclear genes. Incorporating the full species diversity of extant xenarthrans points to a number of inconsistencies in xenarthran systematics and species definition. We propose to split armadillos into two distinct families Dasypodidae (dasypodines) and Chlamyphoridae (euphractines, chlamyphorines, and tolypeutines) to better reflect their ancient divergence, estimated around 42 Ma. Species delimitation within long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) appeared more complex than anticipated, with the discovery of a divergent lineage in French Guiana. Diversification analyses showed Xenarthra to be an ancient clade with a constant diversification rate through time with a species turnover driven by high but constant extinction. We also detected a significant negative correlation between speciation rate and past temperature fluctuations with an increase in speciation rate corresponding to the general cooling observed during the last 15 My. Biogeographic reconstructions identified the tropical rainforest biome of Amazonia and the Guiana Shield as the cradle of xenarthran evolutionary history with subsequent dispersions into more open and dry habitats. PMID:26556496

  13. Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Gillian C; Condamine, Fabien L; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Xenarthra (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters) constitutes one of the four major clades of placental mammals. Despite their phylogenetic distinctiveness in mammals, a reference phylogeny is still lacking for the 31 described species. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 33 new complete mitochondrial genomes, establishing Xenarthra as the first major placental clade to be fully sequenced at the species level for mitogenomes. The resulting data set allowed the reconstruction of a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale that are consistent with previous studies conducted at the genus level using nuclear genes. Incorporating the full species diversity of extant xenarthrans points to a number of inconsistencies in xenarthran systematics and species definition. We propose to split armadillos into two distinct families Dasypodidae (dasypodines) and Chlamyphoridae (euphractines, chlamyphorines, and tolypeutines) to better reflect their ancient divergence, estimated around 42 Ma. Species delimitation within long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus) appeared more complex than anticipated, with the discovery of a divergent lineage in French Guiana. Diversification analyses showed Xenarthra to be an ancient clade with a constant diversification rate through time with a species turnover driven by high but constant extinction. We also detected a significant negative correlation between speciation rate and past temperature fluctuations with an increase in speciation rate corresponding to the general cooling observed during the last 15 My. Biogeographic reconstructions identified the tropical rainforest biome of Amazonia and the Guiana Shield as the cradle of xenarthran evolutionary history with subsequent dispersions into more open and dry habitats.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Superina, Mariella; Tilak, Marie-Ka; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Fairy armadillos or pichiciegos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) are among the most elusive mammals. Due to their subterranean and nocturnal lifestyle, their basic biology and evolutionary history remain virtually unknown. Two distinct species with allopatric distributions are recognized: Chlamyphorus truncatus is restricted to central Argentina, while Calyptophractus retusus occurs in the Gran Chaco of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia. To test their monophyly and resolve their phylogenetic affinities within armadillos, we obtained sequence data from modern and museum specimens for two mitochondrial genes (12S RNA [MT-RNR1] and NADH dehydrogenase 1 [MT-ND1]) and two nuclear exons (breast cancer 1 early onset exon 11 [BRCA1] and von Willebrand factor exon 28 [VWF]). Phylogenetic analyses provided a reference phylogeny and timescale for living xenarthran genera. Our results reveal monophyletic pichiciegos as members of a major armadillo subfamily (Chlamyphorinae). Their strictly fossorial lifestyle probably evolved as a response to the Oligocene aridification that occurred in South America after their divergence from Tolypeutinae around 32 million years ago (Mya). The ancient divergence date (∼17Mya) for separation between the two species supports their taxonomic classification into distinct genera. The synchronicity with Middle Miocene marine incursions along the Paraná river basin suggests a vicariant origin for pichiciegos by the disruption of their ancestral range. Their phylogenetic distinctiveness and rarity in the wild argue in favor of high conservation priority.

