Science.gov

Sample records for md 1806-1880 forensic

  1. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  2. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Career Profiles Forensics Investigator Overview Description Forensic science technicians investigate crimes by collecting and analyzing physical evidence. Often, they specialize in areas such as ...

  3. Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.

    PubMed

    Bouhaidar, R

    2005-02-01

    With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing.

  4. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  5. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  6. FORENSIC SCIENCE:

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  7. FORENSIC SCIENCE:

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  8. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  9. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  10. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered.

  11. Forensic microbiology.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases.

  12. [Forensic entomology].

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  13. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  14. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  15. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    PubMed

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  16. Arnold Aberman, MD.

    PubMed

    Aberman, A

    1995-10-01

    When the United States embarked on its effort to provide universal health insurance, the Canadian Medicare System was cited as a possible model for American health care. Often touted as an example of low-cost, high quality medicine, the Canadian system has mirrored the problems of health care across its southern border. With rocketing health care expenditures and financing having largely been decentralized to the individual provinces, local officials have struggled to cut costs and services. A central focus of these efforts has been a move to decrease the numbers of physicians, most notably a 10% decrease in medical school class size in 1993. While some Western provinces have experimented with the privatization of health care, the Canadian system still remains the epitome of government operated fee-for-service medicine. Given the likelihood of dramatic change in the American Medicare system, Canadian academic centers offer a unique perspective on the impact of capitation, evolving relationships with government payors, and the flip side of market oriented reforms. At the helm of one of Canada's largest schools is Arnold Aberman, MD, dean of the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. Born in Montreal, Quebec, Aberman received his MD from McGill University, but then did his residency both in Canada and the US, followed by a pulmonary fellowship at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Cardiovascular Research Institute of the University of California, San Francisco. Interviewed at his office in Toronto, Aberman reflected on the trials and tribulations confronting medicine on both sides of the 48th parallel.

  17. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  18. John M. Eisenberg, MD.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, J M

    1995-08-01

    The complicated interaction between government, academic medical centers, health care payers, and burgeoning market forces has tested the leadership skills of a generation of academicians with little formal training in economics. The emergence of a new breed of physician investigator with solid business credentials has therefore proved attractive to many segments of the medical community. John M. Eisenberg received his MD from Washington University in 1972, his MBA from the Wharton School in 1976, and shortly thereafter headed the division of general internal medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. In addition to championing the role of the generalist in health care delivery, Eisenberg has also played a major part in the reformation of Medicare reimbursement. He has been a commissioner on the Congressional Physician Payment Review Commission since 1986, serving as chairman since 1993. After assuming the chairmanship of the department of medicine at Georgetown University in 1992, Eisenberg served as an advisor to the Clinton administration during its efforts towards national health care reform. Interviewed in his office in Georgetown, Eisenberg reflected on the economic forces twisting post-graduate medical education, the role of non-physician providers in future health care delivery, and the evolving relationship between specialists and generalists. PMID:7552581

  19. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  20. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2005-11-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory.

  1. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. PMID:25498939

  2. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  3. 78 FR 14547 - Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D., Rafael..., M.D., Daniel P rez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D., Rafael Garc a Nieves, M.D., Francis... and Dr. Daniel Perez, met with Humana representatives to discuss the 20 percent COB. During...

  4. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  5. Forensic medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Pounder, D J

    1998-12-01

    Although China has a long history of forensic medicine, with the first standard text published in 1247, modern practices appeared only in the 1930s under Professor Lin Ji. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, there was a period of rapid development, which was later interrupted by the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976. Today, China has about 10,000 experts in forensic medicine organized within the separate agencies of police, prosecutor's offices, courts, universities, and the Justice Ministry. Eight medical colleges, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice in Shanghai which publishes the Journal of Forensic Medicine, and the Forensic Medicine Association of China which publishes the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine are key organizations. PMID:9885933

  6. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  7. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan.

  8. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  9. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted.

  10. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  11. Ethics and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Robert M

    2002-09-01

    This article has attempted to outline some of the important ethical issues faced by the psychiatrist in the forensic role. Much of forensic psychiatry is practiced by general psychiatrists without specific forensic training who must thereby familiarize themselves with the problem areas likely to be encountered in this work. They should also be knowledgeable about the ethics guidelines prepared by forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry organizations that are subject to frequent modification. Ethical problems often occur when psychiatrists exceed their expertise, their role as contracted, or the actual facts in the case. Psychiatric experts usually represent just a small part of most litigation, and an attitude of humility rather than grandiosity is appropriate. Expert witnesses serve as educators rather than decision makers in the case [21]. Given the complexity and uncertainty of medical decision making generally, whether in clinical or forensic medicine, forensic psychiatric opinions should be appropriately qualified by their limitations, acknowledged affirmatively rather than only on cross-examination. Expert witnesses commonly take an oath to "tell the truth, the whole truth." Forensic psychiatrists are not experts in moral matters and should not be rendering moral judgments or misusing their authority as psychiatrists to advance their own political or social ideology [19]. Testimony should be based on data and theory generally accepted in the profession, recognizing that there will always be minority views. Psychiatrists, however, should not be testifying based upon idiosyncratic views unsupported by at least a respectable minority of the profession. As in clinical psychiatry, complex or challenging forensic cases often require consultation from a knowledgeable colleague.

  12. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  13. Expansion of Microbial Forensics.

    PubMed

    Schmedes, Sarah E; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Microbial forensics has been defined as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of evidence related to bioterrorism, biocrimes, hoaxes, or the accidental release of a biological agent or toxin for attribution purposes. Over the past 15 years, technology, particularly massively parallel sequencing, and bioinformatics advances now allow the characterization of microorganisms for a variety of human forensic applications, such as human identification, body fluid characterization, postmortem interval estimation, and biocrimes involving tracking of infectious agents. Thus, microbial forensics should be more broadly described as the discipline of applying scientific methods to the analysis of microbial evidence in criminal and civil cases for investigative purposes.

  14. Measurement of the Md3+/Md2+ reduction potential studied with flow electrolytic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Atsushi; Li, Zijie; Asai, Masato; Sato, Nozomi; Sato, Tetsuya K; Kikuchi, Takahiro; Kaneya, Yusuke; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Nagame, Yuichiro; Schädel, Matthias; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Shinohara, Atsushi; Haba, Hiromitsu; Even, Julia

    2013-11-01

    The reduction behavior of mendelevium (Md) was studied using a flow electrolytic chromatography apparatus. By application of the appropriate potentials on the chromatography column, the more stable Md(3+) is reduced to Md(2+). The reduction potential of the Md(3+) + e(-) → Md(2+) couple was determined to be -0.16 ± 0.05 V versus a normal hydrogen electrode. PMID:24116851

  15. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W

    1989-01-01

    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2669413

  16. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W

    1989-01-01

    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  18. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  19. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  20. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago.

  1. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  2. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  3. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society of Forensic Odontology Research Grants Academy Standards Board (ASB) Account ... The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multi-disciplinary professional organization that provides leadership to advance ...

  4. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted.

  5. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  6. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  7. Forensic DNA and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Lucia; Liò, Pietro

    2007-03-01

    The field of forensic science is increasingly based on biomolecular data and many European countries are establishing forensic databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes of known offenders and apply DNA testing. The field is boosted by statistical and technological advances such as DNA microarray sequencing, TFT biosensors, machine learning algorithms, in particular Bayesian networks, which provide an effective way of evidence organization and inference. The aim of this article is to discuss the state of art potentialities of bioinformatics in forensic DNA science. We also discuss how bioinformatics will address issues related to privacy rights such as those raised from large scale integration of crime, public health and population genetic susceptibility-to-diseases databases.

  8. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  9. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  10. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  11. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  12. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  13. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  14. Forensic DNA typing in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y P

    2009-04-01

    In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China also contributed to the progress of DNA analysis by the validation of numerous test methods and by optimization of these methods. During these years, forensic DNA analysis in China has experienced tremendous progress towards development of robust, efficient and precise protocols, including the development of short tandem repeat analysis, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analysis. Forensic scientists are constantly looking for new methods to further improve DNA typing. Therefore, this paper also focuses on emerging new technologies in China, which represent an interest for forensic genetics.

  15. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  16. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  17. Obituary of Philip H. Cooper, MD.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James W; Wick, Mark R; Mills, Stacey E

    2015-08-01

    Dermatopathology lost a giant in the field with the death of Philip H. Cooper, MD, on Friday, January 30, 2015. The following obituary represents a celebration of his life and his contributions to our field.

  18. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  19. VIEW IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION AS MD1351 AND MD1352. RAW MATERIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION AS MD-135-1 AND MD-135-2. RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT LEFT DEPOSITS SHELL INTO MILLING MACHINE AT LOWER LEFT. ENGINE IS AT LOWER RIGHT AND RADIATOR AT LOWER CENTER. ROLLER SORTER IS AT TOP OF CONVEYOR. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  20. Forensic psychiatry in private practice.

    PubMed

    Modlin, H C; Felthous, A

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents statistical and explanatory analyses of 637 forensic psychiatry cases in a private practice setting during the past 12 years, highlighting the remarkable variety of clinical and legal issues addressed by forensic psychiatrists. Emphasis is on how and why forensic psychiatrists need to be expert diagnosticians and clinicians, and ways in which they may respond to difficult clinical and legal opinions are recommended.

  1. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  2. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  3. [Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Prunnlechner, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry.

  4. Investigating forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Barton, S

    1995-01-01

    Forensic nurses are making a positive impact in our society today. They are reaching out to aid victims of violence by not only attending to their injuries and emotional distress, but also by identifying, collecting, and preserving vital evidence that will be needed to assist their patients to seek justice through the legal system. Misinterpretation or failure to properly obtain evidence may result in a miscarriage of justice. Helping victims obtain validation of their injustice is crucial to their healing process and may be of critical importance in the effort to avoid further victimization. Forensic nurses work with victims of child abuse, elder abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and persons involved with violence or imminent death. This area includes psychiatric specialists who intervene not only with victims but also with perpetrators of violent and/or sexual acts.

  5. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  6. Microbes as forensic indicators.

    PubMed

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P

    2012-09-01

    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  7. Forensic web watch 4.

