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Sample records for mcfc component development

  1. Advanced component development of MCFC technology at M-C Power

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.S.; Haugh, E.J.; Benjamin, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation (MCP) was founded in 1987 to commercialize Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) stacks. The first generation of active area cell components were successfully scaled-up from the 100-cm{sup 2} area laboratory scale to continuous production of commercial-area (1-m) components. These components have been tested in five commercial-area subscale (20-kW) stacks and one commercial-scale (250-kW) stack. The second 250 kW stack is being installed in the power plant for operation in late 1996 and components have already been manufactured for the third 250-kW stack which is scheduled to go on-line in the middle of 1997. Concurrent with commercial-area (1-m{sup 2}) active component manufacturing has been an ongoing effort to develop and test advanced component technologies that will enable MCP to meet its future cost and performance goals. The primary goal is to lower the total cell package cost, while attaining improvements in cell performance and endurance. This work is being completed through analysis of the cost drivers for raw materials and manufacturing techniques. A program is in place to verify the performance of the lower cost materials through pressurized (3 atm) bench scale (100-cm{sup 2}) cell tests. Bench-scale cell testing of advanced active area components has shown that simultaneous cost reduction and improvements in the performance and endurance are attainable. Following performance verification at the bench scale level, scale-up of the advanced component manufacturing processes to commercial-area has been ongoing in the past year. The following sections discuss some of the performance improvements and reductions in cost that have been realized.

  2. Status of MCFC stack development at Hitachi

    SciTech Connect

    Takashima, S.; Kahara, T.; Takeuchi, M.

    1996-12-31

    Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells in the New Sunshine project in Japan, and Hitachi is taking part in the development of 1,000kW MCFC pilot plant at Kawagoe. Hitachi is engaged in system planning of the 1,000kW pilot plant, design and manufacturing of the reformer subsystem and the fuel cell subsystem, and design and manufacturing of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW plant. The 250kW stacks are developed on the basis of the results of the 100kW stack in 1993 and the following 25kW stack in 1994. In parallel to the stack development, Hitachi is also conducting researches for long endurance cells and stacks. In addition to the researches for anode, cathode, electrolyte, and electrolyte matrix, improvement of temperature distribution in stacks is investigated to extend the stack life. This paper describes the planning status of the 250kW stacks for the 1,000kW MCFC plant and the developing status of stack cooling method for longer life.

  3. Development of 1000kW-class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooue, M.; Yasue, H.; Takasu, K.; Tsuchitori, T.

    1996-12-31

    This pilot plant is a part of the New Sunshine Program which has proceeded by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MCFC Research Association is entrusted with the development of the pilot plant, and constructing it at Kawagoe site. Following items will be verified by this pilot plant operation. (a) Development of 250kW class stack and confirmation of stack performance and decay rate. (b) System verification such as basic process, control system and operation characteristics, toward commercialization. (c) To get design data for demonstration plant.

  4. Development of a 1000 kW-class MCFC pilot plant in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasue, Hiroo; Kato, Hisashi; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    The development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), in Japan, began in 1981, as part of the former Moonlight Program, promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (AIST/MITI). In 1987, after the basic research, plans to develop a 1000 kW-class MCFC pilot plant began, first, with the development of 100 kW-class stacks and components. Results from the first developments were applied to the next stage of the project, the operating test of a 1000 kW-class pilot plant. The main objective of this pilot plant is to verify the system connected stacks and components. It includes four 250 kW-class stacks, a reformer, two cathode gas recycle blowers, a turbine compressor, a heat recovery steam generator and so on. At present, the building work, component fabrication and installation are complete. Component adjustments have also been carried out. The process and control test, also known as PAC Test, will start next year, 1998. The operation will come to an end in fiscal year 1999. Following the operation test, will be a test on longer lifetime stacks, and the development of a demonstration plant. The possibility of several MW-several 10s MW output, for this future demonstration plant, will be looked into and very seriously investigated.

  5. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  6. Development of a new electrolyte matrix for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, I.; Higaki, K.; Terada, S.; Suemitsu, T.

    1996-12-31

    To prolong the life of cell is one of the most important issues for MCFC to be brought into actual application. In this respect, investigators have been proposing the addition of tungstate salt such as K2WO4 into MCFC electrolyte, which is supposed effectively to reduce the sintering of anode probably by precipitates formed through the reduction of tungstate with dissolved hydrogen near the anode surface. In this research, such effect upon sintering of anode was quantitatively examined by out-of-cell tests and the validity of above assumption for the mechanism was confirmed. Also other effects of tungstate salt addition into electrolyte, such upon corrosion of separator, solubility of cathode, stability of matrix substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}) were investigated.

  7. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    SciTech Connect

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    M-C Power Corporation will design, fabricate, install, test and evaluate a 250 kW Proof-of-Concept Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plant. The plant is to be located at the Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with this project in 1994. M-C Power has completed the tape casting and sintering of cathodes and is proceeding with the tape casting and sintering of anodes for the first 250 cell stack. M-C Power and San Diego Gas and Electric relocated the fuel cell demonstration project to an alternate site at the Naval Air Station Miramar. For the new project location at the Naval Air Station Miramar, an Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the Department of Energy in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Environmental Assessment resulted in a categorical exclusion of the proposed action from all environmental permit requirements. Bechtel Corporation has completed the reformer process design coordination, a Process Description, the Pipe and Instrumentation Diagrams, a Design Criteria Document and General Project Requirement Document. Bechtel developed the requirements for soils investigation report and issued the following equipment bid packages to the suppliers for bids: Inverter, Reformer, Desulfurization Vessels, Hot Gas Recycle Blower, Heat Recovery Steam Generator, and Recycle Gas Cooler. SDG and E has secured necessary site permits, conducted soils investigations, and is working on the construction plan. They are in final negotiations with the US Navy on a site agreement. Site drawings are required for finalization of the agreement.

  9. Prediction of temperature profile in MCFC stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kab Soo; Kim, Hwayong; Hong, Seong-An; Lim, Hee Chun

    1996-12-31

    A simple three dimensional model was developed to simulate the temperature distribution and the performance of various flow types of the MCFC stack. The objective of this study was to understand the complicated phenomena occurring in the MCFC stack and to supply the basic data for optimizing the operating condition of the MCFC stack. Assuming that the stack consists of a number of differential elements which have uniform temperature and gas composition, the model was solved by finite difference method. The performance of this model was demonstrated by comparing the calculated value with experimental data of the 1.5kW class co-flow type MCFC stack operated in KIST. This model can be utilized as a simple diagnostic tool in case of the operational abnormality such as the hot spot which often occurs inside the stack.

  10. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  11. Test results of a 2 kW internal manifold MCFC stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H C; Seol, J H; Ahn, K S

    1996-01-01

    A R&D program on MCFC, of which current target is to establish the fundamental technology through fabricating a 2k-W stack with the performance higher than 0.8V at 150mA/cm{sup 2}, has been started since 1993. The program consisted of two phases : a AW class MCFC stack and the test facility will be constructed and operated during the first phase (1993-1996) and then a 100k-W MCFC system will be constructed in the second phase (1997-2002) on the basement of first phase results. From this strategy, KEPRI former the MCFC developing group with Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Samsung Heavy Industry (SHI) for fabricating, operating and evaluating of 2k-W MCFC stack. This paper presents the results of this first phase program and some of the problems experienced during its operation and fabrication of stack components. Specification of the stack under operation is shown in Table 1.

  12. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  13. Status of development of the power plants on the base of MCFC in TFNC-VNIIEF

    SciTech Connect

    Novitski, E.Z.; Savkin, G.G.

    1996-04-01

    VNIIF started work on Molten Carbonate Fuel cells and power plants in 1991. Some results of VNIIF work in the direction of Autonomous Power Engineering are presented. Topics include molten carbonate fuel cell components, separator plates, manufacturing and testing, design, and goals.

  14. MCFC and microturbine power plant simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchini, F.; Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.

    The consistent problem of the CO 2 emissions and the necessity to find new energy sources, are motivating the scientific research to use high efficiency electric energy production's technologies that could exploit renewable energy sources too. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) due to its high efficiencies and low emissions seems a valid alternative to the traditional plant. Moreover, the high operating temperature and pressure give the possibility to use a turbine at the bottom of the cells to produce further energy, increasing therefore the plant's efficiencies. The basic idea using this two kind of technologies (MCFC and microturbine), is to recover, via the microturbine, the necessary power for the compressor, that otherwise would remove a consistent part of the MCFC power generated. The purpose of this work is to develop the necessary models to analyze different plant configurations. In particular, it was studied a plant composed of a MCFC 500 kW Ansaldo at the top of a microturbine 100 kW Turbec. To study this plant it was necessary to develop: (i) MCFC mathematical model, that starting from the geometrical and thermofluidodynamic parameter of the cell, analyze the electrochemical reaction and shift reaction that take part in it; (ii) plate reformer model, a particular compact reformer that exploit the heat obtained by a catalytic combustion of the anode and part of cathode exhausts to reform methane and steam; and (iii) microturbine-compressor model that describe the efficiency and pressure ratio of the two machines as a function of the mass flow and rotational regime. The models developed was developed in Fortran language and interfaced in Chemcad © to analyze the power plant thermodynamic behavior. The results show a possible plant configuration with high electrical and global efficiency (over 50 and 74%).

  15. Operation result of 40kW class MCFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Hatori, S.; Hosaka, M.; Uematsu, H.

    1996-12-31

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. developed unique Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) system based on our original concept. To demonstrate the possibility of this system, based on MCFC technology of consigned research from New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan, we designed 40kW class MCFC pilot plant which had all equipments required as a power plant and constructed in our TO-2 Technical Center. This paper presents the test results of the plant.

  16. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  17. Mathematical modeling of MCFC cells/stacks and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. C.; Wimer, J.; Sudhoff, F.; Archer, D.

    In this paper, various molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) cell/stack, network, and system models available in the public domain are discussed. Parametric and phenomenological fuel cell mathematical models are being used to simulate individual MCFC cell/stack performance. With initial demonstration of full-area, full-height 250-kW to 2-MW MCFC power plants, the spatial configuration of the MCFC stacks into networks in the fuel cell power plant takes on new importance. MCFC network and power plant system flowsheet performance is being modeled using the ASPEN system model. ASPEN is a tear and iterate flowsheet simulator in the public domain. ASPEN is suitable for MCFC network simulation since it has strong systems and property database capabilities. With emergence of larger MCFC power plant system demonstrations, system modeling of MCFC power plants is now essential. DOE routinely uses MCFC models in making performance comparisons and in decision making.

  18. R&D of MCFC matrix for long term operation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takashi; Fujita, Yoji; Urushibata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akira

    1996-12-31

    Long term operation is an essential subject in the commercialization of the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC). Material stability is important for the development of the MCFC. particularly for long term operation. In this paper, the specification and the stabilization of MCFC matrix arc investigated, with the aim of producing 40000 hours of operation. It is common knowledge that matrix thickness has a large influence on shorting time, as shorting is caused by the dissolution of the nickel oxide cathodes. Therefore, the optimum thickness of a matrix designed for 40000 hours operation without the nickel shorting was sought. The influences of different electrolytes and matrix specifications on the shorting time were measured with accelerated cell tests. The internal resistance of the matrix was also estimated. Gamma( {gamma} )-lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) powder with a sub-micron particle diameter is commonly used for a raw material of matrix to retain molten carbonate electrolytes. This is because most researchers found that {gamma}-LiA1O{sub 2} was the most stable material in the MCFC environment among the three allotropic forms alpha ( {alpha} ), beta ( {beta} ), and {gamma}. However. two problems with the stability of {gamma} -LiAlO{sub 2} are being vigorously discussed. especially in Japan: particle growth causes decreasing electrolyte retention, and the transformation of {gamma} to {alpha}. This transformation contradicts the accepted opinion that {gamma} is the most stable form. In this paper, the particle growth and the phase transformation of LiAlO{sub 2} are examined with post-test analyses. The influence of matrix degradation on cell performance is also considered.

  19. Electrolyte loss in corrosion of 30Cr-45Ni-1Al-0.03 Y-Fe alloy for MCFC separator

    SciTech Connect

    Masamura, Katsumi; Ohe, Koichiro; Takemura, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    To establish high performance of MCFC, a new high corrosion resistant alloy (30%Cr-45%Ni-1 %Al-0.03%Y-Fe) for MCFC separator has been developed. The developed alloy has good corrosion resistance for both anode and cathode environments. On the other hand, one of the main factors to determine the life time of MCFC stack is electrolyte loss. A potential danger of electrolyte loss cased by corrosion of metal components is pointed out. Basic mechanism of electrolyte loss is proposed according to following reactions. High Cr content alloy such as type 310S(25%Cr-20%Ni) has disadvantages in view of electrolyte loss in spite of high corrosion resistance. It is said that the dissolution of Cr ion into electrolyte is detrimental for electrolyte loss, because a mole of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2+} ion combines 2 moles of K{sup +} ions as K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, while a mole of Fe{sup 3+} ion combine a mole of Li{sup +} ion as LiFeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of electrolyte loss due to corrosion of metal component, the distribution of metal ions in oxide and molten salt were studied.

  20. GCS component development cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  1. Long term operation of the 100-cm{sup 2} class single cell of MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Kazumi; Yanagida, Masahiro; Kojima, Toshikatsu

    1996-12-31

    The R&D on Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is proceeding as one of the New Sun Shine Project sponsored by Japanese government. In ONRI (Osaka National Research Institute), the tested MCFCs were assembled with the state-of-the-art components and operated under the load condition for 40000 hours and 34000 hours. We analyzed the performance reduction.

  2. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  3. Visualization of electrolyte volatile phenomenon in DIR-MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yodo, Tadakatsu; Yamauchi, Makoto; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Volatilization of molten salt is one of the factors that control the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). Volatilization of molten salt promotes cross-leakage and the corrosion of metallic components. Moreover, piping blockage is caused by the solidification of volatile matter. Because reforming catalysts filling the anode channel are polluted by molten salt volatile matter in direct internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cells (DIR-MCFC), the volatilization of molten salt is an especially serious subject. However, neither the behaviour nor the volatilization volume of molten salt volatile matter has heretofore been elucidated on. Because molten salt volatile matter that has strong alkalinity cannot be supplied directly to an analyzer, its volatilization volume is small, and analytical accuracy is poor. Therefore, an attempt has been made to elucidate about the electrolyte volatile phenomenon in an MCFC by using a non-contact image measurement technique. A 16 cm 2 MCFC single cell frame has an observation window and an irradiation window. The image of the volatile phenomenon is shown by irradiating a YAG laser light sheet 2 mm thick from an irradiation window into the anode channel, and taking measurements from an observation window with a high spatial resolution video camera (12 bit). As a result, though the volatile matter is not observed in an anode channel at OCV, the volatile matter flows in a belt-like manner from the inlet side near the electrode toward the outlet at a current density of 150 mA cm -2. In addition, volatile matter is difficult to observe with the conventional thickness of an anode electrode. Because the composition of these volatile matters is 15Li 2CO 3/85K 2CO 3 (the result of conversion into molten salt) by ion chromatography analysis, it is not an electrolyte (62Li 2CO 3/38K 2CO 3) but rather the volatile matter of potassium, such as KOH. Therefore, it is understood that the volatile matter K 2CO 3 is generated as KOH

  4. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  5. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  6. MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.

    1993-11-01

    In pursuit of commercialization, efforts are underway to: (1) advance the technology base by enhancing performance and demonstrating endurance, (2) scale up stack to the full area and height, (3) acquire stack manufacturing capability and experience, (4) establish capability as well as gain experience for power plant system testing of the full-height carbonate fuel cell stack, (5) and define power plant design and develop critical subsystem components. All the major project objectives have already been attained. Over the last year, significant progress has been achieved in establishing the full-height stack design, gaining stack manufacturing and system integrated testing experience, and verifying the major equipment design in power plant system tests. In this paper, recent progresses on stack scaleup, demonstration testing, BOP verification, and stack endurance are presented.

  7. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Noboru

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  8. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  9. Operating experience with a 250 kW el molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Manfred; Huppmann, Gerhard

    The MTU MCFC program is carried out by a European consortium comprising the German companies MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Ruhrgas AG and RWE Energie AG as well as the Danish company Energi E2 S/A. MTU acts as consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Fuel Cell Energy Inc., Danbury, CT, USA (formerly Energy Research Corp., ERC). The program was started in 1990 and covers a period of about 10 years. The highlights of this program to date are: Considerable improvements regarding component stability have been demonstrated on laboratory scale. Manufacturing technology has been developed to a point which enables the consortium to fabricate the porous components on a 250 cm 2 scale. Several large area stacks with 5000-7660 cm 2 cell area and a power range of 3-10 kW have been tested at the facilities in Munich (Germany) and Kyndby (Denmark). These stacks have been supplied by FCE. As far as the system design is concerned it was soon realized that conventional systems do not hold the promise for competitive power plants. A system analysis led to the conclusion that a new innovative design approach is required. As a result the "Hot Module" system was developed by the consortium. A Hot Module combines all the components of a MCFC system operating at the similar temperatures and pressures into a common thermally insulated vessel. In August 1997 the consortium started its first full size Hot Module MCFC test plant at the facilities of Ruhrgas AG in Dorsten, Germany. The stack was assembled in Munich using 292 cell packages purchased from FCE. The plant is based on the consortium's unique and proprietary "Hot Module" concept. It operates on pipeline natural gas and was grid connected on 16 August 1997. After a total of 1500 h of operation, the plant was intentionally shut down in a controlled manner in April 1998 for post-test analysis. The Hot Module system concept has demonstrated its functionality. The safety concept has been

  10. Operation characteristics of a multiple type MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroe, S.; Kamo, T.; Fujimura, H.; Kahara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Multiple type structure of MCFC of which the separator of the cell is divided by four element cells has been studied. For the stable operation of this type cell, the effect of gas flow rate and temperature distribution on the cell voltage should be clear. In order to clarify these characteristics, a small sized mimic model has been made and tested. The flow rate distribution for the four element cells were varied and cell voltage and temperature distribution were measured for each cell. The decrease in cell voltage and the increase in maximum temperature became remarkable when the apparent utilization factor for one element cell became over 100%. The calculated results agreed fairly good with test results.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  12. MCFC integrated system in a biodiesel production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbani, F.; Freni, S.; Galvagno, A.; Chiodo, V.

    2011-03-01

    The continuous increasing in biodiesel production by transesterification process is leading to an excess of glycerol production as a byproduct. The utilization of this huge amount of glycerol appears as a not easy solvable problem and thus several authors have proposed alternative ways. The integration of the main production process with a glycerol feed molten carbonate fuel cells bottoming cycle, to satisfy plant energy requirements, seems to be one of the most promising one. The proposed paper reports the main results obtained by authors in the framework of an investigation on a possible use of glycerol as energy sources for a real pilot plant for biodiesel production. An overall evaluation of worldwide biodiesel production plants was made and especially about the production capacity in European Union in the last decade. To make a more detailed study, authors were taken into account a real production plant. After a preliminary step, purported to plant mass and energy flows determination, authors considered the integration of a bottoming cycle based on: (i) steam reforming of glycerol for syn-gas production; (ii) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) system supplied by syn-gas for heat and electricity production. A mathematical model, based on experimental data, has been developed to calculate mass and energy balances for the proposed plant lay-out as well as plant energy efficiency enhancement has been determined. Results have evidenced the feasibility of this process and demonstrated that plant integrated with bottoming cycle can reach a very high level of energy self-production.

  13. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    Cathode dissolution into the electrolyte matrix and endurance of current collector/separator plate materials are the main life-limiting factors of the state-of-the art MCFC. These components are also major contributors to the total system cost. Therefore, to reduce capital cost, it is necessary to minimize hardware corrosion and increase cell life. This study consists of experimental evaluation of corrosion processes with the objective to further practical; understanding of corrosion behavior of alloys and alloy components under cathodic gas conditions. Nickel, iron, cobalt and stainless steels 310 and 316L are analyzed. The experimental study consists of (1) Observation of open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Surface reactions occurring without net passage of current are proposed based on this measurement. (2) Applying cyclic voltammetry, which provides information about the possible electrode reactions at different stages of polarization. (3) Applying AC impedance to support the result of tasks 1 and 2 at different stages of oxidation, and data analysis by means of equivalent circuits. Open circuit conditions as well as positive and negative polarization are used in the impedance measurements. (4) Surface analysis of the electrodes by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. To obtain more information from electrochemical measurements a novel approach has been applied in cell design. In this two-electrode approach, one electrode is fully immersed, and the other is wetted by carbonate melt via an alumina tube which has a thin film on it. While camera observation of these two different electrode conditions will identify the effect of carbonate wetting on the state of the surface, electrochemical measurements enable a quantitative comparison between complete submersion and wetting by a film of carbonate.

  14. Technology base studies of long-term MCFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, J.R.; Yazici, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    Cathode dissolution into the electrolyte matrix and endurance of current collector/separator plate materials are the main life-limiting factors of the state-of-the art MCFC. These components are also major contributors to the total system cost. Therefore, to reduce capital cost, it is necessary to minimize hardware corrosion and increase cell life. This study consists of experimental evaluation of corrosion processes with the objective to further practical; understanding of corrosion behavior of alloys and alloy components under cathodic gas conditions. Nickel, iron, cobalt and stainless steels 310 and 316L are analyzed. The experimental study consists of: (1) Observation of open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Surface reactions occurring without net passage of current are proposed based on this measurement. (2) Applying cyclic voltammetry, which provides information about the possible electrode reactions at different stages of polarization. (3) Applying AC impedance to support the result of tasks 1 and 2 at different stages of oxidation, and data analysis by means of equivalent circuits. Open circuit conditions as well as positive and negative polarization are used in the impedance measurements. (4) Surface analysis of the electrodes by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. To obtain more information from electrochemical measurements a novel approach has been applied in cell design. In this two electrode approach, one electrode is fully immersed, and the other is wetted by carbonate melt via an alumina tube which has a thin film on it. While camera observation of these two different electrode conditions will identify the effect of carbonate wetting on the state of the surface, electrochemical measurements enable a quantitative comparison between complete submersion and wetting by a film of carbonate.

  15. Space storable propulsion components development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The current development status of components to control the flow of propellants (liquid fluorine and hydrazine) in a demonstration space storable propulsion system is discussed. The criteria which determined the designs for the pressure regulator, explosive-actuated valves, propellant shutoff valve, latching solenoid-actuated valve and propellant filter are presented. The test philosophy that was followed during component development is outlined. The results from compatibility demonstrations for reusable connectors, flange seals, and CRES/Ti-6Al4V transition tubes and the evaluations of processes for welding (hand-held TIG, automated TIG, and EB), cleaning for fluorine service, and decontamination after fluorine exposure are described.

  16. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  17. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  18. Porous nickel MCFC cathode coated by potentiostatically deposited cobalt oxide. I. A structural and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, M. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Mendoza, L.; Cassir, M.; Daza, L.

    Porous nickel cathode was protected by potentiostatically deposited cobalt at different experimental conditions: oxidation potential and electrolysis duration. The deposition growth increased with the oxidation potential yielding a more developed granular structure with smaller grains. Thin layers of Co 3O 4 were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. CoOOH was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before annealing treatment and Co 3O 4 after heating the sample at 500 °C during 4 h in air. After this treatment, some morphological changes were observed on the coated samples due to grain compaction and oxidation of the nickel substrate. The porosity of the coated samples was relatively close to that of the sole porous nickel. These coatings exhibited an appropriate dual-pore structure with macro and micro pores, a basic MCFC requirement.

  19. Development of discrete components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.J.

    1995-11-01

    Allied-Signal Inc, Kansas City Division, was provided with funding to maintain the capability to procure discrete components for various applications. A development project was undertaken to procure transistor die from one supplier for assembly into finished components by a different supplier. These components would be SA-equivalent with appropriate preconditioning, testing, and certification, The methodologies developed herein go far to ensure the future availability of discrete components.

  20. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, D.

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  1. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  2. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  3. Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  4. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  5. Using Cots Components in Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Abdul Khader

    2008-10-01

    As commercial off-the-shelf components starts used effectively, in building Component based Systems and new methodologies and processes not only for development and maintenance, but also for other lifecycle phases that are strongly affected. For example, some software vendors have begun to successfully sell and license commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and this fact leads to a considerable number of components being available for use. Thus, requirements engineering techniques have to change to deal with more flexible requirements to provide a match between stakeholder requirements and COTS component's services. In addition to changes in activities such as composition and component specification, that are specific to Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE), there are also a number of managerial issues that require change. Many of these issues are not yet established in practice or even developed. The main goal of this article is to present some characteristics of a CBSD and discuss some of the current issues associated with applying CBSE.

  6. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  7. Development of thermoplastic components for structural validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, John G.; Cassatt, Gary G.

    1990-01-01

    Recent activity directed toward advancing the development and validation of graphite reinforced thermoplastic primary and secondary structures is described. The efforts discussed include the design, manufacture and test of a highly-loaded multi-spar wing-box component, and the development of a flight-worthy article that is form, fit and functionally replaceable with the nose landing gear door of the V-22 Osprey.

  8. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Additional objectives of the project include the demonstration of specific advantages of the direct carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide design input for precommercial early production power plants.

  9. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    The 2MW plant is the world`s first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on an electric utility system. It is located at 1255 Space Park Drive in the City of Santa Clara, CA. The balance of plant pretesting effort will continue through Sept. 1995, when the stack installation effort will be initiated.

  10. Guidelines for design and development of industrially relevant MCFC stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Dufour, A.; Giorgi, L.

    1996-12-31

    An interesting way of reducing the production costs of the electrical energy by improving efficiency and, at the same time, having a good integration between environment and power plants is offered by the utilization of the fuel cells operating at high temperatures. From this point of view, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) seem to be one of the most promising technologies because of their environmental friendly operation for various fuels and potential low cost. In fact it is well known that the MCFCs overall plant efficiency is typically some 500% and can reach, as a consequence of their high operating temperature, 65% with a bottoming cycle. Moreover MCFCs will be particularly attractive for dispersed power plants of MW size located at user sites. Additional advantages of MCFCs are their good response to base and partial load, short time for plant erection and modularity.

  11. Status of the M-C Power IMHEX{reg_sign} MCFC commercialization program

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, R.M.; Scroppo, J.A.; Petri, R.J.; Benjamin, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    Six years ago, M-C Power (MCP) developed a comprehensive business plan to commercialize molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. On an annual basis the plan has been reviewed and modified to adapt to identified end user needs and technological advancements. As a result, product definition kept abreast with marketing requirements. Over the last five years, there was order and reason for subtle shifts in supply, demand, competition and pricing policies. Today, however, traditional market assessment assumptions must be challenged. There is a revolution taking place. The revolution can be summed up in one word ... deregulation. Deregulation of the airline industry led to consideration of the natural gas industry. Now that natural gas deregulation is behind us, it is electric power and telecommunications that are receiving attention. Increased emphasis is being placed on achieving market-priced power. The net result will be thinner margins for the seller and the end user. What does this mean for the commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cells?

  12. Sustainable Development in Indian Automotive Component Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2013-01-01

    India is the world's second fastest growing auto market and boasts of the sixth largest automobile industry after China, the US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. The Indian auto component industry recorded its highest year-on-year growth of 34.2 % in 2010-2011, raking in revenue of US 39.9 billion; major contribution coming from exports at US five billion and fresh investment from the US at around US two billion. For inclusive growth and sustainable development most of the auto components manufacturers has adopted the cluster development approach. The objective is to study the technical efficiency (θ), peer weights (λ i ), input slacks (S-) and output slacks (S+) of four Auto Component Clusters (ACC) in India. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Input Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper Model by taking number of units and number of employments as inputs and sales and exports in crores as an outputs. The non-zero λ i 's represents the weights for efficient clusters. The S > 0 obtained for one ACC reveals the excess no. of units (S-) and employment (S-) and shortage in sales (S+) and exports (S+). However the variable returns to scale are increasing for three clusters, constant for one more cluster and with nil decrease. To conclude, for inclusive growth and sustainable development, the inefficient ACC should increase their turnover and exports, as decrease in no. of enterprises and employment is practically not possible. Moreover for sustainable development, the ACC should strengthen infrastructure interrelationships, technology interrelationships, procurement interrelationships, production interrelationships and marketing interrelationships to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the world market.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  14. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX{reg sign} concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft{sup 2}) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft{sup 2} stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft{sup 2}) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs.

  15. Three Dimensional Forming Simulation of the Shielded Slot Plate for the MCFC Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Lee, S. R.; Chang, I. G.; Lee, T. W.

    2011-08-01

    The shielded slot plate, which has a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern, is a component of the metallic bipolar plate for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the fuel cell, the unit cell of the shielded slot plate should have a relatively large upper area. Additionally, defects from the forming process should be minimized. In order to simulate the slitting process, whereby sheared corrugated patterns are formed, ductile fracture criteria based on the histories of stress and strain are employed. The user material subroutine VUMAT is employed for implementation of the material and ductile fracture criteria in the commercial FEM software ABAQUS. The variables of the ductile fracture criteria were determined by comparing the simulation results and the experimental results of the tension test and the shearing test. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the critical value of the ductile fracture criterion. Employing these ductile fracture criteria, the three dimensional forming process of the shielded slot plate was numerically simulated. The effects of the slitting process in the forming process of the shielded slot plate were analyzed through a FEM simulation and experimental studies. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations were conducted to verify the numerical simulations of the 3-step forming process.

  16. Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2009-03-10

    According to Bechtel National Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, “Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes,” simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development.

  17. Developments in space power components for power management and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced power electronic components development for space applications is discussed. The components described include transformers, inductors, semiconductor devices such as transistors and diodes, remote power controllers, and transmission lines.

  18. Development of optical components for METIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardello, M.; Zuccon, S.; Corso, A. J.; Zuppella, P.; Naletto, G.; Fineschi, S.; Antonucci, E.; Pelizzo, M. G.

    2014-09-01

    The ESA mission Solar Orbiter (SOLO) is dedicated to the study of Solar Atmosphere and Heliosphere. As a part of the payload, the instrument METIS (Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) will provide images of the corona, both in the visible range and at the hydrogen Lyman-α emission line (121.6 nm). The realization of optical coatings, based on Al and MgF2, able to reflect/transmit such spectral component is therefore necessary. Since optical characteristics of materials in the VUV range are not well studied and greatly varying with realization process, we implemented a study of their properties in different deposition conditions. This is aimed to the realization of a custom designed filter, able to transmit the 121.6 nm while reflecting the visible light, and thus separate visible from UV light paths in the METIS instrument.

  19. Development and Characterization of Gibbsite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-01-29

    According to Bechtel National, Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, "Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes," simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed so they can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents PNNL’s results of the gibbsite simulant development.

  20. Non-Reactor Micro-Component Development

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; Holladay, Jamie D.; Humble, Paul H.; Dagle, Robert A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2007-02-01

    This book chapter will appear in a book being published by Wiley VCH, titled "Micro-Instrumentation for High Throughput Experimentation and Process Intensification." It represents a summary of microchannel-based research in all areas of non-reactive process development, such as heat exchange, mixing, emulsification, phase separation, distillation, mass-transfer, and biological applications.

  1. The Development of Semantic Components of Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    In this paper the author reviews and synthesizes the research literature concerning the developmental relationships between conservation of number and linguistic capability in handling of quantitative and relational terms. Several models for the development of these competencies are discussed. On the basis of this review the author concludes that…

  2. Development and Characterization of Boehmite Component Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Smith, Harry D.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Aker, Pamela M.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2009-06-03

    According to Bechtel National Inc.’s (BNI’s) Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0, “Simulant Development to Support the Development and Demonstration of Leaching and Ultrafiltration Pretreatment Processes,” simulants for boehmite, gibbsite, and filtration are to be developed that can be used in subsequent bench and integrated testing of the leaching/filtration processes. These simulants will then be used to demonstrate the leaching process and to help refine processing conditions that may impact safety basis considerations (Smith 2006). This report documents the results of the boehmite simulant development and blended simulant crossflow ultrafiltration leaching completed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-469 Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590- 101-TSA-W000-0004-182-00001 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the cited test specification. This report also includes the results of the aluminate and anion effect on boehmite dissolution performed in accordance with the test plan TP-RPP-WTP-509, Rev 0 (WTP Doc. No. 24590-101-TSA-W000-0004-72-00019 Rev 00A) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004, Rev 0 (Sundar 2007).

  3. Methodology Evaluation Framework for Component-Based System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Ajantha; Sol, Henk; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Explains component-based development (CBD) for distributed information systems and presents an evaluation framework, which highlights the extent to which a methodology is component oriented. Compares prominent CBD methods, discusses ways of modeling, and suggests that this is a first step towards a components-oriented systems development…

  4. Engine component instrumentation development facility at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Buggele, Alvin E.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The Engine Components Instrumentation Development Facility at NASA Lewis is a unique aeronautics facility dedicated to the development of innovative instrumentation for turbine engine component testing. Containing two separate wind tunnels, the facility is capable of simulating many flow conditions found in most turbine engine components. This facility's broad range of capabilities as well as its versatility provide an excellent location for the development of novel testing techniques. These capabilities thus allow a more efficient use of larger and more complex engine component test facilities.

  5. Peridigm summary report : lessons learned in development with agile components.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Mitchell, John Anthony; Littlewood, David John; Parks, Michael L.

    2011-09-01

    This report details efforts to deploy Agile Components for rapid development of a peridynamics code, Peridigm. The goal of Agile Components is to enable the efficient development of production-quality software by providing a well-defined, unifying interface to a powerful set of component-based software. Specifically, Agile Components facilitate interoperability among packages within the Trilinos Project, including data management, time integration, uncertainty quantification, and optimization. Development of the Peridigm code served as a testbed for Agile Components and resulted in a number of recommendations for future development. Agile Components successfully enabled rapid integration of Trilinos packages into Peridigm. A cost of this approach, however, was a set of restrictions on Peridigm's architecture which impacted the ability to track history-dependent material data, dynamically modify the model discretization, and interject user-defined routines into the time integration algorithm. These restrictions resulted in modifications to the Agile Components approach, as implemented in Peridigm, and in a set of recommendations for future Agile Components development. Specific recommendations include improved handling of material states, a more flexible flow control model, and improved documentation. A demonstration mini-application, SimpleODE, was developed at the onset of this project and is offered as a potential supplement to Agile Components documentation.

  6. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments in the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development and Integration program during the period of April 1, 1981 through September 30, 1981 are discussed. The major topics considered are: (1) propulsion system analysis, design, and integration; (2) engine component analysis, design, and development; (3) core engine tests; and (4) integrated core/low spool testing.

  7. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  8. Language Development Component; Primary Unit 1970-71. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brierly, Miriam G.; Robinson, Barbara

    The Primary Language Development Component, funded under Title I of the 1965 Elementary Secondary Education Act, served 3150 pupils, kindergarten through grade three. The purpose of the Columbus Public Schools in planning the language component was based on the assumption that the language of disadvantaged children prevents their dealing…

  9. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  10. Energy efficient engine. Volume 1: Component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technology for achieving lower installed fuel consumption and lower operating costs in future commercial turbofan engines are developed, evaluated, and demonstrated. The four program objectives are: (1) propulsion system analysis; (2) component analysis, design, and development; (3) core design, fabrication, and test; and (4) integrated core/low spoon design, fabrication, and test.

  11. Integrated disruptive components for 2µm fibre lasers (ISLA): project overview and passive component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Legg, T.; Shardlow, P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the EU FP7 project ISLA (Integrated disruptive componentS for 2 μm fibre Lasers) is given. The aim of ISLA was to develop a set of "building block" components and a "tool-kit" of processes to define an integrated modular common platform for two micron fibre lasers consisting of compatible and self-consistent active and passive fibres, fused fibre couplers and combiners, fibre-coupled isolators, modulators and high power pump laser diodes. We also present results from our work on developing passive components for 2 μm fibre lasers. This includes high power pump combiners that have been tested up to 0.5 kW and combiners for in-band pumping of holmium lasers. Couplers for use as splitters, power monitors and wavelength division multiplexers have also been demonstrated. Wideband couplers, with a coupling ratio that only varies ± 12% over 400 nm, have also been developed to exploit the wide tuning range possible with thulium fibre lasers. Research into different isolator materials was also conducted to find materials with large Verdet constants to be used in 2 μm isolators. Fibre-coupled isolators were then manufactured using a selection of these materials. Isolators that had insertion losses of < 1 dB and isolation of > 35 dB were demonstrated using PM and non-PM fibres. In the PM isolators, PER > 23 dB was achieved.

  12. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  13. Telemetry ground system development via the component approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, Karen E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's deployment of major space projects such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) will demand increased functionality and ground-based telemetry processing performance well above current capabilities. At the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, custom hardware and software components have been developed and combined into a unique architecture to address this problem. The hardware components utilize Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) developed specifically to support NASA's telemetry data systems needs and designed to handle data rates up to 300 Mbps. A generalized set of software components, called the Telemetry Processing Control Environment facilitate the rapid construction of control and monitoring functions for the ground-based telemetry processing systems. This combination of hardware and software elements enables rapid construction of flexible, cost-effective telemetry processing systems capable of meeting the performance requirements facing NASA in the coming decade.