  15. Pelvic peritoneum in male armadillo and anteater (Xenarthra, Mammalia): a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Lorenna Cardoso; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha

    2013-01-01

    The literature supports the hypothesis that the pelvic excavation is the bottom of the abdominal cavity, which is covered by the peritoneal serous membrane in order to promote visceral dynamics. We studied the peritoneum in eight specimens of Xenarthra (Euphractus sexcinctus, Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla). The animals were fixed in formaldehyde (10%). For description and analyzes of the pelvic peritoneum, dissection and photo documentation were performed. We saw that the parietal serous membrane reflected, involving the pelvic viscera. The urorectal septum is the floor of the higher pelvis as a serosa reflection between the bladder and the rectum. The bladder and gonads are completely peritonized in adult armadillo. In anteaters and young armadillos, the testicles are in a position analogous to the uterus, joined by the conjunctive septum at the midline and along with the bladder, they partially project to the higher and lower pelvis. In Myrmecophagidae, vesicogenital, rectogenital and sacrorectal recesses were observed. In Dasypodidae, the recesses are similar to those of other recent vertebrates.

  16. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals.

  17. Trunkloads of viruses.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Philip E

    2014-12-01

    Elephant populations are under intense pressure internationally from habitat destruction and poaching for ivory and meat. They also face pressure from infectious agents, including elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1), which kills ~20% of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) born in zoos and causes disease in the wild. EEHV1 is one of at least six distinct EEHV in a phylogenetic lineage that appears to represent an ancient but newly recognized subfamily (the Deltaherpesvirinae) in the family Herpesviridae.

  18. Trunkloads of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Elephant populations are under intense pressure internationally from habitat destruction and poaching for ivory and meat. They also face pressure from infectious agents, including elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1), which kills ∼20% of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) born in zoos and causes disease in the wild. EEHV1 is one of at least six distinct EEHV in a phylogenetic lineage that appears to represent an ancient but newly recognized subfamily (the Deltaherpesvirinae) in the family Herpesviridae. PMID:25231304

  19. Reliability of MR-Based Volumetric 3-D Analysis of Pelvic Muscles among Subjects with Low Back with Leg Pain and Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Keczmer, Przemysław; Łochowski, Rafał M.; Tomal, Paulina; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Aim Lately, the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging, Lasègue sign and classic neurological signs have been considered not accurate enough to distinguish the radicular from non-radicular low back with leg pain (LBLP) and a calculation of the symptomatic side muscle volume has been indicated as a probable valuable marker. However, only the multifidus muscle volume has been calculated so far. The main objective of the study was to verify whether LBLP subjects presented symptomatic side pelvic muscle atrophy compared to healthy volunteers. The second aim was to assess the inter-rater reliability of 3-D manual method for segmenting and measuring the volume of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles in both LBLP patients and healthy subjects. Method Two independent raters analyzed MR images of LBLP and healthy subjects towards muscle volume of four pelvic muscles, i.e. the piriformis, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. For both sides, the MR images of the muscles without adipose tissue infiltration were manually segmented in 3-D medical images. Results Symptomatic muscle atrophy was confirmed in only over 50% of LBLP subjects (gluteus maximus (p<0.001), gluteus minimus (p<0.01) and piriformis (p<0.05)). The ICC values indicated that the inter-rater reproducibility was greater than 0.90 for all measurements (LBLP and healthy subjects), except for the measurement of the right gluteus medius muscle in LBLP patients, which was equal to 0.848. Conclusion More than 50% of LBLP subjects presented symptomatic gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscle atrophy. 3-D manual segmentation reliably measured muscle volume in all the measured pelvic muscles in both healthy and LBLP subjects. To answer the question of what kind of muscle atrophy is indicative of radicular or non-radicular pain further studies are required. PMID:27459688

  20. BC: campaign launched to protect personal health information.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2004-12-01

    A diverse group of rights, health, union, and HIV/AIDS organizations has launched a province-wide campaign to demand that the British Columbia government cease contracting out the administration of its medical plans to a private US company. The Right to Privacy Campaign (RPC) believes that the government's contract with Maximus Inc. places British Columbians' confidential health and related information within easy reach of US government agencies as a result of provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act and other US legislation.