    PubMed

    Lumb, P; Rutty, G N

    2000-06-01

    Finding dedicated sites on the World Wide Web (WWW) touching upon issues related to the autopsy which could be of use to forensic practitioners is, as with other areas of forensic medicine and science, a time-consuming task. Unfortunately, one has to wade through lists related to 'Alien autopsy' sites and even 'Furby autopsy' sites that are generated by the most commonly used web search engines, which have been featured in earlier web reviews. Numerous sites containing large archives of autopsy photographs are available on the web. However, many of these sites represent the darker side of the WWW as they are often presented purely for titillation. Unfortunately, one can equate these sites to the modern-day version of the Victorian 'freak show'--Typically, these sites ask for your Visa card number to view their contents, and several have links to pornography sites; one even links to a Satanist site. Luckily a few of these sites do now require age confirmation codes. As many of these sites show autopsy photographs from real cases one has to ask how these were obtained and who is placing them on the WWW. This review does not list any of these sites for obvious reasons, but it does draw the reader's attention to sites touching upon issues related to autopsies which forensic practitioners may wish to visit or use. PMID:15274989

  8. Parricide: a forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide.

  9. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  10. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  11. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

  12. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  13. New Message Differences for Collision Attacks on MD4 and MD5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Kunihiro, Noboru; Ohta, Kazuo

    In 2005, collision resistance of several hash functions was broken by Wang et al. The strategy of determining message differences is the most important part of collision attacks against hash functions. So far, many researchers have tried to analyze Wang et al.'s method and proposed improved collision attacks. Although several researches proposed improved attacks, all improved results so far were based on the same message differences proposed by Wang et al. In this paper, we propose new message differences for collision attacks on MD4 and MD5. Our message differences of MD4 can generate a collision with complexity of less than two MD4 computations, which is faster than the original Wang et al.'s attack, and moreover, than the all previous attacks. This is the first result that improves the complexity of collision attack by using different message differences from Wang et al.'s. Regarding MD5, so far, no other message difference from Wang et al.'s is known. Therefore, study for constructing method of other message differences on MD5 should be interesting. Our message differences of MD5 generates a collision with complexity of 242 MD5 computations, which is slower than the latest best attack. However, since our attack needs only 1 bit difference, it has some advantages in terms of message freedom of collision messages.

  14. Student Leadership in Forensic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Stephen D.

    Competitive forensic teams should turn to their students for leadership. Such an approach gives students valuable experience in handling responsibility, while relieving school administrators of some of the tasks involved in debate competition. Since forensic students are intelligent and highly ambitious, they should be leaders of debate programs,…

  15. Raising future forensic pathologists (first report): results of a preliminary questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2012-08-01

    The shortage of future forensic pathologists is a serious problem both in Japan and overseas. In Japan, however, factors such as government budget cuts and increasing the autopsy rates, make the condition even worse. In an attempt to improve this situation, we implemented a questionnaire survey to investigate the particular features necessary when selecting a career in forensic medicine. As a preliminary study, we sent the questionnaire along with an anonymous answer sheet to all forensic pathologists with a degree in medicine M.D., who were affiliated with universities in Hokkaido and the Tohoku district of Japan as of August 2011. Thirteen physicians in nine universities (response rate 77.8%) returned the answer sheet. Characteristics of participants are listed below: years of experience, board specialty and number of years as board certified specialists, percentage of work effort spent on autopsy practice, the time when they decided to work as a forensic pathologist, the time when to best recommend forensic pathologist as a career, and crucial factors in choosing the specialty of forensic medicine. As a result of this research, we've revealed the importance of undergraduate medical education or the effect on the role models. Furthermore, we've also extracted miscellaneous comments, such as standardization of minimum requirements. In our study, we' ve found some clues to increase future candidates in the field forensic medicine. However, we must collect further samples for our questionnaire survey to validate the study, and, as a future project, we must also address this problem at the congress of forensic medicine. PMID:23016267

  16. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world. PMID:16909643

  17. New Guidelines for Forensic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Megan; Hamalian, Gareen; Wortzel, Hal S

    2016-03-01

    The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) recently published guidelines for forensic assessment intended for psychiatrists and other clinicians working in medicolegal roles, or performing evaluations and offering opinions in relation to legal or regulatory matters. Although these guidelines do not establish a singular standard for forensic evaluation, they are intended to inform practice. Although nuances pertaining to any given case and the pertinent medicolegal issues involved will require professional judgment as to how best to conduct any particular evaluation, the guidelines do offer many helpful tenets and guiding principles that are broadly applicable. Psychiatrists and other clinicians performing forensic evaluations need to be aware of these guidelines and should strive to incorporate them as appropriate. In this column we offer a brief synopsis of the approach to the forensic psychiatric assessment based upon the AAPL Practice Guideline for the Forensic Assessment. PMID:27138081

  18. [Ethical problems in forensic-psychiatric assessment].

    PubMed

    Barbey, I

    1988-09-01

    Forensic psychiatry as a subspecialty variously differs from general psychiatry. Therefore psychiatrists working in forensic psychiatry are confronted with ethical problems of other kind. In the following several ethical problems connecting with forensic psychiatric examination are pointed out. Finally the question is discussed, whether there is a need of special ethical guidelines for forensic psychiatry.

  19. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  20. Forensic analysis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael R; Kaley, Elizabeth A; Finney, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of four different biodiesel blends, as well as homemade biodiesel prepared from vegetable oil, has been performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identification of methyl esters within the biodiesel along with any background components is made possible by recognizing their mass spectral fragmentation patterns. These fuels were subjected to typical fire scene environments, specifically weathering and microbial degradation, to investigate how these environments affect the analysis. A matrix study was also performed on wood, carpet, and clothing in order to identify any interferences from these substrates. The data obtained herein will provide the forensic science community with the data needed to help recognize these increasingly common ignitable liquids.

  1. Forensic psychiatric examinations: competency.

    PubMed

    Koson, D F

    1982-01-01

    The many definitions of competency in civil, criminal, and domestic relations law are discussed with emphasis on the various legal criteria for competency and the different classes of psychiatric information required to apply the criteria to a given case. Within the context of a general discussion of forensic examinations, techniques for gathering the right kind of information are systematically related to the exigencies of evaluating past, present, or future mental states by selectively altering the focus of mental status evaluations and history-taking. In addition, special investigative techniques such as hypnosis, Amytal sodium interview, stress interview, psychological testing, and others are discussed.

  2. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  3. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  4. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS.

  5. Scope of practice issues in forensic nursing.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Wells, D

    2001-01-01

    1. There is significant role variation, across the Western world, in relation to how forensic nurses practice. 2. The authors conducted a pilot survey of forensic nurses in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom to examine forensic nursing practice, role definition, and role boundaries. 3. Issues arising from the data include the visibility of forensic nurses, the client group, forensic-specific education, and role development. PMID:11197994

  6. 78 FR 2707 - Maryland Disaster # MD-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Deadline Date: 10/02/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  7. Howard Parnes, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Howard Parnes received a BA from Cornell University in 1977 and an MD from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in 1981. He trained in internal medicine at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 1981 to 1984 followed by a medical oncology fellowship at the University of Maryland Cancer Center (UMCC) from 1984 to 1987. |

  8. 76 FR 64421 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  9. 75 FR 79063 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maryland dated 12/09... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  10. 75 FR 27010 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00012 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. 76 FR 77579 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00017 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Maryland, dated 12/07... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  12. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  13. 77 FR 76586 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Maryland (FEMA... Economic Injury Loans): Somerset. ] Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Maryland:...

  14. 75 FR 9005 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... the State of Maryland (FEMA- 1875-DR), dated 02/19/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and...

  15. 76 FR 59478 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00016

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Maryland (FEMA- 4034-DR), dated 09/16/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident Period:...

  16. 77 FR 48197 - Maryland Disaster #MD-00021

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster MD-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Maryland (FEMA- 4075-DR), dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Severe storms and straight-line...

  17. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  18. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  19. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  20. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  1. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  2. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  3. Who's afraid of forensic psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1990-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has come under mounting criticism from the press and other medical professionals, largely for its participation in the insanity defense. The author argues that the expertise available from the specialty is of increasing importance to psychiatry as a whole, as more and more legal issues become relevant to the practice of general psychiatry, and should be actively encouraged and legitimized rather than ostracized. All psychiatrists should be exposed to forensic principles and practices during their training, and the ability of forensic psychiatrists to serve as transducers between the clinical and the legal/judicial should be increasingly used to present the clinical viewpoint effectively in courts and legislatures.

  4. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  5. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  6. Neuroimaging, culture, and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    The spread of neuroimaging technologies around the world has led to diverse practices of forensic psychiatry and the emergence of neuroethics and neurolaw. This article surveys the neuroethics and neurolegal literature on the use of forensic neuroimaging within the courtroom. Next, the related literature within medical anthropology and science and technology studies is reviewed to show how debates about forensic neuroimaging reflect cultural tensions about attitudes regarding the self, mental illness, and medical expertise. Finally, recommendations are offered on how forensic psychiatrists can add to this research, given their professional interface between law and medicine. At stake are the fundamental concerns that surround changing conceptions of the self, sickness, and expectations of medicine. PMID:19535562

  7. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  8. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles.

  9. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  10. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methods Young Forensic Scientists Forum Newsletter – October 2016 Zika Virus Information for Travelers to the U.S. (Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) Quick Links Pay Your Dues About ...

  11. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  12. Direct NOE simulation from long MD trajectories.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, G; Glushka, J N; Foley, B L; Woods, R J; Prestegard, J H

    2016-04-01

    A software package, MD2NOE, is presented which calculates Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) build-up curves directly from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. It differs from traditional approaches in that it calculates correlation functions directly from the trajectory instead of extracting inverse sixth power distance terms as an intermediate step in calculating NOEs. This is particularly important for molecules that sample conformational states on a timescale similar to molecular reorientation. The package is tested on sucrose and results are shown to differ in small but significant ways from those calculated using an inverse sixth power assumption. Results are also compared to experiment and found to be in reasonable agreement despite an expected underestimation of water viscosity by the water model selected. PMID:26826977

  13. Direct NOE simulation from long MD trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, G.; Glushka, J. N.; Foley, B. L.; Woods, R. J.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    A software package, MD2NOE, is presented which calculates Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) build-up curves directly from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. It differs from traditional approaches in that it calculates correlation functions directly from the trajectory instead of extracting inverse sixth power distance terms as an intermediate step in calculating NOEs. This is particularly important for molecules that sample conformational states on a timescale similar to molecular reorientation. The package is tested on sucrose and results are shown to differ in small but significant ways from those calculated using an inverse sixth power assumption. Results are also compared to experiment and found to be in reasonable agreement despite an expected underestimation of water viscosity by the water model selected.