  14. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  15. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    The language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP) was evaluated. The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. In the 1988-89 school year, 18 teachers served in 18 elementary schools that were eligible for…

  16. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    This document provides the final evaluation report of the language development component of the Columbus, Ohio, Public Schools' Chapter 1 All-Day Kindergarten Program for 1989-1990. The overall goal of the program was to prepare underachieving kindergarten children for first grade. A total of 17 teachers in 17 elementary schools participated in…

  17. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    An evaluation was made of the language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP). The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. The overall goal of the program was to prepare pupils for first grade by providing…

  18. Performance of new 10 kW class MCFC using Li/K and Li/Na electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mugikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) uses generally mixture of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate (Li/K) as the electrolyte. NiO cathode dissolution is one of serious problems for MCFC life. The NiO cathode has been found to dissolve into the electrolyte as Ni{sup 2+} ion which is reduced to metallic Ni by H{sub 2} in the fuel gas and bridges the anode and the cathode. The bridges short circuit and degrade cell performance and shorten cell life. Since solubility of NiO in mixture of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate (Li/Na) is lower than in Li/K, it takes longer time to take place slowing by NiO cathode dissolution in Li/Na compared with in Li/K. The ionic conductivity of Li/Na is higher than of Li/K, however, oxygen solubility in Li/Na is lower 9 than in Li/K. A new 10 kW class MCFC stack composed of Li/K cells and Li/Na cells, was tested. Basic performance of the Li/K cells and Li/Na cells of the stack was reported.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic projects at the CDIF (Component Development and Integration Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents the tasks accomplished at the Component Development and Integration Facility during the fourth quarter of FY90. Areas of technical progress this quarter included: coal system development; seed system development; test bay modification; channel power dissipation and distribution system development; oxygen system storage upgrade; iron core magnet thermal protection system oxygen checkout; TRW slag rejector/CDIF slag removal project; stack gas/environmental compliance upgrade; coal-fired combustor support; 1A channels fabrication and assembly; support of Mississippi State University diagnostic testing; test operations and results; data enhancement; data analysis and modeling; technical papers; and projected activities. 2 tabs.

  20. Structural analysis methods development for turbine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The structural analysis technologies and activities of the NASA Lewis Research Center's gas turbine engine HOT Section Technoloogy (HOST) program are summarized. The technologies synergistically developed and validated include: time-varying thermal/mechanical load models; component-specific automated geometric modeling and solution strategy capabilities; advanced inelastic analysis methods; inelastic constitutive models; high-temperature experimental techniques and experiments; and nonlinear structural analysis codes. Features of the program that incorporate the new technologies and their application to hot section component analysis and design are described. Improved and, in some cases, first-time 3-D nonlinear structural analyses of hot section components of isotropic and anisotropic nickel-base superalloys are presented.

  1. Reusable Component Model Development Approach for Parallel and Distributed Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Yao, Yiping; Chen, Huilong; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Model reuse is a key issue to be resolved in parallel and distributed simulation at present. However, component models built by different domain experts usually have diversiform interfaces, couple tightly, and bind with simulation platforms closely. As a result, they are difficult to be reused across different simulation platforms and applications. To address the problem, this paper first proposed a reusable component model framework. Based on this framework, then our reusable model development approach is elaborated, which contains two phases: (1) domain experts create simulation computational modules observing three principles to achieve their independence; (2) model developer encapsulates these simulation computational modules with six standard service interfaces to improve their reusability. The case study of a radar model indicates that the model developed using our approach has good reusability and it is easy to be used in different simulation platforms and applications. PMID:24729751

  2. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M.

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  3. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  4. Development of a specification for Christmas tree and wellhead components

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, M.W.; Robinson, G.C.

    1983-05-01

    The development of a specification for wellhead and Christmas tree components exposed to aggressive production environments is described in terms of supplemental requirements to the American Petroleum Institute Specifications 6A and 14D for Wellhead Equipment. The supplemental requirements provide for material selection and confirmation of the integrity of these materials. Implementation of this quality control program has been effective in preventing offshore wellhead failures.

  5. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  6. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  7. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  8. Valuing Professional Development Components for Emerging Undergraduate Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, I.

    2015-12-01

    In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic projects at the CDIF (Component Development and Integration Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents the tasks accomplished at the Component Development and Integration Facility during the third quarter of FY90. Areas of technical progress this quarter included: coal system development; seed system development; test bay modification; channel power dissipation and distribution system development; integrated topping cycle/proof-of-concept current controls project; oxygen system storage upgrade; iron core magnet thermal protection system checkout; TRW slag rejector/CDIF slag removal project; stack gas/environmental compliance upgrade; coal-fired combustor support; 1A channels fabrication and assembly; support of Mississippi State University diagnostic testing; test operations and results; data enhancement; data analysis and modeling; technical papers; and projected activities. 2 tabs.

  10. Development of metal-forming machine for fabricating micromechanical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Isamu; Takahsashi, Toshinori

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a die-forming machine for fabricating 3D microcomponents. Today, most micromachines or devices are fabricated by chemical etching of silicon. From a practical point of view, fabrication using metals as the raw materials should be studied. In this study, die-forming of medical forceps, as an example of a typical medical microtool, was investigated. The forceps currently used are fabricated by a combination of precision machining and hand finishing, thus requiring a considerably long period of time and high costs. We have developed a fabrication technique for metal medical components based on mould-forming. Use of this method results in excellent productivity but there are restriction on the shape of fabricated components. In order to overcome this problem, a micropress system that exclusively fits the fabrication of 3D microcomponents was designed and developed. This is based on the turret punch press, and material processing operations such as rotation of the material and other functions are incorporated. Also, round wire is used as the raw material. The results of practical forming experiments confirmed that the developed micropress reliable for fabricating microcomponents.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Advanced fuel cell active components have been developed and scaled up from laboratory scale to commercial scale. Full width components of both the stabilized nickel cathodes and the low chrome anodes have been successfully cast on M-C Power`s production tape caster. An improved design for a fuel cell separator plate has been developed. The improved design meets the goals of lower cost and manufacturing simplicity, and addresses performance issues of the current commercial area plate. The engineering that the Bechtel Corporation has completed for the MCFC power plant includes a site design, a preliminary site layout, a Process Flow Diagram, and specification for the procurement of some of the major equipment items. Raw materials for anode and cathode components were ordered and received during the first half of 1993. Tape casting of anodes was started in late summer and continued through August. In addition to the technical progress mentioned above, an environment assessment was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). As a result, the PDT has received a categorical exclusion from the Air Pollution Control District permit requirements. The PDT is configured to demonstrate the viability of natural gas-fueled MCFC for the production of electricity and thermal energy in an environmentally benign manner for use in commercial and industrial applications.

  12. Development of a 5-Component Balance for Water Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of this research/development effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure both static and dynamic forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 90 grams or 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models. The five-component balance was calibrated and demonstrated linearity in the responses of the primary components to applied loads, very low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and F/A-18 models. The data were compared to forces and moments from wind tunnel tests of the same or similar configurations. The comparison showed very good agreement, providing confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multi-component internal balance. The success of the static experiments encouraged the use of the balance for dynamic experiments. Among the advantages of conducting dynamic tests in a water tunnel are less demanding motion and data acquisition rates than in a wind tunnel test (because of the low-speed flow) and the capability of performing flow visualization and force/moment (F/M) measurements simultaneously with relative simplicity. This capability of simultaneous flow visualization and for F/M measurements proved extremely useful to explain the results obtained during these dynamic tests. In general, the development of this balance should encourage the use of water tunnels for a

  13. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Haselkorn, M.H. )

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  14. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1990-01-01

    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  15. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  16. Development of "Course Components" for Astro 101 Lectures, Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stage, M. D.; Schneider, S. E.

    2005-12-01

    An estimated quarter-million students take introductory astronomy each year (Fraknoi, A.E.R., 2001). The range in the resources, experience, and interest level of the faculty charged with teaching these classes may be as wide as the range of the science backgrounds of the students. Since each instructor applies his own selection bias as to which topics are key, innovations in astronomical lecturing must be modular and ideally previously vetted if they are to be adopted. Specifically geared to improving learning within the lecture, we present course "components": units which we have pre-tested in the large UMass introductory classes of 300 students. The design is such that a highly experienced professor might use just one for a good new way to cover a single problem topic, or a new professor might incorporate a large number working up a course for the first time. There is no single recipe for "components"; they are developed to suit the particular educational needs of each topic. One might be as simple as a single element of a lecture, or as complex as a 300 student interactive survey, a physical or software demonstration, an instant, in-class assessment via an class-response system (e.g. one of Mazur's "ConcepTests"), and a written or online homework problem. We will show some example components on distance and size scales, mathematics in astronomy, and the properties of supernovae. As this project is ongoing, we are most interested to hear from instructors their perceptions of the topics most difficult to teach, most in need of better demonstrations, and most prone to misconceptions, to help focus our future research ("Part 2").

  17. Static Feed Water Electrolysis Subsystem Testing and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koszenski, E. P.; Schubert, F. H.; Burke, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    A program was carried out to develop and test advanced electrochemical cells/modules and critical electromechanical components for a static feed (alkaline electrolyte) water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem. The accomplishments were refurbishment of a previously developed subsystem and successful demonstration for a total of 2980 hours of normal operation; achievement of sustained one-person level oxygen generation performance with state-of-the-art cell voltages averaging 1.61 V at 191 ASF for an operating temperature of 128F (equivalent to 1.51V when normalized to 180F); endurance testing and demonstration of reliable performance of the three-fluid pressure controller for 8650 hours; design and development of a fluid control assembly for this subsystem and demonstration of its performance; development and demonstration at the single cell and module levels of a unitized core composite cell that provides expanded differential pressure tolerance capability; fabrication and evaluation of a feed water electrolyte elimination five-cell module; and successful demonstration of an electrolysis module pressurization technique that can be used in place of nitrogen gas during the standby mode of operation to maintain system pressure and differential pressures.

  18. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Component Technology Development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. Besides existing in-house risk reduction activities, NASA has solicited from industry their participation on component technologies based on the potential application to the lunar ascent main engine (AME). Contracted and NASA efforts have ranged from valve technologies to engine system testbeds. The application for the AME is anticipated to be an expendable, pressure-fed engine for ascent from the moon at completion of its lunar stay. Additionally, the hardware is expected to provide an abort capability prior to landing, in the event that descent systems malfunction. For the past 4 years, MSFC has been working with the Glenn Research Center and the Johnson Space Center on methane technology development. This paper will focus on efforts specific to MSFC in pursuing ignition, injector performance, chamber material assessments and cryogenic valve technologies. Ignition studies have examined characteristics for torch, spark and microwave systems. Injector testing has yielded insight into combustion performance for shear, swirl and impinging type injectors. The majority of chamber testing has been conducted with ablative and radiatively cooled chambers with planned activities for regenerative and transpiration cooled chambers. Lastly, an effort is underway to examine the long duration exposure issues of cryogenic valve internal components. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  19. Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tarbell, W.W.; Sanchez, D.H.; Oestreich, M.L.; Prentice, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).

  20. Development and fabrication of structural components for a scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    A program broadly directed toward design and development of long-life (100 hours and 1,000 cycles with a goal of 1,000 hours and 10,000 cycles) hydrogen-cooled structures for application to scramjets is presented. Previous phases of the program resulted in an overall engine design and analytical and experimental characterization of selected candidate materials and concepts. The latter efforts indicated that the basic life goals for the program can be reached with available means. The main objective of this effort was an integrated, experimental evaluation of the results of the previous program phases. The fuel injection strut was selected for this purpose, including fabrication development and fabrication of a full-scale strut. Testing of the completed strut was to be performed in a NASA-Langley wind tunnel. In addition, conceptual designs were formulated for a heat transfer test unit and a flat panel structural test unit. Tooling and fabrication procedures required to fabricate the strut were developed, and fabrication and delivery to NASA of all strut components, including major subassemblies, were completed.

  1. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  2. Development of components for waste management systems using aerospace technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rousar, D.; Young, M.; Sieger, A.

    1995-09-01

    An aerospace fluid management technology called ``platelets`` has been applied to components that are critical to the economic operation of waste management systems. Platelet devices are made by diffusion bonding thin metal plates which have been etched with precise flow passage circuitry to control and meter fluid to desired locations. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising waste treatment technology for safe and environmentally acceptable destruction of hazardous wastes. Performance and economics of current SCWO systems are limited by severe salt deposition on and corrosion of the reactor walls. A platelet transpiring-wall reactor has been developed that provides a protective layer of water adjacent to the reactor walls which prevents salt deposition and corrosion. Plasma arc processing is being considered as a method for stabilizing mixed radioactive wastes. Plasma arc torch systems currently require frequent shutdown to replace failed electrodes and this increases operating costs. A platelet electrode design was developed that has more than 10 times the life of conventional electrodes. It has water cooling channels internal to the electrode wall and slots through the wall for injecting gas into the arc.

  3. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Energy Efficient Engine Component Development and Integration program is to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the technology for achieving lower installed fuel consumption and lower operating costs in future commercial turbofan engines. Minimum goals have been set for a 12 percent reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), 5 percent reduction in direct operating cost (DOC), and 50 percent reduction in performance degradation for the Energy Efficient Engine (flight propulsion system) relative to the JT9D-7A reference engine. The Energy Efficienct Engine features a twin spool, direct drive, mixed flow exhaust configuration, utilizing an integrated engine nacelle structure. A short, stiff, high rotor and a single stage high pressure turbine are among the major enhancements in providing for both performance retention and major reductions in maintenance and direct operating costs. Improved clearance control in the high pressure compressor and turbines, and advanced single crystal materials in turbine blades and vanes are among the major features providing performance improvement. Highlights of work accomplished and programs modifications and deletions are presented.

  4. Development of diode laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.; Salas, F.J.; Watkins, R.D.; Kovacic, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies are described which have led to the development of prototype diode laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive devices. These are of interest because they eliminate some concerns associated with ignition from hot wires such as conductance after firing, sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic discharge, and bridgewire corrosion. The availability of high power diode lasers is a key feature for the success of this concept. A pyrotechnic, Ti/KClO{sub 4}, and the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) explosive CP have been evaluated and found suitable for use in LDI components. Doping with materials such as carbon black to increase light absorption near 800 nm is a major factor in reducing the laser power required to ignite CP, but does not strongly affect the ignition of Ti/KClO{sub 4}. Other material and laser input parameters were also studied to determine their influence on ignition thresholds. Even though they contain different energetic materials, the energy-power relationship of these optical igniters was generally similar in shape to those of other thermal ignition devices such as stable and electric igniters. Prototype, hermetically sealed, optical headers have been fabricated, loaded, and test fired with CP and Ti/KClO{sub 4}. Glass to metal sealing technology has been developed to insert sapphire windows or optical fiber segments in these fixtures. Devices containing fiber segments demonstrated superior performance in threshold tests. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Ryanne; Cogdill, Robert P; Short, Steven M; Drennen, James K; Taday, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate suitable procedures for generating multivariate prediction vectors for quantitative composition and density analysis of intact solid oral dosage forms using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) spectroscopy. Both frequency- (absorbance and refractive index) and time-domain data are presented. A set of calibration and prediction samples were created according to a quaternary mixture design with five levels of compaction at each concentration design point. Calibration models were generated by partial least-squares, type II (PLS-2) regression of the TPI spectra against nominal composition and relative density reference measurements. Quantitative frequency-domain composition calibration models were created for all crystalline components (R(2)>0.90), but the calibration models for individual amorphous components (R(2)<0.76) did not perform as well in testing. Combining both amorphous components into a single component variable for regression resulted in lower error statistics and equally good predictions of crystalline components. A non-linear attenuation of time-domain spectra was observed as a function of compaction force, which corresponded to compact density predictions (R(2)=0.948). While refractive index spectra were sensitive to density (R(2)=0.937), the absorbance spectra were not. Surface density maps were prepared based on refractive index calibrations.

  6. Density mapping and chemical component calibration development of four-component compacts via terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Ryanne; Cogdill, Robert P; Short, Steven M; Drennen, James K; Taday, Philip F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate suitable procedures for generating multivariate prediction vectors for quantitative composition and density analysis of intact solid oral dosage forms using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) spectroscopy. Both frequency- (absorbance and refractive index) and time-domain data are presented. A set of calibration and prediction samples were created according to a quaternary mixture design with five levels of compaction at each concentration design point. Calibration models were generated by partial least-squares, type II (PLS-2) regression of the TPI spectra against nominal composition and relative density reference measurements. Quantitative frequency-domain composition calibration models were created for all crystalline components (R(2)>0.90), but the calibration models for individual amorphous components (R(2)<0.76) did not perform as well in testing. Combining both amorphous components into a single component variable for regression resulted in lower error statistics and equally good predictions of crystalline components. A non-linear attenuation of time-domain spectra was observed as a function of compaction force, which corresponded to compact density predictions (R(2)=0.948). While refractive index spectra were sensitive to density (R(2)=0.937), the absorbance spectra were not. Surface density maps were prepared based on refractive index calibrations. PMID:18053671

  7. COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-05-30

    Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium

  8. Development of a 6-component balance for the cryogenic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graewe, E.

    1984-06-01

    Criteria for wind tunnel strain gage component balances applicable in the temperature range 100 to 300 K were derived. An unheated six-component balance was constructed and examined. With the corresponding software this balance is practibable on quasi stationary temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K.

  9. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design of an energy efficient commercial turbofan engine is examined with emphasis on lower fuel consumption and operating costs. Propulsion system performance, emission standards, and noise reduction are also investigated. A detailed design analysis of the engine/aircraft configuration, engine components, and core engine is presented along with an evaluation of the technology and testing involved.

  10. A Developing Market for Continuing Higher Education: The Reserve Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, David M.

    Due to increasingly sophisticated military equipment, the Reserve Components of the armed forces need to raise the educational standards for recruits. A number of U.S. educational institutions have responded to their needs for continuing higher education in the areas of job skill enhancement (such as computer operation), regular courses directly…

  11. Analysis of Multi-step Forming of Metallic Bipolar Plate for MCFC Using Various Shapes of Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Ryu, Seung-Min; Yang, Dong-Yol; Kang, Dong-Woo; Chang, In-Gab; Lee, Tae-Won

    2010-06-01

    The metallic bipolar plates of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) consist of a shielded slot plate and a center plate. Among these, the shielded slot plate (the current collector) supports the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) mechanically. The anode gases and the cathode gases pass through a space between individual slot patterns. The catalysts are located in the upper part of the shielded slot plate. Therefore, triple phase boundaries can be generated, and carbonate ions can act as the mobile charge carrier for the MCFC. Due to these properties, the shielded slot plate should have a sheared corrugated pattern. In order to form a sheared corrugated pattern, a slitting process is required during the first stage of the forming process. However, it is not possible to obtain a high aspect ratio in a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern due to the plastic strain concentration on the upper round region of the pattern. Therefore additional forming processes are required to form a high aspect-ratio pattern. For example, the two additional processes such as a "stretching process using a preform" and a "final forming process" can be done subsequent to the first slitting process. Before the final forming process, a stretching process, which forms an intermediate shape (perform), can make the strain distribution more uniform. Hence, various examples of performs were evaluated by using FEM simulation employing simplified boundary conditions. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations using the proposed shape of a preform were conducted to characterize the formability of the sheared corrugated pattern. It was found that the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. The Process of Staff Development: Components for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Helen M.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to examine the development, process, and concepts of staff development in nursing education and its relationship to the overall continuing education effort. It is intended for staff development educators in agency development or revision, for administrators of nursing services in planning staff development, and for…

  13. Temporal expression of elastic fiber components in bladder development.

    PubMed

    Koo, H P; Macarak, E J; Chang, S L; Rosenbloom, J; Howard, P S

    1998-01-01

    Fetal and postnatal bovine bladders were examined for expression of elastic fiber components by immunohistochemistry as well as by measurement of steady state mRNA levels. Expression of fibrillin-1, microfibril-associated glycoprotein (MAGP) and elastin during the fetal period were compared with that of postnatal two year old animals (heifers) and adults. Each bladder was separated into two distinct tissue samples: 1) the outer smooth muscle layer (detrusor) and 2) the inner epithelium (urothelium) lined lamina propria (urotherial-lamina propria). Each of these samples was analyzed separately. Distribution of the elastic fiber components, determined by immunohistochemistry with matrix-specific antibodies, was different depending upon the region of the bladder wall examined and its developmental stage. In particular, MAGP and fibrillin-1 were conspicuously present in the urothelium during the later fetal stages. RNA products of elastic fiber genes were detectable both in the detrusor smooth muscle and urothelial-lamina propria fractions. The highest level of expression occurred in the urothelial-lamina propria fraction during the late second-early third trimester. Elastin expression was different from that of MAGP and fibrillin-1. The highest levels of steady-state elastin mRNA occurred at the earliest developmental stages examined and then progressively decreased through term. A high level of elastin expression occurred within the inner or lamina propria layer of the bladder. Since this layer is the functional capacitance layer within the bladder, its flexibility is likely related to the structural integration of elastin and associated microfibrillar components. PMID:9643643

  14. IR-UWB radio-over-fiber system components development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultanov, Albert K.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Meshkov, Ivan K.; Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Shmidt, Svyatoslav P.; Abdrakhmanova, Guzel I.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the application of IR-UWB technology for organizing the radio part of Radio-over-Fiber system. Four physical layer components are proposed and designed in the paper: three microstrip filters and UWB antenna. Firstly the effective SCRF mask was calculated to ensure electromagnetic compatibility with existing radio services. Then this mask was considered as a cost function for filters design. The simulation was made with Agilent Genesys™ and CST Microwave Studio. All the devices have shown good performance and could be implemented on one circuit board for reducing losses.

  15. Staff Development: A Vital Component of Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Helen M.

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses: the role of staff development within the broad concept of continuing education, continuing education based on different types of preparatory education, need for improved learning opportunities for staff development educators, and major goals for the staff development educator. (Author/MS)

  16. Recreation as a Component of the Community Youth Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N.; Boleman, Chris T.

    2011-01-01

    Youth today develop within nested systems that either positively or negatively influence their development. Recent research shows that American youth have made tremendous progress: fewer teen births, fewer youth who are heavy drinkers or smokers, and more students completing high school. However, data also indicate that the number of youth living…

  17. Incorporating an Applied Economic Development Component into a Geography Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kale, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how applied economic development has been integrated into the economic geography curriculum at Oregon State University (Corvallis). States that coursework in applied economic development should lead to greater understanding of the causes of economic change, the problems associated with growth or decline, and methods for achieving…

  18. Professional Development as a Critical Component of Continuing Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Paulina

    2008-01-01

    Professional Development is critical for improving and maintaining teacher quality and the effect flows on into the classroom. Factors influencing the success of Professional Development activities include potential for workplace change, the diverse effect and understanding of adult learning principles, subject specificity, effective mentoring and…

  19. MC4523 Sealed Cap: Component & characteristics development report

    SciTech Connect

    Begeal, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    The MC4523 Sealed Cap is a WW42C1 Percussion Primer that is pressed into a steel cylinder. Hermaticity of the input end is then provided by welding a thin steel closure disk on the input end of the MC4523. Thus, the user is provided with a component that is prequalified in terms of ignition sensitivity and hermeticity. The first customer is the Thermal Battery Department (1522). The MC4523 will be used on the MC2736A Thermal Battery which in turn will be used on the W78 JTA. Attachment of the MC4523 to the battery is with a laser weld. Combined test results of four production lots at a commercial supplier (PPI, TMS, WR1, and WR2) show an all-fire ignition sensitivity (.999 @ 50%) of approximately 60 millijoules of mechanical energy with a 2.2 gram firing pin. The firing pin had an impact tip with a radius of 0.020 inch. This firing pin is like that to be used in the W78 JTA application. Approximately 112 millijoules of mechanical energy will be supplied in the application, thus the design margin is more than adequate.

  20. The FGM Concept in the Development of Fiber Cement Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, C. M. R.; John, V. M.; Savastano, H. Jr.

    2008-02-15

    The FGM concept appears promising in improving the mechanical performance and reducing production costs of fiber cement building components. However, it has not yet been broadly applied to fiber cement technology. In this study we analyze the functionally graded fiber cement concept and its potential for industrial application in Hatschek machines. The conventional Hatschek process is summarized as well as the proposed modifications to allow FGM fiber cement production. The feasibility of producing functionally graded fiber cement by grading PVA fiber content was experimentally evaluated. Thermogravimetric (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate fiber distribution profiles. Four-point bending tests were applied to evaluate the mechanical performance of both conventional and functionally graded composites. The results shows that grading PVA fiber content is an effective way to produce functionally graded fiber cement, allowing the reduction of the total fiber volume without significant reduction on composite MOR. TG tests were found adequate to assess fiber content at different positions in functionally graded fiber cements.

  1. Recreation as a component of the community youth development system.

    PubMed

    Outley, Corliss; Bocarro, Jason N; Boleman, Chris T

    2011-01-01

    In an era of fragmented school systems and budget cuts, many educators and youth leaders seeking to solve the problems that youth face are turning to out-of-school-time programs. In many communities, these programs are seen as essential in the development of youth into fully functioning adults. One such area of the out-of-school-time sector is the provision of recreation services. Recreational services have a vital role in connecting youth to their communities, as well as enabling youth and adult allies to improve challenging conditions. This chapter outlines the historical role that recreation has played in community youth development programs and shows how community youth development has evolved. It then looks at how organizations in three communities--the Youthline Outreach Mentorship program in Minneapolis, a 4-H initiative in Parker City, Texas, and the Hockey Is for Everyone program--have successfully applied the theoretical knowledge. Best practices from these programs illustrate that the role of recreation in community youth development is changing. No longer are recreation programs about providing just "fun and games." Recreation organizations are now placing more value on the development of the community as a whole, in addition to the individual well-being of young people.

  2. Ceramic component development analysis -- Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1998-06-09

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) (Techniweave/Westinghouse, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), DuPont Lanxide Composites), intermetallic alloys (Pall Corporation), and alternate filter geometries (CeraMem Separations). The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to produce volumes. Given the brief nature of the on-site reviews, only an overview of the processes and systems could be obtained. Each of the 5 companies had developed some level of manufacturing and quality assurance documentation, with most of the companies leveraging the procedures from other products they manufacture. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs.

  3. Energy efficient engine component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the technology to improve energy efficiency of propulsion systems for subsonic commercial aircrafts was examined. Goals established include: (1) fuel consumption, reduction in flight propulsion system; (2) direct operation cost; (3) noise, with provision for engine growth corresponding to future engine application; and (4) emissions, EPA new engine standards.

  4. Lessons learned during the development of components for NIRCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordt, Alison; Clark, Charles S.

    2011-10-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has been developed over the last several years and during the course of development, the team of engineers has overcome several technical difficulties and discovered many things that could be improved about the design. The instrument employs a Beryllium optical bench, mounted transmissive and reflective optics, several mechanisms and the electronics to control them. This paper will discuss some of the technical issues encountered and the lessons learned as a result of them. These issues involve tapping of threads in and anodic coating of Beryllium, material interfaces within mechanisms, paints and coatings of metals, mounting of optics and general engineering practice. The issues, root causes and resolutions for problems will be presented in addition to suggestions and recommendations for future designs.

  5. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  6. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  7. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  8. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  9. Affordable Manufacturing Technologies Being Developed for Actively Cooled Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to improve the performance of modern gas turbine engines have imposed increasing service temperature demands on structural materials. Through active cooling, the useful temperature range of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines has been extended, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Because of their low density, high-temperature strength, and high thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, high processing costs have proven to be a major obstacle to their widespread application. Advanced rapid prototyping technology, which is developing rapidly, offers the possibility of an affordable manufacturing approach.

  10. Applications and developments in new engine design and components

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication discusses a wide variety of new technology areas that are being developed primarily for the gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine. Contents include: Analysis of cylinder bore distortion during engine operation; Hybrid linear/nonlinear method for exhaust noise prediction; Powertrain systems definition process; Observations concerning current motor vehicle emissions; Practical use of two piston ring set for gasoline engine; Parametric design of helical intake ports; Stress analysis and design optimization of carbon piston; Effect of piston top ring design on oil consumption.

  11. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  12. Component Manufacturing Development for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    SciTech Connect

    P.J. Heitzenroeder; T.G. Brown; J.H. Chrzanowski; M.J. Cole; P.L. Goranson; G.H. Neilson; B.E. Nelson; W.T. Reiersen; L.L Sutton; D.E. Williamson; M.E. Viola

    2004-10-28

    NCSX [National Compact Stellarator Experiment] is the first of a new class of stellarators called compact stellarators which hold the promise of retaining the steady state feature of the stellarator but at a much lower aspect ratio and using a quasi-axisymmetric magnetic field to obtain tokamak-like performance. Although much of NCSX is conventional in design and construction, the vacuum vessel and modular coils provide significant engineering challenges due to their complex shapes, need for high dimensional accuracy, and the high current density required in the modular coils due space constraints. Consequently, a three-phase development program has been undertaken. In the first phase, laboratory/industrial studies were performed during the development of the conceptual design to permit advances in manufacturing technology to be incorporated into NCSX's plans. In the second phase, full-scale prototype modular coil winding forms, compacted cable conductors, and 20 degree sectors of the vacuum vessel were fabricated in industry. In parallel, the NCSX project team undertook R&D studies that focused on the windings. The third (production) phase began in September 2004. First plasma is scheduled for January 2008.

  13. Development of metrological NDE methods for microturbine ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-R.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1999-12-23

    In this work, X-ray computed tomographic imaging technology with high spatial resolution has been explored for metrological applications to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic turbine wheels. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) data were acquired by a charge-coupled device detector coupled to an image intensifier. Cone-beam XCT reconstruction algorithms were used to allow full-volume data acquisition from the turbine wheels. Special software was developed so that edge detection and complex blade contours could be determined from the XCT data. The feasibility of using the XCT for dimensional analyses was compared with that of a coordinate-measuring machine. Details of the XCT system, data acquisition, and dimensional comparisons will be presented.

  14. Seal Technology Development for Advanced Component for Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Key aspects of the design of sealing systems for On Rotor Combustion/Wave Rotor (ORC/WR) systems were addressed. ORC/WR systems generally fit within a broad class of pressure gain Constant Volume Combustors (CVCs) or Pulse Detonation Combustors (PDCs) which are currently being considered for use in many classes of turbine engines for dramatic efficiency improvement. Technology readiness level of this ORC/WR approaches are presently at 2.0. The results of detailed modeling of an ORC/WR system as applied to a regional jet engine application were shown to capture a high degree of pressure gain capabilities. The results of engine cycle analysis indicated the level of specific fuel consumption (SFC) benefits to be 17 percent. The potential losses in pressure gain due to leakage were found to be closely coupled to the wave processes at the rotor endpoints of the ORC/WR system. Extensive investigation into the sealing approaches is reported. Sensitivity studies show that SFC gains of 10 percent remain available even when pressure gain levels are highly penalized. This indicates ORC/WR systems to have a high degree of tolerance to rotor leakage effects but also emphasizes their importance. An engine demonstration of an ORC/WR system is seen as key to progressing the TRL of this technology. An industrial engine was judged to be a highly advantageous platform for demonstration of a first generation ORC/WR system. Prior to such a demonstration, the existing NASA pressure exchanger wave rotor rig was identified as an opportunity to apply both expanded analytical modeling capabilities developed within this program and to identify and fix identified leakage issues existing within this rig. Extensive leakage analysis of the rig was performed and a detailed design of additional sealing strategies for this rig was generated.

  15. Measured system component development for the night vision integrated performance model (NV-IPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Haefner, David P.

    2016-05-01

    The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) introduced a variety of measured system components in version 1.6 of the model. These measured system components enable the characterization of systems based on lab measurements which treat the system as a `black-box.' This encapsulation of individual component terms into higher level measurable quantities circumvents the need to develop costly, time-consuming measurement techniques for each individual input term. Each of the `black-box' system components were developed based upon the minimum required system level measurements for a particular type of imaging system. The measured system hierarchy also includes components for cases where a very limited number of measurements are possible. We discuss the development of the measured system components, the transition of lab measurements into model inputs, and any assumptions inherent to this process.

  16. Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, Jon; Berry, Brian; Lundberg, Kare; Anson, Orris

    2003-03-31

    This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

  17. A Character Development Component in a Correctional Education Curriculum. Section 353 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Elaine M.

    This report details a project that explored the utility of adding a character development component to the academic curriculum for a correctional education program. In addition to the academic curriculum, a character component based on Steven Covey's "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" was taught to a demonstration group; only the…

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS MODELING COMPONENTS IN MICROSOFT .NET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CAPE-OPEN middleware standards were created to allow process modeling components (PMCs) developed by third parties to be used in any process modeling environment (PME) utilizing these standards. The CAPE-OPEN middleware specifications were based upon both Microsoft's Compone...

  19. Development and testing of CMC components for automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials are currently being developed and evaluated for advanced gas turbine engine components because of their high specific strength and resistance to catastrophic failure. Components with 2D and 3D composite architectures have been successfully designed and fabricated. This is an overview of the test results for a backplate, combustor, and a rotor.

  20. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  1. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  2. Toward Interoperable Mesh, Geometry and Field Components for PDE Simulation Development

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K; Diachin, L F; Li, X; Ollivier-Gooch, C; Seol, E S; Shephard, M; Tautges, T; Trease, H

    2005-07-11

    Mesh-based PDE simulation codes are becoming increasingly sophisticated and rely on advanced meshing and discretization tools. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to interchange or interoperate tools developed by different communities to experiment with various technologies or to develop new capabilities. To address these difficulties, we have developed component interfaces designed to support the information flow of mesh-based PDE simulations. We describe this information flow and discuss typical roles and services provided by the geometry, mesh, and field components of the simulation. Based on this delineation for the roles of each component, we give a high-level description of the abstract data model and set of interfaces developed by the Department of Energy's Interoperable Tools for Advanced Petascale Simulation (ITAPS) center. These common interfaces are critical to our interoperability goal, and we give examples of several services based upon these interfaces including mesh adaptation and mesh improvement.

  3. The Development of a Scale to Explore the Multidimensional Components of Good Student-Teacher Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Survey: Student Version was developed and assessed for factor structure using principal components analysis. No instruments measuring students' perceptions of student-teacher relationships have been developed for high school students, and scales that measure related constructs tend to view good student-teacher…

  4. Chemistry research and development. Progress report, December 1978-May 1979. [Component, pilot plant, instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, F. J.

    1980-06-30

    Progress and activities are reported on component development, pilot plant development, and instrumentation and statistical systems. Specific items studied include processing of pond sludge, transport of radioactive materials and wastes, corrosion, decontamination and cleaning, fluidized-bed incineration, Pu contamination of soils, chemical analysis, radiometric analysis, security. (DLC)

  5. AGT 101: Ceramic component development: Advanced Gas Turbine Program: Topical report, October 1979-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Eyck, M.O.; MacBeth, J.W.; Sweeting, T.B.

    1987-11-01

    This topical report summarizes the ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company. Standard Oil, acting as a principal subcontractor and supplier of ceramic components, directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and non-destructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This enabled engine testing to proceed without program slippage, and developed the approaches for producing low-cost, production quantity processes. Standard Oil contributed to the acceptance of ceramics as a viable approach for automotive gas turbine engines and to the advancement of this vital ceramic technology. 174 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. An Operational Approach for Selecting Open Source Components in a Software Development Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majchrowski, Annick; Deprez, Jean-Christophe

    Many organizations have started to integrate Free/Open Source Software (FlOSS) components in their applications. It is therefore crucial for these companies to select the most appropriate FlOSS components in terms of functional and non-functional needs. Although FlOSS selection methods have appeared in the last few years, they lack an operational description. In turn, this has slowed their use in software development project. This work presents an operational approach for selecting FlOSS components where the client, the development team and their respective quality assurance teams are involved in the selection process. Although the case study applying the FlOSS selection approach is left to future work, this article already describes an industrial case where the approach presented in this paper has been approved for use by the various partners, i.e., the client, the development firm and their respective quality teams.

  7. The two-component model of memory development, and its potential implications for educational settings.

    PubMed

    Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Gerjets, Peter; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-02-15

    We recently introduced a two-component model of the mechanisms underlying age differences in memory functioning across the lifespan. According to this model, memory performance is based on associative and strategic components. The associative component is relatively mature by middle childhood, whereas the strategic component shows a maturational lag and continues to develop until young adulthood. Focusing on work from our own lab, we review studies from the domains of episodic and working memory informed by this model, and discuss their potential implications for educational settings. The episodic memory studies uncover the latent potential of the associative component in childhood by documenting children's ability to greatly improve their memory performance following mnemonic instruction and training. The studies on working memory also point to an immature strategic component in children whose operation is enhanced under supportive conditions. Educational settings may aim at fostering the interplay between associative and strategic components. We explore possible routes towards this goal by linking our findings to recent trends in research on instructional design. PMID:22682913

  8. Development and testing of hermetic, laser-ignited pyrotechnic and explosive components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Beckman, Thomas M.; Spangler, Ed M.; Munger, Alan C.; Woods, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in the use of lasers in place of electrical systems to ignite various pyrotechnic and explosive materials. The principal driving force for this work was the requirement for safer energetic components which would be insensitive to electrostatic and electromagnetic radiation. In the last few years this research has accelerated since the basic concepts have proven viable. At the present time it is appropriate to shift the research emphasis in laser initiation from the scientific arena--whether it can be done--to the engineering realm--how it can be put into actual practice in the field. Laser initiation research and development at EG&G Mound was in three principal areas: (1) laser/energetic material interactions; (2) development of novel processing techniques for fabricating hermetic (helium leak rate of less than 1 x 10(exp -8) cu cm/s) laser components; and (3) evaluation and testing of laser-ignited components. Research in these three areas has resulted in the development of high quality, hermetic, laser initiated components. Examples are presented which demonstrate the practicality of fabricating hermetic, laser initiated explosive or pyrotechnic components that can be used in the next generation of ignitors, actuators, and detonators.