  1. Trunkloads of viruses.

    PubMed

    Pellett, Philip E

    2014-12-01

    Elephant populations are under intense pressure internationally from habitat destruction and poaching for ivory and meat. They also face pressure from infectious agents, including elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 (EEHV1), which kills ~20% of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) born in zoos and causes disease in the wild. EEHV1 is one of at least six distinct EEHV in a phylogenetic lineage that appears to represent an ancient but newly recognized subfamily (the Deltaherpesvirinae) in the family Herpesviridae. PMID:25231304

  2. The Correlation between the Muscle Activity and Joint Angle of the Lower Extremity According to the Changes in Stance Width during a Lifting Task

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the correlation between the muscle activities and joint angle of the hip and knee according to the changes in stance width during a lifting task. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 15 healthy students. A three-dimensional motion analyzer (SMART-E, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the joint angles of hip and knee during lifting. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure muscle activities of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior during lifting. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson-test and SPSS 18.0. [Result] The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior was significantly decreased by increasing the stance width (r= −0.285). Muscle activity of the erector spinae was significantly decreased by increasing the knee angle (r= −0.444). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased by increasing the muscle activity of the tibialis anterior (r= 0.295). [Conclusion] Efficient lifting is possible when stance width and knee flexion are increased, which results in reduced muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and the erector spinae. Lifting is facilitated when the muscle activities of the gluteus maximus and tibialis anterior are correlated. PMID:24259908

  3. The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Many strength trainers believe that varying the stance width during the back squat can target specific muscles of the thigh. The aim of the present work was to test this theory measuring the activation of 8 thigh muscles while performing back squats at 3 stance widths and with 3 different bar loads. Six experienced lifters performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions of squats, each one with a different stance width, using 3 resistances: no load, 30% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 70% 1RM. Sets were separated by 6 minutes of rest. Electromyographic (EMG) surface electrodes were placed on the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medium, and adductor maior. Analysis of variance and Scheffè post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in EMG activity only for the gluteus maximus; in particular, there was a higher electrical activity of this muscle when back squats were performed at the maximum stance widths at 0 and 70% 1RM. There were no significant differences concerning the EMG activity of the other analyzed muscles. These findings suggest that a large width is necessary for a greater activation of the gluteus maximus during back squats. PMID:19130646

  4. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  5. Magnitudes of muscle activation of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstrings during supine bridge to neutral position.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hartman, James P; Murphy, Brooke A; Rundle, Ashley M; Ugorowski, Jenna M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of selective core muscle activation during supine bridging to neutral exercises (three on a stable and three on an unstable surface). Surface EMG analysis was performed on the lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and hamstrings from 13 male and 13 female subjects. Lumbar multifidus recruitment was not influenced by exercise or condition and ranged between 29.2 and 35.9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Peak gluteus medius activation (42.0% MVIC) occurred in unstable single-leg bridge. Maximum recruitment of gluteus maximus (32.6% MVIC) appeared during stable single-leg bridge. Peak hamstring activation (59.6% MVIC) occurred during stable double-leg hamstring curl. Regardless of condition, hamstrings demonstrated high (51.9-59.6% MVIC) muscle recruitment during double-leg hamstring curls compared with the single-leg bridge or double-leg bridge. Various supine bridging to neutral exercises activated the hamstrings at levels conducive to strengthening, whereas recruitment of lumbar multifidus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus promoted endurance training. Clinically, we were unable to conclude the unstable support surface was preferable to the stable surface for boosting muscle recruitment of spine stabilizers, gluteals, and hamstring muscles during supine bridge to neutral position. PMID:25671354