  14. Gunpowder River Bridge. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gunpowder River Bridge. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 78.86. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Edgewood Interlocking Tower. Edgewood, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edgewood Interlocking Tower. Edgewood, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 75.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pennsylvania Railroad: Pennsylvania Station. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & O Railroad: Bayview Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Susquehanna River Bridge. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Susquehanna River Bridge. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 60.07. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Edison Highway Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 92.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Gunpowder River Bridge drawspan. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gunpowder River Bridge drawspan. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 78.86. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Wilkins Avenue Bridge. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wilkins Avenue Bridge. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 100.59. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. Bush River Bridge drawspan. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bush River Bridge drawspan. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 72.14. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Bush River Bridge. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bush River Bridge. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 72.14. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. Juniata Street Culvert. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Juniata Street Culvert. Havre de Grace, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 60.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. LANDOVER SUBSTATION. LANDOVER, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD Sec, 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LANDOVER SUBSTATION. LANDOVER, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD Sec, 1201, MP 129.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. BIG PATUXENT RIVER BRIDGE. ARUNDEL, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIG PATUXENT RIVER BRIDGE. ARUNDEL, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 115.61. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. SEVERN RUN CULVERT. MAYFIELD, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SEVERN RUN CULVERT. MAYFIELD, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD Sec. 1201, MP 112.17. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gwynns Falls Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 99.20. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Tunnel west portal. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 97.43. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHESTNUT AVENUE BRIDGE. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD. Sec. 1201,, MP 120.48. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boothby Hill Road Bridge. Aberdeen, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 66.88. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Loudon Park Substation. Violetville, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 100.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Union Junction Interlocking Tower. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.49. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 96.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. BOWIE SUBSTATION. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOWIE SUBSTATION. BOWIE, PRINCE GEORGES CO., MD Sec. 1201, MP 129.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  17. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  18. Graphs for Isotopes of 101-Md (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 101-Md (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101).

  19. Toxic wastes discovered in Cecil County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report focuses on the clean-up activities following toxic waste contamination in Cecil County, MD. The potentially hazardous leakage from waste containers buried in a quarry was addressed before it was turned into a civil emergency of the magnitude of Love Canal. US Superfund is a federal government trust fund largely comprised of taxes on the chemical and petrochemical industries. Local governments share in the cost of removing the waste and other aspects of emergency management.

  20. Toxic wastes discovered in Cecil County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report focuses on the clean-up activities following toxic waste contamination in Cecil County, MD. The potentially hazardous leakage from waste containers buried in a quarry was addressed before it was turned into a civil emergency of the magnitude of Love Canal. US Superfund is a federal government trust fund largely comprised of taxes on the chemical and petrochemical industries. Local governments share in the cost of removing the waste and other aspects of emergency management.

  1. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Szabo led a laboratory effort studying lung cancer biology. |

  2. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  4. Discovery of /sup 260/Md and the decay properties of /sup 258/Fm, /sup 258m,g/Md, and /sup 259/Md

    SciTech Connect

    Lougheed, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.; Dougan, R.J.; Wild, J.F.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hahn, R.L.; Suemmerer, K.; Bethune, G.

    1985-08-01

    We have discovered a new neutron-rich isotope, /sup 260/Md, from /sup 18/O and /sup 22/Ne bombardments of /sup 254/Es. We observed a spontaneous-fission (SF) activity with a 32-day half-life in electromagnetically separated mass-260 fractions from these bombardments and we have measured the mass and kinetic energy distributions of this SF activity. The mass distribution was symmetric with the principal energy peak at 234-MeV total kinetic energy (TKE), similar to previous observations for heavy Fm isotopes. Surprisingly, we also observed a smaller symmetric component with 195-MeV TKE. We interpret these two peaks in the TKE distribution as arising from two types of fission in the same nucleus, or bimodal fission. The observed fission activity may be either from the SF decay of /sup 260/Md or /sup 260/Fm which would arise from electron capture (EC) decay of /sup 260/Md. We have eliminated the possible ..beta../sup -/ decay of /sup 260/Md by measuring ..beta../sup -/-SF time correlations for the decay of /sup 260/Md and we plan to determine if /sup 260/Md decays by EC by measuring time correlations between Fm x-rays and SF events. We also measured properties for heavy Fm and Md isotopes which include: (1) more accurate cross sections for the neutron-rich Md isotopes which we use to predict the production rates of yet undiscovered nuclides; (2) improved half-live measurements for /sup 258m,g/Md and /sup 259/Md; (3) confirmation of the EC decay of /sup 258m/Md by measuring Fm x-rays preceding the SF decay of /sup 258/Fm; and (4) very substantially improved mass and TKE distributions for the SF decay of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Md.

  5. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  6. The 1850 Webster/Parkman Trial: Dr. Keep's forensic evidence.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-03-01

    Shortly before two o'clock on a chilly November afternoon in 1849, the celebrated Harvard physician and surgeon, Dr. George Parkman, left his home on Boston's fashionable Beacon Hill, expecting to return in a few hours. He was never seen alive again. This account describes Parkman's brutal murder and explores the dynamics which preceded this crime. It explains how and why Dr. John White Webster, MD, Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy at Harvard University, killed Dr. Parkman and unsuccessfully attempted to destroy the physical evidence. Webster's subsequent trial, conviction and ultimate punishment are also detailed. The Parkman-Webster case remains one of the classic murders in the annals of American crime. Compelling dental evidence presented by the famous American dentist, Dr. Nathan Cooley Keep, directly led to the conviction of Dr. Webster. This graphic, ground-breaking case clearly established the viable role of forensic dentistry in legal criminal investigation.

  7. ProtoMD: A prototyping toolkit for multiscale molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, Endre; Mansour, Andrew Abi; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    ProtoMD is a toolkit that facilitates the development of algorithms for multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It is designed for multiscale methods which capture the dynamic transfer of information across multiple spatial scales, such as the atomic to the mesoscopic scale, via coevolving microscopic and coarse-grained (CG) variables. ProtoMD can be also be used to calibrate parameters needed in traditional CG-MD methods. The toolkit integrates 'GROMACS wrapper' to initiate MD simulations, and 'MDAnalysis' to analyze and manipulate trajectory files. It facilitates experimentation with a spectrum of coarse-grained variables, prototyping rare events (such as chemical reactions), or simulating nanocharacterization experiments such as terahertz spectroscopy, AFM, nanopore, and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. ProtoMD is written in python and is freely available under the GNU General Public License from github.com/CTCNano/proto_md.

  8. [Troponin in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Nowak, Seweryn; Chowaniec, Czesław; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    In this review we try to answer the question whether and to what degree contemporary forensic pathology takes advantage of quantitative and qualitative troponin determinations. The report is simultaneously an introduction to discussing our results in this area. To perform this review we used the database "PubMed". Polish literature, concurrent with the objective of the study and not included in "PubMed" or included in "OLDMEDLINE" was also analyzed. The identified publications, which were concurrent with the aim of the study, were read and citations were checked. If among the cited papers we found one that was concurrent with the subject of the review, it was also included. While several studies support the use of post-mortem blood and body fluid levels of cardiac troponin T and I as a marker of sudden cardiac death, in our opinion, further research is required to determine the effects of post-mortem autolysis, microbial activity, metabolic derangement and the use of different sample matrices in autopsy cases.

  9. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  10. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  11. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  12. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  13. Gordon Fullerton in PCA (MD-11) Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA research pilot Gordon Fullerton 'flying' in the MD-11 simulator during the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) project. This investigation grew out of the crash of a DC-10 airliner on July 19, 1989, following an explosion in the rear engine which caused the loss of all manual flight controls. The flight crew attempted to control the airliner using only the thrust from the two remaining engines. Although the DC-10 crashed during the landing attempt, 184 of the 296 passengers and crew aboard survived. The PCA effort at the Dryden Flight Research Center grew out of the crash, and attempted to develop a means to successfully land an aircraft using only engine thrust. After more than five years of work, on August 29, 1995, Gordon Fullerton made the first PCA touchdown aboard an MD-11 airliner (a later version of the DC-10). The concept was further refined over the years that followed this first landing. Simulators were essential ingredients of the PCA development process. The feasibility of the concept was first tested with an F-15 simulator, then the results of actual flight tests in an F-15 were incorporated back into the simulator. Additional simulations were run on the Boeing 720 airliner simulator used in the Controlled Impact Demonstration project. After the MD-11 test landings, Boeing 747 and 757 simulators tested a wide range of possible situations. Simulations even helped develop a method of landing an airliner if it lost its complete hydraulic system as well as a wing engine, by transferring fuel to shift the center of gravity toward the working engine. The most extreme procedure was undertaken in a 747 simulator. The aircraft simulated the loss of the hydraulic system at 35,000 feet and rolled upside down. Then, the PCA mode was engaged, the airliner righted itself, leveled its wings, and made an approach nearly identical to that of a normal auto landing.

  14. Dawbeney Turbervile, MD (1612-1696).

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2012-03-01

    The year 2012 marks the quatercentenary of the birth of Dawbeney Turbervile,MD(1612-1696), one-time Royalist soldier and later ophthalmologist to England’s Princess Anne, the diarist Samuel Pepys, the natural philosopher Robert Boyle, and the astronomer Walter Pope. Turbervile is remarkable for many reasons: He specialized at a time when generalization was prized; though he was a qualified physician, he also practiced the trade of surgery. Furthermore, he provided in his communications with the Royal Society early descriptions of achromatopsia, ocular foreign body removal with a magnet, and tic doloreaux. He is a forebear worth remembering

  15. Dawbeney Turbervile, MD (1612-1696).

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2012-03-01

    The year 2012 marks the quatercentenary of the birth of Dawbeney Turbervile,MD(1612-1696), one-time Royalist soldier and later ophthalmologist to England’s Princess Anne, the diarist Samuel Pepys, the natural philosopher Robert Boyle, and the astronomer Walter Pope. Turbervile is remarkable for many reasons: He specialized at a time when generalization was prized; though he was a qualified physician, he also practiced the trade of surgery. Furthermore, he provided in his communications with the Royal Society early descriptions of achromatopsia, ocular foreign body removal with a magnet, and tic doloreaux. He is a forebear worth remembering PMID:22411681

  16. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  17. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  18. [Psychotherapeutic aspects in forensic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Schorsch, E

    1983-09-01

    Splitting up of psychiatry into a forensic and a psychotherapeutic branch is unjustified as far as the scope of these branches is concerned, and entails a disadvantage at the expense of the delinquents, since nobody feels he is therapeutically responsible. Therapeutic aspects in expertising are worked out, and the specific difficulties and conflicts between forensic and therapeutic problems are demonstrated. Anyone who believes that therapeutic identity cannot be reconciled with legislation concerned with culpability, suffers from the prejudice induced by a "blind spot" in his mental eye.