  9. Near term and long term materials issues and development needs for plasma interactive components

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma interactive components (PICs), including the first wall, limiter blades, divertor collector plates, halo scrapers, and RF launchers, are exposed to high particle fluxes that can result in high sputtering erosion rates and high heat fluxes. In addition, the materials in reactors are exposed to high neutron fluxes which will degrade the bulk properties. This severe environment will limit the materials and designs which can be used in fusion devices. In order to provide a reasonable degree of confidence that plasma interactive components will operate successfully, a comprehensive development program is needed. Materials research and development plays a key role in the successful development of PICs. The range of operating conditions along with a summary of the major issues for materials development is described. The areas covered include plasma/materials interactions, erosion/redeposition, baseline materials properties, fabrication, and irradiation damage effects. Candidate materials and materials development needs in the near term and long term are identified.

  10. Career Development in Head Start. Career Development Training Program. Part I: Components, Roles, and Program Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolotsky, Hyman; And Others

    The first booklet of the series Career Development in Head Start gives an overview of career development in this program. Career development, in which training is built into a job and is designed to lead to more responsible and better-paying jobs, involves task analysis, entry level positions, career ladders, training and education, released time,…

  11. The Individual Regulation Component of Group Emotional Intelligence: Measure Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christina Hamme

    2012-01-01

    Counseling work is increasingly conducted in team format. The methods counseling teams use to manage the emotional component of their group life, or their group emotional intelligence, have been proposed as significantly contributing to group member trust, cooperation, and ultimate performance. Item development, exploratory factor analysis, and…

  12. Supporting Component-Based Courseware Development Using Virtual Apparatus Framework Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Albert; Fritze, Paul

    This paper reports on the latest development of the Virtual Apparatus (VA) framework, a contribution to efforts at the University of Melbourne (Australia) to mainstream content and pedagogical functions of curricula. The integration of the educational content and pedagogical functions of learning components using an XML compatible script,…

  13. The Components of Effective Professional Development Activities in Terms of Teachers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Teacher preparedness is linked to student achievement, yet regularly teachers are entering the profession unprepared. In-service training, or professional development activities, are increasingly being used to remedy this situation. There is little agreement regarding exactly what key components should be included in an effective professional…

  14. Enhancing the Mental Health Promotion Component of a Health and Personal Development Programme in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Carol; Conlon, Andrea; Cleary, Deirdre; Power, Mike; King, Frances; Guerin, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to examine the impact of a health and personal development programme (the Social, Personal and Health Education Programme) which had been "enhanced" by the addition of a mental health promotion component. Students aged 12-16 years attending 17 secondary schools were randomly allocated as clusters to participate in…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF INDOOR/OUTDOOR PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the initital development of sampling methods and analysis techniques for quantifying and identifying the various biological components of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM). Both indoor and outdoor biological PM (BioPM) need to be measured to determin...

  16. Collaborative Development and Component Trials of a Comprehensive School-Based Intervention for Children with HFASDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the collaborative development of a comprehensive school-based intervention (CSBI) and component feasibility for seven children, aged 7 to 8 years, with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). In Phase I, focus groups were conducted in two school districts with school staff and/or parents of children with HFASDs.…

  17. Developing standard performance testing procedures for MC&A components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements, documentation and the human factor, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following elements and subsystems or components for a material control and accountability system: (1) MC&A Elements: Information subsystem, Measurement subsystem, NM access subsystem, including a tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated information-gathering subsystem; and (2) Detecting NM Loses Elements: Inventory differences, Shipper/receiver differences, Confirmatory measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or seal violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems (from the list above). Additionally this work includes a review of the status of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system components and potential criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a pilot Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the MBAs of SSC RF IPPE.

  18. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  19. Adding Vectors across the North: Development of Laboratory Component of Distance Education Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, V. K.; Solie, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Bush Physics for the 21st Century (BP21) is a distance education physics course offered through the Interior Aleutians Campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It provides an opportunity for rural Alaskan high school and community college students, many of whom have no other access to advanced science courses, to earn university science credit. The curriculum is mathematically rigorous and includes a laboratory component to prepare students who wish to pursue science and technology careers. The laboratory component has been developed during the past 3 years. Students learn lab safety, basic laboratory technique, experiment components and group collaboration. Experiments have place-based themes and involve skills that translate to rural Alaska when possible. Preliminary data on the general effectiveness of the labs have been analyzed and used to improve the course.

  20. Vapour and acid components separation from gases by membranes principles and engineering approach to membranes development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagramanov, G. G.; Storojuk, I. P.; Farnosova, E. N.

    2016-09-01

    The modern commercially available polymer membranes and membrane modules for purification of gases, containing acid components, simultaneously with dehumidification of treated gas streams, were developed and commercialized in the very end of XXth century. The membranes basic properties - selectivity (separation factor) and permeation flow rates - are relatively far from satisfying the growing and modern-scale industrial need in purification technologies and corresponding equipments. The attempt to formulate the basic principles, scientific and engineering approaches to the development of prospective membranes for the purification of gases, especially such as natural and oil gases, from acid components, simultaneously with drying them, was being made. For this purpose the influence of various factors - polymer nature, membrane type, structure, geometrical and mass-transfer characteristics, etc. - were studied and analyzed in order to formulate the basic principles and demands for development of membranes, capable to withstand successfully the sever conditions of exploitation.

  1. Judicious use of custom development in an open source component architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Latysh, N.; Long, D.; Tekell, S.; Allen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern software engineering is not as much programming from scratch as innovative assembly of existing components. Seamlessly integrating disparate components into scalable, performant architecture requires sound engineering craftsmanship and can often result in increased cost efficiency and accelerated capabilities if software teams focus their creativity on the edges of the problem space. ScienceBase is part of the U.S. Geological Survey scientific cyberinfrastructure, providing data and information management, distribution services, and analysis capabilities in a way that strives to follow this pattern. ScienceBase leverages open source NoSQL and relational databases, search indexing technology, spatial service engines, numerous libraries, and one proprietary but necessary software component in its architecture. The primary engineering focus is cohesive component interaction, including construction of a seamless Application Programming Interface (API) across all elements. The API allows researchers and software developers alike to leverage the infrastructure in unique, creative ways. Scaling the ScienceBase architecture and core API with increasing data volume (more databases) and complexity (integrated science problems) is a primary challenge addressed by judicious use of custom development in the component architecture. Other data management and informatics activities in the earth sciences have independently resolved to a similar design of reusing and building upon established technology and are working through similar issues for managing and developing information (e.g., U.S. Geoscience Information Network; NASA's Earth Observing System Clearing House; GSToRE at the University of New Mexico). Recent discussions facilitated through the Earth Science Information Partners are exploring potential avenues to exploit the implicit relationships between similar projects for explicit gains in our ability to more rapidly advance global scientific cyberinfrastructure.

  2. A hypertext display component for a graphical user interface development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Hypertext is often used in the World Wide Web and in application help tools, but it is certainly capable of much more. If it was available to application programmers as another graphical user interface component, like a button or an image, a wider range of use could be enabled. The Hypertext Display System (HDS), provides a hypertext component which can then be incorporated into a graphical user interface (GUI) development environment. The HDS consists of a hypertext display component, called the HyperDisplay, and a test-bed in the form of a local HTML file browser. Its distinctive characteristics are (1) it was developed with an object-oriented design, using C++, for the Motif X toolkit, (2) it encapsulates the hypertext display capability in the reusable HyperDisplay object, so that it can be easily included in other applications, and (3) the HyperDisplay object is designed with portability in mind, so it can be ported to additional systems. This paper describes the HDS and the HyperDisplay component with: an introduction and design overview, including the class subsystems; a high-level view of their implementation; and a discussion of future directions.

  3. Further Developments in Modeling Creep Effects Within Structural SiC/SiC Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jerry; DiCarlo, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Anticipating the implementation of advanced SiC/SiC composites into turbine section components of future aero-propulsion engines, the primary objective of this on-going study is to develop physics-based analytical and finite-element modeling tools to predict the effects of constituent creep on SiC/SiC component service life. A second objective is to understand how to possibly manipulate constituent materials and processes in order to minimize these effects. Focusing on SiC/SiC components experiencing through-thickness stress gradients (e.g., airfoil leading edge), prior NASA creep modeling studies showed that detrimental residual stress effects can develop globally within the component walls which can increase the risk of matrix cracking. These studies assumed that the SiC/SiC composites behaved as isotropic viscoelastic continuum materials with creep behavior that was linear and symmetric with stress and that the creep parameters could be obtained from creep data as experimentally measured in-plane in the fiber direction of advanced thin-walled 2D SiC/SiC panels. The present study expands on those prior efforts by including constituent behavior with non-linear stress dependencies in order to predict such key creep-related SiC/SiC properties as time-dependent matrix stress, constituent creep and content effects on composite creep rates and rupture times, and stresses on fiber and matrix during and after creep.

  4. Evolution of JAK-STAT Pathway Components: Mechanisms and Role in Immune System Development

    PubMed Central

    Liongue, Clifford; O'Sullivan, Lynda A.; Trengove, Monique C.; Ward, Alister C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lying downstream of a myriad of cytokine receptors, the Janus kinase (JAK) – Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is pivotal for the development and function of the immune system, with additional important roles in other biological systems. To gain further insight into immune system evolution, we have performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the JAK-STAT pathway components, including the key negative regulators of this pathway, the SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP), Protein inhibitors against Stats (PIAS), and Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins across a diverse range of organisms. Results Our analysis has demonstrated significant expansion of JAK-STAT pathway components co-incident with the emergence of adaptive immunity, with whole genome duplication being the principal mechanism for generating this additional diversity. In contrast, expansion of upstream cytokine receptors appears to be a pivotal driver for the differential diversification of specific pathway components. Conclusion Diversification of JAK-STAT pathway components during early vertebrate development occurred concurrently with a major expansion of upstream cytokine receptors and two rounds of whole genome duplications. This produced an intricate cell-cell communication system that has made a significant contribution to the evolution of the immune system, particularly the emergence of adaptive immunity. PMID:22412924

  5. Development of high performance scientific components for interoperability of computing packages

    SciTech Connect

    Gulabani, Teena Pratap

    2008-01-01

    Three major high performance quantum chemistry computational packages, NWChem, GAMESS and MPQC have been developed by different research efforts following different design patterns. The goal is to achieve interoperability among these packages by overcoming the challenges caused by the different communication patterns and software design of each of these packages. A chemistry algorithm is hard to develop as well as being a time consuming process; integration of large quantum chemistry packages will allow resource sharing and thus avoid reinvention of the wheel. Creating connections between these incompatible packages is the major motivation of the proposed work. This interoperability is achieved by bringing the benefits of Component Based Software Engineering through a plug-and-play component framework called Common Component Architecture (CCA). In this thesis, I present a strategy and process used for interfacing two widely used and important computational chemistry methodologies: Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) has been coupled with NWChem code and its CCA components. Results show that the overhead is negligible when compared to the ease and potential of organizing and coping with large-scale software applications.

  6. Moving Bed, Granular Bed Filter Development Program: Option 1, Component Test Facility. Task 3, Test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.C.; Purdhomme, J.W.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    In the base contract, Combustion Power Co. developed commercial designs for a moving granular-bed filter (GBF). The proposed filter is similar to previous designs in terms of its shape and method of filtration. The commercial designs have scaled the filter from a 5 ft diameter to as large as a 20 ft diameter filter. In Task 2 of the Moving Bed-Granular Filter Development Program, all technical concerns related to the further development of the filter are identified. These issues are discussed in a Topical Report which has been issued as part of Task 2. Nineteen issues are identified in this report. Along with a discussion of these issues are the planned approaches for resolving each of these issues. These issues will be resolved in either a cold flow component test facility or in pilot scale testing at DOE`s Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located at Southem Company Services` Wilsonville facility. Task 3 presents a test plan for resolving those issues which can be addressed in component test facilities. The issues identified in Task 2 which will be addressed in the component test facilities are: GBF scale-up; effect of filter cone angle and sidewall materials on medium flow and ash segregation; maximum gas filtration rate; lift pipe wear; GBF media issues; mechanical design of the gas inlet duct; and filter pressure drop. This document describes a test program to address these issues, with testing to be performed at Combustion Power Company`s facility in Belmont, California.

  7. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  8. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures.

  9. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures. PMID:18982953

  10. Development of ATLID-MSI synergy for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosol components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, R.; Nishizawa, T.; Higurashi, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Oikawa, E.

    2014-12-01

    EarthCARE is an earth observation satellite and will be launched in 2016. Using its two sensors, ATLID (High spectral resolution lidar) and MSI (Multi-spectral imager), we are developing the synergy algorithm to retrieve the vertical profiles of extinction coefficients at 355 nm of four aerosol components (Water-soluble, black carbon, dust, and sea-salt particles), and the column mean of mode radii of water-soluble and dust particles. The ATLID data are extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, and depolarization ratio for total aerosols at 355 nm. The MSI data are radiances at 670 and 865 nm. The dry volume concentrations of four aerosol components at each altitude and the mode radii of water-soluble and dust particles in the column are simultaneously optimized to ATLID and MSI data by the gauss newton method. After the optimization, the vertical profiles of the extinction coefficient at 355 nm of four aerosol components are obtained. The size distributions of four aerosol components are assumed to be a lognormal distribution. The refractive indices of four aerosol components are given from previously observational studies. The humidity growth is considered for water-soluble and sea-salt particles. The volume concentration and the mode radius of the sea-salt particle are parameterized using the surface wind speed on the ocean. We assumed that the shape of the water-soluble, black carbon, and sea-salt particles are spherical, and the shape of the dust particle is spheroidal. We tested the algorithm using the ATLID and MSI data simulated using clean, dust-transported, and smoke-transported aerosols. The extinction coefficients of each component at 355 nm are retrieved well. The mode radius of water-soluble and dust particles were somehow overestimated.

  11. Manual development: A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs.

    PubMed

    Mooss, Angela; Hartman, Megan; Ibañez, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes. To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes. In 2011, SAMHSA funded two Miami health clinics to implement integrated care models in co-located settings. Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component. To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model. The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care.

  12. Models and Frameworks: A Synergistic Association for Developing Component-Based Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A.; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development. PMID:25147858

  13. Models and frameworks: a synergistic association for developing component-based applications.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Diego; Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development.

  14. Models and frameworks: a synergistic association for developing component-based applications.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Diego; Sánchez-Ledesma, Francisco; Sánchez, Pedro; Pastor, Juan A; Álvarez, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development. PMID:25147858

  15. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Through the Lens of Teacher Professional Development Components: The "Dialogic Video Cycle" as an Innovative Program to Foster Classroom Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gröschner, Alexander; Seidel, Tina; Kiemer, Katharina; Pehmer, Ann-Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    For developing professional development (PD) programs, research suggests referring to effective components. In developing a PD program on classroom dialogue, we explored to what extent effective components could be addressed. We conducted a study with two groups. In the "Dialogic Video Cycle" (DVC), six German teachers participated in a…

  17. Development of the six-component rotating shaft balances for counter rotating open rotor testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, V. V.; Lytov, V. V.; Manvelyan, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of total aerodynamic loads acting on airplane's high speed CRORs, is one of the tasks of experimental aerodynamics. A special plant for this task solving was developed in TsAGI. One of the main challenges in the way of solving this problem is to develop a six-component rotating shaft balance (RSB) for the front and rear airscrews of CROR. The substantial stage of the balance development is the choice of the design. A promising design for the RSB was developed. It is a system of 12 non-prismatic beams, which is transmitting loads from the airscrews throughout a rim to a support. The rim connected to an airscrews hub and support rigidly connected to the shaft of VVP. Calculations have shown that this design has several advantages compared to known designs of eight beams.

  18. Iterative development of Stand Up Australia: a multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sitting, particularly in prolonged, unbroken bouts, is widespread within the office workplace, yet few interventions have addressed this newly-identified health risk behaviour. This paper describes the iterative development process and resulting intervention procedures for the Stand Up Australia research program focusing on a multi-component workplace intervention to reduce sitting time. Methods The development of Stand Up Australia followed three phases. 1) Conceptualisation: Stand Up Australia was based on social cognitive theory and social ecological model components. These were operationalised via a taxonomy of intervention strategies and designed to target multiple levels of influence including: organisational structures (e.g. via management consultation), the physical work environment (via provision of height-adjustable workstations), and individual employees (e.g. via face-to-face coaching). 2) Formative research: Intervention components were separately tested for their feasibility and acceptability. 3) Pilot studies: Stand Up Comcare tested the integrated intervention elements in a controlled pilot study examining efficacy, feasibility and acceptability. Stand Up UQ examined the additional value of the organisational- and individual-level components over height-adjustable workstations only in a three-arm controlled trial. In both pilot studies, office workers’ sitting time was measured objectively using activPAL3 devices and the intervention was refined based on qualitative feedback from managers and employees. Results Results and feedback from participants and managers involved in the intervention development phases suggest high efficacy, acceptance, and feasibility of all intervention components. The final version of the Stand Up Australia intervention includes strategies at the organisational (senior management consultation, representatives consultation workshop, team champions, staff information and brainstorming session with information

  19. Methodology Development for Passive Component Reliability Modeling in a Multi-Physics Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Unwin, Stephen

    2015-01-23

    Reduction in safety margin can be expected as passive structures and components undergo degradation with time. Limitations in the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology constrain its value as an effective tool to address the impact of aging effects on risk and for quantifying the impact of aging management strategies in maintaining safety margins. A methodology has been developed to address multiple aging mechanisms involving large numbers of components (with possibly statistically dependent failures) within the PRA framework in a computationally feasible manner when the sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation environment, such as the New Generation System Code (NGSC) concept. Both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties can be accounted for within the same phenomenological framework and maintenance can be accounted for in a coherent fashion. The framework accommodates the prospective impacts of various intervention strategies such as testing, maintenance, and refurbishment. The methodology is illustrated with several examples.

  20. Development of a stochastic dynamical model for hermetic compressor's components with experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanela, F.; Silva, O. M.; Lenzi, A.; Ritto, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of household compressor's components is typically evaluated by using mathematical-mechanical models, and many decisions are taken based on simulations. However, such an investigation is usually performed in a deterministic framework, which cannot consider manufacturing variabilities and epistemic uncertainties. In this paper, a stochastic structural model that considers data and model uncertainties is developed for a discharge pipe connected to a hermetic compressor's shell. An experimental test rig is constructed to test each part separately, and an identification strategy is proposed to fit the stochastic model to experimental results. Finally, the impact of the uncertainties in each structural component on the dynamical responses of the whole system is investigated. It turns out that: (1) the proposed stochastic dynamical model presented very good results when compared to the experimental responses, and (2) uncertainties in the discharge pipe model play an important role in the coupled system dynamics.

  1. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  2. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  3. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  4. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  5. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  6. RNA-binding proteins in eye development and disease: implication of conserved RNA granule components.

    PubMed

    Dash, Soma; Siddam, Archana D; Barnum, Carrie E; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Lachke, Salil A

    2016-07-01

    The molecular biology of metazoan eye development is an area of intense investigation. These efforts have led to the surprising recognition that although insect and vertebrate eyes have dramatically different structures, the orthologs or family members of several conserved transcription and signaling regulators such as Pax6, Six3, Prox1, and Bmp4 are commonly required for their development. In contrast, our understanding of posttranscriptional regulation in eye development and disease, particularly regarding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), is limited. We examine the present knowledge of RBPs in eye development in the insect model Drosophila as well as several vertebrate models such as fish, frog, chicken, and mouse. Interestingly, of the 42 RBPs that have been investigated for their expression or function in vertebrate eye development, 24 (~60%) are recognized in eukaryotic cells as components of RNA granules such as processing bodies, stress granules, or other specialized ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We discuss the distinct developmental and cellular events that may necessitate potential RBP/RNA granule-associated RNA regulon models to facilitate posttranscriptional control of gene expression in eye morphogenesis. In support of these hypotheses, three RBPs and RNP/RNA granule components Tdrd7, Caprin2, and Stau2 are linked to ocular developmental defects such as congenital cataract, Peters anomaly, and microphthalmia in human patients or animal models. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary approaches such as the bioinformatics tool iSyTE (integrated Systems Tool for Eye gene discovery) to prioritize RBPs for deriving posttranscriptional regulatory networks in eye development and disease. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:527-557. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27133484

  7. Component development and integration issues for bio/chemometric appliations of VCSEL and MOEMS arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Baks, Christian; Oktyabrsky, Serge; Xu, Bai; Yao, Yahong

    2001-05-01

    The rapid advancement of electro-optical components and micro-mechanical devices has led to increased functionality in decreasing package sizes. In particular, the development of massively parallel arrays of optical sources such as Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) and innovative micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) has opened the door for new possibilities. Recently, there has been a drive toward integration of the sensing, processing and actuation functions in a single package for fully integrated performance. One area which can benefit from this research is real time, spectroscopic analysis of biological and chemical samples. Numerous situations require a compact, self-contained bio/chemometric system for rapid, low cost spectral analysis or monitoring. To fully realize this potential, further component development and integration issues must be addressed. This paper will present the status of the VCSEL and MOEMS programs at the Institute and initial integration activities. The VCSELs are based on multiple quantum well Ga/As/InGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs architectures with monolithic, epitaxially grown distributed Bragg reflectors. The VCSEL arrays have 6-15 micron apertures, 100 micron pitch and a mA threshold current. In parallel, the MOEMS program is focused on the development of active, reconfigurable diffractive and reflective arrays whose surface topology can be changed in real time. These MOEMS arrays can be sued to redirect light for flexible interrogation of samples. The combination of these two technologies offers a unique opportunity for fully functional systems on a chip.

  8. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R.; Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T. E.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Sutter, James K.; Kim, D. Y.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100 % WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated. Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-11 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-II component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  9. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T.; Kalidindi, S.; Knight, R.; Sutter, J.; Kim, D. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100% WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated, Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-I1 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEMI. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-I1 component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  10. Further two-dimensional code development for Stirling space engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    The development of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components is described. Two-dimensional parallel plate models of an engine regenerator and a cooler were used to study heat transfer under conditions of laminar, incompressible oscillating flow. Substantial differences in the nature of the temperature variations in time over the cycle were observed for the cooler as contrasted with the regenerator. When the two-dimensional cooler model was used to calculate a heat transfer coefficient, it yields a very different result from that calculated using steady-flow correlations. Simulation results for the regenerator and the cooler are presented.

  11. Program for the development of high temperature electrical materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, W. S.; Lowry, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of high temperature, space-vacuum performance of selected electrical materials and components, high temperature capacitor development, and evaluation, construction, and endurance testing of compression sealed pyrolytic boron nitride slot insulation are described. The first subject above covered the aging evaluation of electrical devices constructed from selected electrical materials. Individual materials performances were also evaluated and reported. The second subject included study of methods of improving electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride capacitors. The third portion was conducted to evaluate the thermal and electrical performance of pyrolytic boron nitride as stator slot liner material under varied temperature and compressive loading. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  12. Development of improved and corrosion-resistant surfaces for fossil power system components

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop the corrosion-resistant surfaces on a variety of fossil power system components. The Fe-Al alloys ranging in aluminum from 16 to 36 @ % are of interest. The surfaces of Fe-Al alloys can be produced by weld overlay. However, because of their limited room-temperature ductility, the production of weld wire for these compositions is not commercially feasible. The alloying element dilution during weld overlay also makes depositing exact surface composition rather difficult.

  13. Development of equipment parameter tolerances for the ultrasonic inspection of steel components: Application to components up to 3 inches thick

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.R.; Doctor, S.R.; Hockey, R.L.; Diaz, A.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This report documents work performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the effect of frequency domain equipment interactions on the reliability of ultrasonic inservice inspection. The primary focus of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the acceptability of equipment parameter tolerances as given in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 11 Appendix 8. Mathematical models were developed for the entire ultrasonic inspection system including sound propagation through the inspection sample. The models were used to determine worst-case inspection scenarios for thin sections (piping), and these worst-case inspection scenarios were then used in sensitivity studies to determine the suitability of equipment parameter tolerances. Ultrasonics literature was reviewed to find worst-case inspection scenarios outside the scope of the model used, but none that were significantly worse were found. Experiments were performed to confirm the important modeling results. Methods for reducing parameter sensitivity such as the use of a phase insensitive receive were also investigated. The model predicted that ASME Code tolerances for equipment bandwidth are acceptable, but tolerances for center frequency are too broad to provide reliable inspection of worst-case defects using narrow band systems. Experiments confirmed the basic trends predicted by the model, but the model seems to be conservative in that it shows greater sensitivity than is found empirically.

  14. Development of Ocean Bottom Multi-component Seismic System for Methane Hydrate Dissociation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Asakawa, E.; Hayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.

    2011-12-01

    A 2D multi-component seismic survey was carried out in the Nankai Trough using the RSCS (Real-time Seismic Cable System) system in 2006. The RSCS is the newly developed ocean bottom cable system which is usable in more than 2000m water depth. The results of the PP and data PS components gave us much information of the methane hydrates bearing zone. Based on RSCS technology, we are developing a new monitoring system using multi-component seismic sensors to delineate the methane hydrate dissociation zone for the offshore methane hydrate production test scheduled in FY2012. Conventional RSCS is composed of three component gimbaled geophones which require a large volume inside the receiver. We will adopt accelerometers to achieve a small receiver that is 2/3 the size of conventional RSCS. The accelerometer data can be corrected into horizontal or vertical directions based on the gravity acceleration. The receiver case has a protective metallic exterior and the cable is protected with steel-screened armoring, allowing for burial usage using ROV for sub-seabed deployment. It will realize a unique survey style that leaves the system on the seabed between pre-test baseline survey and post-test repeated survey, which might be up to 6 months. The fixed location of the receiver is very important for time-lapse monitoring survey. We name the new system as DSS (Deep-sea Seismic System). A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the area of the dissociation. The first experiment of the DSS performance test in a marine area is planned in November 2011. The main features of DSS are described as follows: (1) Deep-sea /Ultra Deep-sea Operation Methane hydrate exists in equilibrium temperature and pressure holds at water depths greater than 500m. The system water depth resistance target up to 2000m. The receiver case has a protective

  15. Development of system level integration of compact RF components on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, David

    element antenna array, the concept of beam steering is shown. Using this antenna array as a building block, an 8 x 8 element antenna array is shown with the measured results when conformed around a cylinder. Further expanding the antenna array, a 16 x 16 element antenna array is designed, fabricated, and measured. All of these antenna arrays use LCP as a platform for lightweight and low cost satellite communication applications. Finally, using the integration technology and expertise developed from the previous work, a 60 GHz transceiver front end is designed on LCP for high speed wireless communication applications. Two dual mode filters and high-gain vertical dipoles are integrated at the packaging level on LCP to create a low cost system. A PA and LNA are included in the system to increase the system gain. The measurements of the dual mode filters are presented as well as the fully integrated transceiver pattern measurements and gain measurements of each of the transmitting and receiving mode. This research contributes to LCP integration technology with more compact and higher frequency multilayer applications while focusing on integration of the components at the system packaging level to achieve optimal compactness. The highlight of this work is in developing key technologies for multilayer integration on organic LCP such as HDI interconnects and RF MEMS; applying the technology to create reconfigurable RF components such as reconfigurable antennas and compact low voltage phase shifters; and integrating the components to create compact low cost multilayer RF front end systems.

  16. Development of non-destructive evaluation methods for degradation of HTGR graphite components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Sumita, Junya; Tada, Tatsuya; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-10-01

    To develop the non-destructive evaluation method for degradation of HTGR graphite components, the applicability of the micro-indentation method to detect residual stress was studied. The fine-grained isotropic graphites IG-110 and IG-430, the candidates for the VHTR, were used. The following results were obtained: The residual stress in a graphite block at the HTTR in-core condition was analyzed. It was suggested that, for the components in the VHTR which would be used at much severer condition, the development of lifetime extension methods is an important subject. The micro-indentation behavior at stress free condition was investigated with some indenters. The spherical indenter R0.5 mm was selected to detect the specimen surface condition sensitively. The indentation load of 5 and 10 N was selected to avoid the pop-up effect in the loading process. The relationship between the average value of normalized indentation depth and compressive stress of the specimen was expressed by an empirical formula. It would be possible to evaluate the residual stress by the indentation behaviour. It is necessary to assess the variation of data with statistic method and it is the subject of future study.

  17. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain.

  18. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haselkorn, M.H.

    1992-04-01

    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  19. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  20. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  1. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  2. Development of disease-resistant rice using regulatory components of induced disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases cause huge crop losses annually. In response to pathogen attacks, plants activate defense systems that are mediated through various signaling pathways. The salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway is the most powerful of these pathways. Several regulatory components of the SA signaling pathway have been identified, and are potential targets for genetic manipulation of plants’ disease resistance. However, the resistance associated with these regulatory components is often accompanied by fitness costs; that is, negative effects on plant growth and crop yield. Chemical defense inducers, such as benzothiadiazole and probenazole, act on the SA pathway and induce strong resistance to various pathogens without major fitness costs, owing to their ‘priming effect.’ Studies on how benzothiadiazole induces disease resistance in rice have identified WRKY45, a key transcription factor in the branched SA pathway, and OsNPR1/NH1. Rice plants overexpressing WRKY45 were extremely resistant to rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial leaf blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the two major rice diseases. Disease resistance is often accompanied by fitness costs; however, WRKY45 overexpression imposed relatively small fitness costs on rice because of its priming effect. This priming effect was similar to that of chemical defense inducers, although the fitness costs were amplified by some environmental factors. WRKY45 is degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system, and the dual role of this degradation partly explains the priming effect. The synergistic interaction between SA and cytokinin signaling that activates WRKY45 also likely contributes to the priming effect. With a main focus on these studies, I review the current knowledge of SA-pathway-dependent defense in rice by comparing it with that in Arabidopsis, and discuss potential strategies to develop disease-resistant rice using signaling components

  3. The Development, Application And Testing Of Diamond-Like Coatings For Infra-Red Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettington, A. H.

    1986-05-01

    The lack of durability of the outermost coated lens or window of thermal imaging systems had been a problem for many years. It was overcome in the mid-seventies by the development within RSRE of the infra-red transparent diamond-like carbon coating. This material was chemically durable, abrasion resistant and a near perfect match to germanium as a single layer anti-reflection coating. Originally the coatings had reasonable infra-red transmission but their hardness and adhesion were variable. Using our own processes we obtained consistently good coatings with optimised transmission. The application and excellent performance of these coatings on germanium components is described. Another application is the protection of diamond flycut aluminium surfaces where the off-normal reflectivity in the infra-red using conventional coatings can be poor. Having developed these coatings it was then necessary to develop specifications before they could be used in service. The development of coatings test procedures and specifications is also described.

  4. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  5. Design, process development, manufacture, test and evaluation of boron-aluminum for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, R. A.; Niemann, J. T.; Otto, O. R.; Brown, N. M.; Heinrich, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A multi phase boron-aluminum design and evaluation program for space shuttle components was conducted, culminating in the fabrication of a 1.22 m (48 inch) x 1.83 m (72 inch) boron-aluminum compression panel capable of distributing a point load of 1555 kN (350,000 lbs) into a uniform running load at a temperature of 589 K (600 F). This panel was of the skin-stringer construction with two intermediate frame supports; seven unidirectional stringers varied in thickness from 5 plies to 52 plies and the skin was contoured to thicknesses ranging from 10 plies to 62 plies. Both the stringers and the skin incorporated Ti-6Al-4V titanium interleaves to increase bearing and in-plane shear strength. The discrete program phases were materials evaluation, design studies, process technology development, fabrication and assembly, and test and evaluation.

  6. The Development of Engineering Tomography for Monolithic and Composite Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    1997-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of the development of engineering tomography for monolithic and composite materials and components. Computed tomography was used on graphite composite pins and bushings to find porosity, cracks, and delaminations. It supported the following two programs: Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and Southern Research institute (SRI). Did research using CT and radiography on Nickel based Superalloy dogbones and found density variations and gas shrinkage porosity. Did extensive radiography and CT of PMC composite flywheels and found delamination and non-uniform fiber distribution. This grant supported the Attitude Control Energy Storage Experiment (ACESE) program. Found broken fibers and cracks of outer stainless steel fibers using both radiographic and CT techniques on Pratt and Whitney fuel lines; Supported the Pratt & Whitney and Aging Aircraft engines program. Grant research helped identify and corroborate thickness variations and density differences in a silicon nitride "ROTH" tube using computed tomography.

  7. Reserves of valuable components of natural gas in Russia and their complex development

    SciTech Connect

    Staroselsky, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Natural gas reserves are distributed over a wide stratigraphic section (from Riphean to Neogene) and different geotectonic conditions in Russia. Some gases of these reserves contain high quantity of homologues of methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, helium and other valuable components which can be separated and considered as separate useful products. Reserves of ethane (not less than 3%), propane, butane, hydrogen sulfide, gaseous sulfur, helium and nitrogen are estimated on the National base. The reserves of ethane-rich gases account for 41.9% of the proved gas reserves. The structure of the proved gas reserves is as follows: methane-rich gases -- 57.8%; methane-rich sour gases -- 0.8%; ethane-rich gases -- 33.4%; and ethane-rich sour gases -- 8.8%. Ethane-rich gases of West Siberia are the most promising for the complex development of potential gas resources.

  8. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  9. High temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines. Part 2: Development of ceramic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walzer, P.; Koehler, M.; Rottenkolber, P.

    1978-01-01

    The development of ceramic components for automobile gas turbine engines is described with attention given to the steady and unsteady thermal conditions the ceramics will experience, and their anti-corrosion and strain-resistant properties. The ceramics considered for use in the automobile turbines include hot-pressed Si3N4, reaction-sintered, isostatically pressed Si3N4, hot-pressed SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and glass ceramics. Attention is given to the stress analysis of ceramic structures and the state of the art of ceramic structural technology is reviewed, emphasizing the use of ceramics for combustion chambers and ceramic shrouded turbomachinery (a fully ceramic impeller).

  10. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:27476011

  11. Simulated Propellant Loading System: Testbed for cryogenic component and control systems research & development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro Medina, J.; Sass, J.; Youney, J.; Schmitz, W.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies in the fields of cryogenic components and control systems are constantly evolving to advance the state of current cryogenic operations that will support future space exploration missions. To meet new demanding requirements, these missions will increasingly rely upon research and development in energy-efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space. The capability to test these technologies is sometimes limited to isolated subsystems with a narrow application spectrum. The initiative to develop the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) is to provide an integrated multipurpose generic testbed to allow dedicated test and evaluation of new technologies in a field environment on a scale that is relevant to launch facility propellant systems. The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center has more than two years of operational experience of using the SPLS to support independent and integrated technology maturation. This paper presents the development of a highly repeatable automated cold flow test sequence that was used in the evaluation and advancement of autonomous control system technologies. A range of other recent applications and capabilities of the SPLS will also be presented in this paper.

  12. Development of A General Principle Solution Forisoagrinet Compliant Networking System Components in Animal Husbandry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Arne; Herd, Daniel; Röβler, Benjamin; Gallmann, Eva; Jungbluth, Thomas

    In pig production software and electronic systems are widely used for process control and management. Unfortunately most devices on farms are proprietary solutions and autonomically working. To unify data communication of devices in agricultural husbandry, the international standard ISOagriNET (ISO 17532:2007) was developed. It defines data formats and exchange protocols, to link up devices like climate controls, feeding systems and sensors, but also management software. The aim of the research project, "Information and Data Collection in Livestock Systems" is to develop an ISOagriNET compliant IT system, a so called Farming Cell. It integrates all electronic components to acquire the available data and information for pig fattening. That way, an additional benefit to humans, animals and the environment regarding process control and documentation, can be generated. Developing the Farming Cell is very complex; in detail it is very difficult and long-winded to integrate hardware and software by various vendors into an ISOagriNET compliant IT system. This ISOagriNET prototype shows as a test environment the potential of this new standard.

  13. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient.