  6. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just four extant species (Amphipsalta – 3 spp. + Notopsalta – 1 sp.) and has been little studied. We examined mitochondrial and nuclear-gene phylogenies and phylogeography, Bayesian relaxed-clock divergence timing (incorporating literature-based uncertainty of molecular clock estimates) and ecological niche models of the species from the smaller radiation. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear-gene trees supported the monophyly of Amphipsalta. Most interspecific diversification within Amphipsalta-Notopsalta occurred from the mid-Miocene to the Pliocene. However, interspecific divergence time estimates had large confidence intervals and were highly dependent on the assumed tree prior, and comparisons of uncorrected and patristic distances suggested difficulty in estimation of branch lengths. In contrast, intraspecific divergence times varied little across analyses, and all appear to have occurred during the Pleistocene. Two large-bodied forest taxa (A. cingulata, A. zelandica) showed minimal phylogeographic structure, with intraspecific diversification dating to ca. 0.16 and 0.37 Ma, respectively. Mid-Pleistocene-age phylogeographic structure was found within two smaller-bodied species (A. strepitans – 1.16 Ma, N. sericea – 1.36 Ma] inhabiting dry open habitats. Branches separating independently evolving species were long compared to intraspecific branches. Ecological niche models hindcast to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) matched expectations from the genetic datasets for A. zelandica and A. strepitans, suggesting that the range of A. zelandica was greatly reduced while A. strepitans refugia were more extensive. However, no LGM habitat could be

  7. Hosts and distribution of Amblyomma auricularium (Conil 1878) and Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Luciani, C A; Mangold, A J; Keirans, J E

    2003-01-01

    Collections of Amblyomma auricularium (Conil 1878) and A. pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Three tick collections (two from Argentina and a third from the USA) house a total of 574 A. auricularium (307 males, 162 females, 73 nymphs and 32 larvae) and 179 A. pseudoconcolor (96 males, 74 females, 4 nymphs and 5 larvae). Apart from an adult A. pseudoconcolor found on a bird, Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815, all ticks were found on mammals. The great majority of specimens of both ticks species were removed from the family Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (84.9% and 93.8% of A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor, respectively). Amblyomma auricularium has also been found on wild hosts of the families Myrmecophagidae and occasionally Didelphidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Hydrochaeridae, Muridae, Canidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae and domestic animals (cattle, dogs, horses), while A. pseudoconcolor has also been found occasionally on wild hosts of the family Didelphidae and on domestic animals (cattle, dogs). Amblyomma pseudoconcolor appears to be restricted to the Neotropical region, covering northern Argentina and the eastern region of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including south-eastern Paraguay, eastern Brazil and French Guiana. Amblyomma auricularium is distributed from northern Patagonia in Argentina throughout the Neotropics into the Nearctic region up to the southern USA (Texas, Florida), with collection localities also in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. It is not known whether A. auricularium is an established resident of the USA.

  8. The association between hip muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Ahedi, Harbeer; Aitken, Dawn; Scott, David; Blizzard, Leigh; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between muscle size, muscle strength, and bone mineral density (BMD) are limited. Thus, this study aimed to describe the association between hip muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle strength, and BMD of the hip and spine. A total of 321 subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort study with a right hip MRI scan conducted between 2004 and 2006 were included. Hip muscles were measured on MR images by OsiriX (Geneva) software measuring maximum muscle CSA (cm(2)) of gluteus maximus, obturator externus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, piriformis, pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total hip, femoral neck, and spine BMD, and lower limb muscle strength was assessed by dynamometer. Muscle CSA of the hip flexors (pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas) and the hip rotators, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris were associated with both total hip and femoral neck BMD (all p < 0.05). The associations between CSA of pectineus and sartorius and BMD were stronger in women (p = 0.01-0.001) compared to men (p = 0.12-0.54). Additionally, only gemelli CSA was associated with BMD of the spine (p = 0.002). Gluteus maximus and piriformis showed no relationship with BMD. CSA of most hip muscles (except gluteus maximus and gemelli) were positively associated with leg strength (p = 0.02 to <0.001). Lastly, leg strength was weakly associated with BMD (p = 0.11-0.007). Hip muscle CSA, and to a lesser extent muscle strength, were positively associated with hip BMD. These data suggest that both higher muscle mass and strength may contribute to the maintenance of bone mass and prevention of disease progression in older adults. PMID:24829114

  9. Effect of an eccentrically biased hamstring strengthening home program on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship.