  19. Forensic psychiatry, neuroscience, and the law.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The rise of modern neuroscience is transforming psychiatry and other behavioral sciences. Neuroscientific progress also has had major impact in forensic neuropsychiatric practice, resulting in the increased use of neuroscientific technologies in cases of a psychiatric-legal nature. This article is focused on the impact of neuroscientific progress in forensic psychiatry in relation to criminal law. Also addressed are some emerging questions involving the practice of forensic neuropsychiatry. These questions will be reframed by providing alternative perspectives consistent with the objectives of forensic neuropsychiatric practice. The last part of the article is a discussion of potential developments that may facilitate the integration of neuroscientific knowledge in forensic neuropsychiatric practice.

  20. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    PubMed

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int.

  1. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    PubMed

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  2. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  3. Forensic methods and the podiatric physician.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, M S

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory study of forensic podiatry. To elevate forensic podiatry to the level of forensic odontology and forensic anthropology, the podiatric medical profession must begin educational programs and research. A system for monitoring the activities of podiatrists involved in forensic medicine must be established to ensure that the high degree of integrity to which the profession is committed is maintained. By following these guidelines, the author believes that sometime in the future a podiatrist will be on the staff of every major police department in the country. At that point, the podiatric medical profession will have achieved unsurpassed status, recognition, and prestige. PMID:2664129

  4. 75 FR 12441 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. Model MD-900 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... FR 42824, August 6, 1999), Docket No. 98-SW-42-AD, for the MDHI Model MD-900 helicopters was published in the Federal Register on October 22, 2009 (74 FR 54495). The action proposed to decrease the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a...

  5. 75 FR 69862 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. Model MD900 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... beam bolt hole locations during maintenance on two MDHI Model MD900 helicopters. The actions specified... loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: Effective December 1, 2010, to all persons except those... AD was prompted by two reports of cracks detected in the hub in the area near the flex beam bolt...

  6. Forensic seismology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  7. Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD): Automatically generated, permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to predict if and when massively parallel sequencing of forensic STR loci will replace capillary electrophoresis as the new standard technology in forensic genetics. The main benefits of sequencing are increased multiplexing scales and SNP detection. There is not yet a consensus on how sequenced profiles should be reported. We present the Forensic Loci Allele Database (FLAD) service, made freely available on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/. It offers permanent identifiers for sequenced forensic alleles (STR or SNP) and their microvariants for use in forensic allele nomenclature. Analogous to Genbank, its aim is to provide permanent identifiers for forensically relevant allele sequences. Researchers that are developing forensic sequencing kits or are performing population studies, can register on http://forensic.ugent.be/FLAD/ and add loci and allele sequences with a short and simple application interface (API).

  8. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  9. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  10. Forensic anthropology in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Reichs, K J

    1992-06-01

    Forensic anthropology has undergone considerable change over the past 10 years. Today it is utilized by most law enforcement, coroner, and medical examiner systems. The techniques for determination of age at death, sex, race, and stature from skeletal remains have been modified and greatly expanded. The role of the forensic anthropologist within a medicolegal context is much broader than in previous years. In addition to establishing individual identity, forensic anthropologists are now consulted for trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Not all physical anthropologists are forensic anthropologists. Qualified individuals are certified, through rigorous examination, by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. A list of board-certified forensic anthropologists may be obtained through the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. PMID:1510066

  11. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  12. Poetic Interventions with Forensic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Art; Giovan, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of poetry, music, and creative writing with forensic patients at a state mental health institute. Demonstrates that expressive interventions were helpful in group treatment by promoting verbalization, decision making, and the recognition of personal responsibility for incarceration. (SR)

  13. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  14. Forensics: Enhancing Civic Literacy & Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Shawn F.

    2009-01-01

    Forensics--interpretation, speech, and debate--can and should be a meaningful part of every school's curriculum. To put it simply, the course of study, alongside cocurricular competition, promotes civic education and enhances the standard curriculum by helping students explore myriad topics from multiple angles and find the truth in each,…

  15. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  16. Benjamin Rush, MD: assassin or beloved healer?

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Benjamin Rush, MD (1745–1813), was not only the most well known physician in 18th-century America, he was also a patriot, philosopher, author, lecturer, fervent evangelist, politician, and dedicated social reformer. He was unshakable in his convictions, as well as self-righteous, caustic, satirical, humorless, and polemical. Unquestionably brilliant, he graduated from what later became Princeton University at age 14. He translated Hippocrates' Aphorisms from the Greek at age 17. He wrote the first textbook of chemistry to be published in America. He was by all accounts a devoted, if highly paternalistic, medical practitioner, who cared deeply for his patients' welfare. His principles or theories and his championship of extreme purging and bleeding (“depletion therapy”) have engendered 200 years of controversy and debate that continue today. The contradiction in his character is particularly well illustrated by his behavior during the Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic of 1793, as is briefly examined in this essay. PMID:16389324

  17. Benjamin Rush, MD: assassin or beloved healer?

    PubMed

    North, R L

    2000-01-01

    Benjamin Rush, MD (1745-1813), was not only the most well known physician in 18th-century America, he was also a patriot, philosopher, author, lecturer, fervent evangelist, politician, and dedicated social reformer. He was unshakable in his convictions, as well as self-righteous, caustic, satirical, humorless, and polemical. Unquestionably brilliant, he graduated from what later became Princeton University at age 14. He translated Hippocrates' Aphorisms from the Greek at age 17. He wrote the first textbook of chemistry to be published in America. He was by all accounts a devoted, if highly paternalistic, medical practitioner, who cared deeply for his patients' welfare. His principles or theories and his championship of extreme purging and bleeding ("depletion therapy") have engendered 200 years of controversy and debate that continue today. The contradiction in his character is particularly well illustrated by his behavior during the Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic of 1793, as is briefly examined in this essay. PMID:16389324

  18. Ashley W. Oughterson, MD: Surgeon, Soldier, Leader

    PubMed Central

    Kunstman, John W.; Longo, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Ashley W. Oughterson, MD, (1895-1956) was a longtime faculty surgeon at Yale University. He performed some of the earliest pancreatic resections in the United States. During World War II, Colonel Oughterson was the primary “Surgical Consultant” in the South Pacific and present at nearly every major battle. His meticulously kept diary is regarded as the foremost source detailing wartime surgical care. Colonel Oughterson led the initial Army team to survey Hiroshima and Nagasaki following the nuclear attacks. Thoughout his academic career at Yale, Oughterson was a key leader in several medical and surgical societies. As scientific director of the American Cancer Society, Oughterson lectured widely and guided research priorities in oncology following World War II. Oughterson also authored numerous benchmark papers in surgical oncology that continue to be cited today. These extensive contributions are examined here and demonstrate the wide-ranging impact Oughterson exerted during a formative period of American surgery. PMID:26029018

  19. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  20. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    PubMed

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today.

  1. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to

  2. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  3. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  4. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    PubMed

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  5. [False forensic expertise--analysis of occurrences].

    PubMed

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Main problems that await the modern Polish forensic psychiatry are presented. The most common mistakes made in forensic expertise are discussed and their causes are shown. The need for a change in the manner of teaching forensic psychiatry at an academic, as well as post graduate level to medical students/doctors as well as law officials, has been stressed. The criteria for calling on experts, system of control and evaluation of the expertise formulated and rules of payment to the experts--all need changing. The altered criminal structure and possibilities of putting pressure on experts through corruption, threatening or blackmail were noted. The clearly defined status of the forensic psychiatric expert gives him a guarantee of legal defence and through this an unbiased position. Giving forensic expertise is not only part of the diagnostics in forensic psychiatry. An even layout of protection, treatment and rehabilitation of psychiatrically ill criminals has to be present in this system.

  6. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  7. 77 FR 24838 - Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... ``Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 11423). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD AGENCY... waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland. This safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  8. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...) entitled ``Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 36447). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11,'' which consists of aerial...

  9. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change will alter...

  10. 78 FR 35773 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI), Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI), Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... the MDHI Model MD900 helicopters with certain main rotor blade (MRB) retention bolts (bolts)...

  11. 77 FR 42459 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ..., and MD900 helicopters to require determining the cure date for each NOTAR fan blade tension-torsion... (expiration date). For the MDHI Model MD900 helicopters, AD 2006-18-01 (71 FR 51095, August 29, 2006) already... these same type designs. Related Service Information We have reviewed one MDHI service bulletin,...

  12. 75 FR 10172 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chester River, Chestertown, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... drawbridge operation regulations of the S213 Bridge, at mile 26.8, across Chester River at Chestertown, MD. This final rule allows the bridge to open on signal if at least six hours notice is given and will... Operation Regulations; Chester River, Chestertown, MD'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 48889). We...

  13. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  14. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  15. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  16. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  17. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  18. The Non-Forensics After-Life of a Forensics Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolai, Michael T.

    A study investigated the personal and career choices that motivate an educator's departure from active involvement in forensics activities, and what trends, if any, exist concerning what former directors do in place of forensics. The study also investigated how forensics participation as a coach/director impacted on the individual, and what…

  19. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  20. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  1. [Confidential information in forensic odontologic investigation].

    PubMed

    Vermylen, Y

    1995-06-01

    The forensic odontologist is normally not bound by any professional secrecy during his forensic investigation. He has to present the legal authorities with all details of his findings. But he has to respect the rights of the defense and the human rights. He cannot force a suspect to undergo any examination without his explicit and informed consent. Dental records are covered by confidentiality and shall not be handed out to the forensic odontologist without the patient's consent. PMID:11836811

  2. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  3. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  4. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations.