  14. Effect of dilution of stool soluble component on growth and development of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kaewsawat, Supreecha; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion or dilution of stool by water from heavy rainfall may affect Strongyloides stercoralis free-living development producing infective filariform larvae (FL). This study examined effect of water dilution of stool on survival of S. stercoralis free-living development. One g of stool was prepared in water so that its soluble component was diluted sequentially from 1:2 to 1:480. Three dishes were used to compare FL production in three culture conditions: stool suspension, stool sediment deposited in soil, and isolated rhabditiform larvae (RhL) deposited in soil. The fourth dish was for developmental observation of RhL into free-living stages. Numerous FL were generated from undiluted or 1:2 diluted stool and stool sediment placed on soil. However, starting from dilution 1:5, FL production continuously decreased in both stool suspensions and stool sediments placed on soil. RhL isolated from stool dilutions placed on soil gave rise to few FL. Worm mating were seen at 24-30 hours in dilutions 1:20-1:120 only. Highest numbers of FL from indirect free-living cycle were 1/3 of those from control. FL production decreased as stool dilution increased, and reached zero production at 1:160 dilution. Rainfall may disperse or dilute stool so that nutritional supplement for S. stercoralis free-living development is insufficient. PMID:26035061

  15. The Development of the Integrated Three-Component Model of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, D. Barry

    2008-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the origin of the three-component model of agricultural education in the United States and provided a contextual base for future research into the three-component model for agricultural education. The study concluded that each of the three components of the agricultural education model originated at…

  16. Hybrid optical TDM/WDM network technology and architecture: Component and subsystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deyu

    much needed bandwidth and networking functionality, development of its enabling subsystems and components becomes prominent. This dissertation addresses critical subsystem and component development for such hybrid OTDM/WDM networks and systems. It presents innovative solutions in all optical switching (Chapters 2, 3, and 4), wavelength conversion and its tunable sources (Chapters 5 and 8), format conversion and pulse width management (Chapter 6), perfect synchronization for bit-parallel WDM signal channels over a single optical fiber and its its application: WDM-to-OTDM conversion (Chapter 7), and finally a design for all-optical data regeneration what has been studied in the corresponding chapter.

  17. Development of a solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis cell module and ancillary components for a breadboard water electrolysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology in a water electrolysis system along with ancillary components to generate oxygen and hydrogen for a manned space station application are considered. Standard commercial components are utilized wherever possible. Presented are the results of investigations, surveys, tests, conclusions and recommendations for future development efforts.

  18. SOFC technology development at Rolls-Royce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, F. J.; Day, M. J.; Brandon, N. P.; Pashley, M. N.; Cassidy, M.

    Fuel cells have the prospect for exploiting fossil fuels more benignly and more efficiently than alternatives. The various types represent quite different technologies, with no clear winner, yet. Nevertheless, the high temperature MCFC and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) types seem better suited to power generation in a hydrocarbon fuel economy. Presently, the costs of MCFCs and SOFCs are too high to compete directly with contemporary power generation plant. Seeking to overcome the drawbacks of first generation fuel cells, over the past 7 years an innovative second generation SOFC concept has been evolved in the Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, with encouraging results. It is distinguished from other types by the name: Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC). It is a family of integrated system concepts supporting product flexibility with evolutionary stretch potential from a common SOFC module. Fabrication of the key component of the IP-SOFC, the "multi-cell membrane electrode assembly (multi-cell MEA) module" carrying many series connected cells with supported electrolyte membranes only 10 to 20 μm thick, has been proved. Development of the internal reforming subsystem, the next big hurdle, is now in hand. Following an outline of its salient features and test results, the methodology and results of recent IP-SOFC stack costing studies are presented, and the continuing research and development programme indicated.

  19. Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Technology: Earth Observing-1 PPT Operational and Advanced Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Frus, John; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Burton, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) mounted on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft was operated successfully in orbit. The two-axis thruster system is fully incorporated in the attitude determination and control system and is being used to automatically counteract disturbances in the pitch axis of the spacecraft. The first tests conducted in space demonstrated the full range of PPT operation, followed by calibration of control torques from the PPT in the attitude control system. Then the spacecraft was placed in PPT control mode. To date, it has operated for about 30 hr. The PPT successfully controlled pitch momentum during wheel de-spin, solar array acceleration and deceleration during array rewind, and environmental torques in nominal operating conditions. Images collected with the Advanced Landsat Imager during PPT operation have demonstrated that there was no degradation in comparison to full momentum wheel control. In addition, other experiments have been performed to interrogate the effects of PPT operation on communication packages and light reflection from spacecraft surfaces. Future experiments will investigate the possibility of orbit-raising maneuvers, spacecraft roll, and concurrent operation with the Hyperion imager. Future applications envisioned for pulsed plasma thrusters include longer life, higher precision, multiaxis thruster configurations for three-axis attitude control systems or high-precision, formationflying systems. Advanced components, such as a "dry" mica-foil capacitor, a wear-resistant spark plug, and a multichannel power processing unit have been developed under contract with Unison Industries, General Dynamics, and C.U. Aerospace. Over the last year, evaluation tests have been conducted to determine power processing unit efficiency, atmospheric functionality, vacuum functionality, thruster performance evaluation, thermal performance, and component life.

  20. Process development for electron beam joining of ceramic and glass components

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, P.; Gerstle, F.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Voth, T.E.; McKenzie, B.; Clifford, J.R.; Habiger, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and extend the electron beam joining process to applications related to Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cermets for neutron tube fabrication, glass seals for flat panel displays, and ceramics for structural applications. The key issue is the identification of the allowable operating ranges that produce thermal conditions favorable to robust joining and sealing. High strength, hermetic braze joints between ceramic components have been produced using high energy electron beams. With a penetration depth into a typical ceramic of {approximately} 1 cm for a 10 MeV electron beam, this method provides the capability for rapid, transient brazing operations where temperature control of heat sensitive components is essential. The method deposits energy directly into a buried joint, allowing otherwise inaccessible interfaces to be brazed. The combination of transient heating, with higher thermal conductivity, lower heat capacity, and lower melting temperature of braze metals relative to the ceramic materials, enables a pulsed high power beam to melt a braze metal without producing excessive ceramic temperatures. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of this process related to ceramic coupons a well as ceramic and glass tubes and cylindrical shapes. The transient thermal response was predicted, using as input the energy absorption predicted from the coupled electron-photon and thermal transport analysis. The joining experiments were conducted with an RF linear accelerator at 10--13 MV. Joining experiments have provided high strength joints between alumina and alumina and between alumina and cermet joints in cylindrical geometry. These joints provided good hermetic seals.

  1. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  2. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  3. Toxicokinetic Model Development for the Insensitive Munitions Component 2,4-Dinitroanisole.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Goodwin, Michelle R; Hulgan, Angela D; Gut, Chester P; Bannon, Desmond I

    2015-01-01

    The Armed Forces are developing new explosives that are less susceptible to unintentional detonation (insensitive munitions [IMX]). 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is a component of IMX. Toxicokinetic data for DNAN are required to support interpretation of toxicology studies and refinement of dose estimates for human risk assessment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage (5, 20, or 80 mg DNAN/kg), and blood and tissue samples were analyzed to determine the levels of DNAN and its metabolite 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). These data and data from the literature were used to develop preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The model simulations indicated saturable metabolism of DNAN in rats at higher tested doses. The PBPK model was extrapolated to estimate the toxicokinetics of DNAN and DNP in humans, allowing the estimation of human-equivalent no-effect levels of DNAN exposure from no-observed adverse effect levels determined in laboratory animals, which may guide the selection of exposure limits for DNAN.

  4. Development of Standardized Power Electronic Components, Subsystems, and Systems for Increased Modularity and Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Pink, C.; Price, J.; Kroposki, B.; Kern, G.

    2007-11-01

    Power electronics devices hold substantial promise for making distributed energy applications more efficient and cost effective. This project is motivated towards developing and testing inverters that will allow distributed energy systems to provide ancillary services such as voltage and VAR regulation, and increased grid reliability by seamlessly transitioning between grid-tied and stand-alone operation modes. The objectives of this project are to identify system integration and optimization issues and technologies and to provide solutions through research, analysis, and testing of power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications that are cost-competitive and have substantially faster response times than conventional technologies. In addition, the testing of power electronics interfaces will develop a technical basis for performance assessment for distributed energy systems, subsystems, and components that will finally create a foundation for standardized measurements and test procedures. The ultimate goal for this research is to advance the potential benefits of distributed energy to provide ancillary services, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice.

  5. Development of a smart flexible transducer to inspect component of complex geometry: Modeling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Olivier; Mahaut, Steve; Casula, Olivier

    2002-05-01

    In many industrial sectors, as nuclear and aircraft, the main part of ultrasonic non destructive testing is carried out using contact transducers. Among others, the cooling piping of French pressurized water reactor comprises many welding components with complex geometry which lead to degraded inspection performances; loss of sensitivity due to unmatched contact on irregular surface, beam distortions, uncovered area. To improve the performances of such inspections, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), supported by the safety authorities (IPSN), has developed a new concept of contact phased array transducer. Its radiating surface is flexible to optimize the contact, while the characteristics of the transmitted beam (orientation and focal depth) are preserved thanks to a delay law optimizing algorithm. This computation requires the actual positions of the elements, so an instrumentation is coupled to the transducer to measure its radiating surface distortions. Thus, this smart flexible transducer becomes self-adaptive. Recent studies have been made to obtain further performances improvements of this system, including instrumentation development and a new phased array design allowing to generate both longitudinal and shear waves beams. Inspections have been performed on a specimen containing artificial defects under a realistic profile, with an adaptive mode to compensate the effect of the irregular profile. Experimental results show the ability of this system to detect and characterize defects under irregular profiles, using longitudinal or shear waves.

  6. Ecdysteroid signalling components in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Cynthia; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Peeters, Paulien; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Marchal, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    The arthropod-specific hormone family of ecdysteroids plays an important role in regulating diverse physiological processes, such as moulting and metamorphosis, reproduction, diapause and innate immunity. Ecdysteroids mediate their response by binding to a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid-X-receptor/ultraspiracle (RXR/USP). In this study we investigated the role of EcR and RXR in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The desert locust is a voracious, phytophagous, swarming pest that can ruin crops and harvests in some of the world's poorest countries. A profound knowledge of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway can be used in the development of more target-specific insecticides to combat this harmful plague insect. Here we report an in-depth profiling study of the transcript levels of EcR and RXR, as well as its downstream response genes, in different tissues isolated throughout the last larval stage of a hemimetabolous insect, showing a clear correlation with circulating ecdysteroid titres. Using RNA interference (RNAi), the role of SgEcR/SgRXR in moulting and development was investigated. We have proven the importance of the receptor components for successful moulting of locust nymphs into the adult stage. Some SgEcR/SgRXR knockdown females were arrested in the last larval stage, and 65 % of them initiated vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation, which normally only occurs in adults. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that at the peak of ecdysteroid synthesis, on day six of the last larval stage, knockdown of SgEcR/SgRXR is affecting the transcript levels of the Halloween genes, Spook, Shadow and Shade. PMID:27180725

  7. Materials Development for Auxiliary Components for Large Compact Mo/Au TES Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, F. m.; Chervenak, J. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R.; Brown, A. D.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Smith, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our current fabrication process for arrays of superconducting transition edge sensor microcalorimeters, which incorporates superconducting Mo/Au bilayers and micromachined silicon structures. We focus on materials and integration methods for array heatsinking with our bilayer and micromachining processes. The thin superconducting molybdenum bottom layer strongly influences the superconducting behavior and overall film characteristics of our molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors (TES). Concurrent with our successful TES microcalorimeter array development, we have started to investigate the thin film properties of molybdenum monolayers within a given phase space of several important process parameters. The monolayers are sputtered or electron-beam deposited exclusively on LPCVD silicon nitride coated silicon wafers. In our current bilayer process, molybdenum is electron-beam deposited at high wafer temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C. Identifying process parameters that yield high quality bilayers at a significantly lower temperature will increase options for incorporating process-sensitive auxiliary array components (AAC) such as array heat sinking and electrical interconnects into our overall device process. We are currently developing two competing technical approaches for heat sinking large compact TES microcalorimeter arrays. Our efforts to improve array heat sinking and mitigate thermal cross-talk between pixels include copper backside deposition on completed device chips and copper-filled micro-trenches surface-machined into wafers. In addition, we fabricated prototypes of copper through-wafer microvias as a potential way to read out the arrays. We present an overview on the results of our molybdenum monolayer study and its implications concerning our device fabrication. We discuss the design, fabrication process, and recent test results of our AAC development.

  8. A Study On The Practical Application Of Repair Development Methods For Aerospace Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moedano, Jesus A.

    In the industry of manufacturing, each gas turbine engine component begins in a raw state such as bar stock and is routed through manufacturing processes to define its final form before being installed on the engine. What is the follow-up to this part? What happens when over time and usage it wears? Several factors have created a section of the manufacturing industry known as aftermarket to support the customer in their need for restoration and repair of their original product. Once a product has reached a wear factor or cycle limit that cannot be ignored, one of the options is to have it repaired to maintain use of the core. This research investigated the study into the creation and application of repair development methodology that can be utilized by current and new manufacturing engineers of the world. Those who have been in this field for some time will find the process thought provoking while the engineering students can develop a foundation of thinking to prepare for the common engineering problems they will be tasked to resolve. The examples, figures and tables are true issues of the industry though the data will have been changed due to proprietary factors. The results of the study reveals, under most scenarios, a solid process can be followed to proceed with the best options for repair based on the initial discrepancy. However, this methodology will not be a "catch-all" process but a guidance that will develop the proper thinking in evaluation of the repair options and the possible failure modes of each choice. As with any continuous improvement tool, further research is needed to test the applicability of this process in other fields.

  9. Ecdysteroid signalling components in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Cynthia; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Peeters, Paulien; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Marchal, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    The arthropod-specific hormone family of ecdysteroids plays an important role in regulating diverse physiological processes, such as moulting and metamorphosis, reproduction, diapause and innate immunity. Ecdysteroids mediate their response by binding to a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear receptors, the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid-X-receptor/ultraspiracle (RXR/USP). In this study we investigated the role of EcR and RXR in metamorphosis and development of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The desert locust is a voracious, phytophagous, swarming pest that can ruin crops and harvests in some of the world's poorest countries. A profound knowledge of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway can be used in the development of more target-specific insecticides to combat this harmful plague insect. Here we report an in-depth profiling study of the transcript levels of EcR and RXR, as well as its downstream response genes, in different tissues isolated throughout the last larval stage of a hemimetabolous insect, showing a clear correlation with circulating ecdysteroid titres. Using RNA interference (RNAi), the role of SgEcR/SgRXR in moulting and development was investigated. We have proven the importance of the receptor components for successful moulting of locust nymphs into the adult stage. Some SgEcR/SgRXR knockdown females were arrested in the last larval stage, and 65 % of them initiated vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation, which normally only occurs in adults. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that at the peak of ecdysteroid synthesis, on day six of the last larval stage, knockdown of SgEcR/SgRXR is affecting the transcript levels of the Halloween genes, Spook, Shadow and Shade.

  10. Development of a knowledge-based system for the design of composite automotive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.; Stephens, J. Paul

    1997-01-01

    Composite materials are comprised of two or more constituents possessing significantly different physical properties. Due to their high strength and light weight, there is an emerging trend to utilize composites in the automotive industry. There is an inherent link between component design and the manufacturing processes necessary for fabrication. To many designers, this situation may be intimidating, since there is frequently little available understanding of composites and their processes. A direct results is high rates of product scrap and rework. Thus, there is a need to implement a systematic approach to composite material design. One such approach is quality function deployment (QFD). By translating customer requirements into design parameters, through the use of heuristics, QFD supports the improvement of product quality during the planning stages prior to actual production. The purpose of this research is to automate the use of knowledge pertaining to the design and application of composite materials within the automobile industry. This is being accomplished through the development of a prototype expert system incorporating a QFD approach. It will provide industry designers with access to knowledge of composite materials that might not be otherwise available.

  11. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  12. GFRα1 Is an Essential Receptor Component for GDNF in the Developing Nervous System and Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Cacalano, Grace; Fariñas, Isabel; Wang, Li-Chong; Hagler, Kelly; Forgie, Alison; Moore, Mark; Armanini, Mark; Phillips, Heidi; Ryan, Anne M.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Hynes, Mary; Davies, Alun; Rosenthal, Arnon

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the TGFβ protein family that is essential for neuronal survival and renal morphogenesis. We show that mice who are deficient in the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -linked protein GFRα1 (GDNFRα) display deficits in the kidneys, the enteric nervous system, and spinal motor and sensory neurons that are strikingly similar to those of the GDNF-and Ret-deficient mice. GFRα1-deficient dopaminergic and nodose sensory ganglia neurons no longer respond to GDNF or to the structurally related protein neurturin (NTN) but can be rescued when exposed to GDNF or neurturin in the presence of soluble GFRα1. In contrast, GFRα1-deficient submandibular parasympathetic neurons retain normal response to these two factors. Taken together with the available genetic and biochemical data, these findings support the idea that GFRα1 and the transmembrane tyrosine kinase Ret are both necessary receptor components for GDNF in the developing kidney and nervous system, and that GDNF and neurturin can mediate some of their activities through a second receptor. PMID:9697851

  13. Analytical Method to Evaluate Failure Potential During High-Risk Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Stone, Robert B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Communicating failure mode information during design and manufacturing is a crucial task for failure prevention. Most processes use Failure Modes and Effects types of analyses, as well as prior knowledge and experience, to determine the potential modes of failures a product might encounter during its lifetime. When new products are being considered and designed, this knowledge and information is expanded upon to help designers extrapolate based on their similarity with existing products and the potential design tradeoffs. This paper makes use of similarities and tradeoffs that exist between different failure modes based on the functionality of each component/product. In this light, a function-failure method is developed to help the design of new products with solutions for functions that eliminate or reduce the potential of a failure mode. The method is applied to a simplified rotating machinery example in this paper, and is proposed as a means to account for helicopter failure modes during design and production, addressing stringent safety and performance requirements for NASA applications.

  14. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  15. Development of an analytical hydrogen isotope exchange model in fusion relevant plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Joseph; Wang, Yongquang; Doerner, Russell; Tynan, George

    2014-10-01

    A simple model for H isotope retention depth profiles in W is developed, which can easily be extended to other plasma facing components (PFCs). This retention model is subsequently used to model how the depth profile changes after H isotope exchange. We calculate how trapping defects in W trap D (or H) inventory as W is being exposed to plasma. The model characterizes each trapping site by a trapping rate and a release rate, where the only free parameters are the distribution of these trapping sites in the material. The filled trap concentrations for each trap type are modeled as a diffusion process because post-mortem D depth profiles indicate that traps are filled well beyond the ion implantation zone (3--4 nm with 100 eV ions). Using this retention model, an isotope exchange rate is formulated. The retention model and isotope exchange rate are compared to low temperature (100 °C) isotope exchange experiments in W with good agreement. Experimental retention profiles were measured using the D(3He,p) α nuclear reaction after plasma treatment. We additionally discuss how a uniform damage profile up to 1 micron in W induced by Cu ions using incident energies of 0.5, 2, and 5 MeV affect retention in W and the retention model.

  16. Development of output signal-to-noise ratio tester for microchannel plate and fluorescent screen component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinglin; Qiu, Yafeng; Zhou, Jin; Qian, Yunsheng

    The core components of Image intensifier is microchannel plate (MCP) and fluorescent screen component. The present paper deeply studies output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics of MCP and fluorescent screen component. A tester system using to the evaluation of characteristics of the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component, consists of a vacuum system, a surface electron source, mechanical mechanism components ,a high-voltage power supply system, a signal processing system, communication interfaces, a data acquisition and control system, computer system, and testing software. a hot cathode used as an electron source, generates a surface electron flow to provide the input signal. A photomultiplier tube is used to detection faceplate output brightness of the light spot. Then, the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is processed with a combination of methods of the hardware filter and digital filtering software. The output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is measured under different conditions, and the results are analyzed. This test system Provide a technical to promote the image intensifier research, and experience to testing other parameters or in other areas of research.

  17. Component and system evaluation for the development of a handheld point-of-care spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, K. P.; Khoury, P.; Mazhar, A.; Cuccia, D.; Durkin, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, digital photography has become an efficient and economic method to assist dermatologists in monitoring skin characteristics. Although this technology has advanced a great deal in resolution and costs, conventional digital cameras continue to only provide qualitative recording of color information. To address this issue, we are developing a compact, quantitative skin imaging camera by employing spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), a non-contact approach for determining tissue optical properties over a wide field-of-view. SFDI uses knowledge of optical properties at multiple wavelengths to recover concentrations of tissue constituents such as oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin, water, and melanin. This method has been well researched and presented in laboratory and research settings. The next step in the development of SFDI systems is to make typical systems compact and cheaper using commercial components. We present our findings by performing a component-by-component analysis of key SFDI system components including light sources, projectors, and cameras.

  18. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium

  19. Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

  20. Disulfide Bonding within Components of the Chlamydia Type III Secretion Apparatus Correlates with Development

    PubMed Central

    Betts-Hampikian, H. J.; Fields, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. exhibit a unique biphasic developmental cycle whereby infectious elementary bodies (EBs) invade host epithelial cells and differentiate into noninfectious, metabolically active reticulate bodies (RBs). EBs posses a unique outer envelope where rigidity is achieved by disulfide bonding among cysteine-rich envelope-associated proteins. Conversely, these disulfide bonds become reduced in RBs to accommodate vegetative growth, thereby linking the redox status of cysteine-rich envelope proteins with progression of the developmental cycle. We investigated the potential role of disulfide bonding within the chlamydial type III secretion system (T3SS), since activity of this system is also closely linked to development. We focused on structural components of the T3S apparatus that contain an unusually high number of cysteine residues compared to orthologs in other secretion systems. Nonreducing SDS-PAGE revealed that EB-localized apparatus proteins such as CdsF, CdsD, and CdsC form higher-order complexes mediated by disulfide bonding. The most dramatic alterations were detected for the needle protein CdsF. Significantly, disulfide bonding patterns shifted during differentiation of developmental forms and were completely reduced in RBs. Furthermore, at later time points during infection following RB to EB conversion, we found that CdsF is reoxidized into higher-order complexes. Overall, we conclude that the redox status of specific T3SS apparatus proteins is intimately linked to the developmental cycle and constitutes a newly appreciated aspect of functionally significant alterations within proteins of the chlamydial envelope. PMID:22001510

  1. Crankshaft and component adequacy: Update of analysis and testing developed for nuclear standby engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. Some of the topics are: reliability improvement of diesels in nuclear standby applications, diesel engine crankshaft torsional vibrations, pendulum dampers, transportation fatalities,and diesel component life predictions.

  2. Developing interpretable models with optimized set reduction for identifying high risk software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Basili, Victor R.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying equal testing and verification effort to all parts of a software system is not very efficient, especially when resources are limited and scheduling is tight. Therefore, one needs to be able to differentiate low/high fault frequency components so that testing/verification effort can be concentrated where needed. Such a strategy is expected to detect more faults and thus improve the resulting reliability of the overall system. This paper presents the Optimized Set Reduction approach for constructing such models, intended to fulfill specific software engineering needs. Our approach to classification is to measure the software system and build multivariate stochastic models for predicting high risk system components. We present experimental results obtained by classifying Ada components into two classes: is or is not likely to generate faults during system and acceptance test. Also, we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the error making process.

  3. Rapid naming speed components and reading development in a consistent orthography.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components-articulation time and pause time-predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of processing, and reading fluency. Both RAN components were strongly related to reading fluency and, with few exceptions, accounted for unique variance over and above the contribution of speed of processing, phonological awareness, and orthographic processing. The amount of predictive variance shared between the components and the cognitive processing skills varied across time. The implications of these findings for the RAN-reading relationship are discussed.

  4. Development of High vacuum facility for baking and cool down experiments for SST-1 Tokamak components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Yuvakiran, Paravastu; George, Siju; Manthena, Himabindu; Raval, Dilip C.; Thankey, Prashant L.; Dhanani, Kalpesh R.; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-11-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, a steady state super-conducting device, is under refurbishment to demonstrate the plasma discharge for the duration of 1000 second. The major fabricated components of SST-1 like vacuum vessel, thermal shields, superconducting magnets etc have to be tested for their functional parameters. During machine operation, vacuum vessel will be baked at 150 °C, thermal shields will be operated at 85 K and magnet system will be operated at 4.5 K. All these components must have helium leak tightness under these conditions so far as the machine operation is concerned. In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, in-house high vacuum chamber is fabricated. This paper describes the analysis, design and fabrication of high vacuum chamber to demonstrate these functionalities. Also some results will be presented.

  5. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume podborer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend.

    PubMed

    Downham, M C A; Hall, D R; Chamberlain, D J; Cork, A; Farman, D I; Tamò, M; Dahounto, D; Datinon, B; Adetonah, S

    2003-04-01

    The legume podborer, Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (F.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pantropical pest of legume crops. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles from virgin female moths originating in India, West Africa, or Taiwan. Analysis by GC-EAG and GC-MS confirmed previously published findings that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal is the most abundant EAG-active component with 2-5% of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol also present. At least one other EAG response was detected at retention times typical of monounsaturated hexadecenals or tetradecenyl acetates, but neither could be detected by GC-MS. Laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays and a field bioassay of blends of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal with (E,E )-10,12-hexadecadienol and a range of monounsaturated hexadecenal and tetradecenyl acetate isomers indicated greatest attraction of males was to those including (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol and (E)-10-hexadecenal as minor components. In subsequent trapping experiments in cowpea fields in Benin, traps baited with a three-component blend of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal and these two minor components in a 100:5:5 ratio caught significantly more males than traps baited with the major component alone, either two-component blend, or virgin female moths. Further blend optimization experiments did not produce a more attractive blend. No significant differences in catches were found between traps baited with polyethylene vials or rubber septa, or between lures containing 0.01 and 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone. Significant numbers of female M. vitrata moths, up to 50% of total catches, were trapped with synthetic blends but not with virgin females. At present there is no clear explanation for this almost unprecedented finding, but the phenomenon may improve the predictive power of traps for population monitoring.

  6. Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel economy in a commercially viable gas turbine engine was demonstrated through use of ceramic materials. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and generator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Improved component efficiencies show significant additional gains in fuel economy.

  7. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  8. RAN Components and Reading Development from Grade 3 to Grade 5: What Underlies Their Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined (a) how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict reading accuracy and reading fluency in Grades 4 and 5, and (b) what cognitive-processing skills (phonological processing, orthographic processing, or speed of processing) mediate the RAN-reading relationship. Sixty children were followed from…

  9. Development of an enhanced anticaries efficacy dual component dentifrice containing sodium fluoride and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R J; Masters, J; Cantore, R; Roberson, A; Petrou, I; Stranick, M; Goldman, H; Guggenheim, B; Gaffar, A

    2001-05-01

    A dual-chamber dentifrice, which contains sodium fluoride (NaF) in one component and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (dical) in the other, has been developed. The dentifrice is packaged in a dual-chamber tube and is formulated to deliver 1100 ppm F. A series of studies consisting of in vitro fluoride uptake, in vivo calcium labeling, intraoral remineralization-demineralization, and animal caries studies were performed to support the improved anticaries efficacy of this product in comparison to a sodium fluoride/silica dentifrice (NaF/silica). An in vitro fluoride uptake study comparing 1100 ppm F NaF/dical dentifrice to 1100 ppm F NaF/silica showed that NaF/dical delivered significantly more fluoride than NaF/silica, 3.72 +/- 0.36 micrograms/cm2 versus 2.41 +/- 0.10 micrograms/cm2. A 6-day in vivo brushing study with a 44Ca labeled NaF/dical dentifrice showed that calcium from dical penetrated demineralized enamel and was present in plaque up to 18 hrs since the last brushing. An intra-oral remineralization-demineralization study was performed to evaluate NaF/dical's ability to promote remineralization in comparison to three silica-based dentifrices containing 0, 250, and 1100 ppm F as NaF. The percent mineral changes after treatment were +20.44 +/- 17.14 for NaF/dical, +9.27 +/- 19.53 for 1100 ppm NaF/silica, -1.43 +/- 20.57 for 250 ppm NaF/silica, and -12.36 +/- 32.76 for 0 ppm F/silica. A statistical analysis showed that the dual-chamber NaF/dical dentifrice was significantly more effective than the 1100 ppm NaF/silica dentifrice at promoting remineralization. A rat caries study was performed to evaluate NaF/dical ability to prevent caries in comparison to 1100 ppm F NaF/silica, 250 ppm F NaF/silica, silica, and dical dentifrices. The mean smooth surface caries scores were 1.6 +/- 2.8 for NaF/dical, 5.5 +/- 6.2 for 1100 ppm F NaF/silica, 10.6 +/- 6.2 for 250 ppm F NaF/silica, 13.7 +/- 4.7 for 0 ppm F/silica, and 9.5 +/- 7.8 0 ppm F/dical. A statistical analysis

  10. Energy efficient engine: Low-pressure turbine subsonic cascade component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Kopper, F. C.; Knudsen, L. K.; Yustinich, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A subsonic cascade test program was conducted to provide technical data for optimizing the blade and vane airfoil designs for the Energy Efficient Engine Low-Pressure Turbine component. The program consisted of three parts. The first involved an evaluation of the low-chamber inlet guide vane. The second, was an evaluation of two candidate aerodynamic loading philosophies for the fourth blade root section. The third part consisted of an evaluation of three candidate airfoil geometries for the fourth blade mean section. The performance of each candidate airfoil was evaluated in a linear cascade configuration. The overall results of this study indicate that the aft-loaded airfoil designs resulted in lower losses which substantiated Pratt & Whitney Aircraft's design philosophy for the Energy Efficient Engine low-pressure turbine component.

  11. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henagar, Chuck H., Jr.

    2014-02-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  12. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  13. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  14. The development of pyro shock test requirements for Viking Lander Capsule components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The procedure used to derive component-level pyro shock specifications for the Viking Lander Capsule (VLC) is described. Effects of shock path distance and mechanical joints between the device and the point at which the environment is to be estimated are accounted for in the method. The validity of the prediction technique was verified by a series of shock tests on a full-scale structural model of the lander body.

  15. The development and testing of ceramic components in piston engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McEntire, B.J.; Willis, R.W.; Southam, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Within the past 10--15 years, ceramic hardware has been fabricated and tested in a number of piston engine applications including valves, piston pins, roller followers, tappet shims, and other wear components. It has been shown that, with proper design and installation, ceramics improve performance, fuel economy, and wear and corrosion resistance. These results have been obtained using rig and road tests on both stock and race engines. Selected summaries of these tests are presented in this review paper.

  16. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program 1992-1993. Ohio Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie; And Others

    This report describes the All Day Kindergarten (ADK) Program undertaken at 18 elementary schools in Columbus, Ohio, and presents an evaluation of the language development component of the program. ADK provides an extra half day of instruction, using a language-based curriculum to reinforce the skills, concepts, and educational experiences taught…

  17. Utilizing the CIPP Model as a Means to Develop an Integrated Service-Learning Component in a University Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Conrad, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the enhancement of a university health course through the utilization of the CIPP Model as a means to develop an integrated service-learning component. Methods: The CIPP model was utilized in two concurrent semesters of an undergraduate health course in order to design and evaluate the implementation of a drug and alcohol…

  18. Development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for acetabular component loosening in total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Alshuhri, Abdullah A; Holsgrove, Timothy P; Miles, Anthony W; Cunningham, James L

    2015-08-01

    Current techniques for diagnosing early loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) are ineffective, especially for the acetabular component. Accordingly, new, accurate, and quantifiable methods are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vibrational analysis for accurately detecting acetabular component loosening. A simplified acetabular model was constructed using a Sawbones(®) foam block. By placing a thin silicone layer between the acetabular component and the Sawbones block, 2- and 4-mm soft tissue membranes were simulated representing different loosening scenarios. A constant amplitude sinusoidal excitation with a sweep range of 100-1500 Hz was used. Output vibration from the model was measured using an accelerometer and an ultrasound probe. Loosening was determined from output signal features such as the number and relative strength of observed harmonic frequencies. Both measurement methods were sufficient to measure the output vibration. Vibrational analysis reliably detected loosening corresponding to both 2 and 4 mm tissue membranes at driving frequencies between 100 and 1000 Hz (p < 0.01) using the accelerometer. In contrast, ultrasound detected 2-mm loosening at a frequency range of 850-1050 Hz (p < 0.01) and 4-mm loosening at 500-950 Hz (p < 0.01). PMID:26054805

  19. Development of an ASPEN PLUS physical property database for biofuels components

    SciTech Connect

    Wooley, R.J.; Putsche, V.

    1996-04-01

    Physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation for the ethanol from lignocellulose process are not available in the standard ASPEN PLUS property databases. Indeed, many of the properties necessary to successfully simulate this process are not available anywhere. In addition, inputting the available properties into each simulation is awkward and tedious, and mistakes can be easily introduced when a long list of physical property equation parameters is entered. Therefore, one must evaluate the literature, estimate properties where necessary, and determine a set of consistent physical properties for all components of interest. The components must then be entered into an in-house NREL ASPEN PLUS database so they can be called on without being retyped into each specific simulation. The first phase of this work is complete. A complete set of properties for the currently identifiable important compounds in the ethanol process is attached. With this as the starting base the authors can continue to search for and evaluate new properties or have properties measured in the laboratory and update the central database.

  20. Adiabatic diesel engine component development: Reference engine for on-highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, Nabil S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives were to select an advanced low heat rejection diesel reference engine (ADRE) and to carry out systems analysis and design. The ADRE concept selection consisted of: (1) rated point performance optimization; (2) study of various exhaust energy recovery scenarios; (3) components, systems and engine configuration studies; and (4) life cycle cost estimates of the ADRE economic worth. The resulting ADRE design proposed a reciprocator with many advanced features for the 1995 technology demonstration time frame. These included ceramic air gap insulated hot section structural components, high temperature tribology treatments, nonmechanical (camless) valve actuation systems, and elimination of the cylinder head gasket. ADRE system analysis and design resulted in more definition of the engine systems. These systems include: (1) electro-hydraulic valve actuation, (2) electronic common rail injection system; (3) engine electronic control; (4) power transfer for accessory drives and exhaust energy recovery systems; and (5) truck installation. Tribology and performance assessments were also carried out. Finite element and probability of survival analyses were undertaken for the ceramic low heat rejection component.

  1. Assessment of the components of the Kalimantan and Sulawesi power development project: Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-31

    This report, conducted by Utility Consulting was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The report concerns a power development project on the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. This is TDA Volume 2, the main text (Report Volume 1), and it includes the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Transmission line and substation investment plan; (3) The distribution component; (4) Telecommunications; (5) PLN information systems; and Appendix: Figures and tables.

  2. Extracellular Matrix Components Regulate Cellular Polarity and Tissue Structure in the Developing and Mature Retina

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Shweta; Hunter, Dale D.; Brunken, William J.

    2015-01-01

    While genetic networks and other intrinsic mechanisms regulate much of retinal development, interactions with the extracellular environment shape these networks and modify their output. The present review has focused on the role of one family of extracellular matrix molecules and their signaling pathways in retinal development. In addition to their effects on the developing retina, laminins play a role in maintaining Müller cell polarity and compartmentalization, thereby contributing to retinal homeostasis. This article which is intended for the clinical audience, reviews the fundamentals of retinal development, extracellular matrix organization and the role of laminins in retinal development. The role of laminin in cortical development is also briefly discussed. PMID:26730321

  3. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Janssen, Curtis L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Sosonkina, Masha; Windus, Theresa L.

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE) has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also addressmore » interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.« less

  4. Development of modified vibration test criteria for qualifying space vehicle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. Y.; Kao, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of two response prediction methods relating to the prediction of structural responses of stiffened shell structures with or without attached components, and subjected to broadband acoustic excitations are presented. The methods under evaluation were the constant mass attenuation method and the impedance ratio method. Example problems were used to illustrate the application procedures of these two methods and to compare their predicted results with the experimentally measured data. It is found that more realistic estimates of the structural response can be obtained by the impedance ratio method.

  5. Development and applications of rectangular box-type explosively bonded structures for high-heat-load beamline components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, D.; Chang, J.; Kuzay, T. M.; Brasher, D. G.

    2001-07-01

    Explosive bonding technology is a good choice to join dissimilar materials, such as 304L stainless steel and GlidCop AL-15, and is used extensively in making the advanced photon source (APS) high-heat-load beamline and front-end components. It is a bonding method in which the controlled energy of a detonating explosive is used to create a metallurgical bond between two or more similar or dissimilar materials. In recent years, special explosive bonding units with rectangular box-type joints were developed for the APS new high-heat-load beamline components. Based on this new technique, the box form of the component could be built in two halves first, then welded together. Therefore, beamline designers have more freedom to optimize the cooling surface geometry.

  6. Development of an analytical approach to study a three-component hetero-association by means of spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Buchelnikov, Anatoly S; Khrustalev, Alexander F; Evstigneev, Maxim P

    2013-01-01

    A case of 1:m:n complexation in a three-component system containing any possible heterocomplexes formed between the non-self-aggregating, absorbing ligand A and two self-aggregating, non-absorbing ligands B and C was considered for the first time in an application for molecular spectroscopy. All expressions necessary for full quantitative analysis of experimental data in three-component mixtures were obtained, viz., the law of conservation of mass and the expression for an experimentally observed parameter. These expressions can be directly utilized in mathematical software for performing standard curve-fitting procedures or solutions of specific tasks such as calculations of the concentration of various types of complexes. The numerical test of the 1:m:n model, accomplished with the aid of ultraviolet-visible light experimental data in a three-component system (proflavine-caffeine-nicotinamide), proved the validity of the developed approach.