    PubMed

    Orishimo, Karl F; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to document relative activation intensities of the hamstrings and gluteus maximus during 4 eccentric hamstring strengthening exercises and to assess the effects of a short-term strengthening program comprised of these exercises on knee flexor strength and the length-tension relationship. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) activities from the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and gluteus maximus were recorded as subjects performed (a) standing hip extension with elastic resistance, (b) trunk flexion in single limb stance (diver), (c) standing split (glider), and (d) supine sliding bridge (slider). Baseline isometric knee flexor strength was measured at 90, 70, 50, and 30° of flexion at the knee with the subject seated and the hip flexed to 50° from horizontal. After completing the 4-week training program, strength tests were repeated. Repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare EMG activity between muscles and to assess angle-specific strength improvements. Hamstring activity exceeded gluteus maximus activity for resisted hip extension, glider, and slider exercises (p < 0.001) but not for the diver (p = 0.087). Hamstring activation was greatest during the slider and resisted hip extension and lowest during the glider and the diver. Knee flexor strength improved by 9.0% (p = 0.005) but was not angle specific (training by angle p = 0.874). The short-term home training program effectively targeted the hamstrings and resulted in strength gains that were similar at short and long muscle lengths. These data demonstrate that hamstring strength can be improved using eccentrically biased unilateral exercises without the use of weights or other equipments. PMID:25226327

  10. Gluteal muscle group activation and its relationship with pelvis and torso kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the activation patterns of the gluteal muscle group and their relationship to pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the high-school pitching motion. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscle activity through surface electromyography for the preferred and nonpreferred sides during the various phases of the pitching motion. In addition, data describing the kinematics of the pelvis and torso were collected at foot contact, maximum shoulder external rotation, ball release, and maximum shoulder internal rotation. For all pitchers, preferred gluteus maximus activity was observed to be in excess of 100% of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction throughout the stride and arm-cocking phases of the pitching motion. The observed means for the preferred gluteus medius, nonpreferred gluteus maximus, and nonpreferred gluteus medius, although different in magnitude, were similar in pattern. From the conclusion of the stride phase, through the conclusion of the arm-cocking phase, muscle activity increased for all pitchers. In examining the relationship between the rate of axial pelvis rotation and gluteal activity, several significant relationships were observed. In contrast, no significant relationships were observed with gluteal activity parameters and the rate of axial torso rotation. However, because the pitching motion progresses sequentially from the pelvis to the torso, variability in pelvis rotation may be directly related to variability in torso rotation. The findings from this study indicate that during the baseball pitch, there is a need for greater control of gluteal activation throughout the pitching motion.

  11. The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; de Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Desojo, Julia B.; Beatty, Brian L.; Steel, Lorna; Fernández, Marta S.; Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruiz-Omeñaca, Jose Ignacio; Schoch, Rainer R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary ‘lateral plates’; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes). Conclusions/Significance The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger ‘type’ that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller ‘type’ that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item), while Dakosaurus

  12. Serological evidence of bovine herpesviruses 1 and 2 in Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Bhat, M N; Manickam, R; Kumanan, K

    1997-10-01

    Antibodies were detected against bovine herpesviruses 1 (BHV 1) and 2 (BHV 2) in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using the passive hemagglutination (PHA) test. The study was conducted during May to December 1994 using sera collected from zoological gardens and national parks in India. Four (4%) of 109 elephant sera had PHA titers ranging from 1:8 to 1:32 against BHV 1. Twenty-five (23%) of the 109 elephant sera had PHA titers ranging from 1:8 to 1:64 against BHV 2. Asian elephants appear to be better reservoirs for herpesviruses which are serologically related to BHV 2.