  5. Neurobehavioral assessment in forensic practice

    PubMed Central

    Woods, George W.; Freedman, David; Greenspan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found among forensic practitioners. In this paper, we describe some of the elements involved in conducting a neurobehavioral assessment of cognitive functioning, particularly in capital cases, organizing this material in terms of the professional disciplines – social work, mitigation investigation, psychological, and medical – with which these methods are mainly identified. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how to integrate the multiple areas of expertise to create an accurate understanding of the neurobehavioral functioning and capacity of the subject. This is the basis from which civil and criminal forensic opinions must emanate. PMID:23059206

  6. Fratricide: a forensic psychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of fratricide rates based on national homicide data have provided some general information pertaining to offenders and victims of sibling homicide but are limited by data constraints to examining a few major variables. Exploring fratricide from a forensic psychiatric perspective could uncover other related factors and provide insight into why some individuals murder their siblings. In a retrospective study of data from coroners' files on domestic homicide pertaining to individuals killed by their siblings over a 10-year period in Quebec, Canada, we identified several specific offender and victim characteristics and circumstances surrounding offenses. The impact of mental illness and substance abuse on fratricidal behavior is indicated, underscoring the importance of identifying existing psychopathology. From a forensic psychiatric perspective, we identify characteristic patterns and discuss potential dynamics operating in fratricide. We raise some issues relevant to treatment and prevention, including the fact that most cases are alcohol-related, impulsive, and unpredictable until the moment they occur.

  7. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  8. Forensic DNA-typing technologies: a review.

    PubMed

    Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in 1985, forensic genetics has experienced a continuous technical revolution, both in the type of DNA markers used and in the methodologies or its detection. Highly informative and robust DNA-typing systems have been developed that have proven to be very effective in the individualization of biological material of human origin. DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic genetics used by laboratories for the majority of forensic genetic expertise and especially in criminal forensic casework (stain analysis and hairs) and identification.

  9. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  10. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  11. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  12. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  13. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed.

  14. Leroy D Vandam, MD: an anesthesia journey.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rafael A

    2005-08-01

    Leroy D Vandam, MD was a remarkable man--an intricate amalgamation of an artist, scientist, and physician. He was a bastion of medical historical knowledge. Dr Vandam became a most influential anesthesiologist, some say, a giant. He was an example of someone who, with resolve, overcame adversity. His artwork is displayed in countless places, and several of his paintings form part of the Wood Library Museum Heritage Series. Dr Vandam was first a surgeon, but he abandoned surgery and pursued a career in anesthesiology under the leadership of Robert Dripps. He completed his residency training at the University of Pennsylvania and joined its staff in 1949. When he arrived at Brigham and Women's Hospital in the 1950s as director of anesthesia, he embarked on one of the most illustrious careers in American anesthesiology. Dr Vandam published more than 250 original articles, chapters, abstracts, and other reports on a wide variety of subjects including history, art, and pharmacology. His classic article on the complications of neuroaxial blocks is a seminal work in anesthesiology. This article describes how an anesthesiologist who shared an interest with Dr Vandam in the history of anesthesiology came to produce a movie based on his career, the evolution of anesthesia equipment, and the transformation of our specialty. PMID:16102694

  15. Leroy D Vandam, MD: an anesthesia journey.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rafael A

    2005-08-01

    Leroy D Vandam, MD was a remarkable man--an intricate amalgamation of an artist, scientist, and physician. He was a bastion of medical historical knowledge. Dr Vandam became a most influential anesthesiologist, some say, a giant. He was an example of someone who, with resolve, overcame adversity. His artwork is displayed in countless places, and several of his paintings form part of the Wood Library Museum Heritage Series. Dr Vandam was first a surgeon, but he abandoned surgery and pursued a career in anesthesiology under the leadership of Robert Dripps. He completed his residency training at the University of Pennsylvania and joined its staff in 1949. When he arrived at Brigham and Women's Hospital in the 1950s as director of anesthesia, he embarked on one of the most illustrious careers in American anesthesiology. Dr Vandam published more than 250 original articles, chapters, abstracts, and other reports on a wide variety of subjects including history, art, and pharmacology. His classic article on the complications of neuroaxial blocks is a seminal work in anesthesiology. This article describes how an anesthesiologist who shared an interest with Dr Vandam in the history of anesthesiology came to produce a movie based on his career, the evolution of anesthesia equipment, and the transformation of our specialty.

  16. DFT-MD simulations of shocked Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2009-03-01

    Xenon is not only a technologically important element used in laser technologies, jet propulsion and dental anesthesia, but it is also arguably the simplest material in which to study the metal-insulator transition at high pressure. Because of its closed shell electronic configuration, Xenon is often assumed to be chemically inert, interacting almost entirely through the van der Waals interaction, and at liquid density, is typically modeled well using Leonard-Jones potentials. However, such modeling has a limited range of validity as Xenon is known to form compounds at normal conditions and likely exhibits considerably more chemistry at higher densities when hybridization of occupied orbitals becomes significant. In this talk, we present DFT-MD simulations of shocked liquid Xenon with the goal of developing an improved equation of state. The relative importance of the van der Waals interaction compared to other Coulomb interactions is considered, and estimates of the relative accuracy of various density functionals are quantified. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  18. Forensic DNA profiling and database.

    PubMed

    Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2003-07-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection.

  19. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  20. [Taste disorders in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Canale, M; Canale, F; Pallestrini, E; Castello, E

    1994-01-01

    Taste disorders can a rise from lesions of peripheral receptors, taste control pathways or cortical area involvement. Among peripheral lesions, trauma of the tongue and oropharynx are the most common. Iatrogenic lesions of facial and glossopharingeal nerves are very important in Forensic Medicine, while there are different opinions about taste alterations due to head injuries; hypogeusia associated to smell disorders are found in 0.4-0.5% of patient after head trauma with good prognosis (90% healing) while qualitative disorders are more common (30%). The Authors describe clinical methodologies for taste evaluation and their application in Forensic Medicine. Forensic estimation of taste disorders con be classified by two main groups: study of cause relation between the occurrence and damage and quantitative valuation of the damage in three different juridical ambits: Penal, Civil, Insurance and foresight. In Penal Right taste damages could be classified among personal lesion crimes and can be classified as serious (permanent injury of taste) ore very serious (complete lost of taste function). Italian Legislation equipare the 5 sense organs. In Civil Right evaluation the so-called "biologic damage" and working ability are considered; this means very different evaluations. In the most recent baremes, generic damage is estimated by different Authors from 0 to 10% while with regard to specific working capacity, common evaluation criteria does not exist. In Insurance taste disorders evaluation is based only on working ability and not on biologic damage. In the previdenzial ambit, taste disorders are not even included in the most recent tables of permanent invalidity estimation. The Authors propose new and more efficacious valutation criteria for taste disorders in all ambits, hoping for more interest in the Forensic aspects of taste, a too often forgotten sensory function. PMID:7810326

  1. 33 CFR 334.180 - Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md. 334.180 Section 334.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  2. Gene Expression Profiling in rMd5- and rMd5-delta-meq-Infected Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens caused by a highly contagious and oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MD is characterized by bursal/thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs,...

  3. 75 FR 12464 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...'' (66 FR 23086, May 7, 2001). In addition to new airworthiness standards for transport airplanes and new... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD- 11 and MD-11F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  4. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

  5. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence. PMID:21213072

  6. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  7. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  8. The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Isaac; Mathew, Deepu G; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Vargheese, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Forensic entomology is the study of insects/arthropods in criminal investigation. Right from the early stages insects are attracted to the decomposing body and may lay eggs in it. By studying the insect population and the developing larval stages, forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index, any change in position of the corpse as well as the cause of death. Forensic odontologists are called upon more frequently to collaborate in criminal investigations and hence should be aware of the possibilities that forensic entomology have to offer and use it as an adjunct to the conventional means of forensic investigation. PMID:22408328

  9. Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

  10. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

    2014-10-01

    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice.

  11. Tasks of research in forensic medicine - different study types in clinical research and forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Musshoff, Frank

    2007-01-17

    In the last years the research output of forensic medicine has sometimes been regarded as insufficient and as of poor quality, especially when parameters as impact factors and external funding were taken into account. However, forensic medicine has different tasks compared to clinical medicine. The main difference between basic subjects, clinical and forensic medicine is not a lack of scientific efficiency in forensic medicine but is a result of the questions asked, the available methods and specific aims. In contrast to natural-scientific research, forensic science has furthermore important intersections with arts and socio-scientific disciplines. Etiologic and pathogenetic research is of only limited relevance in forensic medicine. Thus, forensic medicine is excluded from these research fields, which are mainly supported by external funding. In forensic medicine research mainly means applied research regarding findings, the probative value and reconstruction as well as examination at different points of intersection between medicine and law. Clinical types of research such as controlled randomised, prospective cross-sectional, cohort or case-control studies can only rarely be applied in forensic medicine due to the area specific research fields (e.g. thantatology, violent death, vitality, traffic medicine, analytical toxicology, hemogenetics and stain analysis). The types of studies which are successfully established in forensic medicine are comparison of methods, sensitivity studies, validation of methods, kinetic examinations etc. Tasks of research in forensic medicine and study types, which may be applied will be addressed.

  12. Research issues in forensic pathology: a survey of academic institutions employing forensic pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B

    2004-05-01

    In an effort to characterize research efforts in forensic pathology, a questionnaire was sent to a representative of each of the 14 academic medical centers that employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Responses were received from all 14 (100%) of the institutions queried, representing a total of 39 forensic pathology faculty positions; 21 positions were tenure track and 18 positions were clinical or other tracks. Of the 39 positions, 25 positions (64%) at 10 institutions required some degree of research or scholarly output. Of the 25 forensic pathologists with a research imperative, only 3 (12%) were principal investigators or co-investigators on funded forensic pathology-based projects. The major limitation cited by respondents on the performance of forensic pathology research was the lack of protected time from service responsibilities. Fellowship training in forensic pathology was available at 6 of the 14 respondent institutions. Of these institutions, 4 (67%) had a research requirement for trainees, and 4 (67%) provided research training. In conclusion, very few US medical schools currently employ full-time faculty forensic pathologists. Of these, only a small number of institutions prioritize research by these faculty members. Scant federal funds are available to support research in forensic pathology. Few forensic pathology fellowship programs provide research training. To achieve a robust research agenda in forensic pathology that is sufficient to support the needs of the criminal justice and public health systems will require a paradigm shift in the medicolegal death investigative system and investment by federal agencies. PMID:15138925

  13. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting.