  7. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  8. Metallic wear debris sensors: promising developments in failure prevention for wind turbine gearsets and similar components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, Jack; Dines, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Wind turbines are frequently located in remote, hard-to-reach locations, making it difficult to apply traditional oil analysis sampling of the machine's critical gearset at timely intervals. Metal detection sensors are excellent candidates for sensors designed to monitor machine condition in vivo. Remotely sited components, such as wind turbines, therefore, can be comfortably monitored from a distance. Online sensor technology has come of age with products now capable of identifying onset of wear in time to avoid or mitigate failure. Online oil analysis is now viable, and can be integrated with onsite testing to vet sensor alarms, as well as traditional oil analysis, as furnished by offsite laboratories. Controlled laboratory research data were gathered from tests conducted on a typical wind turbine gearbox, wherein total ferrous particle measurement and metallic particle counting were employed and monitored. The results were then compared with a physical inspection for wear experienced by the gearset. The efficacy of results discussed herein strongly suggests the viability of metallic wear debris sensors in today's wind turbine gearsets, as correlation between sensor data and machine trauma were very good. By extension, similar components and settings would also seem amenable to wear particle sensor monitoring. To our knowledge no experiments such as described herein, have previously been conducted and published.

  9. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J.

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  10. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology. Technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Component development concentrated on two objectives: development of a creep resistance ribbed anode and development of an internal reforming catalyst for steam-methane reforming in the MCFC anode. Satisfactory anode creep strength has been achieved with Ni + 16 wt % LiAlO composite anodes. Efforts concentrated on fabrication methods to directly produce a ribbed anode from the Ni + LiAlO/sub 2/ powder mixture. Encouraging results were obtained by mold compression in a machined graphite mold followed by in-mold sintering which was promoted by the use of a few percent LiKCO/sub 3/ as a sintering agent. Internal reforming catalyst development focused on preparation techniques for high surface area Ni catalyst supported on ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The approach which is being most actively pursued involves first pelletizing the LiAlO/sub 2/ into suitable granule size followed by multiple impregnation in nickel salt solution and heat treatment. Several impregnations are necessary to obtain a nominal Ni loading of 15 wt %. Out-of-cell catalyst testing has been initiated in planar integral reactors as well as differential tube reactors. The LiAlO/sub 2/ supported catalyst granules have demonstrated high activity for the methane-steam reforming reaction and kinetic parameters compare favorably with those for commercially available reforming catalysts. Results are detailed. (WHK)

  11. Development and tests of molybdenum armored copper components for MITICA ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavei, Mauro; Böswirth, Bernd; Greuner, Henri; Marcuzzi, Diego; Rizzolo, Andrea; Valente, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    In order to prevent detrimental material erosion of components impinged by back-streaming positive D or H ions in the megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement beam source, a solution based on explosion bonding technique has been identified for producing a 1 mm thick molybdenum armour layer on copper substrate, compatible with ITER requirements. Prototypes have been recently manufactured and tested in the high heat flux test facility Garching Large Divertor Sample Test Facility (GLADIS) to check the capability of the molybdenum-copper interface to withstand several thermal shock cycles at high power density. This paper presents both the numerical fluid-dynamic analyses of the prototypes simulating the test conditions in GLADIS as well as the experimental results.

  12. Development and testing of a 20-kHz component test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A history of the General Dynamics Space Systems Division 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including its current configuration and its role in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Highlights and results are presented on a series of tests conducted on the 20 kHz Breadboard. The first test presented is the 20 kHz Breadboard Acceptance test. This test verified the operation of the delivered Breadboard and also characterized the main components of the system. Next, an indepth efficiency testing effort is presented. The tests attempted to apportion all the power losses in the 20 kHz Breadboard Main Invert Units. Distortion test data is presented showing the distortion characteristics of a Mapham inverter. Lastly, current work on the 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including Main Inverter Unit paralleling tests. Conclusions are summarized and references given.

  13. Using Components of Mathematical Ability for Initial Development and Identification of Mathematically Promising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkomir, T.; O'Donoghue, J.

    2009-01-01

    Kruteskii's work on the mathematical abilities of school children is a seminal work on the nature of mathematical ability. However, the task of developing methods for the practical application of his work is still a significant problem in mathematics education. The authors have developed a practical application of Kruteskii's approach to the…

  14. New Trends in Computer Simulation as Integrated Tool for Automotive Components Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, G. F.; Schwarzwald, R. C.; Damoulis, G. L.

    2004-06-01

    New market requirements have becoming more persistent through the introduction of new technologies that can lead the actual vehicle designs to reach very high safety standards, world class quality levels, reasonable production costs and schedule timing for product development, due new design features and introduction of new materials. To reach those targets, process integration, since the early concept development phases until the start of production, must provide a streamlined scalable environment that encompasses every step in the process from early feasibility to final validation. The experience in supplier process development in the last four years at Volkswagen in Brazil shows that the development of product and processes can be integrated and that the synergy effect of this integration can make it possible to develop mature products and install robust processes to produce them.

  15. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  16. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  17. New Components of Drosophila Leg Development Identified through Genome Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xin; Petrisko, Tiffany; Rosario, Juan B.; Mahaffey, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The adult Drosophila melanogaster body develops from imaginal discs, groups of cells set-aside during embryogenesis and expanded in number during larval stages. Specification and development of Drosophila imaginal discs have been studied for many years as models of morphogenesis. These studies are often based on mutations with large developmental effects, mutations that are often lethal in embryos when homozygous. Such forward genetic screens can be limited by factors such as early lethality and genetic redundancy. To identify additional genes and genetic pathways involved in leg imaginal disc development, we employed a Genome Wide Association Study utilizing the natural genetic variation in leg proportionality found in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel fly lines. In addition to identifying genes already known to be involved in leg development, we identified several genes involved in pathways that had not previously been linked with leg development. Several of the genes appear to be involved in signaling activities, while others have no known roles at this time. Many of these uncharacterized genes are conserved in mammals, so we can now begin to place these genes into developmental contexts. Interestingly, we identified five genes which, when their function is reduced by RNAi, cause an antenna-to-leg transformation. Our results demonstrate the utility of this approach, integrating the tools of quantitative and molecular genetics to study developmental processes, and provide new insights into the pathways and networks involved in Drosophila leg development. PMID:23560084

  18. Developing Statistical Evaluation Model of Introduction Effect of MSW Thermal Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Makoto; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the effective utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) through a thermal recycling, new technologies, such as an incineration plant using a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), are being developed. The impact of new technologies should be evaluated statistically for various municipalities, so that the target of technological development or potential cost reduction due to the increased cumulative number of installed system can be discussed. For this purpose, we developed a model for discussing the impact of new technologies, where a statistical mesh data set was utilized to estimate the heat demand around the incineration plant. This paper examines a case study by using a developed model, where a conventional type and a MCFC type MSW incineration plant is compared in terms of the reduction in primary energy and the revenue by both electricity and heat supply. Based on the difference in annual revenue, we calculate the allowable investment in MCFC-type MSW incineration plant in addition to conventional plant. The results suggest that allowable investment can be about 30 millions yen/(t/day) in small municipalities, while it is only 10 millions yen/(t/day) in large municipalities. The sensitive analysis shows the model can be useful for discussing the difference of impact of material recycling of plastics on thermal recycling technologies.

  19. Effect of cyclic third components on non-deoxygenated RTP and their potential in developing optical thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yun-Lin; Jin, Wei-Jun; Feng, Feng

    2005-10-01

    Effect of five cyclic third components, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, perfluorocyclohexane, perfluoromethylcyclohexane and adamantane, on cyclodextrin-induced room-temperature phosphorescence (CD-RTP) of 1-bromonaphthalene is studied. It is found that these five compounds can induce intensive RTP, and the enhancement order is as follows: cyclohexane > adamantane > methylcyclohexane > perfluorocyclohexane > perfluoromethylcyclohexane. Dependence of RTP intensity on temperature of these systems shows the potential application in developing optical thermometer.

  20. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  1. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  2. Deletion of core components of the plastid protein import machinery causes differential arrest of embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hust, B; Gutensohn, M

    2006-01-01

    Among the genes that have recently been pinpointed to be essential for plant embryo development a large number encodes plastid proteins suggesting that embryogenesis is linked to plastid localized processes. However, nuclear encoded plastid proteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytosol and subsequently have to be transported across the plastid envelopes by a complex import machinery. We supposed that deletion of components of this machinery should allow a more general assessment of the role of plastids in embryogenesis since it will not only affect single proteins but instead inhibit the accumulation of most plastid proteins. Here we have characterized three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking core components of the Toc complex, the protein translocase in the outer plastid envelope membrane, which indeed show embryo lethal phenotypes. Remarkably, embryo development in the atToc75-III mutant, lacking the pore forming component of the translocase, was arrested extremely early at the two-cell stage. In contrast, despite the complete or almost complete lack of the import receptors Toc34 and Toc159, embryo development in the a tToc33/34 and atToc132/159 mutants proceeded slowly and was arrested later at the transition to the globular and the heart stage, respectively. These data demonstrate a strict dependence of cell division and embryo development on functional plastids as well as specific functions of plastids at different stages of embryogenesis. In addition, our analysis suggest that not all components of the translocase are equally essential for plastid protein import in vivo. PMID:16435266

  3. Modeling solute redistribution and microstructural development in fusion welds of multi-component alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, J.N.; Robino, C.V.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-12-15

    Solute redistribution and microstructural evolution have been modeled for gas tungsten arc fusion welds in experimental Ni base superalloys. The multi-component alloys were modeled as a pseudo-ternary {gamma}-Nb-C system. The variation in fraction liquid and liquid composition during the primary L {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} and eutectic type L {r{underscore}arrow} ({gamma} + NbC) stages of solidification were calculated for conditions of negligible Nb diffusion and infinitely rapid C diffusion in the solid phase. Input parameters were estimated by using the Thermo-Calc NiFe Alloy data base and compared to experimentally determined solidification parameters. The solidification model results provide useful information for qualitatively interpreting the influence of alloy composition on weld microstructure. The quantitative comparisons indicate that, for the alloy system evaluated, the thermodynamic database provides sufficiently accurate values for the distribution coefficients of Nb and C. The calculated position of the {gamma}-NbC two-fold saturation line produces inaccurate results when used as inputs for the model, indicating further refinement to the database is needed for quantitative estimates.

  4. Plant and Fungal Food Components with Potential Activity on the Development of Microbial Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Grisoli, Pietro; Giusto, Giovanni; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Signoretto, Caterina; Spratt, David A.; Wilson, Michael; Zaura, Egija; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer). Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM), of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods. PMID:22013381

  5. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) Component Enhancement, Testing and Expert Fault Diagnostics Development, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinak, E. S.

    1987-01-01

    A wide variety of Space Station functions will be managed via computerized controls. Many of these functions are at the same time very complex and very critical to the operation of the Space Station. The Environmental Control and Life Support System is one group of very complex and critical subsystems which directly affects the ability of the crew to perform their mission. Failure of the Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems are to be avoided and, in the event of failure, repair must be effected as rapidly as possible. Due to the complex and diverse nature of the subsystems, it is not possible to train the Space Station crew to be experts in the operation of all of the subsystems. By applying the concepts of computer-based expert systems, it may be possible to provide the necessary expertise for these subsystems in dedicated controllers. In this way, an expert system could avoid failures and extend the operating time of the subsystems even in the event of failure of some components, and could reduce the time to repair by being able to pinpoint the cause of a failure when one cannot be avoided.

  6. Vangl1 and Vangl2: planar cell polarity components with a developing role in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Jason; Wald, Jessica H; Printsev, Ignat; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Carraway, Kermit L

    2015-01-01

    Cancers commonly reactivate embryonic developmental pathways to promote the aggressive behavior of their cells, resulting in metastasis and poor patient outcome. While developmental pathways such as canonical Wnt signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition have received much attention, our understanding of the role of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in tumor progression remains rudimentary. Protein components of PCP, including a subset that overlaps with the canonical Wnt pathway, partition in polarized epithelial cells along the planar axis and are required for the establishment and maintenance of lateral epithelial polarity. Significant insight into PCP regulation of developmental and cellular processes has come from analysis of the functions of the core PCP scaffolding proteins Vangl1 and Vangl2. In particular, studies on zebrafish and with Looptail (Lp) mice, which harbor point mutations in Vangl2 that alter its trafficking and localization, point to roles for the PCP pathway in maintaining cell polarization along both the apical–basal and planar axes as well as in collective cell motility and invasiveness. Recent findings have suggested that the Vangls can promote similar processes in tumor cells. Initial data-mining efforts suggest that VANGL1 and VANGL2 are dysregulated in human cancers, and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients whose tumors exhibit elevated VANGL1 expression suffer from shortened overall survival. Overall, evidence is beginning to accumulate that the heightened cellular motility and invasiveness associated with PCP reactivation may contribute to the malignancy of some cancer subtypes. PMID:24981109

  7. Plant and fungal food components with potential activity on the development of microbial oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Grisoli, Pietro; Giusto, Giovanni; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Signoretto, Caterina; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Zaura, Egija; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer). Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM), of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens), showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods. PMID:22013381

  8. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  9. Nondestructive testing of ceramic components: Cooperative research and development agreement completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.A.; Dews, T.W.; Moyer, M.W.; Oakes, R.E.

    1994-12-22

    In a joint Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) and an industrial partner, Y-12 has been evaluating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to identify the quality of high strength aluminum oxide tubes used in laser applications. In Phase I, several NDE techniques were developed to inspect the tubes. In Phase II a correlation between detected defects, actual failure mode and strength of the tubes was developed. In Phase II the industrial partner supplied tubes manufactured under a variety of conditions and containing material defects expected from process control variations. The tubes were inspected at MMES utilizing a variety of available acoustic techniques. After inspection, ring tensile specimens were fabricated to determine the tensile strength. The data were evaluated utilizing Weibull statistics to determine the statistical impact of the defects upon strength and correlate the data with the nondestructive evaluations of the tubes and observed defect distribution.

  10. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Work continued toward the development of tooling and processing concepts required for a cocured hat/skin cover assembly. A plan was developed and implemented to develop the process for using preimpregnated T300/5208 with a resin content of 34 + or - 2 percent by weight. Use of this material results in a simplified laminating process because removal by bleeding or prebleeding is no longer required. The approach to this task basically consists of fabricating and testing flat laminated panels and simulated structural panels to verify known processing techniques relative to end-laminate quality. The flat panels were used to determine air bleeding arrangement and required cure cycle. Single and multihat-stiffened panels were fabricated using the established air bleeding arrangement and cure cycle with the resulting cured parts yielding excellent correlation of ply thickness with all surfaces clear of porosity and voids.

  11. Energy efficient engine. Volume 2. Appendix A: Component development and integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moracz, D. J.; Cook, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The large size and the requirement for precise lightening cavities in a considerable portion of the titanium fan blades necessitated the development of a new manufacturing method. The approach which was selected for development incorporated several technologies including HIP diffusion bonding of titanium sheet laminates containing removable cores and isothermal forging of the blade form. The technology bases established in HIP/DB for composite blades and in isothermal forging for fan blades were applicable for development of the manufacturing process. The process techniques and parameters for producing and inspecting the cored diffusion bonded titanium laminate blade preform were established. The method was demonstrated with the production of twelve hollow simulated blade shapes for evaluation. Evaluations of the critical experiments conducted to establish procedures to produce hollow structures by a laminate/core/diffusion bonding approach are included. In addition the transfer of this technology to produce a hollow fan blade is discussed.

  12. Development of Acid Functional Groups and Lactones During the Thermal Degradation of Wood and Wood Components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, David W.; Wershaw, Robert L.; Reeves, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (pyrogenic materials including chars) in soils has been recognized as a substantial portion of soil organic matter, and has been shown to play a vital role in nutrient cycling; however, little is known concerning the properties of this material. Previous studies have largely been concerned with the creation of high-surface-area materials for use as sorbents. These materials have been manufactured at high temperature and have often been activated. Chars occurring in the environment can be formed over a wide range of temperature. Because it is extremely difficult to isolate black carbon once it has been incorporated in soils, chars produced in the laboratory under controlled conditions can be used to investigate the range of properties possible for natural chars. This report shows that charring conditions (temperature and time) have substantial impact on the acid functional group and lactone content of chars. Low temperatures (250?C) and long charring times (greater than 72 hours) produce chars with the highest acid functional group and lactone content. The charring of cellulose appears to be responsible for the creation of the acid functional group and lactones. The significance of this study is that low-temperature chars can have acid functional group contents comparable to humic materials (as high as 8.8 milliequivalents per gram). Acid functional group and lactone content decreases as charring temperature increases. The variation in formation conditions expected under natural fire conditions will result in a wide range of sorption properties for natural chars which are an important component of soil organic matter. By controlling the temperature and duration of charring, it is possible to tailor the sorption properties of chars, which may be used as soil amendments.

  13. Employing the Components of the Human Development Index to Drive Resources to Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho; de Araujo Ribeiro, Rodrigo Otavio; Dutt-Ross, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A new form of composition of the indicators employed to generate the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) is presented here. This form of composition is based on the assumption that random errors affect the measurement of each indicator. This assumption allows for replacing the vector of evaluations according to each indicator by vectors…

  14. Research and development of alternative components at Argonne National Laboratory for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.; Indacochea, E.

    1993-08-01

    Objective is to improve the lifetime of MCFCs. Doped LiFeO{sub 2} cathodes, Nb-doped CeO{sub 2} anodes, and a new CaCO{sub 3}-Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} electrolyte were developed and tested.

  15. Technical Guidelines and References: Crops Training Component. From: Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III: Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…

  16. A Cognitive Component Analysis Approach for Developing Game-Based Spatial Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lee, Yueh-Hsun; Su, I-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability has been recognized as one of the most important factors affecting the mathematical performance of students. Previous studies on spatial learning have mainly focused on developing strategies to shorten the problem-solving time of learners for very specific learning tasks. Such an approach usually has limited effects on improving…

  17. The Talent Development Middle School Model: Context, Components, and Initial Impacts on Students' Performance and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Corinne M.; Kemple, James J.

    2004-01-01

    The Talent Development Middle School model was created to make a difference in struggling urban middle schools. The model is part of a trend in school improvement strategies whereby whole-school reform projects aim to improve performance and attendance outcomes for students through the use of major changes in both the organizational structure and…

  18. 76 FR 58778 - U.S. Automotive Parts and Components Business Development Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... trends continue, most experts project Russia will be the largest automotive market in Europe in the next... in Russia; and establish research and development activities. In addition to Ford and GM, major... partisan political activities (including political contributions) will be removed from an...

  19. Teacher Leadership Development as a Critical Component of Systemic Reform: The San Joaquin Valley Mathematics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Carol Fry

    Since its inception in 1982, the California Mathematics Project (CMP) has sought to develop the mathematics skills and leadership capabilities of K-12 teachers through intensive summer institutes and a variety of academic year programs sponsored by regional CMP sites. This chapter focuses on ways in which one of the fifteen regional CMP sites, the…

  20. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  1. Development of a piezoelectric vacuum sensing component for a wide pressure range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-11-21

    In this study, we develop a clamped-clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10(-6) to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage.

  2. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  3. The quantification of biodiversity: an esoteric quest or a vital component of sustainable development?

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, T E

    1994-07-29

    Biodiversity relates to sustainable development through a series of direct and indirect uses. These include direct harvest, nature tourism, wild genes improving domestic crops, wild species contributing to crop productivity, pest management, sources of medicine and bioremediation (biologically based environmental clean-up). Biodiversity relates through services, individual species indicating environmental change or stress, insights into the life sciences and increasingly today, through wealth generated from biodiversity at the level of the molecule. Sustainable development relates to the quantification of biodiversity through organizing information to enable the foregoing activities. It also relates in little-explored ways to ecosystem function, stability and resilience. Biodiversity is already a proven indicator of environmental change in freshwater systems.

  4. Development of a propulsion system and component test facility for advanced radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Verification and validation of design and modeling activities for radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms undertaken at the Center for Space Nuclear Research is essential for proof of concept. Previous research at the center has driven the selection of advanced material combinations; some of which require specialized handling capabilities. The development of a closed and contained test facility to forward this research is discussed within this paper.

  5. Cognitive processes as integrative component for developing expert decision-making systems: a workflow centered framework.

    PubMed

    Jalote-Parmar, Ashis; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Ali, Wajid; Samset, Eigil

    2010-02-01

    The development of expert decision-making systems, which improve task performance and reduce errors within an intra-operative clinical workspace, is critically dependent on two main aspects: (a) Analyzing the clinical requirements and cognitive processes within the workflow and (b) providing an optimal context for accurate situation awareness through effective intra-operative information visualization. This paper presents a workflow centered framework and its theoretical underpinnings to design expert decision-making systems. The framework integrates knowledge of the clinical workflow based on the requirements within the clinical workspace. Furthermore, it builds upon and integrates the theory of situation awareness into system design to improve decision-making. As an application example, this framework has been used to design an intra-operative visualization system (IVS), which provides image guidance to the clinicians to perform minimally invasive procedure. An evaluative study, comparing the traditional ultrasound guided procedure with the new developed IVS, has been conducted with expert intervention radiologists and medical students. The results reveal significant evidence for improved decision-making when using the IVS. Therefore, it can be stated that this study demonstrates the benefits of integrating knowledge of cognitive processes into system development to support clinical decision-making and hence improvement of task performance and prevention of errors.

  6. Roadmap for Developing of Brokering as a Component of EarthCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Khalsa, S. S.; Browdy, S.; Duerr, R. E.; Nativi, S.; Parsons, M. A.; Pearlman, F.; Robinson, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of NSF's EarthCube is to create a sustainable infrastructure that enables the sharing of all geosciences data, information, and knowledge in an open, transparent and inclusive manner. Key to achieving the EarthCube vision is establishing a process that will guide the evolution of the infrastructure through community engagement and appropriate investment so that the infrastructure is embraced and utilized by the entire geosciences community. In this presentation we describe a roadmap, developed through the EarthCube Brokering Concept Award, for an evolutionary process of infrastructure and interoperability development. All geoscience communities already have, to a greater or lesser degree, elements of an information infrastructure in place. These elements include resources such as data archives, catalogs, and portals as well as vocabularies, data models, protocols, best practices and other community conventions. What is necessary now is a process for consolidating these diverse infrastructure elements into an overall infrastructure that provides easy discovery, access and utilization of resources across disciplinary boundaries. This process of consolidation will be achieved by creating "interfaces," what we call "brokers," between systems. Brokers connect disparate systems without imposing new burdens upon those systems, and enable the infrastructure to adjust to new technical developments and scientific requirements as they emerge. Robust cyberinfrastructure will arise only when social, organizational, and cultural issues are resolved in tandem with the creation of technology-based services. This is best done through use-case-driven requirements and agile, iterative development methods. It is important to start by solving real (not hypothetical) information access and use problems via small pilot projects that develop capabilities targeted to specific communities. These pilots can then grow into larger prototypes addressing intercommunity problems working

  7. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  8. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  9. Development of critical life stage assays: Teratogenic effects of SRS effluent components on freshwater fish, gambusia

    SciTech Connect

    Guram, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The final report of the research carried out at Voorhees College contains a composite compilation of the last two years work. The data note variation in the number of young fish delivered per female vary markedly between several ponds on the SRS and of SRS ponds. The reasons for this are unknown at present. Initial research was carried out on the effects on the developing fish fetus of various substances that may have produced these variations. Further study is necessary to identify the factors that produce the observed alterations. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Development of a six component flexured two shell internal strain gage balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a new wind tunnel balance designed to meet the load requirements of the new advanced aircraft. Based on the floating frame or two-shell concept, the Flexured Balance incorporates a separate axial element, thus allowing for higher load per unit diameter, reduced primary load interaction, and greater flexibility in load range selection. Described is the design process, fabrication, gaging, calibration results, and performance during tunnel testing of the first prototype balance. Supporting data and accuracies are provided.

  11. Development of Hydrometeorological Monitoring and Forecasting as AN Essential Component of the Early Flood Warning System:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.

    2012-12-01

    Defining issue The river inundations are the most common and destructive natural hazards in Ukraine. Among non-structural flood management and protection measures a creation of the Early Flood Warning System is extremely important to be able to timely recognize dangerous situations in the flood-prone areas. Hydrometeorological information and forecasts are a core importance in this system. The primary factors affecting reliability and a lead - time of forecasts include: accuracy, speed and reliability with which real - time data are collected. The existing individual conception of monitoring and forecasting resulted in a need in reconsideration of the concept of integrated monitoring and forecasting approach - from "sensors to database and forecasters". Result presentation The Project: "Development of Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in the Ukrainian part of the Dniester River Basin" is presented. The project is developed by the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service in a conjunction with the Water Management Agency and the Energy Company "Ukrhydroenergo". The implementation of the Project is funded by the Ukrainian Government and the World Bank. The author is nominated as the responsible person for coordination of activity of organizations involved in the Project. The term of the Project implementation: 2012 - 2014. The principal objectives of the Project are: a) designing integrated automatic hydrometeorological measurement network (including using remote sensing technologies); b) hydrometeorological GIS database construction and coupling with electronic maps for flood risk assessment; c) interface-construction classic numerical database -GIS and with satellite images, and radar data collection; d) providing the real-time data dissemination from observation points to forecasting centers; e) developing hydrometeoroogical forecasting methods; f) providing a flood hazards risk assessment for different temporal and spatial scales; g) providing a dissemination of

  12. Development of internal components for M38999 type connectors, for use in advanced photonic applications and with specialty optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitebook, Alan; Caloz, Francois

    2014-09-01

    This presentation outlines development work performed to produce internal components (connector insert assemblies & optical terminus assemblies) to be fit into MIL-DTL-38999, or commercial off the shelf (COTS) equivalent, connector housings. Connectors modified with these internal components are then suitable for optical termination and transmission through specialty fibers such as polarization maintaining, small core single-mode, and others, with the ability to achieve high levels of performance in the areas of insertion loss, return loss, polarization extinction ratio (as applicable) and power handling capability (as applicable.) Technical details are presented to illustrate features within the optical terminus, and its insert cavity, which serves to allow for fiber/ferrule polar orientation, concentricity of mated termini ferrules and fibers terminated within, and other attributes designed to support optical performance goals. Finally, optical performance data is given and discussed to illustrate results achieved by production of evaluation cable assemblies. emblies.

  13. Development of an indirect competitive immunoassay for walnut protein component in food.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Li, Gang; Wu, Yajun; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-15

    Among food allergens, walnut is a frequent cause of adverse food reactions in allergic patients. In this study, the walnut allergen protein 2S albumin precursor (Jug r 1) cDNA was synthesised and cloned into the pGEX-6P-1 expression vector. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) pLys for expression of protein Jug r 1. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the expressed purified Jug r 1 protein. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of walnut soluble proteins in processed foods was developed using the prepared polyclonal antibodies. The developed ELISA had a high specificity, walnut protein standard solution at 2.2 ng/mL [inhibition concentration (IC80) of the competitive test] was clearly identified by the ELISA. The mean recoveries ranged from 86% to 112%. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the 4 model foods was 6.4-8.7%.

  14. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Work on process verification and tooling development continued. The cover process development was completed with the decision to proceed with low resin content prepreg material (34 + or - 3% by weight) in the fabrication of production readiness verification test (PRVT) specimens and the full-scale covers. The structural integrity of the cover/joint design was verified with the successful test of the cover attachment to fuselage ancillary test specimen (H25). Failure occurred, as predicted, in the skin panel away from the fuselage joint at 141 percent of the design ultimate load. With the successful completion of the H25 test, the PRVT cover specimens, which are identical to the H25 ancillary test specimen, were cleared for production. Eight of the twenty cover specimens were fabricated and are in preparation for test. All twenty of the PRVT spar specimens were fabricated and also were prepared for test. The environmental chambers used in the durability test of ten cover and ten spar PRVT specimens were completed and installed in the load reaction frames.

  15. Developing Components and Curricula for a Research-Rich Undergraduate Degree in Computational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Rubin

    2001-06-01

    A four-year undergraduate curriculum leading to a Bachelor's degree in Computational Physics is described. The courses, texts, and seminars are research- and Web-rich, and culminate in an Advanced Computational Science Laboratory derived from graduate theses and research from NPACI centers and national laboratories. There are important places for Maple, Java, MathML, MatLab, C and Fortran in the curriculum. The curriculum will be rich with web materials that are used and, at times, developed by the students. This reflects developments in our department and research groups over the last eight years in web-enhanced education, and our view that the web and computer-mediated instruction will play an increasing role in future scientific computing and education. The curriculum concludes with a completely new, advanced computational laboratory in which senior and graduate students will experiment with computer simulations taken from previous M.S. and Ph.D. research projects, as well as from research projects at national laboratories.

  16. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Garrad, Megan C; Somerville, Leah H

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds.

  17. What develops during emotional development? A component process approach to identifying sources of psychopathology risk in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Garrad, Megan C.; Somerville, Leah H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a phase of the lifespan associated with widespread changes in emotional behavior thought to reflect both changing environments and stressors, and psychological and neurobiological development. However, emotions themselves are complex phenomena that are composed of multiple subprocesses. In this paper, we argue that examining emotional development from a process-level perspective facilitates important insights into the mechanisms that underlie adolescents' shifting emotions and intensified risk for psychopathology. Contrasting the developmental progressions for the antecedents to emotion, physiological reactivity to emotion, emotional regulation capacity, and motivation to experience particular affective states reveals complex trajectories that intersect in a unique way during adolescence. We consider the implications of these intersecting trajectories for negative outcomes such as psychopathology, as well as positive outcomes for adolescent social bonds. PMID:26869841

  18. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  19. Educator professional development as a component of earthquake and tsunami readiness and early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Butler, R. F.; Lillie, R. J.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Olds, S. E.; Charlevoix, D.; Coe, M.

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of any real-time earthquake analysis for disaster mitigation requires not just scientific expertise and equipment but thoughtful, far-reaching, and long term education for emergency management personnel and the public. The "Cascadia EarthScope Earthquake and Tsunami Education Program" (CEETEP) is working to mitigate these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast (2013-2016). In this project nearly 150 coastal Cascadia educators are being introduced to critical knowledge about (among other things) earthquake monitoring and earthquake early warning systems. In collaboration last year with UNAVCO, CEETEP developed an animation explaining how GPS and seismic systems can work in concert to greatly enhance earthquake early warning systems for Cascadia and other subduction zone areas (www.youtube.com/user/unavcovideos, "animations"). Science and preparedness educators are key partners in the endeavor of implementing earthquake and tsunami early warning systems. The knowledge of how to run effective professional development programs for such educators will greatly enhance outreach efforts. Initial results from CEETEP are very encouraging. Four of the planned six workshops were held in 2013 (northern coastal Oregon) and 2014 (Olympic Peninsula, Washington). Results from Year 1 show that participant content knowledge improved from 50% to 86% over the course of the workshop. Similarly, confidence in teaching about workshop topics increased from an average of 2.8 to 5.2 on a 6-point scale. Participant optimism about the efficacy and tractability of community-level planning also increased from 5.7 to 7.4 on a 9-point scale. Nearly 90% of participants continued to be active with the program through the time of the March 8, 2014 Share-a-thon and presented on a wide range of

  20. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Ogawa, K; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of essential oils during the development of clonal plants of fennel propagated through somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Although no essential oil could be detected either in cultured cells or in somatic embryoids, monoter-penes such as alpha-phellandrene and alpha-pinene were found in radical leaves of regenerated plantlets cultured on a hormone-free agar medium. The regenerated plants cultivated in the field for about one month accumulated phenylpropanoids such as estragole, anethole, and fenchone in addition to the two monoterpenes described above in radical leaves. Rich accumulations of phenylpropanoids and monoterpenes were observed in the fruits; especially the contents of estragole and anethole were much higher than in radical leaves. PMID:17268973

  1. Integration and alignment of ATLAS instrument engineering model components in Optical Development System Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler

    2013-09-01

    The ATLAS Instrument for the ICESat-2 mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center required a test-bed to prove out new concepts before the mission launches in 2016. The Optical Development System (ODS) laboratory was created to use breadboard, prototype, and engineering-model levels of hardware and software to model and evaluate the ATLAS alignment system. A one meter parabolic mirror was used to create a collimated light beam to align prototype and engineering model transmitter and receiver optics and test closed-loop alignment algorithms. To achieve an error of less than two micro-radians, an active deformable mirror was used to correct the wave front to subtract out the collimator mount error.

  2. Development of Continuous, Direct Feedback Control Systems for Sintering of Metallic Components

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Marc M. Baum

    2006-09-18

    N,N.-Ethylenebisstearimide (EBS) is one of the most commonlyused lubricants in the powder metallurgy (PM) industry in the sintering process. During sintering, the lubricated powder compacts are heat-treated to temperatures in excess of 1,200 °C thus fusing adjacent particles and yielding a part with improved mechanical strength. Delubrication commonly is achieved in the first zone of a sintering furnace by heating the part to temperatures in the 500-600 °C temperature range at a fixed rate and under controlled atmospheric conditions; this strategy minimizes defects, carbon contamination, and compact deformation. The de-lubricated part then enters the second zone (commonly in the 1200-1300 °C temperature range) for sintering. The third zone cools the sintered part at a desired rate to obtain the requisite micro-structural properties. Controlled delubrication is imperative towards achieving high quality parts for the following reasons: the elevated thermal gradient at the transition between the first and second zones can cause parts to expand rapidly and develop microscopic fissures (.blistering.); improper gas flows and belt speeds can lead to carbon deposition on the part and at the grain boundaries (sooting); delubrication products deposit throughout the furnace, even in the coolers, which are far removed from the preheating chamber, leading to significant maintenance costs; pollutants emitted in the exhaust stream of furnaces operating inefficiently are increasingly of environmental concern. In practice, lubricant removal is difficult to control, which often leads to reduced yields in PM manufacturing processes. Throughput is another important issue: process control ideally should lead to a delubrication cycle that yields defect-free parts in a minimum of furnace time, thereby increasing productivity and reducing the net energy consumption. Efficient process control requires rapid monitoring of suitable indicators, preferably gasphase products of delubrication

  3. [Recapitulation in the development of the components of the counterflow system in the vertebrate metanephros].

    PubMed

    Krutsiak, V N; Kokoshchuk, G I; Kalugin, V A; Proniaev, V I; Akhtemiĭchuk, Iu T

    1988-02-01

    The investigation has been performed on 107 renal preparations obtained from persons of various age (from 5-month-old fetuses up to 45 years of age), certain representatives of other classes of the Vertebrata are also included: fish, amphibia, reptile and mammalia at various stages of pre- and postnatal periods of ontogenesis by means of preparing graphic and plastic reconstructive models, histological investigation and microdissection. The complexity of the intrarenal branching of derivatives of the mesonephric duct diverticulum, development and structure of the canalicular part in nephrons directly depend on the phylogenetic position of the animal. Complexity of the nephron architectonics occurs along the progressive line of taxonomic groups of higher Vertebrata. The nephron loop becomes longer, thin segment of the nephron canalicular part increases in its length and, at last, in mammalia a cone-shaped fasciculus appears as a structural-functional unit of the osmoregulating apparatus of the constant kidney. In the comparative anatomical and comparative embryological aspects recapitulation is observed concerning certain morphological signs of derivatives of the metanephric duct and nephron.

  4. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

  5. Can watching football be a component of developing a state of mental health for men?

    PubMed

    Pringle, Alan

    2004-05-01

    Football supporters, by and large, continue to have a negative image and be presented in a very destructive way by the media generally. This has been reflected academically by the fact that much of the research that has been done into football and football fans has focused on negative aspects of small numbers of supporters' behaviours such as hooliganism and racism. This paper describes a two stage study exploring some of the more positive effects noted during studies with football fans from Mansfield Town, a team currently in the third division of the English Football League. The study explores the perceived benefits to mental health for fans gained from the supporting experience in such areas as stress relief, catharsis and the development of good parent-child relationships. Discussion takes place around the paradox that some of the behaviours described by supporters as beneficial and done in 'the spirit of carnival' may challenge liberal beliefs and be viewed as antisocial and offensive. The key feature in health promotional terms is the overwhelming view of fans that the 'carnivalesque' behaviours stay in the football ground where such behaviours are viewed as acceptable and socially sanctioned.

  6. FY00 LDRD Final Report High Power IFE Driver Component Development 00-SI-009

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeau, C; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Waide, P; Bayramian, A

    2001-02-26

    We have begun building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for target physics research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilojoule and megajoule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary near-term performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 {micro}m wavelength. Currently, this review concentrates on the critical development and production of Yb:S-FAP crystals. After solving many defect issues that can be present in the crystals, reproducibility is the final issue that needs to be resolved. We have enlisted the help of national experts and have strongly integrated two capable commercial crystal growth companies (Litton-Airton/Synoptics and Scientific Materials) into the effort, and have solicited the advice of Robert Morris (retired from Allied Signal), a recognized international expert in high temperature oxide growth.