  13. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  14. Effects of a Bridging Exercise with Hip Adduction on the EMG Activities of the Abdominal and Hip Extensor Muscles in Females

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activities of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles between the bridging exercise (BE) and bridging exercise with hip adduction (BEHA) positions in women using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy adult females with no history of low back pain. [Methods] The subjects performed bridging exercises with and without hip adduction. The EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles were recorded. [Result] The EMG activities of all muscles were significantly increased during the BEHA compared to the BE. [Conclusion] The bridging exercise with hip adduction produced greater activation of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:24259933

  15. Comparison of trunk and hip muscle activity during different degrees of lumbar and hip extension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Min; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activity of trunk and hip muscles during different degrees of lumbar and hip extension. [Subjects] The study enrolled 18 participants. [Methods] Two exercises (hip and lumbar extension) and two ranges (180° and <180°) were studied. [Results] Differences in degree of extension affected the percentage maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar erector spinae and biceps femoris muscles, with significantly higher average values at >180° than at 180° lumbar extension. No significant differences were found in gluteus maximus activity according to exercise type or range. [Conclusion] Hip extension may be more effective and safer for lumbar rehabilitation than lumbar extension.

  16. [Rehabilitation treatment of patients with children cerebral palsy using functional muscle electrostimulation during gait].

    PubMed

    Petrushanskaia, K A; Vitenzon, A S

    2009-01-01

    A technique for investigation of biomechanical and electromyographic parameters of gait in patients with diplegic form of children cerebral palsy (CCP) was described. Peculiarities of biomechanical and innervation structure of locomotor act in such patients were found. Recommendations for muscle electrostimulation during gait were specified. The best therapeutic effect was achieved in the combined four-channel electrostimulation of gluteus maximus muscles in the first half of support phase and of anterior tibial muscles in the end of the support phase and during the transfer phase. The muscle electrostimulation during gait demonstrated a positive effect of the treatment on the process of movement rehabilitation of CCP patients with diplegic form.

  17. Concentric reduction of the dislocated hip: computed tomographic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concentric reduction of a dislocated hip can be evaluated by anteroposterior views or linear tomography. Anterior relationships, however, may be difficult to evaluate from a frontal radiograph despite good visibility. Computed tomography (CT), because of its cross-sectional imaging capabilities, is superior in demonstrating these relationships. The CT appearance of two types of dislocations (posterior and lateral ) is described. A posterior dislocation should be suspected if the femoral metaphysis approximates the acetabulum, a mass projects behind the ischium, or the fat plane anterior to the gluteus maximus is deformed or displaced posteriorly.

  18. Climate, physiological tolerance and sex-biased dispersal shape genetic structure of Neotropical orchid bees.

    PubMed

    López-Uribe, Margarita M; Zamudio, Kelly R; Cardoso, Carolina F; Danforth, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the impact of past climatic events on the demographic history of extant species is critical for predicting species' responses to future climate change. Palaeoclimatic instability is a major mechanism of lineage diversification in taxa with low dispersal and small geographical ranges in tropical ecosystems. However, the impact of these climatic events remains questionable for the diversification of species with high levels of gene flow and large geographical distributions. In this study, we investigate the impact of Pleistocene climate change on three Neotropical orchid bee species (Eulaema bombiformis, E. meriana and E. cingulata) with transcontinental distributions and different physiological tolerances. We first generated ecological niche models to identify species-specific climatically stable areas during Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we inferred calibrated phylogenies and estimated historical demographic parameters to reconstruct the phylogeographical history of each species. Our results indicate species with narrower physiological tolerance experienced less suitable habitat during glaciations and currently exhibit strong population structure in the mitochondrial genome. However, nuclear markers with low and high mutation rates show lack of association with geography. These results combined with lower migration rate estimates from the mitochondrial than the nuclear genome suggest male-biased dispersal. We conclude that despite large effective population sizes and capacity for long-distance dispersal, climatic instability is an important mechanism of maternal lineage diversification in orchid bees. Thus, these Neotropical pollinators are susceptible to disruption of genetic connectivity in the event of large-scale climatic changes.

  19. Changes in Orchid Bee Communities Across Forest-Agroecosystem Boundaries in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Landscapes.

    PubMed

    De Aguiar, Willian Moura; Sofia, Silvia H; Melo, Gabriel A R; Gaglianone, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments.