  14. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting. PMID:25801440

  15. MD-PhD training: looking back and looking forward.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Ann C

    2014-01-01

    MD-PhD programs provide rigorous, integrated training for physician-scientists, enabling them to frame scientific questions in unique ways and to apply clinical insight to fundamental science. Few would question the influential contributions of MD-PhD physician-scientists in advancing medical science. In this issue of Academic Medicine, Jeffe et al affirm high levels of excellence in educational outcomes from MD-PhD training programs at U.S. MD-granting medical schools, especially programs that receive funding from the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). The author of this commentary observes that, in the face of current economic pressures, comprehensive, longitudinal national outcomes data from MSTP- and non-MSTP-funded MD-PhD programs will help verify the value provided by MD-PhD physician-scientists. She proposes that MD-PhD programs should better prepare the next generation of physician-scientists for future research environments, which will provide new technologies, venues, and modalities. These research environments will be more closely integrated within health care delivery systems, extend into diverse communities and regions, and employ complex technologies. MD-PhD physician-scientists also will train and gain expertise in broadening areas of research, such as health policy, health economics, clinical epidemiology, and medical informatics. Program leaders are ideally situated to foster innovative learning environments and methodologies. By sharing their innovations, they can help ensure production of a diverse MD-PhD physician-scientist workforce, prepared to engage in myriad research opportunities to meet patient and population needs in a new environment. PMID:24280863

  16. MD-PhD training: looking back and looking forward.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Ann C

    2014-01-01

    MD-PhD programs provide rigorous, integrated training for physician-scientists, enabling them to frame scientific questions in unique ways and to apply clinical insight to fundamental science. Few would question the influential contributions of MD-PhD physician-scientists in advancing medical science. In this issue of Academic Medicine, Jeffe et al affirm high levels of excellence in educational outcomes from MD-PhD training programs at U.S. MD-granting medical schools, especially programs that receive funding from the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). The author of this commentary observes that, in the face of current economic pressures, comprehensive, longitudinal national outcomes data from MSTP- and non-MSTP-funded MD-PhD programs will help verify the value provided by MD-PhD physician-scientists. She proposes that MD-PhD programs should better prepare the next generation of physician-scientists for future research environments, which will provide new technologies, venues, and modalities. These research environments will be more closely integrated within health care delivery systems, extend into diverse communities and regions, and employ complex technologies. MD-PhD physician-scientists also will train and gain expertise in broadening areas of research, such as health policy, health economics, clinical epidemiology, and medical informatics. Program leaders are ideally situated to foster innovative learning environments and methodologies. By sharing their innovations, they can help ensure production of a diverse MD-PhD physician-scientist workforce, prepared to engage in myriad research opportunities to meet patient and population needs in a new environment.

  17. Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

  18. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  19. Forensics in the United States--1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieke, Richard D.

    The purpose of this project was to survey the status of forensics in the United States. A mailing list was developed to include every school that might have forensic activities. Established mailing lists prepared for tournaments, publications of tournament results, and lists set up for sale were consulted; schools were asked to list other schools…

  20. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    PubMed

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area.

  1. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. PMID:27443418

  2. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps.

  3. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  4. [Forensic approach of infanticide and neonatal death].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2007-01-01

    The foetal of neonatal death brings up many questions as well on the physiopathological level as on the medico-legal one. We consider here the various natural and violent origins which allow understanding this difficult forensic activity. The approach of forensic anthropology and recent medical techniques (X-rays and echography) are also studied in order to be helpful to the medical examiner.

  5. Double parricide: forensic analysis and psycholegal implications.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Adam M; Ehrenclou, Martine G; Sharma, Kaushal K

    2002-03-01

    In a retrospective study, eleven adult parricidal forensic cases from Southern California are presented. Each case involves the murder of both parents and was referred for forensic evaluation. Common characteristics among the eleven cases are presented. Two case examples illustrate features of recognized adult parricidal subtypes. The findings are compared with studies involving parricide, double-parricide, and extant case law.

  6. [Presentation of eponymous terms in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms used in forensic medicine is described in the paper. Their linguistic basis, advantages and disadvantages for specialists or wider circles is discussed. Their spread in various language discourses is mentioned. A list of the most important eponymous terms in forensic medicine is the papers focus.

  7. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings. PMID:26417747

  8. A Proposal for Training in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Graduate programs are lagging behind in developing courses to prepare psychologists to function with expertise in forensic (law-related) matters. Paradoxically, the courts are now finding increasing use for the forensic psychologist, while current journals express wide skepticism about the quality of available expertise. (Author/RLV)

  9. Forensic Journal, Volume VI, January 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forensic Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    While covering various English language forensics activities in Japan, this special journal issue is heavily devoted to debate. The 22 articles in the journal are divided into five sections as follows: (1) general information on the Japan English Forensics Association (JEFA); (2) debate, including reports on debate tournaments around the world, a…

  10. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  11. Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Heidi A.

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

  12. Michael S. Brown, MD and Joseph L. Goldstein, MD. 1985 Nobel laureates in medicine.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Goldstein, J L

    1996-02-01

    When Michael S. Brown, MD and Joseph L. Goldstein, MD first met as interns at the Massachusetts General Hospital in 1966, they could hardly have imagined that their careers would continue to be intertwined some 30 years later. It was shortly following their arrival as clinical associates at the National Institutes of Health in 1968 that the pair developed an interest in abnormalities of cholesterol metabolism. Bolstered by epidemiologic data that showed elevated cholesterol levels in many patients with myocardial infarction, Brown and Goldstein, who relocated to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in 1972, began a search for receptors important in cholesterol homeostasis. These studies, performed in their early stages while juggling clinical duties at Parkland Hospital, culminated in a series of scientific achievements which merited among other honors the Hazen Award in 1982, the Lasker Award in 1985, and the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1985. Today, as Regental Professors of the University of Texas, Brown and Goldstein head a laboratory group which continues to test the cutting edge of medical research. Although impressed with the pace of technological advances in biology, the declining role of clinically oriented physicians in biomedical research troubles the pair. Interviewed in their library in Dallas, Brown and Goldstein spoke about the complicated balance of science, medicine, and education necessary to produce another generation of successful investigators.

  13. Payment by results in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Luke; McCarthy, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Forensic mental health services are low-volume, high-cost services. Payment by results (PbR) is the UK s latest attempt to improve efficiency and controls pending behaviours within the secure services. This article discusses the utility of the PbR mechanic in forensic mental health. It explores PbR implementation in non-forensic mental health settings, similar funding processes internationally, and early PbR implementation work in the UK's secure services. Finally, the article discusses the challenges faced when implementing PbR in forensic mental health services and puts forward possible next steps in determining the utility of PbR in forensic mental health.

  14. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations.

  15. Genetic witness: forensic uses of DNA tests.

    PubMed

    Nishimi, Robyn Y; O'Connor, Kevin W; Gwin, Holly L; Anderson, Margaret A

    1991-01-01

    "Genetic Witness: Forensic Uses of DNA Tests" summarizes the findings of a 204-page report by the U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). It reviews the DNA techniques used in criminal casework, evaluates the validity and reliability of the technologies, examines issues of quality assurance, reviews the legal implications of the use of DNA tests by U.S. courts, and analyzes the privacy implications of forensic DNA tests and computer databanks. It presents a range of actions that could be taken by the U.S. Congress to address five policy issues: standards for forensic uses of DNA typing; funding of crime laboratories, forensic personnel training, and forensic research; the advisability of establishing computer databanks of DNA test results; and privacy considerations of collecting, using, and storing DNA data or samples.

  16. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Relevant Skills of Forensic Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGabriele, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated whether views of the relevant skills of forensic accountants differ among forensic accounting practitioners, accounting academics, and users of forensic accounting services. Universities and colleges are currently considering adding forensic accounting courses to their curriculum. The results of the present study provide…

  18. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon Page Content The Orthopaedic Distinction Who are Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeons? Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons are ...

  19. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

  20. [Incest--forensic genetic approach].

    PubMed

    Raczek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood.

  1. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed.

  2. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  3. A new system for forensic physicians in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Hwa; Kuo, Tsung-Li; Chen, Yao-Chang; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2009-04-01

    Forensic physicians play an important role in legal justice. Taiwan has a population of 23 million. It has had a serious shortage of forensic physicians for more than half a century. This has resulted in poor quality of forensic medical practice. In order to increase the number of forensic physicians, new education and training system have been proposed. Legislation of Forensic Physicians Law was enacted in 2005. It is expected that the quality of forensic practice will be improved when the new forensic physicians join this profession.

  4. Examination of mobile phones in a university forensic lab environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.

  5. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  6. [Commentary on the history of forensic medicine in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    González Carrero, A

    1991-01-01

    The author explains definitions and fields of forensic medicine. Three periods are described: 1) Since colonial times to the foundation of the Caracas forensic medicine (1937); 2) From 1937 to the foundation of the Technical Judiciary Police (1958); 3) From 1958 until now; this period includes the process called "Nationalization of forensic medicine". Then there are remarks, within the historical context, on forensic medicine and teaching, the importance of the Forensic Medicine Society and the importance of postgraduate courses.

  7. Two types of spermine synthase gene: MdACL5 and MdSPMS are differentially involved in apple fruit development and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Hao, Yu-Jin; Honda, Chikako; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2005-11-21

    Three cDNAs with high homology to spermine (Spm) synthases in Arabidopsis were isolated from apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. MdACL5-1 and MdACL5-2 have high homology with ACL5 and MdSPMS has high homology with AtSPMS. The similarity of MdSPMS to spermidine synthases (SPDSs) was higher than that of MdACL5s, despite the fact that both are putative Spm synthases. However, MdSPMS could be discriminated from SPDSs by the presence of several characteristic amino acids, i.e., Val-149, Ser-161, Ala-205, and Val-235, in the decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM)-binding motif of MdSPMS. Both MdACL5-1 and MdSPMS complemented Spm biosynthesis in a yeast mutant deficient in Spm synthase, and ectopic expression of MdACL5-1 in the Arabidopsis dwarf mutant acl5 allowed recovery of the normal phenotype. RNA gel blot analysis showed that MdACL5 and MdSPMS are differentially expressed in tissues and suspension cells. These results suggest that functional MdACL5 and MdSPMS are independently involved in apple fruit development and cell growth.