  7. Component development for 500 watt diesel fueled portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Fraas, Lewis; Samaras, John; Watson, Ron C.; Scoles, Stephen W.

    1999-03-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) and JX Crystals have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500-watt, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using diesel fuel. Under a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and managed by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), this design is being reduced to hardware. Prototypes of the two main subsystems, the power converter assembly (PCA) and the burner/emitter/recuperator (BER), have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The PCA uses low-band-gap gallium antimonide (GaSb) photovoltaic (PV) cells for high efficiency and power density. The prototype PCA will be air cooled for system simplicity and portability. However, initial testing was performed on a water-cooled PCA. The BER uses a thermal vaporizer to produce a stable, high-intensity, low-emissions combustion zone inside an impervious emitter. A thermally integrated recuperator is utilized to boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the first-generation PCA and BER along with model predictions used for design and evaluation.

  8. Fabrication process development of SiC/superalloy composite sheet for exhaust system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornie, J. A.; Cook, C. S.; Anderson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical compatibility study was conducted between SiC filament and the following P/M matrix alloys: Waspaloy, Hastelloy-X, NiCrAlY, Ha-188, S-57, FeCrAlY, and Incoloy 800. None of the couples demonstrated sufficient chemical compatibility to withstand the minimum HIP consolidation temperatures (996 C) or intended application temperature of the composite (982 C). However, Waspaloy, Haynes 188, and Hastelloy-X were the least reactive with SiC of the candidate alloys. Chemical vapor deposited tungsten was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier between the superalloy matrix and SiC filament providing a defect-free coating of sufficient thickness. However, the coating breaks down when the tungsten is converted into intermetallic compounds by interdiffusion with matrix constituents. Waspaloy was demonstrated to be the most effective matrix alloy candidate in contact with the CVD tungsten barrier because of its relatively low growth rate constant of the intermediate compound and the lack of formation of Kirkendall voids at the matrix-barrier interface. Fabrication methods were developed for producing panels of uniaxial and angle ply composites utilizing CVD tungsten coated filament.

  9. The SAMGrid database server component: its upgraded infrastructure and future development path

    SciTech Connect

    Loebel-Carpenter, L.; White, S.; Baranovski, A.; Garzoglio, G.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; Veseli, S.; Burgon-Lyon, M.; St. Denis, R.; Belforte, S.; Kerzel, U.; Bartsch, V.; Leslie, M.; /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Texas Tech.

    2004-12-01

    The SAMGrid Database Server encapsulates several important services, such as accessing file metadata and replica catalog, keeping track of the processing information, as well as providing the runtime support for SAMGrid station services. Recent deployment of the SAMGrid system for CDF has resulted in unification of the database schema used by CDF and D0, and the complexity of changes required for the unified metadata catalog has warranted a complete redesign of the DB Server. We describe here the architecture and features of the new server. In particular, we discuss the new CORBA infrastructure that utilizes python wrapper classes around IDL structs and exceptions. Such infrastructure allows us to use the same code on both server and client sides, which in turn results in significantly improved code maintainability and easier development. We also discuss future integration of the new server with an SBIR II project which is directed toward allowing the DB Server to access distributed databases, implemented in different DB systems and possibly using different schema.

  10. An Instructive Component in T Helper Cell Type 2 (Th2) Development Mediated by Gata-3

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, J. David; Ouyang, Wenjun; Löhning, Max; Assenmacher, Mario; Radbruch, Andreas; Kanagawa, Osami; Murphy, Kenneth M.

    2001-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4 polarize naive CD4+ T cells toward T helper cell type 1 (Th1) or Th2 phenotypes, it is not known whether cytokines instruct the developmental fate in uncommitted progenitors or select for outgrowth of cells that have stochastically committed to a particular fate. To distinguish these instructive and selective models, we used surface affinity matrix technology to isolate committed progenitors based on cytokine secretion phenotype and developed retroviral-based tagging approaches to directly monitor individual progenitor fate decisions at the clonal and population levels. We observe IL-4–dependent redirection of phenotype in cells that have already committed to a non–IL-4–producing fate, inconsistent with predictions of the selective model. Further, retroviral tagging of naive progenitors with the Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 provided direct evidence for instructive differentiation, and no evidence for the selective outgrowth of cells committed to either the Th1 or Th2 fate. These data would seem to exclude selection as an exclusive mechanism in Th1/Th2 differentiation, and support an instructive model of cytokine-driven transcriptional programming of cell fate decisions. PMID:11238595

  11. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Work in process verification and tooling development continued. The decision was made to redesign the ribs to a more producible design. The bead was eliminated and the truss ribs changed to plain C sections. The solid web rib stiffeners were eliminated as well as the beads and the webs are now reinforced with a syntactic core. Syntectic is an epoxy containing glass microballoons. Two cover specimens were successfully tested. The first specimen (H27) was designed to verify the stability and compression strength of the cover when it is hot and wet. Failure occurred at 120 percent of design ultimate load. As the failure appeared to be fixture induced and was limited to one end of the panel, the remainder of the panel will be tested. The second specimen (H28) was designed to verify the failsafe aspects of the design. The test verified the design. Preparation of the PRVT test facility is nearing completion and all ten spar durability specimens were installed in the test chambers.

  12. Development of analytical techniques to study H2s poisoning of PEMFCs and components

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A; Garzon, Fernando H

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H{sub 2}S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. Not only is it important to know a particular material's affinity to adsorb H{sub 2}S, when considering materials for PEMFC applications, issues such as permeation and crossover rates also become extremely important Several experimental methods have been developed to quantify H{sub 2}S adsorption onto surfaces and to quantify H{sub 2}S permeation through Nafion(reg.) membranes using readily available and inexpensive Ag/AgS ion probes. In addition to calculating the H{sub 2}S uptake on commonly used XC-72 carbon supports and PtlXC-72 catalysts, the H{sub 2}S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion(reg.) PEMFC membranes was also studied using these specialized techniques. In each ion probe experiment performed, a sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H{sub 2}S during the course of the measurement. Crossover experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. By using these techniques, we have confirmed H{sub 2}S crossover in Nafion(reg.) membranes and have calculated preliminary rates of H{sub 2}S crossover.

  13. Modern astronomical knowledge as component of general education for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, I.

    {It is shown that 1) astronomical knowledge was a foundation of emerging modern physics and natural sciences based on mathematics, 2) mathematical basis of the natural sciences serves as an orientation of progress in the true objective of social sciences. The last example for this chain of impacts is the discovery of the fundamental demographic equation (N=aN^2-bN) full of the astronomical analogy [9]. Modern age endorses new imperatives on education. Reckless exploitation of the natural resources will cause irreversible exhaustion of the agro- and bio-potential of the planet during lifetime of a few generations. The adequate respond to the challenge lies in modern technologies and educating responsible (socially oriented) professionals. That is why the importance of teaching modern technologies along with providing the students with the understanding of global long term consequences of the human industrial activities is growing. The course ``Theoretical Foundations of Modern Technologies" at the Moscow State Agricultural University (Timiryazev Academy) taught by the author is discussed. New experimental project ``Space Technologies, Ecology and Safe Energetics in School of the Future" is presented as a project of a new age in the process of implementing at the Moscow city secondary schools by the colleagues and by the author. The new cosmological models in the frame of the Newtonian and general relativistic treatments developed by the author are considered in this report as an example of immediate implementation of new astro-knowledge into the education for modern agrarian students. The centrifugal forces acting between particles rotating randomly around each other are shown to be able to reverse gravitational collapse.

  14. Development of a multi-component fiber-reinforced composite implant for load-sharing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D S; Moritz, N; Laurila, P; Mattila, R; Lassila, L V J; Strandberg, N; Mäntylä, T; Vallittu, P K; Aro, H T

    2009-05-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) have the potential for use as load-bearing orthopaedic implants if the high strength and elastic modulus of FRC implant can be matched with local requirements. This study tested the in vivo performance of novel FRC implants made of unidirectional glass fibers (E-glass fibers in Bis-GMA and TEGDMA polymeric matrix). The implant surface was covered with bioactive glass granules. Control implants were made of surface-roughened titanium. Stress-shielding effects of the implants were predicted by finite element modelling (FEM). Surgical stabilization of bone metastasis in the subtrochanteric region of the femur was simulated in 12 rabbits. An oblong subtrochanteric defect of a standardized size (reducing the torsional strength of the bones approximately by 66%) was created and an intramedullary implant made of titanium or the FRC composite was inserted. The contralateral femur served as the intact control. At 12 weeks of healing, the femurs were harvested and analyzed by radiography, torsional testing, micro-CT imaging and hard tissue histology. The functional recovery was unremarkable in both groups, although the final analysis revealed two healed undisplaced peri-implant fractures in the group of FRC implants. FEM studies demonstrated differences in stress-shielding effects of the titanium and FRC implants, but the expected biological consequences did not become evident during the follow-up time of the animal study. Biomechanical testing of the retrieved femurs showed no significant differences between the groups. The torsional strength of the fixed bones had returned the level of contralateral intact femurs. Both implants showed ongrowth of intramedullary new bone. No adverse tissue reactions were observed. Based on these favorable results, a large-scale EU-project (NewBone, www.hb.se/ih/polymer/newbone) has been launched for development of orthopaedic FRC implants. PMID:19109047

  15. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O’Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune–related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS. PMID:26379506

  16. Modular and coordinated expression of immune system regulatory and signaling components in the developing and adult nervous system.

    PubMed

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Crampton, Sean; McKelvey, Laura; Nolan, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Gerard; Gutierrez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    During development, the nervous system (NS) is assembled and sculpted through a concerted series of neurodevelopmental events orchestrated by a complex genetic programme. While neural-specific gene expression plays a critical part in this process, in recent years, a number of immune-related signaling and regulatory components have also been shown to play key physiological roles in the developing and adult NS. While the involvement of individual immune-related signaling components in neural functions may reflect their ubiquitous character, it may also reflect a much wider, as yet undescribed, genetic network of immune-related molecules acting as an intrinsic component of the neural-specific regulatory machinery that ultimately shapes the NS. In order to gain insights into the scale and wider functional organization of immune-related genetic networks in the NS, we examined the large scale pattern of expression of these genes in the brain. Our results show a highly significant correlated expression and transcriptional clustering among immune-related genes in the developing and adult brain, and this correlation was the highest in the brain when compared to muscle, liver, kidney and endothelial cells. We experimentally tested the regulatory clustering of immune system (IS) genes by using microarray expression profiling in cultures of dissociated neurons stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, and found a highly significant enrichment of immune system-related genes among the resulting differentially expressed genes. Our findings strongly suggest a coherent recruitment of entire immune-related genetic regulatory modules by the neural-specific genetic programme that shapes the NS.

  17. Pathogenic significance of serum components in the development of autoimmune polyarthritis in MRL/Mp mice bearing the lymphoproliferation gene.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, J.; Nose, M.; Kyogoku, M.

    1991-01-01

    MRL/Mp mice bearing the lymphoproliferation gene (lpr) (MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr) spontaneously develop polyarthritis, associated with autoimmune traits, including rheumatoid factor production, which resembles rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate possible arthritogenic activity of serum of these mice, intraarticular injections of the serum components to knee joints of nonarthritic MRL/Mp mice not bearing the lpr gene (MRL/Mp(-)+/+) were performed. Two fractions from the serum were obtained by a gel chromatography. The void fraction (VF), but not the nonvoid fraction (NVF), induced acute inflammatory lesions in the joints by single injection, and destructive arthritis by repeated injections. VF had immune complex activity, and contained a large amount of cryoglobulin, which in itself was found arthritogenic. These findings indicate that the serum components of MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice have a potency to cause destructive arthritis. These results are direct evidence in a syngeneic animal model system, which suggests the pathogenic significance of serum components in rheumatoid arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1887861

  18. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development (PedsDTI).

    PubMed

    Walker, Lindsay; Chang, Lin-Ching; Nayak, Amritha; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Botteron, Kelly N; McCracken, James; McKinstry, Robert C; Rivkin, Michael J; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Rumsey, Judith; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study was designed with the final goal of providing a controlled-access database; open to qualified researchers and clinicians, which could serve as a powerful tool for elucidating typical brain development and identifying deviations associated with brain-based disorders and diseases, and as a resource for developing computational methods and image processing tools. This paper focuses on the DTI component of the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. In this work, we describe the DTI data acquisition protocols, data processing steps, quality assessment procedures, and data included in the database, along with database access requirements. For more details, visit http://www.pediatricmri.nih.gov. This longitudinal DTI dataset includes raw and processed diffusion data from 498 low resolution (3 mm) DTI datasets from 274 unique subjects, and 193 high resolution (2.5 mm) DTI datasets from 152 unique subjects. Subjects range in age from 10 days (from date of birth) through 22 years. Additionally, a set of age-specific DTI templates are included. This forms one component of the larger NIH MRI study of normal brain development which also includes T1-, T2-, proton density-weighted, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging data, and demographic, clinical and behavioral data.

  19. Ovarian germ cell tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous components and later development of growing teratoma syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Development of a sarcomatous component in a germ cell tumor is an uncommon phenomenon. Most cases reported have a grim prognosis. Growing teratoma syndrome is also an uncommon phenomenon and occurs in approximately 2% to 7% of non seminomatous germ cell tumors and should be treated surgically. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Asian girl with an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor containing a rhabdomyosarcomatous component. She was treated with a germ cell tumor chemotherapy regimen and rhabdomyosarcoma-specific chemotherapy. Towards the end of her treatment, she developed a retroperitoneal mass that was increasing in size. It was completely resected, revealing a mature teratoma, consistent with growing teratoma syndrome. She is still in complete remission approximately three years after presentation. Conclusion The presence of rhabdomyosarcoma in a germ cell tumor should be treated by a combined chemotherapy regimen (for germ cell tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma). In addition, development of a mass during or after therapy with normal serum markers should raise the possibility of growing teratoma syndrome that should be treated surgically. PMID:22248255

  20. Development of a New and Fast Linear Solver for Multi-component Reactive Transport Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, C.; Li, L.; Bao, C.; Hu, X.; Johns, R.; Xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport models (RTM) have been extensively used to understand the coupling between solute transport and (bio) geochemical reactions in complex earth systems. RTM typically involves a large number of primary and secondary species with a complex reaction network in large domains. The computational expenses increase significantly with the number of grid blocks and the number of chemical species. Within both the operator splitting approach (OS) and the global implicit approach (GI) that are commonly used, the steps that involve Newton-Raphson method are typically one of the most time-consuming parts (up to 80% to 90% of CPU times). Under such circumstances, accelerating reactive transport simulation is very essential. In this research, we present a physics-based linear system solution strategy for general reactive transport models with many species. We observed up to five times speed up for the linear solver portion of the simulations in our test cases. Our new linear solver takes advantage of the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix arising from the reaction network. The Jacobian matrix for the speciation problem is typically considered as a dense matrix and solved with a direct method such as Gaussian elimination. For the reactive transport problem, the graph of the local Jacobian matrix has a one-to-one correspondence to the reaction network graph. The Jacobian matrix is commonly sparse and has the same sparsity structure for the same reaction network. We developed a strategy that performs a minimum degree of reordering and symbolic factorization to determine the non-zero pattern at the beginning of the OS and GI simulation. During the speciation calculation in OS, we calculate the L and U factors and solve the triangular matrices according to the non-zero pattern. For GI, our strategy can be applied to inverse the diagonal blocks in the block-Jacobi preconditioner and smoothers of the multigrid preconditioners in iterative solvers. Our strategy is naturally

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test. Final report, September 30, 1992--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for manufacturing and demonstrating the performance of its 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack in an integrated system at the Naval Air Station Miramar (NAS Miramar) located in San Diego, California. The stack constructed for the demonstration test at the NAS Miramar consisted of 250 cells. It was manufactured using M-C Power`s patented Internally Manifolded Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) stack design. The demonstration test at NAS Miramar was designed to operate the 250-kW MCFC stack in a cogeneration mode. This test represented the first attempt to thermally integrate an MCFC stack in a cogeneration system. The test was started on January 10, 1997, and voluntarily terminated on May 12, 1997, after 2,350 hours of operation at temperatures above 1,100 F and at a pressure of three atmospheres. It produced 160 MWh of d.c. power and 346,000 lbs of 110 psig steam for export during 1,566 hours of on-load operations. The test demonstrated a d.c. power output of 206 kW. Most of the balance of the plant (BOP) equipment operated satisfactorily. However, the off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger used for supplying air to the plant failed on numerous occasions and the hot gas blower developed seal leakage problems which impacted continuous plant operations. Overall the demonstration test at NAS Miramar was successful in demonstrating many critical features of the IMHEX technology. Lessons learned from this test will be very useful for improving designs and operations for future MCFC power plants.

  2. Development of a cell formation heuristic by considering realistic data using principal component analysis and Taguchi's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shailendra; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four decades of research, numerous cell formation algorithms have been developed and tested, still this research remains of interest to this day. Appropriate manufacturing cells formation is the first step in designing a cellular manufacturing system. In cellular manufacturing, consideration to manufacturing flexibility and production-related data is vital for cell formation. The consideration to this realistic data makes cell formation problem very complex and tedious. It leads to the invention and implementation of highly advanced and complex cell formation methods. In this paper an effort has been made to develop a simple and easy to understand/implement manufacturing cell formation heuristic procedure with considerations to the number of production and manufacturing flexibility-related parameters. The heuristic minimizes inter-cellular movement cost/time. Further, the proposed heuristic is modified for the application of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method. Numerical example is explained to illustrate the approach. A refinement in the results is observed with adoption of principal component analysis and Taguchi's method.

  3. Development of Novel Pre-alloyed PM Steels for Optimization of Machinability and Fatigue Resistance of PM Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardan, Milad; Blais, Carl

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that a large proportion of ferrous PM components require secondary machining operations for dimensional conformance or for producing geometrical features that cannot be generated during die compaction. Nevertheless, the machining behavior of PM parts is generally characterized as being "difficult" due to the presence of residual porosity that lowers thermal conductivity and induces interrupted cutting. Several admixed additives such as MnS and BN-h can be used to improve the machining behavior of PM steels. Nevertheless, their negative effect on mechanical properties, especially fatigue resistance, makes their utilization uninteresting for the fabrication of high-performance PM steel components. This article summarizes the work carried out to develop a novel PM steel that was especially engineered to form machinability enhancing precipitates. This new material is pre-alloyed with tin (Sn) in order to form Cu-Sn (Cu(α)) precipitates during transient liquid phase sintering. The newly developed material presents machinability improvement of 165% compared to reference material used in the PM industry as well as increases in toughness and fatigue resistance of 100% and 13%, respectively.

  4. Development of Quantum Dot Probes for Studies of Synergy Between Components of the Wood-Degrading Fungal Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haw; Nixon, B. Tracy; Tien, Ming

    2011-09-01

    Development of Quantum Dot Probes for Studies of Synergy Between Components of the Wood-Degrading Fungal Enzymes,” aims to develop quantum dot-based tagging and imaging technologies tailored for simultaneously monitoring, in real time and in the natural fungal / lignocellulose environment, the mode of action of several lignocellulosic enzymes at the single-molecule level. With a three-year research scope, it is designed to be the first project of a long-term research program for which the overarching goal is to bridge the aforementioned knowledge gap by a quantitative determination of the biochemical and biophysical properties of these fungal enzymes in realistic plant biomass-microbe milieus.

  5. NACK is an integral component of the Notch transcriptional activation complex and is critical for development and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kelly L; Alves-Guerra, Marie-Clotilde; Jin, Ke; Wang, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaoqing; Ranganathan, Prathibha; Zhu, Xiaoxia; DaSilva, Thiago; Liu, Wei; Ratti, Francesca; Demarest, Renee M; Tzimas, Cristos; Rice, Meghan; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Dahmane, Nadia; Robbins, David J; Capobianco, Anthony J

    2014-09-01

    The Notch signaling pathway governs many distinct cellular processes by regulating transcriptional programs. The transcriptional response initiated by Notch is highly cell context dependent, indicating that multiple factors influence Notch target gene selection and activity. However, the mechanism by which Notch drives target gene transcription is not well understood. Herein, we identify and characterize a novel Notch-interacting protein, Notch activation complex kinase (NACK), which acts as a Notch transcriptional coactivator. We show that NACK associates with the Notch transcriptional activation complex on DNA, mediates Notch transcriptional activity, and is required for Notch-mediated tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that Notch1 and NACK are coexpressed during mouse development and that homozygous loss of NACK is embryonic lethal. Finally, we show that NACK is also a Notch target gene, establishing a feed-forward loop. Thus, our data indicate that NACK is a key component of the Notch transcriptional complex and is an essential regulator of Notch-mediated tumorigenesis and development.

  6. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  8. Development and Function of the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex: A Key Component in the Feto-Placental Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is characterized by early transient cortisol biosynthesis, followed by its suppressed synthesis until late gestation, and extensive production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, precursors of placental estrogen, during most of gestation. The gland rapidly grows through processes including cell proliferation and angiogenesis at the gland periphery, cellular migration, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. Recent studies employing modern technologies such as gene expression profiling and laser capture microdissection have revealed that development and/or function of the fetal adrenal cortex may be regulated by a panoply of molecules, including transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, locally produced growth factors, and placenta-derived CRH, in addition to the primary regulator, fetal pituitary ACTH. The role of the fetal adrenal cortex in human pregnancy and parturition appears highly complex, probably due to redundant and compensatory mechanisms regulating these events. Mounting evidence indicates that actions of hormones operating in the human feto-placental unit are likely mediated by mechanisms including target tissue responsiveness, local metabolism, and bioavailability, rather than changes only in circulating levels. Comprehensive study of such molecular mechanisms and the newly identified factors implicated in adrenal development should help crystallize our understanding of the development and physiology of the human fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:21051591

  9. Development of a dual phantom technique for measuring the fast neutron component of dose in boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Yoshinori Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Research and development of various accelerator-based irradiation systems for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is underway throughout the world. Many of these systems are nearing or have started clinical trials. Before the start of treatment with BNCT, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the fast neutrons (over 10 keV) incident to the irradiation field must be estimated. Measurements of RBE are typically performed by biological experiments with a phantom. Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiation conditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. Uniform contributions to the dose deposited from thermal and fast neutrons are based in part on relatively inaccurate dose information for fast neutrons. This study sought to improve the accuracy in the dose estimation for fast neutrons by using two phantoms made of different materials in which the dose components can be separated according to differences in the interaction cross sections. The development of a “dual phantom technique” for measuring the fast neutron component of dose is reported. Methods: One phantom was filled with pure water. The other phantom was filled with a water solution of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) capitalizing on the absorbing characteristics of lithium-6 (Li-6) for thermal neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the ideal mixing ratio of Li-6 in LiOH solution. Changes in the depth dose distributions for each respective dose component along the central beam axis were used to assess the LiOH concentration at the 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 wt. % levels. Simulations were also performed with the phantom filled with 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution for 95%-enriched Li-6. A phantom was constructed containing 10 wt. % {sup 6}LiOH solution based on the simulation results. Experimental characterization of the

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  11. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume V. Component development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, C.; McBee, W.; Matthews, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental inventions which motivate this program are system concepts centered on a novel heat engine cycle and the use of downwell heat exchange. Here, the primary emphasis is on downwell hardware. The only surface equipment included is the surface portion of the instrumentation and control systems. Downwell instrumentation is reported. Downwell conduits and techniques for installing, connecting and sealing them are covered. The downwell turbine-pump unit (TPU) is a critical component since it is relatively inaccessible and operates in a hostile environment. Its development is reported. The TPU for the gravity-head system requires a different type of turbine because of the large flow-rate through it and the small pressure difference across it. The design study for a Francis turbine to meet these requirements is reported. A feature of these systems is use of a downwell heat exchanger. There were extensive studies of tube-bundle configuration, tube-sheet seals, structural integrity, and flow and heat transfer, as well as the research on welded connections and sliding elastomeric seals. Another innovative component in these systems is the enthalpy recovery unit (ERU). This direct-contact heat exchanger compensates for under-cooling in the condenser and superheat in the main turbine exhaust.

  12. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kadolkar, Puja; Ott, Ronald D

    2006-02-01

    A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in

  13. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process.

  14. Talented football players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Philip; Höner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is regarded as a key developmental phase in the course of talented football players' careers. The present study focuses on early adolescent players' development of achievement motives, volitional components, and self-referential cognitions. Based on the multidimensional and dynamic nature of talent, the development of multifaceted personality characteristics is an important issue in the context of sports talent research. According to previous findings in psychology, personality characteristics' development is defined by both stability and change, and the current study analyses four different types: differential stability (I), mean-level change (II), individual-level change (III), and structural stability (IV). The sample consists of 151 male players in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. Psychological diagnostics of the personality characteristics are implemented across longitudinal sections over a time period of three seasons, from the U12 to U14 age classes. The results reveal that the personality characteristics show (I) moderate test-retest correlations over one-year intervals (.43 ≤ rtt ≤ .62), and lower coefficients for a two-year period (.26 ≤ rtt ≤ .53). (II) Most of the personality characteristics' mean values differ significantly across the age classes with small effect sizes (.01 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ .03). (III) Only minor individual-level changes in the football players' development are found. (IV) The personality characteristics' associations within a two-factor structure do not stay invariant over time. From the results of the present study, conclusions are drawn regarding the talent identification and development process. PMID:26313875

  15. Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F.; Frary, M.E.; Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

    2004-06-01

    In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused

  16. Development of an annoyance model based upon elementary auditory sensations for steady-state aircraft interior noise containing tonal components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angerer, James R.; Mccurdy, David A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a noise annoyance model, superior to those already in use, for evaluating passenger response to sounds containing tonal components which may be heard within current and future commercial aircraft. The sound spectra investigated ranged from those being experienced by passengers on board turbofan powered aircraft now in service to those cabin noise spectra passengers may experience within advanced propeller-driven aircraft of the future. A total of 240 sounds were tested in this experiment. Sixty-six of these 240 sounds were steady state, while the other 174 varied temporally due to tonal beating. Here, the entire experiment is described, but the analysis is limited to those responses elicited by the 66 steady-state sounds.

  17. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  18. Toxicokinetic Model Development for the Insensitive Munitions Component 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-One.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Phillips, Elizabeth A; Goodwin, Michelle R; Bannon, Desmond I

    2015-01-01

    3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is a component of insensitive munitions that are potential replacements for conventional explosives. Toxicokinetic data can aid in the interpretation of toxicity studies and interspecies extrapolation, but only limited data on the toxicokinetics and metabolism of NTO are available. To supplement these limited data, further in vivo studies of NTO in rats were conducted and blood concentrations were measured, tissue distribution of NTO was estimated using an in silico method, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of the disposition of NTO in rats and macaques were developed and extrapolated to humans. The model predictions can be used to extrapolate from designated points of departure identified from rat toxicology studies to provide a scientific basis for estimates of acceptable human exposure levels for NTO.

  19. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Dale E. Brown; Puja B. Kadolkar

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to

  20. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  1. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  2. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  3. Development of a multi-component chemically reactive detection conjugate for the determination of Hg(II) in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Tian, Xiang-Li; Li, Yan-Song; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yang, Li; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Wang, Xin-Rui; Meng, Xian-Mei; Liu, Jing-Qiu

    2012-04-29

    Mercury ions (Hg(II)) are considered highly toxic and hazardous element even at low levels. The contamination of Hg(II) is a global problem. To develop selective and sensitive technique for the detection of Hg(II) has attracted considerable attention. In this study, a multi-component chemically reactive detection conjugate for determination of Hg(II) has been synthesized and a competitive format assay was proposed. In the technique, the chemically reactive capture conjugate was coated on the plate. The reactive detection conjugate was then captured by the capture conjugate. TMB solution was added and catalyzed by HRP molecules immobilized on AuNPs. Finally, the developed enzymatic signal was measured at 450 nm. The linear range of the assay was 0.35-350 ppb with a detection limit of 0.1 ppb. The average recoveries of Hg(II) from mineral water, tap water and lake water were 100.03%, 103.13% and 102.03%, respectively. All coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 10%. The results are closely correlated with those from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which indicated that the developed technique is a reliable method for and sensitive detection of Hg(II) in water samples.

  4. Development of a multi-component chemically reactive detection conjugate for the determination of Hg(II) in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Tian, Xiang-Li; Li, Yan-Song; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yang, Li; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Wang, Xin-Rui; Meng, Xian-Mei; Liu, Jing-Qiu

    2012-04-29

    Mercury ions (Hg(II)) are considered highly toxic and hazardous element even at low levels. The contamination of Hg(II) is a global problem. To develop selective and sensitive technique for the detection of Hg(II) has attracted considerable attention. In this study, a multi-component chemically reactive detection conjugate for determination of Hg(II) has been synthesized and a competitive format assay was proposed. In the technique, the chemically reactive capture conjugate was coated on the plate. The reactive detection conjugate was then captured by the capture conjugate. TMB solution was added and catalyzed by HRP molecules immobilized on AuNPs. Finally, the developed enzymatic signal was measured at 450 nm. The linear range of the assay was 0.35-350 ppb with a detection limit of 0.1 ppb. The average recoveries of Hg(II) from mineral water, tap water and lake water were 100.03%, 103.13% and 102.03%, respectively. All coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 10%. The results are closely correlated with those from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which indicated that the developed technique is a reliable method for and sensitive detection of Hg(II) in water samples. PMID:22483216

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  6. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight.

  7. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    SciTech Connect

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V.

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  8. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    PubMed

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1). PMID:25028031

  9. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    PubMed

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  10. The Gene Ontology (GO) Cellular Component Ontology: integration with SAO (Subcellular Anatomy Ontology) and other recent developments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) (http://www.geneontology.org/) contains a set of terms for describing the activity and actions of gene products across all kingdoms of life. Each of these activities is executed in a location within a cell or in the vicinity of a cell. In order to capture this context, the GO includes a sub-ontology called the Cellular Component (CC) ontology (GO-CCO). The primary use of this ontology is for GO annotation, but it has also been used for phenotype annotation, and for the annotation of images. Another ontology with similar scope to the GO-CCO is the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO), part of the Neuroscience Information Framework Standard (NIFSTD) suite of ontologies. The SAO also covers cell components, but in the domain of neuroscience. Description Recently, the GO-CCO was enriched in content and links to the Biological Process and Molecular Function branches of GO as well as to other ontologies. This was achieved in several ways. We carried out an amalgamation of SAO terms with GO-CCO ones; as a result, nearly 100 new neuroscience-related terms were added to the GO. The GO-CCO also contains relationships to GO Biological Process and Molecular Function terms, as well as connecting to external ontologies such as the Cell Ontology (CL). Terms representing protein complexes in the Protein Ontology (PRO) reference GO-CCO terms for their species-generic counterparts. GO-CCO terms can also be used to search a variety of databases. Conclusions In this publication we provide an overview of the GO-CCO, its overall design, and some recent extensions that make use of additional spatial information. One of the most recent developments of the GO-CCO was the merging in of the SAO, resulting in a single unified ontology designed to serve the needs of GO annotators as well as the specific needs of the neuroscience community. PMID:24093723

  11. The PAF1 complex component Leo1 is essential for cardiac and neural crest development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine T; Langenbacher, Adam; Hsieh, Michael; Chen, Jau-Nian

    2010-05-01

    Leo1 is a component of the Polymerase-Associated Factor 1 (PAF1) complex, an evolutionarily conserved protein complex involved in gene transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling. The role of leo1 in vertebrate embryogenesis has not previously been examined. Here, we report that zebrafish leo1 encodes a nuclear protein that has a similar molecular structure to Leo1 proteins from other species. From a genetic screen, we identified a zebrafish mutant defective in the leo1 gene. The truncated Leo1(LA1186) protein lacks a nuclear localization signal and is distributed mostly in the cytoplasm. Phenotypic analysis showed that while the initial patterning of the primitive heart tube is not affected in leo1(LA1186) mutant embryos, the differentiation of cardiomyocytes at the atrioventricular boundary is aberrant, suggesting a requirement for Leo1 in cardiac differentiation. In addition, the expression levels of markers for neural crest-derived cells such as crestin, gch2, dct and mitfa are greatly reduced in leo1(LA1186) mutants, indicating a requirement for Leo1 in maintaining the neural crest population. Consistent with this finding, melanocyte and xanthophore populations are severely reduced, craniofacial cartilage is barely detectable, and mbp-positive glial cells are absent in leo1(LA1186) mutants after three days of development. Taken together, these results provide the first genetic evidence of the requirement for Leo1 in the development of the heart and neural crest cell populations.

  12. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  14. Development of meniscus substitutes using a mixture of biocompatible polymers and extra cellular matrix components by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    López-Calzada, G; Hernandez-Martínez, A R; Cruz-Soto, M; Ramírez-Cardona, M; Rangel, D; Molina, G A; Luna-Barcenas, G; Estevez, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the significant advances in the meniscus tissue engineering field, it is difficult to recreate the complex structure and organization of the collagenous matrix of the meniscus. In this work, we developed a meniscus prototype to be used as substitute or scaffold for the regeneration of the meniscal matrix, recreating the differential morphology of the meniscus by electrospinning. Synthetic biocompatible polymers were combined with the extracellular matrix component, collagen and used to replicate the meniscus. We studied the correlation between mechanical and structural properties of the polymer blend as a function of collagen concentration. Fibers were collected on a surface of a rapidly rotating precast mold, to accurately replicate each sectional morphology of the meniscus; different electro-tissues were produced. Detailed XRD analyses exhibited structural changes developed by electrospinning. We achieved to integrate all these electro-tissues to form a complete synthetic meniscus. Vascularization tests were performed to assess the potential use of our novel polymeric blend for promising meniscus regeneration. PMID:26838921

  15. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories.

  16. Multiphase wide gap braze alloys for the repair of nickel-base superalloy turbine components: Development and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Scott David

    Gas turbine components made of nickel-base superalloys experience cracking after service in extreme environments. As these cracks can be wide, brazing or fusion welding is typically used to repair them. Properly designed and applied, brazing filler metal will help extend the useful life of damaged turbine components. During repair of defective OEM parts, brazing is also considered, provided that proper filler metals with enhanced ductility and improved resistance to low-cycle fatigue are available. This research strives to develop the brazing technique and alloys to achieve a repair with acceptable mechanical properties. Additionally, the effects of silicon and boron, as fast diffusing and melting point suppressing elements on the braze microstructure and mechanical properties were examined in detail to help guide future alloy development. Three commercially available "low-temperature" brazing powders were mixed with an additive superalloy powder to prepare a series of filler metals for wide gap brazing used to repair OEM gas turbine components. BNi-2 (Ni-7Cr-4.2Si-3B-3Fe), BNi-5 (Ni-19Cr-10Si) and BNi-9 (Ni-15Cr-3.5B) were mixed with MARM247 (Ni-10W-10Co-8.25Cr-5.5Al-3Ta-1Ti-0.7Mo-0.5Fe-0.015B) at ratios of 40, 50, and 60 wt. pct. creating a total of nine experimental filler alloys. The brazes were applied to a 0.06 inch gap in a Rene 108(TM) substrate for mechanical and microstructural analysis. The wettability and flow of each of the experimental alloys were analyzed to determine the required brazing temperature through isothermal spreadability experiments. Bend testing was performed on brazed joints to determine their mechanical properties and maximum angular deflection. The metallurgical driving factors, such as solidification behavior and compositional effects, were analyzed to correlate the resulting microstructural constituents to the mechanical properties developed through experimentation. It was found that because of the solid solubility of silicon into

  17. Development of equipment parameter tolerances for the ultrasonic inspection of steel components: Application to components up to 3 inches thick. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E.R.; Doctor, S.R.; Hockey, R.L.; Diaz, A.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report documents work performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the effect of frequency domain equipment interactions on the reliability of ultrasonic inservice inspection. The primary focus of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the acceptability of equipment parameter tolerances as given in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 11 Appendix 8. Mathematical models were developed for the entire ultrasonic inspection system including sound propagation through the inspection sample. The models were used to determine worst-case inspection scenarios for thin sections (piping), and these worst-case inspection scenarios were then used in sensitivity studies to determine the suitability of equipment parameter tolerances. Ultrasonics literature was reviewed to find worst-case inspection scenarios outside the scope of the model used, but none that were significantly worse were found. Experiments were performed to confirm the important modeling results. Methods for reducing parameter sensitivity such as the use of a phase insensitive receive were also investigated. The model predicted that ASME Code tolerances for equipment bandwidth are acceptable, but tolerances for center frequency are too broad to provide reliable inspection of worst-case defects using narrow band systems. Experiments confirmed the basic trends predicted by the model, but the model seems to be conservative in that it shows greater sensitivity than is found empirically.

  18. [Self-responsibility as a component of quality-oriented care-reflections on further development of nursing care insurance].