  20. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, F; Catzeflis, F M; Stanhope, M J; Douzery, E J

    2001-08-01

    The mammalian order Xenarthra (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) is one of the four major clades of placentals, but it remains poorly studied from the molecular phylogenetics perspective. We present here a study encompassing most of the order's diversity in order to establish xenarthrans' intra-ordinal relationships, discuss the evolution of their morphological characters, search for their extant sister group and specify the timing of their radiation with special emphasis on the status of the controversial fossil Eurotamandua. Sequences of three genes (nuclear exon 28 of the Von Willebrand factor and mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNAs) are compared for eight of the 13 living genera. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: armadillos (Cingulata), anteaters (Vermilingua) and sloths ('Tardigrada', renamed in 'Folivora'), and our results strongly support the grouping of hairy xenarthrans (anteaters and sloths) into Pilosa. Within placentals, Afrotheria might be the first lineage to branch off, followed by Xenarthra. The morphological adaptative convergence between New World xenarthrans and Old World pangolins is confirmed. Molecular datings place the early emergence of armadillos around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, followed by the divergence between anteaters and sloths in the Early Eocene era. These Tertiary dates contradict the concept of a very ancient origin of modern xenarthran lineages. They also question the placement of the purported fossil anteater (Eurotamandua) from the Middle Eocene period of Europe with the Vermilingua and instead suggest the independent and convergent evolution of this enigmatic taxon.

  1. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon

    PubMed Central

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards. PMID:26060430

  2. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon.

    PubMed

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  3. Non-Euglossine bees also function as pollinators of Sinningia species (Gesneriaceae) in southeastern brazil.

    PubMed

    SanMartin-Gajardo, I; Sazima, M

    2004-07-01

    Pollination by male and female Euglossini bees, euglossophily, was suggested for a number of neotropical Gesneriaceae species. Information on bee species other than Euglossini as pollinators of neotropical members of this family is limited, and in the tribe Sinningieae data about bee pollination are still lacking. Here, we report on floral biology and bee pollination of four Sinningia species: S. schiffneri, S. eumorpha, S. villosa, and Sinningia "canastrensis". The flower features, such as corolla size, shape, and colour, are very different among the four species, but all conform to the melittophilous syndrome. The average nectar volume and sugar amount is low in S. schiffneri, S. eumorpha, and Sinningia "canastrensis", when compared to that of S. villosa, but low nectar amounts is a general feature of Sinningia species. The main pollinators of the four species are: small Tapinotaspidini (Trigonopedia ferruginea) of S. schiffneri, large Bombini (Bombus morio) and large Centridini (Epicharis morio) of S. eumorpha, large Euglossini (Eulaema cingulata and Eufriesea surinamensis) of S. villosa, and large Euglossini (Eufriesea violascens) and Megachilini (Megachile sp.) of Sinningia "canastrensis". Out of the four species, only S. villosa is exclusively Euglossini-pollinated. The marked differences in flower features and nectar production of these Sinningia species may reflect their pollination by distinct groups of bees. These results strengthen the idea of multiple origins for the pollination systems involving bees within this genus, which is highly supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses.

  4. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies. PMID:26623857

  5. Molecular characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia community structure and species ecology in a hydrographically complex estuarine system (Puget Sound, Washington, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Katherine A.; Olson, Claire H.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Species within the toxic marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia coexist in coastal and estuarine waters globally and are difficult to distinguish by microscopy. Here, we describe a sensitive, high throughput PCR-based Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) approach to determine the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species within natural communities over space and time. The method was quantitatively validated using simplified mixtures of DNA or ITS1 standards from isolates of P. pungens, P. multiseries, and P. delicatissima. Relative abundance calculations based on ARISA profiles from these mixtures reflected input ratios, with minor deviations resulting from intraspecific variability. ARISA was used to identify and quantify at least eight species within Puget Sound and the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington, USA: P. americana, P. australis/P. seriata, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. fryxelliana, P. multiseries, and P. pungens; genotypes corresponding to P. pungens var. pungens and P. pungens var. cingulata were identified by environmental sequencing. The different species were significantly correlated with physical (temperature, salinity), biological (chlorophyll a fluorescence, oxygen), and/or chemical (ammonium, nutrient ratios) factors. The ability to determine shifts in the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species over spatial and temporal scales relevant to dispersion and selection facilitates dissection of the varied mechanisms driving vertical and horizontal species distribution patterns in hydrographically complex systems. PMID:27239082