  8. Linear Odontometric Analysis of Permanent Dentition as A Forensic Aid: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sunil Sukumaran; Gopakumar, Devi; Kurian, Nisha; Parameswar, Arjun; Baby, Tibin Kaithappillil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sex determination in forensic anthropology is an essential step for medico-legal purposes and crucial for identification as the number of possible matches is reduced to 50%. Teeth are an excellent material for anthropological, genetic, odontological and forensic investigations as they are known to resist a variety of ante-mortem and post-mortem insults. Sexual dimorphism in tooth size and the accuracy of odontometric sex prediction is found to vary in different population and therefore it is necessary to determine specific population values in order to make identification possible. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism in South Kerala population. Aim To evaluate and estimate the degree of odontometric sexual dimorphism in all permanent teeth except third molars and the variations in odontometric dimensions between the left and right side teeth of the maxillary and mandibular arches in male and female groups. Materials and Methods The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) measurements of 28 teeth were estimated from the preorthodontic casts of 132 subjects; male group (66 males) and female group (66 females) of age range 15-25 years using digital Verniers’ Caliper. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 17 and the Students’ t-test for two independent samples. Results The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) parameters of all permanent teeth in the study group showed sexual dimorphism. Over 39% of the tooth variables showed reverse dimorphism. The comparison of mean values of MD and BL diameters of the maxillary and mandibular, right and left side teeth in male and female groups showed statistical significance in males whereas females show non-significant values in both MD and BL diameters. Conclusion The study showed a varied percentage of sexual dimorphism and variation in the mean values of MD and BL dimensions in males, but not in females between right and left side teeth of the

  9. 75 FR 47203 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model MD-11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Corporation Model MD- 11 and MD-11F Airplanes Equipped With General Electric CF6-80C2 Series Engines AGENCY..., equipped with General Electric Model CF6-80C2 or CF6-80A series engines. These airplanes have been... partially agree with the commenter's request. We agree that the General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 series...

  10. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  11. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  12. Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

    This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

  13. Forensic applications of DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, K M

    1994-02-01

    In many ways, DNA profiling technology is very similar to the conventional techniques used for forensic identification. As with, for example, blood grouping techniques, the molecular characteristics of the scene of crime sample may be determined and compared with those of the scene of reference samples from suspects and victim. If the molecular characteristics of the crime sample and the suspect are different, then they cannot be from the same person, whereas if they match, then the possibility remains that they may be from a single source. Similar material, such as blood or semen stains, may be used for both biochemical and genetic tests, and the main applications of identification and relationship testing are shared by both techniques. At this point, the similarity ends; DNA profiling has the following characteristics: 1. It is more sensitive, being able to generate sound data from only a tiny amount of even partially degraded biological material. 2. It is capable of resolving mixtures of semen or tissue from up to several individuals. 3. It has a far greater power of discrimination between individuals--sometimes up to 1 millionfold higher than conventional techniques. 4. It provides considerably more information on the nature of relationships, particularly in cases of incest. As such, the technique represents a quantum leap in forensic identification and relationship testing.

  14. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  15. Forensic entomologists: an evaluation of their status.

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences ( 2009 ) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists.

  16. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  17. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  18. A theory of ethics for forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P S

    1997-01-01

    This article offers a justification for a set of principles that constitute the ethical underpinnings of forensic psychiatry. Like professional ethics in general, the principles are based on the particular societal functions performed by forensic psychiatrists and result in the intensification of obligations to promote certain important moral values. For forensic psychiatrists, the primary value of their work is to advance the interests of justice. The two principles on which that effort rests are truth-telling and respect for persons. In the same manner as other physicians who perform functions outside of the usual clinical context (e.g., clinical researchers), forensic psychiatrists cannot simply rely on general medical ethics, embedded as they are in the doctor-patient relationship--which is absent in the forensic setting. Indeed, efforts to retain some residuum of that relationship and its associated ethical principles are likely to create confusion in the minds of both forensic psychiatrists and their evaluees and to heighten the problems of double agency. A virtue of this approach is the clear distinction it offers between clinical and forensic roles. PMID:9323651

  19. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  20. MdSOS2L1 forms a complex with MdMYB1 to control vacuolar pH by transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in apples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cui-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Yan; Sun, Mei-Hong; Hu, Da-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar pH is important and involves in many different physiological processes in plants. A recent paper published in Plant Physiology reveals that MdMYB1 regulates vacuolar pH by directly transcriptionally regulating proton pump genes and malate transporters genes, such as V-ATPase subunit gene MdVHA-B1. Here, we found that MdSOS2L1 in vitro did not directly interact with MdMYB1, however, in vivo formed a complex with MdMYB1 in the nucleus to regulate MdVHA-B1-mediated vacuolar acidification. This finding shed light on the role of MdSOS2L1 in transcriptionally regulating MdVHA-B1 in addition to its post-modified function in apples. PMID:26910596

  1. 76 FR 53346 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... proposed AD affects Model MD-80 series airplanes. We issued AD 2011-01-11, Amendment 39-16565 (76 FR 430... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... hinge bearing lugs of the aft face of the center section of the horizontal stabilizer; measuring...

  2. [Plea for forensic aftercare--results from an evaluation of forensic ambulances in Germany (area: "Rheinland")].

    PubMed

    Seifert, Dieter; Schiffer, Boris; Leygraf, Norbert

    2003-07-01

    The reintegration of patients from forensic hospitals into society is as difficult as important. At present only a few specialized forensic ambulances can be found in Germany although experts have been demanding an extension of these institutions for years. In the following we will present results from an evaluation study of forensic ambulances in Germany (area: "Rheinland"). Our target is to develop minimum standards or essential pillars for successful ambulance work by taking all participants of the reintegration process into account.

  3. [The application of palynology in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Mei; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Palynology, one science of plant's pollen and spores, has been proven to be a new frontier discipline. Because of the characteristics of pollen and spores, such as small size, light weight, large amount, and difficult to be found, they can leave physical evidence and provide new clues to solve a case. Therefore palynology has a good prospect for practical application in forensic medicine. The paper intends to analyze the advantage and limitation of palynology in forensic medicine by reviewing its general characteristics, classification, morphology, and disseminating circadian rhythm. We hope to provide some reference to apply palynology in forensic medicine.

  4. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  5. How to become involved in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Fixott, R H

    2001-04-01

    Applying the triad of education, professional organizations, and service, there are many ways to develop as a forensic odontologist. The ideal way to begin and develop is through a mentoring relationship with an experienced forensic odontologist. Most of the leading odontologists today--the second generation, so to speak--were mentored as they developed their careers. To refer back to the introduction, the commonality for this group is their dedication and commitment to the science and service of forensic odontology. References follow listing contact information for all the institutions and organizations mentioned in this article. PMID:11370462

  6. Clinical forensic medicine introduction for healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Kathy; Hunsaker, Donna M; Corey, Tracey S; Weakley-Jones, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Clinical forensic medicine (CFM) is "the application of appropriate forensic practices and principles, heretofore reserved for use by the pathologist at autopsy, to living patients in a clinical setting." "Living forensic" patients include survivors of trauma and potentially catastrophic experiences resulting in injury. CFM arose from "clinically" affirming that not all abuse or assault victims sustain fatal injuries. Appropriate medical documentation and interpretation of physical findings may aid law enforcement and/or social services in the legal evaluation of a case or situation. Additionally, timely collection of pertinent evidence may be performed as the case necessitates.

  7. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  8. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    SciTech Connect

    Deter, Dean D.

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  9. 76 FR 9965 - Amendment of Class E Airspace and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Easton, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D airspace at Easton, MD (75 FR... Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area, and, therefore, will be removed for... Designated as Surface Areas. * * * * * AEA MD E2 Easton, MD Easton Airport/Newnam Field, MD (Lat. 38...

  10. Development of a forensic evidence protection kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Brian; Kelly, Roy

    1999-02-01

    A kit has been developed for the preservation of vital forensic evidence on a suspect following a serious assault, murder or other offense where contamination may occur. This also includes the handling of firearms, explosives and/or drugs.

  11. FORENSIC MEDICINE: AN AID TO CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.

    PubMed

    DEADMAN, W J

    1965-03-27

    Forensic medicine is medicine as applied to the problems of the law. The origins of both are hidden in the mists of antiquity, dating from the beginnings of family and tribal life. Recorded human history goes back for 6000 years. Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt all contributed to the development of forensic medicine. Imhotep was probably the first real medicolegal expert. Hippocrates, the Greek physician, and Galen, the Roman, made considerable contributions. Little advance was made during the millenium of the Dark Ages. But Renaissance medicine gave this branch of medicine an impetus in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and in the twentieth, interest in forensic medicine is worldwide. The physician, the coroner, the pathologist, the medical specialist and the forensic laboratory contribute to the investigation of crimes against the person, and to the solution of such problems as identification, untoward deaths, apparent drowning and many others.

  12. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners.

  13. Spectroscopic Sleuthing. An Introduction to Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, Vera; Cunniff, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a program in which students learn about spectroscopy and instrumentation to solve a chemical forensic mystery. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, refractometry, and chromatographic techniques were used. An example of a mystery case is included. (KR)

  14. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  15. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed.

  16. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations.

  17. Forensic veterinary pathology, today's situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders.

  18. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes.

  19. An Improved Forensic Science Information Search.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, J

    2015-01-01

    Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results. The six resources are Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, WorldCat, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Carefully selected keywords and keyword combinations, designating a keyword phrase so that the search engine will search on the phrase and not individual keywords, and prompting search engines to retrieve PDF files are among the techniques discussed. PMID:26227137

  20. Microwave Digestion--Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy as a sensitive method for forensic diatom test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chao; Hu, Sunlin; He, Shuwen; Lu, Siya

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic practice. A number of methods have been developed over the years to determine whether a person was drowned. Microwave Digestion-Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method we developed is a new qualitative and quantitative method of diatom test for diagnosis of drowning. The new method is based on microwave digestion technique, vacuum filtration, and automated SEM, which would achieve a maximal recovery of diatoms and identify diatoms easily by SEM with high resolution. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of this method, the recovery of diatom, and loss ratio of centrifugation, which were compared using the MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method. Two groups of samples were designed in the study. Groups A (n = 20) and B (n = 20) were performed by MD-VF-Auto SEM method and the conventional acid digestion method, respectively. In addition, another eight water samples were centrifuged, and the diatoms in the supernatant and precipitate were counted and measured, respectively, in order to find out how many diatoms were lost after centrifugation. The difference between the two groups was statistically highly significant, and about 34 % of diatoms were lost after centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 15 min. The results showed that the MD-VF-Auto SEM method was more sensitive and specific.