    PubMed

    Gohde, J

    2005-08-01

    Further development of nursing care insurance must consider both ethical aspects and scarcity of resources. An economy that serves human life has two principal targets: safeguarding the basis of existence and extension of the fulfillment of life. From an ethical perspective welfare and personal responsibility have to be equilibrated by promoting individuality and self-responsibility and maintaining relatives' willingness to become a caregiver. Discussing the role of prevention and rehabilitation in nursing care it is argued that the legally committed primacy of prevention and rehabilitation over care has still not been put into practise due to unresolved problems at the interface of health insurance and nursing care insurance as well as at the interface of inpatient and outpatient providers. Moreover, it seems necessary to strengthen prevention and rehabilitation in the context of care. A comprehensive understanding of individual demands for help, support, and care requires a revision of the common definition of need for care in terms of activities of daily living which neglects particularly psycho-social needs. Case management is a suitable approach to provide adequate and coordinated support as a prerequisite for quality of life in people in need for care. Overcoming compartmentalization of inpatient and outpatient sectors and crosslinking of services are described as essential challenges for future provision of nursing care insurance. Intensification of counseling and advice for patients and relatives, extension and diversification of local providers, upgrading of ambulant services, daily care and short-term care, diversification of nursing homes and other housing arrangements, further development of hospices and palliative care, and acceptance of institutions for the elderly as indispensable components of the future care system are discussed as specific tasks in the further development of nursing care insurance. PMID:16133754

  19. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  20. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  1. Development of a novel technique to assess the vulnerability of micro-mechanical system components to environmentally assisted cracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David George; Goods, Steven Howard

    2006-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) will play an important functional role in future DOE weapon and Homeland Security applications. If these emerging technologies are to be applied successfully, it is imperative that the long-term degradation of the materials of construction be understood. Unlike electrical devices, MEMS devices have a mechanical aspect to their function. Some components (e.g., springs) will be subjected to stresses beyond whatever residual stresses exist from fabrication. These stresses, combined with possible abnormal exposure environments (e.g., humidity, contamination), introduce a vulnerability to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). EAC is manifested as the nucleation and propagation of a stable crack at mechanical loads/stresses far below what would be expected based solely upon the materials mechanical properties. If not addressed, EAC can lead to sudden, catastrophic failure. Considering the materials of construction and the very small feature size, EAC represents a high-risk environmentally induced degradation mode for MEMS devices. Currently, the lack of applicable characterization techniques is preventing the needed vulnerability assessment. The objective of this work is to address this deficiency by developing techniques to detect and quantify EAC in MEMS materials and structures. Such techniques will allow real-time detection of crack initiation and propagation. The information gained will establish the appropriate combinations of environment (defining packaging requirements), local stress levels, and metallurgical factors (composition, grain size and orientation) that must be achieved to prevent EAC.

  2. Development of the magnescope as an instrument for in situ evaluation of steel components of nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jiles, D.C.; Bi, Y.; Biner, S.B.

    1997-08-01

    Fatigue damage causes continuous, cumulative microstructural changes in materials and the magnetic properties of steels are sensitive to these microstructural changes. The work therefore focused on the relationship between fatigue damage and the measured magnetic properties of different steels under a variety of fatigue conditions. The project also investigated the feasibility and applicability of magnetic inspection techniques for non-destructive evaluation of fatigue damage. From the results of a series of fatigue tests, conducted on different steels under both low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue conditions, the magnetic properties, such as coercivity, remanence and Barkhausen effect, were found to change systematically with fatigue damage. The magnetic properties showed significant changes, especially during early stage of the fatigue and also at the end of the fatigue lifetime. An approximately linear relationship between the mechanical modulus and magnetic remanence was observed and was explained by a model developed in this study to describe the dynamic changes in magnetic and mechanical properties. The results of this research demonstrated that magnetic measurements are suitable for non-destructive evaluation of fatigue damage in steels such as A533B steel and Cr-Mo steels. The magnetic measurement techniques have been incorporated into instrumentation for in-situ evaluation of steel structures and components.

  3. Predictive modeling of biomass component tradeoffs in Brassica napus developing oilseeds based on in silico manipulation of storage metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Jörg; Hay, Jordan O

    2012-11-01

    Seed oil content is a key agronomical trait, while the control of carbon allocation into different seed storage compounds is still poorly understood and hard to manipulate. Using bna572, a large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oilseeds, we present an in silico approach for the analysis of carbon allocation into seed storage products. Optimal metabolic flux states were obtained by flux variability analysis based on minimization of the uptakes of substrates in the natural environment of the embryo. For a typical embryo biomass composition, flux sensitivities to changes in different storage components were derived. Upper and lower flux bounds of each reaction were categorized as oil or protein responsive. Among the most oil-responsive reactions were glycolytic reactions, while reactions related to mitochondrial ATP production were most protein responsive. To assess different biomass compositions, a tradeoff between the fractions of oil and protein was simulated. Based on flux-bound discontinuities and shadow prices along the tradeoff, three main metabolic phases with distinct pathway usage were identified. Transitions between the phases can be related to changing modes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, reorganizing the usage of organic carbon and nitrogen sources for protein synthesis and acetyl-coenzyme A for cytosol-localized fatty acid elongation. The phase close to equal oil and protein fractions included an unexpected pathway bypassing α-ketoglutarate-oxidizing steps in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The in vivo relevance of the findings is discussed based on literature on seed storage metabolism.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  5. Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components. Ninth quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress in developing and evaluating nondestructive methods for testing ceramic components for high-temperature heat exchangers is reported. The sensitivity of the ultrasonic bore-side probe was demonstrated for detection of 125-..mu..m-deep circumferential EDM notches on ID and OD surfaces of sintered and siliconized tubes. The signal to noise ratios for the ultrasonic echoes are better than 10 to 1, beyond the initial expectations for detection of small reflectors. This results from focussing of the beam in the tube wall. Preliminary data were presented on microprocessor-controlled operation of the ultrasonic probe. Some problems involving the computer interfacing have to be resolved, but detection and recording of an EDM notch located was demonstrated. The acoustic microscope was modified to handle 30-MHz sound waves. This was done to improve the penetration ability of the sound in SiC tube walls. The modification results in less acoustic noise. The ability to detect a notch only 75 ..mu..m in width was demonstrated.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  7. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  9. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for the Perth Metropolitan area in order to estimate air pollutant concentrations across Perth. The most important predictor for PM10 was green spaces. Heavy vehicle traffic load was found to be the strongest predictor for PM2.5Abs. Traffic variables were observed to be the important contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 elements in Perth, except for PM2.5 V which had distance to coast as the predominant predictor. Open green spaces explained more of the variability in the PM10 elements than for PM2.5 elements, and population density was more important for PM2.5 elements than for PM10 elements. The PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs LUR models explained 67% and 82% of the variance, respectively, but the PM10 model only explained 35% of the variance. The PM2.5 models for Mn, V, and Zn explained between 70% and 90% of the variability in concentrations. PM10 V, Si, K, S and Fe models explained between 53% and 71% of the variability in respective concentrations. Testing the models using leave one-out cross validation, hold out validation and cross-hold out validation supported the validity of LUR models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs and their corresponding elements in Metropolitan Perth despite the relatively low concentrations.

  10. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 2: Scanner operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and operation of the scanner portion of the laser Doppler system for detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment are discussed. Schematics, wiring diagrams, component values, and operation and checkout procedures are included.

  11. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems. Part 2: Component development and system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, H. W.; Morrison, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic transmission is emerging as an attractive concept in data distribution onboard civil aircraft. Development of an Optical Data Distribution Network for Integrated Avionics and Control Systems for commercial aircraft will provide a data distribution network that gives freedom from EMI-RFI and ground loop problems, eliminates crosstalk and short circuits, provides protection and immunity from lightning induced transients and give a large bandwidth data transmission capability. In addition there is a potential for significantly reducing the weight and increasing the reliability over conventional data distribution networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a candidate method for data communication between the various avionic subsystems. With WDM all systems could conceptually communicate with each other without time sharing and requiring complicated coding schemes for each computer and subsystem to recognize a message. However, the state of the art of optical technology limits the application of fiber optics in advanced integrated avionics and control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to address the architecture for a fiber optics data distribution system for integrated avionics and control systems as well as develop prototype components and systems.

  12. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  13. Design, manufacture, development, test, and evaluation of boron/aluminum structural components for space shuttle. Volume 4: Repairability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. F.; Christian, J. L.; Doyal, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The repairability of boron/aluminum structural components was investigated. It was demonstrated that metal matrix composite material, damaged in service, can be repaired by techniques that are not very different from those currently in use for conventional materials. A list of repair guidelines was prepared to aid in determining the proper repair techniques for a given structure. The guidelines include specifying types of repair material and their applicability, corrosion prevention procedures, design criteria, and inspection criteria. Boron/aluminum structural components were repaired and tested to compare as-fabricated and repaired performance. All but one set of specimens, when repaired, exceeded the strength of the original specimens.

  14. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    addition, energy consumption in the high-pressure treatment is less than that in the heat treatment. For the reasons mentioned above, the high-pressure treatment has thus been regarded as suitable for future food processing, and much attention has been paid to the researches of high-pressure treatment again. Then, we reviewed the previous researches in which little interest had been taken because of imperfectness of non-heat sterilization. Surprisingly, we discovered some novel findings about the effect of high-pressure treatment, that is, pressure history on the subsequent event. Then, we decided to present two theses on the themes, "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products" and "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Development of Sterilized Foods".

  15. Development of a cavitating descaling technique for on-line geothermal pipe and component cleaning and scale removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.C.; Bohli, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of cavitation for cleaning and removing geothermal scale from pipes and system components is discussed. A study of the technical feasibility of using cavitation to remove scale is described including the preliminary fold test, the GLEF in-plant field demonstration, a production line cleaning trial, and recommendations. (MHR)

  16. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  17. End-of-life examinations of Light Water Breeder Reactor grids and other module structural components (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.C.; Clayton, J.C.; Pitcairn, T.N.; Richardson, K.D.; Smith, B.C.; Wargo, J.E.

    1987-10-01

    End-of-Life examinations were performed on LWBR core structural components which had important influence on mechanical stability of fuel elements duing core performance. These components included: (1) AM-350 stainless steel grid sections to assess corrosion, stress relaxation, braze performance, and dimensional stability; (2) a 348 stainless steel flux thimble tube which failed in service; (3) various Inconel X-750, Inconel-600, 17-4 PH, and AM-350 bolts; (4) Zircaloy-4 module shells and screws; (5) Inconel-600 module cover plates and baseplates; (6) 304 stainless steel Bypass Inlet Flow Supply Tube; (7) 17-4 PH shear keys and Inconel-600 struts; (8) Zircaloy-4 module support posts; (9) seed module support shaft and balance piston. Examinations included visual inspection and, in some cases, dye penetrant and metallography. Threaded fasteners remained uncracked to end-of-life (EOL). Grid dimensions showed minor changes at EOL. Grid springs exhibited good stress relaxation characteristics. Corrosion resistance of core components was adequate, and components were relatively free from crud buildup.

  18. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  19. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  20. Development of a graded index microlens based fiber optical trap and its characterization using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Nylk, J; Kristensen, M V G; Mazilu, M; Thayil, A K; Mitchell, C A; Campbell, E C; Powis, S J; Gunn-Moore, F J; Dholakia, K

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a miniaturized single beam fiber optical trapping probe based on a high numerical aperture graded index (GRIN) micro-objective lens. This enables optical trapping at a distance of 200μm from the probe tip. The fiber trapping probe is characterized experimentally using power spectral density analysis and an original approach based on principal component analysis for accurate particle tracking. Its use for biomedical microscopy is demonstrated through optically mediated immunological synapse formation.

  1. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  2. Seeing Is Believing: Effective Components of Professional Development Training for County Extension Educators on an Innovation Perceived as Risky--Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Schielack, J. F.; Vestal, T. A.

    2004-01-01

    Decades of research have provided evidence that food irradiation is a safe technology that can decrease the incidence of foodborne diseases; however, adoption of this technology has been slow. The purpose of our study was to qualitatively explore the effectiveness of various components of a professional development training on family and consumer…

  3. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  4. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  5. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  6. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  7. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  8. Development of a fatigue-life methodology for composite structures subjected to out-of-plane load components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumich, Mark; Kedward, Keith T.

    1991-01-01

    The efforts to identify and implement a fatigue life methodology applicable to demonstrate delamination failures for use in certifying composite rotor blades are presented. The RSRA/X-Wing vehicle was a proof-of-concept stopped rotor aircraft configuration which used rotor blades primarily constructed of laminated carbon fiber. Delamination of the main spar during ground testing demonstrated that significant interlaminar stresses were produced. Analysis confirmed the presence of out-of-plane load components. The wear out (residual strength) methodology and the requirements for its implementation are discussed.

  9. The SEDL/Regional Exchange: One Component of an Emerging Effort to Disseminate the Outcomes of Educational Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronkosky, Preston C.

    This paper describes the need for a regional dissemination system; the conceptualization of the Southwest Educational Development Labortory (SEDL) Regional Exchange as part of the nation-wide Research and Development Exchange (RDx); and the operation of the SEDL Regional Exchange (RX). It emphasizes that the Research and Development Exchange is…

  10. The development of system components to provide proprioceptive and tactile information to the human for future telepresence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ammon K.

    1992-01-01

    System components are presented that are being implemented to augment teleoperated systems by providing both force and tactile information to the human operator. The concept proposed is the control of a manipulator to perform tasks; i.e., flight line maintenance and repair of combat aircraft or satellites while under the control of a human operator at a remote location to maintain mission effectiveness in a hostile environment. The human would control the motion of the manipulator via a master system with information from the remote site being fed back by direct stimulation of the humans sensory mechanisms or by graphic interpretation of displays. We are interested in providing the operator feedback of position, force, auditory, vision, and tactile information to aide in the human's cognitive ability to control the manipulator. This sensory information from the remote site would then be presented to the operator in such a manner as to enhance his performance while providing him a sense of being present at the remote location, this is known as telepresence. Also discussed is the research done by the Human Sensory Feedback (HSF) facility at the Armstrong Laboratory to provide tactile and proprioceptive feedback to the operator. The system components of this system includes tactile sensor and stimulators, dexterous robotic hands, and the control of positioning and operating industrial robots with exoskeletal mechanisms.

  11. Brain components

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres, each ... gray matter) is the outside portion of the cerebrum and provides us with functions associated with conscious ...

  12. High-Performance SiC/SiC Ceramic Composite Systems Developed for 1315 C (2400 F) Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Yun, Hee Mann; Morscher, Gregory N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2004-01-01

    As structural materials for hot-section components in advanced aerospace and land-based gas turbine engines, silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic matrix composites reinforced by high performance SiC fibers offer a variety of performance advantages over current bill-of-materials, such as nickel-based superalloys. These advantages are based on the SiC/SiC composites displaying higher temperature capability for a given structural load, lower density (approximately 30- to 50-percent metal density), and lower thermal expansion. These properties should, in turn, result in many important engine benefits, such as reduced component cooling air requirements, simpler component design, reduced support structure weight, improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, higher blade frequencies, reduced blade clearances, and higher thrust. Under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, much progress has been made at the NASA Glenn Research Center in identifying and optimizing two highperformance SiC/SiC composite systems. The table compares typical properties of oxide/oxide panels and SiC/SiC panels formed by the random stacking of balanced 0 degrees/90 degrees fabric pieces reinforced by the indicated fiber types. The Glenn SiC/SiC systems A and B (shaded area of the table) were reinforced by the Sylramic-iBN SiC fiber, which was produced at Glenn by thermal treatment of the commercial Sylramic SiC fiber (Dow Corning, Midland, MI; ref. 2). The treatment process (1) removes boron from the Sylramic fiber, thereby improving fiber creep, rupture, and oxidation resistance and (2) allows the boron to react with nitrogen to form a thin in situ grown BN coating on the fiber surface, thereby providing an oxidation-resistant buffer layer between contacting fibers in the fabric and the final composite. The fabric stacks for all SiC/SiC panels were provided to GE Power Systems Composites for chemical vapor infiltration of Glenn designed BN fiber coatings and conventional SiC matrices

  13. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft. Phase 3: Production readiness verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A.; Sandifer, J.; Sandorff, P.; Vancleave, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two specimens of each of two key structural elements of the Advance Composite Vertical Fin (ACVF) were fabricated and tested. One element represented the front spar at the fuselage attachment area and the other element represented the cover at the fuselage joint area. Ten specimens of each element were selected for static testing. The coefficient of variation resulting from the tests was 3.28 percent for the ten cover specimens and 6.11 percent for the ten spar specimens, which compare well with metallic structures. The remaining twelve cover and twelve spar specimens were durability tested in environmental chambers which permitted the temperature and humidity environment to be cycled as well as the applied loads. Results of the durability tests indicated that such components will survive the service environment.

  14. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes. PMID:26799977

  15. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes.

  16. Promoting Effective Teacher-Feedback: From Theory to Practice through a Multiple Component Trajectory for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voerman, Lia; Meijer, Paulien C.; Korthagen, Fred; Simons, Robert Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an evaluation of a theory-based trajectory for professional development called FeTiP (Feedback-Theory into Practice) that aims to have an observable effect on teacher classroom behavior. FeTiP is a multicomponent trajectory for professional development and combines several types of interventions. Its goal is to help teachers…

  17. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  18. Electronic Components Subsystems and Equipment: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Developments in electronic components, subsystems, and equipment are summarized. Topics discussed include integrated circuit components and techniques, circuit components and techniques, and cables and connectors.

  19. Development of introgression lines and advanced backcross QTL analysis for disease resistance, oil quality and yield component traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, several synthetics have been developed at ICRISAT. Furthermore, two synthetic amphidiploids viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis...

  20. The development of a two-component force dynamometer and tool control system for dynamic machine tool research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development is presented of a tooling system that makes a controlled sinusoidal oscillation simulating a dynamic chip removal condition. It also measures the machining forces in two mutually perpendicular directions without any cross sensitivity.

  1. Plasma-Materials Interactions (PMI) and High-Heat-Flux (HHF) component research and development in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    Plasma particle and high heat fluxes to in-vessel components such as divertors, limiters, RF launchers, halo plasma scrapers, direct converters, and wall armor, and to the vacuum chamber itself, represent central technical issues for fusion experiments and reactors. This is well recognized and accepted. It is also well recognized that the conditions at the plasma boundary can directly influence core plasma confinement. This has been seen most dramatically, on the positive side, in the discovery of the H-mode using divertors in tokamaks. It is also reflected in the attention devoted worldwide to the problems of impurity control. Nowadays, impurities are controlled by wall conditioning, special discharge cleaning techniques, special coatings such as carbonization, the use of low-Z materials for limiters and armor, a careful tailoring of heat loads, and in some machines, through the use of divertors. All programs, all experiments, and all designers are now keenly aware that PMI and HHF issues are key to the successful performance of their machines. In this brief report we present general issues in Section 2, critical issues in Section 3, existing US PMI/HHF experiments and facilities in Section 4, US International Cooperative PMI/HHF activities in Section 5, and conclude with a discussion on major tasks in PMI/HHF in Section 6.

  2. Targeting a New Safe Zone: A Step in the Development of Patient-Specific Component Positioning for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Sculco, Peter K; Weeks, K Durham; Nam, Denis; Mayman, David J

    2015-06-01

    Surgeons often target the Lewinnek zone, with its mean (SD) inclination of 40° (10°) and mean (SD) anteversion of 15° (10°), for acetabular orientation during total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, matching native anteversion (20°-25°) may achieve optimal stability. We conducted a study in a large single-surgeon patient cohort to determine the incidence of early postoperative dislocation with increased acetabular anteversion and the accuracy of imageless navigation in achieving target acetabular position. Soft-tissue repair through a posterolateral approach was performed in 553 THAs that met the inclusion criteria. Mean (SD) target acetabular orientation was 40° (10°) of inclination and 25° (10°) of anteversion. Software was used to measure acetabular positioning on postoperative radiographs. Incidence of dislocation within 6 months after surgery was determined. Mean (SD) inclination was 42.2° (4.9°), and mean (SD) anteversion was 23.9° (6.5°). Approximately 82% of cups were placed in the target zone. Variation in anteversion accounted for 67.3% of outliers. Only body mass index was associated with inclination outside the target range (P = .017), and only female sex was associated with anteversion outside the target range (P = .030). Six THAs (1.1%) experienced early dislocation, and 3 (0.54%) of these were revised for multiple dislocations. There was no relationship between dislocation and component placement in either the Lewinnek zone (P = .224) or the target zone (P = .287). PMID:26046997

  3. Progress in SiC/SiC Ceramic Composite Development for Gas Turbine Hot-Section Components under NASA EPM and UEET Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, J. A.; Yun, Hee Mann; Morscher, Gregory N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of ceramic matrix composites as hot-section components in advanced gas turbine engines will require the development of constituent materials and processes that can provide the material systems with the key thermostructural properties required for long-term component service. Much initial progress in identifying these materials and processes was made under the former NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials Program using stoichiometric Sylramic (trademark) silicon-carbide (SiC) fibers, 2D (two dimensional)-woven fiber architectures, chemically vapor-infiltrated (CVI) BN fiber coatings (interphases), and SiC-based matrices containing CVI SiC interphase over-coatings, slurry-infiltrated SiC particulate, and melt-infiltrated (MI) silicon. The objective of this paper is to discuss the property benefits of this SiC/SiC composite system for high-temperature engine components and to elaborate on further progress in SiC/SiC development made under the new NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Program. This progress stems from the recent development of advanced constituent materials and manufacturing processes, including specific treatments at NASA that improve the creep, rupture, and environmental resistance of the Sylramic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI SiC over-coatings. Also discussed are recent observations concerning the detrimental effects of inadvertent carbon in the fiber-BN interfacial region and the beneficial effects of certain 2D-architectures for thin-walled SiC/SiC panels.

  4. Development of In-Situ Erosion Measurement Techniques for Application to Real-Time Determination of Plasma Thruster Component Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This research has resulted in advancing the laser-based diagnostic capability and the ion optics development in the ion propulsion program at NASA GRC. Laser-based plasma diagnostics have been demonstrated in tabletop experiments and, in the case of LDI, on laboratory hollow cathodes. Assessment by GRC of its resources and priorities two years into the grant lead to a refocusing of the research effort away from the development of a real-time erosion rate measurement technique. The extension of the diagnostic techniques to diagnostic tools has been transferred to graduate students under the technical direction of the PI. These diagnostics may facilitate the development of ion thruster with significantly improved throughput capability for lower-power (10 kW) missions High-Isp, Long-lived ion optics development has proceeded from simple extensions of state-of-the-art geometries to radically different geometries and materials. Full-scale testing of these ion optics has demonstrated a significant advance in the throughput capability of ion thrusters enabling significantly more demanding missions. The capability to predict the throughput was developed and will continue to be upgraded. The performance models have been validated via full-scale testing. Partial validation of the throughput prediction will be completed via an upcoming wear test of the ion optics.

  5. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  6. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines.

  7. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26749864

  8. Components of Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  9. Research Component - Natural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Donald

    The research component in the natural sciences does not have to be changed. Ninety-three percent of the students surveyed by Ann Heiss for her book "The Challenge to the Graduate Schools" felt that the research component of the natural sciences contributed to their scientific development, and 85 percent felt that it was intellectually stimulating.…

  10. The Components of Effective Professional Development for Science Educators: A Case Study with Environmental Education Program Project Learning Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velardi, Sara Hendrickson; Folta, Elizabeth; Rickard, Laura; Kuehn, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Professional development workshops enable educators to increase their knowledge in an academic subject. With the publication of The Next Generation Science Standards, teachers are expected to be cognizant in science content and inquiry-based learning. This research study looked at workshops offered by New York Project Learning Tree®, an…

  11. Components and Characteristics of Youth Development Programs: The Voices of Youth-Serving Policymakers, Practitioners, Researchers, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Jennifer Brown

    2008-01-01

    Due to its increasing popularity, youth development (YD) has become a buzzword that is attached to a variety of programs. Several attempts have been made to articulate a unified definition of YD that would enable the field to progress toward measuring the effectiveness of YD programs. In order to determine what constitutes a YD program, we must…

  12. Supporting Early Childhood Teachers to Promote Children's Social Competence: Components for Best Professional Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that young children's social competence is critical because it is positively associated with their school readiness and academic success. However, professional development (PD) opportunities for early childhood teachers to enhance their roles in promoting young children's social competence are limited. In…

  13. The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith

    1984-01-01

    A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)

  14. Moving Bed, Granular Bed Filter Development Program: Option 1, Component Test Facility. Task 2, Identification of technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.C.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-03-01

    Combustion Power, under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, is developing a moving granular-bed filter for the control of particulate in gasification and pressurized fluidized bed environments. In Task 2, technical issues are identified which need to be resolved for the granular-bed filter to be commercially viable. The technical issues are ranked in relative importance.

  15. Early identification of children likely to develop persistent asthma: atopy is an integral component of the high risk phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Sly, Peter D.; Boner, Attilio L.; Bjorksten, Bengt; Bush, Andy; Custovic, Adnan; Eigenmann, Philippe A.; Gern, James E.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Hamelmann, Eckard; Helms, Peter J; Lemanske, Robert F.; Martinez, Fernando; Pedersen, Soren; Renz, Harald; Sampson, Hugh; von Mutius, Erika; Wahn, Ulrich; Holt, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a growing consensus that the long term solution to the asthma epidemic lies in prevention and not in treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene x environment interactions which most commonly occur during a relatively narrow window period in pre- and postnatal development. These interactions are incompletely understood, and hence the holy grail of primary prevention remains an elusive goal. We contend that a lack of understanding of the role of atopy in early life in the development of persistent asthma in children exists amongst primary care physicians, paediatricians and specialists. In this review we argue that early identification of high risk children is feasible based on currently available technology, and worthwhile in relation to potential benefits to the children so identified. Knowledge of an asthmatic child's atopic status in early life has practical clinical and prognostic implications, as well as forming the basis for future preventative strategies. PMID:18805338

  16. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides. PMID:25996959

  17. A lab-on-a-chip system for the development of complex assays using modular microfluidic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Carstens, Cornelia; Brandst"tter, Thomas; Becker, Holger; Elbracht, Rudi; Gärtner, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    For complex biological or diagnostic assays, the development of an integrated microfluidic device can be difficult and error-prone. For this reason, a modular approach, using individual microfluidic functional modules for the different process steps, can be advantageous. However often the interconnection of the modules proves to be tedious and the peripheral instrumentation to drive the various modules is cumbersome and of large size. For this reason, we have developed an integrated instrument platform which has generic functionalities such as valves and pumps, heating zones for continuous-flow PCR, moveable magnets for bead-based assays and an optical detection unit build into the instrument. The instrument holds a titerplate-sized carrier in which up to four microscopy-slide sized microfluidic modules can be clipped in. This allows for developing and optimizing individual assay steps without the need to modify the instrument or generate a completely new microfluidic cartridge. As a proof-of-concept, the automated sample processing of liquor or blood culture in microfluidic structures for detection of currently occuring Neisseria meningitidis strains was carried out. This assay involves the extraction of bacterial DNA, the fluorescent labeling, amplification using PCR as well as the hybridization of the DNA molecules in three-dimensional capture sites spotted into a microchannel. To define the assay sensitivity, chip modules were tested with bacteria spiked samples of different origins and results were controlled by conventional techniques. For liquor or blood culture, the presence of 200 bacteria was detected within 1 hour.

  18. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  19. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  20. Development of a Multi-Point Quantitation Method to Simultaneously Measure Enzymatic and Structural Components of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, Andrew B; St. Brice, Lois; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Izquierdo, Javier; Cook, Kelsey; Lynd, Lee R; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has emerged as a leading bioenergy-relevant microbe due to its ability to solubilize cellulose into carbohydrates, mediated by multi-component membrane-attached complexes termed cellulosomes. To probe microbial cellulose utilization rates, it is desirable to be able to measure the concentrations of saccharolytic enzymes and estimate the total amount of cellulosome present on a mass basis. Current cellulase determination methodologies involve labor-intensive purification procedures and only allow for indirect determination of abundance. We have developed a method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-MS) to simultaneously quantitate both enzymatic and structural components of the cellulosome protein complex in samples ranging in complexity from purified cellulosomes to whole cell lysates, as an alternative to a previously-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method of cellulosome quantitation. The precision of the cellulosome mass concentration in technical replicates is better than 5% relative standard deviation for all samples, indicating high precision for determination of the mass concentration of cellulosome components.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  2. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice.

  3. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice. PMID:26765784

  4. Lack of Cul4b, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Leads to Embryonic Lethality and Abnormal Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jupeng; Qian, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjie; Zou, Yongxin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations in human CUL4B, one of the eight members in cullin family, are one of the major causes of X-linked mental retardation. We here report the generation and characterization of Cul4b knockout mice, in which exons 3 to 5 were deleted. In contrast to the survival to adulthood of human hemizygous males with CUL4B null mutation, Cul4b null mouse embryos show severe developmental arrest and usually die before embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Accumulation of cyclin E, a CRL (CUL4B) substrate, was observed in Cul4b null embryos. Cul4b heterozygotes were recovered at a reduced ratio and exhibited a severe developmental delay. The placentas in Cul4b heterozygotes were disorganized and were impaired in vascularization, which may contribute to the developmental delay. As in human CUL4B heterozygotes, Cul4b null cells were selected against in Cul4b heterozygotes, leading to various degrees of skewed X-inactivation in different tissues. Together, our results showed that CUL4B is indispensable for embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:22606329

  5. miR-216a regulates snx5, a novel notch signaling pathway component, during zebrafish retinal development.

    PubMed

    Olena, Abigail F; Rao, Mahesh B; Thatcher, Elizabeth J; Wu, Shu-Yu; Patton, James G

    2015-04-01

    Precise regulation of Notch signaling is essential for normal vertebrate development. Mind bomb (Mib) is a ubiquitin ligase that is required for activation of Notch by Notch׳s ligand, Delta. Sorting Nexin 5 (SNX5) co-localizes with Mib and Delta complexes and has been shown to directly bind to Mib. We show that microRNA-216a (miR-216a) is expressed in the retina during early development and regulates snx5 to precisely regulate Notch signaling. miR-216a and snx5 have complementary expression patterns. Knocking down miR-216a and/or overexpression of snx5 resulted in increased Notch activation. Conversely, knocking down snx5 and/or miR-216a overexpression caused a decrease in Notch activation. We propose a model in which SNX5, precisely controlled by miR-216a, is a vital partner of Mib in promoting endocytosis of Delta and subsequent activation of Notch signaling.

  6. Home safety: development and validation of one component of an ecobehavioral treatment program for abused and neglected children.

    PubMed Central

    Tertinger, D A; Greene, B F; Lutzker, J R

    1984-01-01

    Parents may be charged with child abuse or neglect or both on the basis of a variety of circumstances. Child neglect, for example, is often documented when caseworkers observe that the family's home itself is so poorly kept that it presents an environment in which young children have ready access to lethal hazards such as poisons, uncovered wall outlets, and firearms. In this study, we describe the development of a Home Accident Prevention Inventory (HAPI) which was validated and used to assess hazards in the homes of several families under state protective service for child abuse and neglect. The HAPI included five categories of hazards: fire and electrical, mechanical-suffocation, ingested object suffocation, firearms, and solid/liquid poisons. Following the collection of baseline data, parents were presented with a treatment package that included instructions and demonstrations on making hazards inaccessible to children, plus feedback regarding the number and location of hazards in the home. The multiple-baseline design across hazardous categories in each family's home showed that the package resulted in decreases in the number of these accessible hazards. These improvements were maintained over an extended period of unannounced follow-up checks. This research provides a model for the development and assessment of an area previously unexamined in the child abuse and neglect literature. PMID:6735949

  7. The Importance of Detailed Component Simulations in the Feedsystem Development for a Two-Stage-to Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazurkivich, Pete; Chandler, Frank; Grayson, Gary

    2005-01-01

    To meet the requirements for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), a unique propulsion feed system concept was identified using crossfeed between the booster and orbiter stages that could reduce the Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) vehicle weight and development cost by approximately 25%. A Main Propulsion System (MPS) crossfeed water demonstration test program was configured to address all the activities required to reduce the risks for the MPS crossfeed system. A transient, one-dimensional system simulation was developed for the subscale crossfeed water flow tests. To ensure accurate representation of the crossfeed valve's dynamics in the system model, a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) model was employed. The results from the CFD model were used to specify the valve's flow characteristics in the system simulation. This yielded a crossfeed system model that was anchored to the specific valve hardware and achieved good agreement with the measured test data. These results allowed the transient models to be correlated and validated and used for full scale mission predictions. The full scale model simulations indicate crossfeed is ' viable with the system pressure disturbances at the crossfeed transition being less than experienced by the propulsion system during engine start and shutdown transients.

  8. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options.

  9. Characterization of S3Pvac Anti-Cysticercosis Vaccine Components: Implications for the Development of an Anti-Cestodiasis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rassy, Dunia; Bobes, Raúl J.; Rosas, Gabriela; Anaya, Victor H.; Brehm, Klaus; Hernández, Beatriz; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Pedraza, Saúl; Morales, Julio; Villalobos, Nelly; de Aluja, Aline S.; Laclette, Juan P.; Nunes, Caris M.; Biondi, Germano F.; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12), originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates. PMID:20585656

  10. Computer Visualizations for K-8 Science Teachers: One Component of Professional Development Workshops at the Planetary Science Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, S.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Buxner, S.; Canizo, T.; Crown, D. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Institute (PSI), in partnership with the Tucson Regional Science Center, offers a series of professional development workshops targeting K-8 science teachers in southern Arizona. Using NASA data sets, research results, and a team of PSI scientists and educators, our workshops provide teachers with in-depth content knowledge of fundamental concepts in astronomy, geology, and planetary science. Current workshops are: The Earth-Moon System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, Impact Cratering, The Asteroid-Meteorite Connection, Volcanoes of the Solar System, Deserts of the Solar System, and Astrobiology and the Search for Extrasolar Planets. Several workshops incorporate customized computer visualizations developed at PSI. These visualizations are designed to help teachers overcome the common misconceptions students have in fundamental areas of space science. For example, the simple geometric relationship between the sun, the moon, and Earth is a concept that is rife with misconceptions. How can the arrangement of these objects account for the constantly changing phases of the moon as well as the occasional eclipses of the sun and moon? Students at all levels often struggle to understand the explanation for phases and eclipses even after repeated instruction over many years. Traditional classroom techniques have proven to be insufficient at rooting out entrenched misconceptions. One problem stems from the difficulty of developing an accurate mental picture of the Earth-Moon system in space when a student's perspective has always been firmly planted on the ground. To address this problem our visualizations take the viewers on a journey beyond Earth, giving them a so-called "god's eye" view of how the Earth-Moon system would look from a distance. To make this journey as realistic as possible we use ray-tracing software, incorporate NASA mission images, and accurately portray rotational and orbital motion. During a workshop our visualizations are

  11. SolarSyngas: Results from a virtual institute developing materials and key components for solar thermochemical fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeb, Martin; Steinfeld, Aldo; Borchardt, Günter; Feldmann, Claus; Schmücker, Martin; Sattler, Christian; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The Helmholtz Virtual Institute (VI) SolarSynGas brings together expertise from solar energy research and materials science to develop metal oxide based redox materials and to integrate them in a suitable way into related process technologies for two-step thermochemical production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from water and CO2. One of the foci of experimental investigation was exploring the impact of doping on the feasibility of ceria-based materials - mainly by Zr-doping. The results indicate that a certain Zr-content enhances the reducibility and therefore the splitting performance. Increasing the Zr-content to x = 0.15 improved the specific CO2-splitting performance by 50% compared to pure ceria. This finding agrees with theoretical studies attributing the improvements to lattice modification caused by the introduction of Zr4+. Thermogravimetric relaxation experiments and equilibrium oxygen isotope exchange experiments with subsequent depth profiling analysis were carried out on ceria. As a result the reduction reaction of even dense samples of pure ceria with a grain size of about 20 µm is surface reaction controlled. The structure of the derived expression for the apparent activation energy suggests that the chemical surface exchange coefficient should show only a very weak dependence on temperature for ceria doped with lower valence cations. A solar receiver reactor exhibiting a foam-type reticulated porous ceramics made of ceria was tested. It could be shown that applying dual-scale porosity to those foams with mm-size pores for effective radiative heat transfer during reduction and μm-size pores within its struts for enhanced kinetics during oxidation allows enhancing the performance of the reactor significantly. Also a particle process concept applying solid-solid heat recovery from redox particles in a high temperature solar thermochemical process was analysed that uses ceramic spheres as solid heat transfer medium. This concept can be implemented

  12. Fitness components of Drosophila melanogaster developed on a standard laboratory diet or a typical natural food source.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Henningsen, Astrid Kallestrup; Aastrup, Christian; Bech-Hansen, Mads; Bjerre, Lise B Hoberg; Carlsen, Benjamin; Hagstrup, Marie; Jensen, Sofie Graarup; Karlsen, Pernille; Kristensen, Line; Lundsgaard, Cecillie; Møller, Tine; Nielsen, Lise D; Starcke, Camilla; Sørensen, Christine Riisager; Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is often used as a model organism in evolutionary biology and ecophysiology to study evolutionary processes and their physiological mechanisms. Diets used to feed Drosophila cultures differ between laboratories and are often nutritious and distinct from food sources in the natural habitat. Here we rear D. melanogaster on a standard diet used in our laboratory and a field diet composed of decomposing apples collected in the field. Flies developed on these two diet compositions are tested for heat, cold, desiccation, and starvation resistance as well as developmental time, dry body mass and fat percentage. The nutritional compositions of the standard and field diets were analyzed, and discussed in relation to the phenotypic observations. Results showed marked differences in phenotype of flies from the two types of diets. Flies reared on the field diet are more starvation resistant and they are smaller, leaner, and have lower heat resistance compared to flies reared on the standard diet. Sex specific effects of diet type are observed for several of the investigated traits and the strong sexual dimorphism usually observed in desiccation resistance in D. melanogaster disappeared when rearing the flies on the field diet. Based on our results we conclude that care should be taken in extrapolating results from one type of diet to another and especially from laboratory to field diets.