  6. Electron-transfer studies with a new flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase and osmium polymers of different redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Wang, Xiaoju; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2012-01-01

    A new extracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH) was electrochemically studied as a recognition element in glucose biosensors. The redox enzyme was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris and homogeneously purified, and its glucose-oxidizing properties on spectrographic graphite electrodes were investigated. Six different Os polymers, the redox potentials of which ranged in a broad potential window between +15 and +489 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), were used to immobilize and "wire" GcGDH to the spectrographic graphite electrode's surface. The GcGDH/Os polymer modified electrodes were evaluated by chronoamperometry using flow injection analysis. The current response was investigated using a stepwisely increased applied potential. It was observed that the ratio of GcGDH/Os polymer and the overall loading of the enzyme electrode significantly affect the performance of the enzyme electrode for glucose oxidation. The best-suited Os polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)Cl](+) had a potential of +309 mV versus NHE, and the optimum GcGDH/Os polymer ratio was 1:2 yielding a maximum current density of 493 μA·cm(-2) at a 30 mM glucose concentration.

  7. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions.

  8. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for a subtype IIIC virus in the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex isolated from mosquitoes captured in Peru.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; O'Guinn, M L

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, for their susceptibility to a subtype IIIC strain of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. This virus had been previously isolated from a pool of mixed Culex vomerifer and Cx. gnomatos captured near Iquitos, Peru, in 1997. After feeding on hamsters with viremias of about 10(8) plaque-forming units of virus per ml, Cx. gnomatos was the most efficient vector. Other species, such as Ochlerotatus fulvus and Psorophora cingulata, although highly susceptible to infection, were not efficient laboratory vectors of this virus due to a significant salivary gland barrier. The Cx. (Culex) species, consisting mostly of Cx. (Cux.) coronator, were nearly refractory to subtype IIIC virus and exhibited both midgut infection as well as salivary gland barriers. Additional studies on biting behavior, mosquito population densities, and vertebrate reservoir hosts of subtype IIIC virus are needed to determine the role that these species play in the maintenance and spread of this virus in the Amazon Basin region.

  9. Non-Euglossine bees also function as pollinators of Sinningia species (Gesneriaceae) in southeastern brazil.

    PubMed

    SanMartin-Gajardo, I; Sazima, M

    2004-07-01

    Pollination by male and female Euglossini bees, euglossophily, was suggested for a number of neotropical Gesneriaceae species. Information on bee species other than Euglossini as pollinators of neotropical members of this family is limited, and in the tribe Sinningieae data about bee pollination are still lacking. Here, we report on floral biology and bee pollination of four Sinningia species: S. schiffneri, S. eumorpha, S. villosa, and Sinningia "canastrensis". The flower features, such as corolla size, shape, and colour, are very different among the four species, but all conform to the melittophilous syndrome. The average nectar volume and sugar amount is low in S. schiffneri, S. eumorpha, and Sinningia "canastrensis", when compared to that of S. villosa, but low nectar amounts is a general feature of Sinningia species. The main pollinators of the four species are: small Tapinotaspidini (Trigonopedia ferruginea) of S. schiffneri, large Bombini (Bombus morio) and large Centridini (Epicharis morio) of S. eumorpha, large Euglossini (Eulaema cingulata and Eufriesea surinamensis) of S. villosa, and large Euglossini (Eufriesea violascens) and Megachilini (Megachile sp.) of Sinningia "canastrensis". Out of the four species, only S. villosa is exclusively Euglossini-pollinated. The marked differences in flower features and nectar production of these Sinningia species may reflect their pollination by distinct groups of bees. These results strengthen the idea of multiple origins for the pollination systems involving bees within this genus, which is highly supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses. PMID:15248134

  10. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P M; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-07-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28(o) ± 2(o) C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of c