  13. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HPLC analysis of phenolics revealed that chlorogenic and gallic acids were the predominant phenolic acids present in the raw leaf flour, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic acids were the major phenolic acids in the pre-treated leaf flour. Flavonoids such as catechin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin were present in both MLFs and the prepared snack. Overall sensory quality indicated that the snacks had acceptable textural attributes and improved nutritional profile at the 20 % level of substitution. It is possible to develop a ready-to-eat convenience food product with good functional and nutritional properties using pre-treated moringa leaf. PMID:26787984

  14. Developing and evaluating a paper-and-pencil test to assess components of physics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Sophie; Borowski, Andreas; Fischer, Hans E.; Gess-Newsome, Julie; von Aufschnaiter, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Teachers' professional knowledge is assumed to be a key variable for effective teaching. As teacher education has the goal to enhance professional knowledge of current and future teachers, this knowledge should be described and assessed. Nevertheless, only a limited number of studies quantitatively measures physics teachers' professional knowledge. The study reported in this paper was part of a bigger project with the broader goal of understanding teacher professional knowledge. We designed a test instrument to assess the professional knowledge of physics teachers (N = 186) in the dimensions of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and pedagogical knowledge (PK). A model describing the relationships between these three dimensions of professional knowledge was created to inform the design of the tests used to measure CK, PCK, and PK. In this paper, we describe the model with particular emphasis on the PCK part, and the subsequent PCK test development and its implementation in detail. We report different approaches to evaluate the PCK test, including the description of content validity, the examination of the internal structure of professional knowledge, and the analysis of construct validity by testing teachers across different school subjects, teachers from different school types, pre-service teachers, and physicists. Our findings demonstrate that our PCK test results could distinguish physics teachers from the other groups tested. The PCK test results could not be explained by teachers' CK or PK, cognitive abilities, computational skills, or science knowledge.

  15. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HPLC analysis of phenolics revealed that chlorogenic and gallic acids were the predominant phenolic acids present in the raw leaf flour, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic acids were the major phenolic acids in the pre-treated leaf flour. Flavonoids such as catechin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin were present in both MLFs and the prepared snack. Overall sensory quality indicated that the snacks had acceptable textural attributes and improved nutritional profile at the 20 % level of substitution. It is possible to develop a ready-to-eat convenience food product with good functional and nutritional properties using pre-treated moringa leaf.

  16. Multiphysics Thermal-Fluid Design Analysis of a Non-Nuclear Tester for Hot-Hydrogen Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to perform design analyses for a non-nuclear hot-hydrogen materials tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, and thermal radiative heat transfers. The goals of the design analyses are to maintain maximum hot-hydrogen jet impingement energy and to minimize chamber wall heating. The results of analyses on three test fixture configurations and the rationale for final selection are presented. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.

  17. Multiphysics Thermal-Fluid Design Analysis of a Non-Nuclear Tester for Hot-Hydrogen Materials and Component Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.-S.; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this effort is to perform design analyses for a non-nuclear hot-hydrogen materials tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, and thermal radiative heat transfers. The goals of the design analyses are to maintain maximum hot-hydrogen jet impingement energy and to minimize chamber wall heating. The results of analyses on three test fixture configurations and the rationale for final selection are presented. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.

  18. Bolstering Components of the Immune Response Compromised by Prior Exposure to Adenovirus: Guided Formulation Development for a Nasal Ebola Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The severity and longevity of the current Ebola outbreak highlight the need for a fast-acting yet long-lasting vaccine for at-risk populations (medical personnel and rural villagers) where repeated prime-boost regimens are not feasible. While recombinant adenovirus (rAd)-based vaccines have conferred full protection against multiple strains of Ebola after a single immunization, their efficacy is impaired by pre-existing immunity (PEI) to adenovirus. To address this important issue, a panel of formulations was evaluated by an in vitro assay for their ability to protect rAd from neutralization. An amphiphilic polymer (F16, FW ∼39,000) significantly improved transgene expression in the presence of anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies (NAB) at concentrations of 5 times the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50). In vivo performance of rAd in F16 was compared with unformulated virus, virus modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), and virus incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) polymeric beads. Histochemical analysis of lung tissue revealed that F16 promoted strong levels of transgene expression in naive mice and those that were exposed to adenovirus in the nasal cavity 28 days prior to immunization. Multiparameter flow cytometry revealed that F16 induced significantly more polyfunctional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α than other test formulations. These effects were not compromised by PEI. Data from formulations that provided partial protection from challenge consistently identified specific immunological requirements necessary for protection. This approach may be useful for development of formulations for other vaccine platforms that also employ ubiquitous pathogens as carriers like the influenza virus. PMID:25549696

  19. Determination of concept technology - the ontology of the concept as a component of the knowledge development in caring science.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ontology of the concept of technology from the perspective of caring science. The aim is to increase knowledge of the concept in caring science and to answer the research question concerning what the concept of technology is in caring science. In literature, the concept of technology is used diversely referring it to caring technology, nursing technology, wellbeing technology, information technology, telenursing and technology in care named by a specific device or an area of nursing or medicine. The definition of the concept of technology and its ontology has not been determined from the viewpoint of caring science. Eriksson's model of concept determination provides a method to explore the ontology of the concept. This includes an etymological and semantic analysis as well as a determination of essence and basic category of the concept. The results showed that the concept of technology is multidimensional. It has evolved and altered over the centuries. The origin of the concept formulated from the Greek word 'techne', which has wider ontological dimensions. It is universal, it can be taught and it depends on the substance. Subsequently, the concept was introduced an ethical dimension, and it also developed more to the direction of engineering, mechanics and technical know-how. The semantic analysis revealed synonyms of the concept: art, equipment and knowledge. These introduced concepts such as craft, skill, treatment, engineering, science, study method and way. The nuances of the concept framed its nature. On the one hand, it stands out as practical and advanced, but on the other hand, it is difficult and conventional. The knowledge gained in this study will help to understand the phenomenon of technology in caring science. PMID:24506411

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  1. Determination of concept technology - the ontology of the concept as a component of the knowledge development in caring science.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Eila-Sisko; Nordman, Tina; Eriksson, Katie

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ontology of the concept of technology from the perspective of caring science. The aim is to increase knowledge of the concept in caring science and to answer the research question concerning what the concept of technology is in caring science. In literature, the concept of technology is used diversely referring it to caring technology, nursing technology, wellbeing technology, information technology, telenursing and technology in care named by a specific device or an area of nursing or medicine. The definition of the concept of technology and its ontology has not been determined from the viewpoint of caring science. Eriksson's model of concept determination provides a method to explore the ontology of the concept. This includes an etymological and semantic analysis as well as a determination of essence and basic category of the concept. The results showed that the concept of technology is multidimensional. It has evolved and altered over the centuries. The origin of the concept formulated from the Greek word 'techne', which has wider ontological dimensions. It is universal, it can be taught and it depends on the substance. Subsequently, the concept was introduced an ethical dimension, and it also developed more to the direction of engineering, mechanics and technical know-how. The semantic analysis revealed synonyms of the concept: art, equipment and knowledge. These introduced concepts such as craft, skill, treatment, engineering, science, study method and way. The nuances of the concept framed its nature. On the one hand, it stands out as practical and advanced, but on the other hand, it is difficult and conventional. The knowledge gained in this study will help to understand the phenomenon of technology in caring science.

  2. The Fear-avoidance Components Scale (FACS): Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Measure of Pain-related Fear Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Hartzell, Meredith M; Williams, Mark J; Gatchel, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Pain-related fear avoidance (FA), a common problem for patients with painful medical conditions, involves pain-related catastrophizing cognitions, hypervigilance, and avoidance behaviors, which can ultimately lead to decreased functioning, depression, and disability. Several patient-reported instruments have been developed to measure FA, but they have been criticized for limited construct validity, inadequate item specificity, lack of cutoff scores, and missing important FA components. The Fear-Avoidance Components Scale (FACS) is a new patient-reported measure designed to comprehensively evaluate FA in patients with painful medical conditions. It combines important components of FA found in prior FA scales, while trying to correct some of their deficiencies, within a framework of the most current FA model. Psychometric evaluation of the FACS found high internal consistency (α = 0.92) and high test/retest reliability (r = 0.90-0.94, P < 0.01). FACS scores differentiated between 2 separate chronic pain patient samples and a nonpatient comparison group. When clinically relevant severity levels were created, FACS severity scores were highly associated with FA-related patient-reported psychosocial and objective lifting performance variables. These results suggest that the FACS is a psychometrically strong and reliable measure that can help healthcare providers assess FA-related barriers to function and recovery.

  3. Advanced Component Development to Enable Low-Mass, Low-Power High-Frequency Microwave Radiometers for Coastal Wet-Tropospheric Correction on SWOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, S. C.; Brown, S.; Kangaslahti, P.; Hoppe, D.; Dawson, D.; Lee, A.; Albers, D.; Montes, O.; Gaier, T.; Khayatian, B.

    2010-12-01

    Critical microwave component and receiver technologies are under development to reduce the risk, cost, volume, mass, and development time for a high-frequency microwave radiometer needed to enable wet-tropospheric correction in the coastal zone and over land as part of the NRC Decadal Survey-recommended Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission. Current satellite ocean altimeters include a nadir-viewing, co-located 18-37 GHz multi-channel microwave radiometer to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. However, due to the area of the instantaneous fields of view on the surface at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals begins to degrade at approximately 50 km from the coasts. Addition of higher-frequency microwave channels to the Jason-class radiometers on the recommended SWOT mission will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. Specifically, high-frequency window channels at 92, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for wet path delay retrievals in coastal regions. New, high-sensitivity, wide-bandwidth mm-wave radiometers using both window and sounding channels show good potential for over-land wet-path delay retrievals. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of a prototype system consisting of: (1) a low-power, low-mass and small-volume direct-detection millimeter-wave radiometer with integrated calibration sources covering frequencies from 90 to 170 GHz that fits within the overall SWOT mission constraints, and (2) a multi-frequency feed horn covering the same frequency range. Three key component technologies are under development to scale the design of the Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR) on the OSTM/Jason-2 altimetry mission from 18-34 GHz to 90-170 GHz, i.e. a PIN-diode switch for calibration that can be integrated into the receiver front end, a high-Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) noise source and a single, tri-frequency feed horn. These new components are currently in the process of fabrication and testing, after

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-PHASE AND MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW MODEL WITH REACTION IN POROUS MEDIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT ON SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINERAL OIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi

    In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.

  5. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  6. Process for making structure for a MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Pasco, Wayne D.; Arendt, Ronald H.

    1986-01-01

    A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

  7. Evaluating Performance of Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel; Tisdale, Edwin; Norton, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Parallel Component Performance Benchmarks is a computer program developed to aid the evaluation of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) - a software architecture, based on a component model, that was conceived to foster high-performance computing, including parallel computing. More specifically, this program compares the performances (principally by measuring computing times) of componentized versus conventional versions of the Parallel Pyramid 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement library - a software library that is used to generate computational meshes for solving physical problems and that is typical of software libraries in use at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-01-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d after pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages. PMID:19067464

  9. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-12-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d after pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages. PMID:19067464

  10. Development and validation of a high-throughput cell-based screen to identify activators of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Julia J; Fortney, Kate R; Chen, Lan; Krieger, Andrew J; Lima, Bruno P; Wolfe, Alan J; Katz, Barry P; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Spinola, Stanley M

    2015-07-01

    CpxRA is a two-component signal transduction system (2CSTS) found in many drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In response to periplasmic stress, CpxA autophosphorylates and donates a phosphoryl group to its cognate response regulator, CpxR. Phosphorylated CpxR (CpxR-P) upregulates genes involved in membrane repair and downregulates multiple genes that encode virulence factors, which are trafficked across the cell membrane. Mutants that constitutively activate CpxRA in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Haemophilus ducreyi are avirulent in mice and humans, respectively. Thus, the activation of CpxRA has high potential as a novel antimicrobial/antivirulence strategy. Using a series of Escherichia coli strains containing a CpxR-P-responsive lacZ reporter and deletions in genes encoding CpxRA system components, we developed and validated a novel cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) for CpxRA activators. A screen of 36,000 compounds yielded one hit compound that increased reporter activity in wild-type cells. This is the first report of a compound that activates, rather than inhibits, a 2CSTS. The activity profile of the compound against CpxRA pathway mutants in the presence of glucose suggested that the compound inhibits CpxA phosphatase activity. We confirmed that the compound induced the accumulation of CpxR-P in treated cells. Although the hit compound contained a nitro group, a derivative lacking this group retained activity in serum and had lower cytotoxicity than that of the initial hit. This HTS is amenable for the screening of larger libraries to find compounds that activate CpxRA by other mechanisms, and it could be adapted to find activators of other two-component systems.

  11. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin

    1987-01-01

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  13. Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  14. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a

  15. Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell-Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufit, V.; Brandon, N. P.

    The use of commercially available components enables rapid prototyping and assembling of laboratory scale hybrid test-bed systems, which can be used to evaluate new hybrid configurations. The development of such a test-bed using an off-the-shelf PEM fuel cell, lithium-ion battery and DC/DC converter is presented here, and its application to a hybrid configuration appropriate for an unmanned underwater vehicle is explored. A control algorithm was implemented to regulate the power share between the fuel cell and the battery with a graphical interface to control, record and analyze the electrochemical and thermal parameters of the system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the test-bed and control algorithm for this application, and provide data on the dynamic electrical and thermal behaviour of the hybrid system.

  16. Development and use of an observation tool for active gaming and movement (OTAGM) to measure children's movement skill components during active video game play.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rita L; Ridgers, Nicola D; Barnett, Lisa M

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a direct observational tool for assessing children's body movements and movement skills during active video games. The Observation Tool of Active Gaming and Movement (OTGAM) was informed by the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. 18 elementary school children (12 boys, 6 girls; M age = 6.1 yr., SD = 0.9) were observed during Nintendo Wii game play. Using the OTAGM, researchers were able to capture and quantify the children's body movements and movement skills during active play of video games. Furthermore, the OTAGM captured specific components of object control skills: strike, throw, and roll. Game designers, health promotion practitioners, and researchers could use this information to enhance children's physical activity and movement skills.

  17. A component simulator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, M.-E.; Walsh, T.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the current state of our new component simulator architecture. This design is being developed at VEGA GmbH, by the Technology Group, within the Space Business Unit. This paper describes our overall component architecture and attempts to explain how it can be used by model developers and end-users. At the time of writing, it appears clear that a certain level of automation is required to increase the usability of the system. This automation is only briefly discussed here.

  18. Development and evaluation of supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry for polar and high-molecular-weight coal components. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Smith, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report reviews the technical progress made over the first 18 months of the program. Our goals include the design, development, and evaluation of a combined capillary column supercritical fluid chromatograph/high-performance mass spectrometer capable of analyzing high-molecular-weight polar materials and evaluating the system's potential for application in coal conversion process monitoring. The program includes not only the development and evaluation of the required instrumentation, but the development of polar fluids and compatible chromatographic stationary phases needed for efficient separation and analysis of polar and high-molecular-weight compounds. A new chromatograph/mass spectrometer interface and new mass spectrometer ion source have been designed, constructed, and evaluated using low-polarity supercritical fluids such as pentane. Results from the evaluations have been used to modify the instrumentation to improve performance. The design and fabrication of capillary flow restrictors from fused silica tubing has been explored. Research has also been conducted toward advancing the technology of fabricating high-performance chromatographic columns suitable for use with polar supercritical fluids. Results to date support our initial belief that high-resolution supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)/high-performance mass spectrometry (MS) will provide a significantly enhanced analytical capability for broad classes of previously intractable fuel components. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Differential proteomic analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum from developing and germinating seeds of castor (Ricinus communis) identifies seed protein precursors as significant components of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Gadd, Stephen M; Simon, William J; Slabas, Antoni R

    2007-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of storage protein and lipid biosynthesis. Maximal synthesis of these storage compounds occurs during seed development with breakdown occurring during germination. In this study, we have isolated four independent preparations of ER from both developing and germinating seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and used 2-D DIGE, and a combination of PMF and MS/MS sequencing, to quantify and identify differences in protein complement at both stages. Ninety protein spots in the developing seeds are up-regulated and 19 individual proteins were identified, the majority of these are intermediates of seed storage synthesis and protein folding. The detection of these transitory storage proteins in the ER is discussed in terms of protein trafficking and processing. In germinating seed ER 15 spots are elevated, 5 of which were identified, amongst them was malate synthetase which is a component of the glyoxysome which is believed to originate from the ER. Notably no proteins involved in complex lipid biosynthesis were identified in the urea soluble ER fraction indicating that they are probably all integral membrane proteins.

  20. Advanced environmental control as a key component in the development of ultrahigh accuracy ex situ metrology for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Lacey, Ian; McKinney, Wayne R.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-10-01

    The advent of fully coherent free-electron laser and diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation storage ring sources of x-rays is catalyzing the development of new ultrahigh accuracy metrology methods. To fully exploit these sources, metrology needs to be capable of determining the figure of an optical element with subnanometer height accuracy. The major limiting factors of the current absolute accuracy of ex situ metrology are drift errors due to temporal instabilities of the lab's environmental conditions and systematic errors inherent to the metrology instruments. Here, we discuss in detail work at the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory on building of advanced environmental control that is a key component in the development of ultrahigh accuracy ex situ metrology for x-ray optics. By a few examples, we show how the improvement of the environmental conditions in the lab allows us to significantly gain efficiency in performing ex situ metrology with high-quality x-ray mirrors. The developed concepts and approaches, included in the design of the new X-Ray Optics Laboratory, are described in detail. These data are essential for construction and successful operation of a modern metrology facility for x-ray optics, as well as high-precision measurements in many fields of experimental physics.

  1. Bridging the Educational Research-Teaching Practice Gap: Curriculum Development, Part 1--Components of the Curriculum and Influences on the Process of Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Trevor R.; Rogan, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the major components of curriculum design: vision, operationalization of the vision, design, and evaluation. It stresses that the relationship between these components is dynamic, and that the process of curriculum design does not proceed via a linear application of these components. The article then summarizes some of the…

  2. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S

    2003-02-07

    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  3. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  4. High temperature stress and its effect on pollen development and morphological components of harvest index in the C3 model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Harsant, Jeffrey; Pavlovic, Lazar; Chiu, Greta; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Sage, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    The effect of high temperatures on harvest index (HI) and morphological components that contribute to HI was investigated in two lines (Bd21 and Bd21-3) of Brachypodium distachyon, a C3 grass recognized as a tractable plant, to address critical issues associated with enhancing cereal crop yields in the presence of global climate change. The results demonstrated that temperatures ≥32 °C eliminated HI. Reductions in yield at 32 °C were due primarily to declines in pollen viability, retention of pollen in anthers, and pollen germination, while abortion of microspores by the uninucleate stage that was correlated with abnormal tapetal development resulted in yield failure at 36 °C. Increasing temperatures from 24 to 32 °C resulted in reductions in tiller numbers but had no impact on axillary branch numbers per tiller. Grain developed at 24 and 28 °C primarily in tiller spikes, although spikes on axillary branches also formed grain. Grain quantity decreased in tiller spikes but increased in axillary branch spikes as temperatures rose from 24 to 28 °C. Differential patterns of axillary branching and floret development within spikelets between Bd21 and Bd21-3 resulted in higher grain yield in axillary branches of Bd21-3 at 28 °C. The response of male reproductive development and tiller branching patterns in B. distachyon to increasing temperatures mirrors that in other cereal crops, providing support for the use of this C3 grass in assessing the molecular control of HI in the presence of global warming.

  5. High temperature stress and its effect on pollen development and morphological components of harvest index in the C3 model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Harsant, Jeffrey; Pavlovic, Lazar; Chiu, Greta; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Sage, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    The effect of high temperatures on harvest index (HI) and morphological components that contribute to HI was investigated in two lines (Bd21 and Bd21-3) of Brachypodium distachyon, a C3 grass recognized as a tractable plant, to address critical issues associated with enhancing cereal crop yields in the presence of global climate change. The results demonstrated that temperatures ≥32 °C eliminated HI. Reductions in yield at 32 °C were due primarily to declines in pollen viability, retention of pollen in anthers, and pollen germination, while abortion of microspores by the uninucleate stage that was correlated with abnormal tapetal development resulted in yield failure at 36 °C. Increasing temperatures from 24 to 32 °C resulted in reductions in tiller numbers but had no impact on axillary branch numbers per tiller. Grain developed at 24 and 28 °C primarily in tiller spikes, although spikes on axillary branches also formed grain. Grain quantity decreased in tiller spikes but increased in axillary branch spikes as temperatures rose from 24 to 28 °C. Differential patterns of axillary branching and floret development within spikelets between Bd21 and Bd21-3 resulted in higher grain yield in axillary branches of Bd21-3 at 28 °C. The response of male reproductive development and tiller branching patterns in B. distachyon to increasing temperatures mirrors that in other cereal crops, providing support for the use of this C3 grass in assessing the molecular control of HI in the presence of global warming. PMID:23771979

  6. High temperature stress and its effect on pollen development and morphological components of harvest index in the C3 model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Harsant, Jeffrey; Pavlovic, Lazar; Chiu, Greta; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Sage, Tammy L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high temperatures on harvest index (HI) and morphological components that contribute to HI was investigated in two lines (Bd21 and Bd21-3) of Brachypodium distachyon, a C3 grass recognized as a tractable plant, to address critical issues associated with enhancing cereal crop yields in the presence of global climate change. The results demonstrated that temperatures ≥32 °C eliminated HI. Reductions in yield at 32 °C were due primarily to declines in pollen viability, retention of pollen in anthers, and pollen germination, while abortion of microspores by the uninucleate stage that was correlated with abnormal tapetal development resulted in yield failure at 36 °C. Increasing temperatures from 24 to 32 °C resulted in reductions in tiller numbers but had no impact on axillary branch numbers per tiller. Grain developed at 24 and 28 °C primarily in tiller spikes, although spikes on axillary branches also formed grain. Grain quantity decreased in tiller spikes but increased in axillary branch spikes as temperatures rose from 24 to 28 °C. Differential patterns of axillary branching and floret development within spikelets between Bd21 and Bd21-3 resulted in higher grain yield in axillary branches of Bd21-3 at 28 °C. The response of male reproductive development and tiller branching patterns in B. distachyon to increasing temperatures mirrors that in other cereal crops, providing support for the use of this C3 grass in assessing the molecular control of HI in the presence of global warming. PMID:23771979

  7. Influence of soil components on adsorption-desorption of hazardous organics-development of low cost technology for reclamation of hazardous waste dumpsites.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zareen; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-02-14

    The waste disposal practices on land frequently lead to the deposition of hazardous waste at geologically/hydrogeologically unsuitable locations, resulting in surface and groundwater contamination. The movement of chemicals through soil is not only dependent on the physical, chemical and biological properties of the waste but also on the characteristics of the soil of the disposal site. In this paper the authors report their results on the influence of soil components on adsorption-desorption of certain industrially widely used hazardous organics like phenol, p-nitrophenol, 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol on typical soils of Patancheru industrial area (Hyderabad, AP, India). The data on nature of organics, soil organic matters, clay, free iron and aluminum oxides of soils are known to influence the adsorption-desorption process are presented. There was reduction up to 67.5% (organic matter removed), 53.8% (clay removed) and 24.2% (iron and aluminum oxides removed) in the adsorption capacity of the soils when compared to untreated soils indicating the role played by these soil components in adsorption process. Desorption isotherms of soil adsorbed hazardous organics exhibited hysteresis at higher initial concentration indicating the degree of irreversibility of adsorption-desorption process. Mixed microbial cultures were developed which can degrade the hazardous organics to complete mineralisation by utilizing them as sole source of carbon and their corresponding biokinetic constants were evaluated. Preparation of dumpsites with suitable soil surface having high holding capacity for organics and their in situ biodegradation by mixing with specific microbial cultures can be exploited as a cost effective technology for reclamation of hazardous waste dumpsites.

  8. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Tingting; Cai, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.999). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application. PMID:27313950

  9. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Zhu, Tingting; Cai, Baochang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (r ≥ 0.999). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application. PMID:27313950

  10. The Myxococcus xanthus two-component system CorSR regulates expression of a gene cluster involved in maintaining copper tolerance during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sutil, María Celestina; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Shimkets, Lawrence J; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2013-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a soil-dwelling member of the δ-Proteobacteria that exhibits a complex developmental cycle upon starvation. Development comprises aggregation and differentiation into environmentally resistant myxospores in an environment that includes fluctuations in metal ion concentrations. While copper is essential for M. xanthus cells because several housekeeping enzymes use it as a cofactor, high copper concentrations are toxic. These opposing effects force cells to maintain a tight copper homeostasis. A plethora of paralogous genes involved in copper detoxification, all of which are differentially regulated, have been reported in M. xanthus. The use of in-frame deletion mutants and fusions with the reporter gene lacZ has allowed the identification of a two-component system, CorSR, that modulates the expression of an operon termed curA consisting of nine genes whose expression slowly increases after metal addition, reaching a plateau. Transcriptional regulation of this operon is complex because transcription can be initiated at different promoters and by different types of regulators. These genes confer copper tolerance during growth and development. Copper induces carotenoid production in a ΔcorSR mutant at lower concentrations than with the wild-type strain due to lack of expression of a gene product resembling subunit III of cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This data may explain why copper induces carotenoid biosynthesis at suboptimal rather than optimal growth conditions in wild-type strains.

  11. Conservation of Male Sterility 2 function during spore and pollen wall development supports an evolutionarily early recruitment of a core component in the sporopollenin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Chater, Caspar C; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Cuming, Andrew C; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J; Fleming, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The early evolution of plants required the acquisition of a number of key adaptations to overcome physiological difficulties associated with survival on land. One of these was a tough sporopollenin wall that enclosed reproductive propagules and provided protection from desiccation and UV-B radiation. All land plants possess such walled spores (or their derived homologue, pollen). We took a reverse genetics approach, consisting of knock-out and complementation experiments to test the functional conservation of the sporopollenin-associated gene MALE STERILTY 2 (which is essential for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana) in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Knock-outs of a putative moss homologue of the A. thaliana MS2 gene, which is highly expressed in the moss sporophyte, led to spores with highly defective walls comparable to that observed in the A. thaliana ms2 mutant, and extremely compromised germination. Conversely, the moss MS2 gene could not rescue the A. thaliana ms2 phenotype. The results presented here suggest that a core component of the biochemical and developmental pathway required for angiosperm pollen wall development was recruited early in land plant evolution but the continued increase in pollen wall complexity observed in angiosperms has been accompanied by divergence in MS2 gene function.

  12. SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN1 acts with RUB modification components, the COP9 signalosome, and AXR1 to regulate growth and development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Akari; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Rahman, Abidur; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Narumi, Issay; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Oono, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Previously, a dysfunction of the SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN1 (SMAP1) gene was identified as the cause of the anti-auxin resistant1 (aar1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). SMAP1 is involved in the response pathway of synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and functions upstream of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid protein degradation step in auxin signaling. However, the exact mechanism by which SMAP1 functions in auxin signaling remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SMAP1 is required for normal plant growth and development and the root response to indole-3-acetic acid or methyl jasmonate in the auxin resistant1 (axr1) mutation background. Deletion analysis and green fluorescent protein/glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed that SMAP1 physically interacts with the CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC9 SIGNALOSOME (CSN) via the SMAP1 F/D region. The extremely dwarf phenotype of the aar1-1 csn5a-1 double mutant confirms the functional role of SMAP1 in plant growth and development under limiting CSN functionality. Our findings suggest that SMAP1 is involved in the auxin response and possibly in other cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase-regulated signaling processes via its interaction with components associated with RELATED TO UBIQUITIN modification.

  13. Component fragility research program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. When a Whole Practice Model Is the Intervention: Developing Fidelity Evaluation Components Using Program Theory-Driven Science for an Integrative Medicine Primary Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Sally E.; Herman, Patricia M.; Sechrest, Lee; Abraham, Ivo; Logue, Melanie D.; Grizzle, Amy L.; Rehfeld, Rick A.; Urbine, Terry J.; Crocker, Robert L.; Maizes, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) is a clinical paradigm of whole person healthcare that combines appropriate conventional and complementary medicine (CM) treatments. Studies of integrative healthcare systems and theory-driven evaluations of IM practice models need to be undertaken. Two health services research methods can strengthen the validity of IM healthcare studies, practice theory, and fidelity evaluation. The University of Arizona Integrative Health Center (UAIHC) is a membership-supported integrative primary care clinic in Phoenix, AZ. A comparative effectiveness evaluation is being conducted to assess its clinical and cost outcomes. A process evaluation of the clinic's practice theory components assesses model fidelity for four purposes: (1) as a measure of intervention integrity to determine whether the practice model was delivered as intended; (2) to describe an integrative primary care clinic model as it is being developed and refined; (3) as potential covariates in the outcomes analyses, to assist in interpretation of findings, and for external validity and replication; and (4) to provide feedback for needed corrections and improvements of clinic operations over time. This paper provides a rationale for the use of practice theory and fidelity evaluation in studies of integrative practices and describes the approach and protocol used in fidelity evaluation of the UAIHC. PMID:24371464

  15. The development of an in vitro test method for predicting the abrasion resistance of textile and metal components of endovascular stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Choules, Brian D; Rust, Jon P; King, Martin W

    2014-04-01

    Implantable endovascular stent grafts have become a frequent option for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aneurysms. Given that such devices are permanent implants, the question of long-term biostability needs to be addressed. This article describes the development of an in vitro stent graft abrasion test method between the graft fabric and metal stent of an endovascular device. Three endpoints were established to determine the abrasion resistance between the fabric and stent surfaces after a predetermined number of abrasion cycles. During initial testing, two types of graft fabric materials, multifilament woven polyester fabric and monofilament woven polyester fabric, and two types of stent materials, laser cut nitinol stents and regular nitinol stent wire, were evaluated under dry and wet conditions. The results have shown that this test method is viable for testing the relative abrasion resistance of the components of endovascular stent grafts. The abrasion resistance of both fabrics was lower in a wet environment compared to being tested dry. Additionally, the multifilament polyester fabric had better abrasion resistance than the monofilament polyester fabric. The laser cut nitinol stent was more aggressive in creating holes and breaking yarns, while the regular nitinol stent wire caused a greater loss in fabric strength.

  16. Development of a custom-designed echo particle image velocimetry system for multi-component hemodynamic measurements: system characterization and initial experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingli; Zheng, Hairong; Williams, Logan; Zhang, Fuxing; Wang, Rui; Hertzberg, Jean; Shandas, Robin

    2008-03-01

    We have recently developed an ultrasound-based velocimetry technique, termed echo particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV), to measure multi-component velocity vectors and local shear rates in arteries and opaque fluid flows by identifying and tracking flow tracers (ultrasound contrast microbubbles) within these flow fields. The original system was implemented on images obtained from a commercial echocardiography scanner. Although promising, this system was limited in spatial resolution and measurable velocity range. In this work, we propose standard rules for characterizing Echo PIV performance and report on a custom-designed Echo PIV system with increased spatial resolution and measurable velocity range. Then we employed this system for initial measurements on tube flows, rotating flows and in vitro carotid artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models to acquire the local velocity and shear rate distributions in these flow fields. The experimental results verified the accuracy of this technique and indicated the promise of the custom Echo PIV system in capturing complex flow fields non-invasively.

  17. The development of an in vitro test method for predicting the abrasion resistance of textile and metal components of endovascular stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Choules, Brian D; Rust, Jon P; King, Martin W

    2014-04-01

    Implantable endovascular stent grafts have become a frequent option for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aneurysms. Given that such devices are permanent implants, the question of long-term biostability needs to be addressed. This article describes the development of an in vitro stent graft abrasion test method between the graft fabric and metal stent of an endovascular device. Three endpoints were established to determine the abrasion resistance between the fabric and stent surfaces after a predetermined number of abrasion cycles. During initial testing, two types of graft fabric materials, multifilament woven polyester fabric and monofilament woven polyester fabric, and two types of stent materials, laser cut nitinol stents and regular nitinol stent wire, were evaluated under dry and wet conditions. The results have shown that this test method is viable for testing the relative abrasion resistance of the components of endovascular stent grafts. The abrasion resistance of both fabrics was lower in a wet environment compared to being tested dry. Additionally, the multifilament polyester fabric had better abrasion resistance than the monofilament polyester fabric. The laser cut nitinol stent was more aggressive in creating holes and breaking yarns, while the regular nitinol stent wire caused a greater loss in fabric strength. PMID:24115449

  18. Wide-bandgap modification of polycrystalline ZnO using Sn component on the basis of developing quantum-well hetero-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Tacettin; Gür, Emre; Tüzemen, S.; Bilgin, V.; Köse, S.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, I.

    2005-03-01

    We have grown semiconducting thin films-ZnO, SnO 2 and their ternary compounds-using the Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. It was shown that the zinc-tin-oxide ternaries are most probably formed as Zn 2(1-x)Sn xO 2. A remarkable increase in the bandgap energy is observed as the atomic fraction of Sn component, x, is increased. The bandgap-versus- x plot for the thin films is fitted to a quadratic formula with a bowing parameter of 0.76 eV. It was seen that the direct bandgap energy of the ternary films can be increased from 3.28 up to 3.45 eV at room temperature while x changes from 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Such a change in bandgap energy is important for the establishment of the double-hetero- and superlattice structures and hence for the development of the quantum-well lasers. Moreover, the supposedly built barrier height between ZnO and Zn 2(1-x)Sn xO 2 would be 85 meV, which is significantly higher than the room temperature thermal energy of 25 meV, so that this well will be quite adequate for electronic confinement even at higher device temperatures.

  19. Three-component competitive adsorption model for fixed-bed and moving-bed granular activated carbon adsorbers. Part I. Model development.

    PubMed

    Schideman, Lance C; Mariñas, Benito J; Snoeyink, Vernon L; Campos, Carlos

    2006-11-01

    Heterogeneous natural organic matter (NOM) present in all natural waters impedes trace organic contaminant adsorption, and predictive modeling of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber performance is often compromised by inadequate accounting forthese competitive effects. Thus, a 3-component adsorption model, COMPSORB-GAC, is developed that separately tracks NOM adsorption and its competitive effects as a function of NOM surface loading. In this model, NOM is simplified into two fictive fractions with distinct competitive effects on trace compound adsorption: a smaller, strongly competing fraction that reduces equilibrium capacity and a larger pore-blocking fraction that reduces adsorption kinetics (both external film mass transfer and surface diffusion). COMPSORB-GAC tracks these two NOM fractions, along with the trace compound, and changes adsorption parameters according to the local surface loading of the two NOM fractions. Model parameters are allowed to vary both temporally and spatially to reflect differences in the NOM preloading conditions that occur in GAC columns. This dual-resistance model is based on homogeneous surface diffusion with external film mass-transfer limitations. The governing equations are expressed in a moving-grid finite-difference formulation to accommodate the modeling of spatially varying parameters and moving-bed reactors with counter-current adsorbent flow. A series of short-term adsorption tests with fresh and preloaded GAC is proposed to determine the necessary model input parameters. The accompanying manuscript demonstrates the parameterization procedure and verifies the model with experimental data. PMID:17144314

  20. Development of a custom-designed echo particle image velocimetry system for multi-component hemodynamic measurements: system characterization and initial experimental results.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingli; Zheng, Hairong; Williams, Logan; Zhang, Fuxing; Wang, Rui; Hertzberg, Jean; Shandas, Robin

    2008-03-01

    We have recently developed an ultrasound-based velocimetry technique, termed echo particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV), to measure multi-component velocity vectors and local shear rates in arteries and opaque fluid flows by identifying and tracking flow tracers (ultrasound contrast microbubbles) within these flow fields. The original system was implemented on images obtained from a commercial echocardiography scanner. Although promising, this system was limited in spatial resolution and measurable velocity range. In this work, we propose standard rules for characterizing Echo PIV performance and report on a custom-designed Echo PIV system with increased spatial resolution and measurable velocity range. Then we employed this system for initial measurements on tube flows, rotating flows and in vitro carotid artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) models to acquire the local velocity and shear rate distributions in these flow fields. The experimental results verified the accuracy of this technique and indicated the promise of the custom Echo PIV system in capturing complex flow fields non-invasively.