  1. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  3. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  4. Contemporary practice in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini; Agnihotri, Archana; Chandra, Akhilesh; Gupta, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Forensic odontology plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. It is evident that identification of victims in accidents and natural calamities is of utmost importance and is a challenging task. The teeth may also be used as weapons and under certain circumstances; they may provide information regarding the identity of the biter. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, fraud child abuse and also, identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. PMID:25328306

  5. Cybersex with minors: forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M E; Sharma, K K

    2001-11-01

    This paper is designed to assist forensic psychiatrists/psychologists who evaluate adults who commit sexual crimes against children on the Internet. The typical offender is an adult male who logs onto the Internet and enters a chat room in which children congregate. Unbeknownst to the offender, undercover police officers are posing as minors in the chat rooms. The undercover officer (pretend kid) and offender engage in increasingly explicit, sexual conversation; the offender may transmit erotic photographs to the undercover officer and/or arrange to meet at a motel in order to have sexual intercourse. The authors will discuss the relevant legal, clinical, and ethical aspects of examining these offenders, and describe specific cases that the author (2) evaluated. PMID:11714151

  6. Emil Kraepelin and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hoff, P

    1998-01-01

    Kraepelin's main positions in forensic psychiatry, that are understandable only in the context of his underlying psychiatric and, especially, nosological theory, are the following: (1) Criminal behavior, especially if repeatedly shown by the same individual, should be regarded as (or, in the strongest version possible, is) mental illness; (2) above all, this viewpoint is due to Kraepelin's broad acceptance of degeneration theory in general, whereas he rejected simplifying concepts like Lombroso's early hypothesis of clinically observable "stigmata degenerations"; (3) Kraepelin voted for the acceptance of diminished responsibility to provide a more differentiated spectrum for the psychiatric expert and the judge; (4) because delinquency, in his view, was closely linked with mental illness, which should be treated instead of (only) being punished, he strictly objected to the death penalty; and (5) he suggested significantly increasing psychiatry's influence on decisions regarding the kind and length of imprisonment.

  7. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  8. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect.

  9. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed.

  10. Molecular pathology in forensic medicine--Introduction.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Saukko, Pekka; Oliva, Antonio; Musshoff, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Techniques of molecular biology have improved diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy and validity in forensic medicine very much, especially in the field of identification (paternity testing, stain analysis). Since more than 10 years these techniques - meanwhile well established in clinical disciplines - are used also for other applications in forensic medicine: determination of cause and manner of death, tissue identification by mRNA and microRNA, examination of gene expression levels (survival time, time since death, cause of death), toxicogenetics.

  11. Clinical neuropsychology in the criminal forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Denney, R L; Wynkoop, T F

    2000-04-01

    This article reviews the application of clinical neuropsychology to criminal court proceedings, a complex, underserved, yet growing area of neuropsychological practice. The authors write from the perspective that the audience is primarily neurorehabilitation clinicians with limited experience in criminal matters. Discussions on the theoretical differences between clinical and forensic work, the forensic evaluation process with conceptual model, historical and current perspectives on criminal competencies and responsibility, prediction of dangerousness, and professional and ethical issues often encountered in criminal neuropsychology are provided.

  12. [Forensic psychiatric assessment in the USSR].

    PubMed

    Friemert, K

    1988-11-01

    Basing on the author's experiences during his study stay at the Serbsky All-Union Research Institute for General and Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow a report is given about the theoretical foundations and the carrying-out of forensic-psychiatric expert-opinions in the field of penal as well as civil law in the U.S.S.R. Some peculiarities in comparison with the practice in the G.D.R. are taken in special account.

  13. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  14. Ethical concerns expressed by forensic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1986-04-01

    A survey was made of American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) forensic psychiatrists to evaluate whether there is concern among them about potential ethical problems in criminal justice work. Of the respondents, 93.8% had encountered such problems. The main concerns indicated were about those psychiatrists who become a "hired gun," become an advocate, do not give an honest opinion, or have problems with confidentiality. The need for ethical guidelines and further debate about ethical issues is presented.

  15. CoMD Implementation Suite in Emerging Programming Models

    2014-09-23

    CoMD-Em is a software implementation suite of the CoMD [4] proxy app using different emerging programming models. It is intended to analyze the features and capabilities of novel programming models that could help ensure code and performance portability and scalability across heterogeneous platforms while improving programmer productivity. Another goal is to provide the authors and venders with some meaningful feedback regarding the capabilities and limitations of their models. The actual application is a classical molecularmore » dynamics (MD) simulation using either the Lennard-Jones method (LJ) or the embedded atom method (EAM) for primary particle interaction. The code can be extended to support alternate interaction models. The code is expected ro run on a wide class of heterogeneous hardware configurations like shard/distributed/hybrid memory, GPU's and any other platform supported by the underlying programming model.« less

  16. 3MdB: the Mexican Million Models database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.

    2014-10-01

    The 3MdB is an original effort to construct a large multipurpose database of photoionization models. This is a more modern version of a previous attempt based on Cloudy3D and IDL tools. It is accessed by MySQL requests. The models are obtained using the well known and widely used Cloudy photoionization code (Ferland et al, 2013). The database is aimed to host grids of models with different references to identify each project and to facilitate the extraction of the desired data. We present here a description of the way the database is managed and some of the projects that use 3MdB. Anybody can ask for a grid to be run and stored in 3MdB, to increase the visibility of the grid and the potential side applications of it.

  17. CoMD Implementation Suite in Emerging Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Riyaz; Reeve, Sam; Juallmes, Luc; Asal, Sameer Abu; Landmehr, Aaron; Gaffer, Sanian; Teodor Bercea, Gheorghe; Rubinstein, Zach

    2014-09-23

    CoMD-Em is a software implementation suite of the CoMD [4] proxy app using different emerging programming models. It is intended to analyze the features and capabilities of novel programming models that could help ensure code and performance portability and scalability across heterogeneous platforms while improving programmer productivity. Another goal is to provide the authors and venders with some meaningful feedback regarding the capabilities and limitations of their models. The actual application is a classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using either the Lennard-Jones method (LJ) or the embedded atom method (EAM) for primary particle interaction. The code can be extended to support alternate interaction models. The code is expected ro run on a wide class of heterogeneous hardware configurations like shard/distributed/hybrid memory, GPU's and any other platform supported by the underlying programming model.

  18. Automatic distributed workflow generation with GridMD library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I. V.; Valuev, I. A.

    2011-09-01

    GridMD is a C++ class library intended for constructing simulation applications and running them in distributed environments. The library abstracts away from details of distributed environments, so that almost no knowledge of distributed computing is required from a physicist working with the library. She or he just uses GridMD function calls inside the application C++ code to perform parameter sweeps or other tasks that can be distributed at run-time. In this paper we briefly review the GridMD architecture. We also describe the job manager component which submits jobs to a remote system. The C++ source code of our PBS job manager may be used as a standalone tool and it is freely available as well as the full library source code. As illustrative examples we use simple expression evaluation codes and the real application of Coulomb cluster explosion simulation by Molecular Dynamics.

  19. Computer Forensics Education - the Open Source Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Ewa; Bem, Derek; Cheung, Hon

    In this chapter we discuss the application of the open source software tools in computer forensics education at tertiary level. We argue that open source tools are more suitable than commercial tools, as they provide the opportunity for students to gain in-depth understanding and appreciation of the computer forensic process as opposed to familiarity with one software product, however complex and multi-functional. With the access to all source programs the students become more than just the consumers of the tools as future forensic investigators. They can also examine the code, understand the relationship between the binary images and relevant data structures, and in the process gain necessary background to become the future creators of new and improved forensic software tools. As a case study we present an advanced subject, Computer Forensics Workshop, which we designed for the Bachelor's degree in computer science at the University of Western Sydney. We based all laboratory work and the main take-home project in this subject on open source software tools. We found that without exception more than one suitable tool can be found to cover each topic in the curriculum adequately. We argue that this approach prepares students better for forensic field work, as they gain confidence to use a variety of tools, not just a single product they are familiar with.

  20. Forensic nursing - Global scenario and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Patel, Shailendra; Chavali, Krishnadutt

    2016-08-01

    Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator). In India the premier institutes like AIIMS New Delhi and The PGI Chandigarh, do not have forensic content in their nursing curriculum manuals. The WHO and IAFN have urged inclusion of forensic content in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs. Forensic Nurse Specialist can provide direct services to individual clients, consultation services to nursing, medical and law-related agencies, as well as providing expert court testimony in areas dealing with trauma and/or questioned death investigative processes, adequacy of services delivered, and specialized diagnoses of specific medical conditions. Research Findings on the Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs suggests various improvements in each and every step in care of victim of sexual assault. PMID:27314972

  1. Forensic nursing - Global scenario and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Patel, Shailendra; Chavali, Krishnadutt

    2016-08-01

    Sexual violence is a significant cause of physical and psychological harm and suffering for women and children. Although sexual violence mostly affects women and girls, boys are also subject to child sexual abuse. Nurse is the person who attends the victim first. In order to meet the rigid and ever-changing demands of providing care to the victim and complying with our confusing system of laws, the nursing should has been forced to expand into a Forensic nursing, specialty of its own. Nursing roles in the criminal justice service known by many names worldwide-Custody nursing, Prison/Correctional nursing, Immigration centre nursing, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner (SAFE), SARTs (Sexual assault response team), SARCs (Sexual assault referral centre) and FNDIs (Forensic nurse death investigator). In India the premier institutes like AIIMS New Delhi and The PGI Chandigarh, do not have forensic content in their nursing curriculum manuals. The WHO and IAFN have urged inclusion of forensic content in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs. Forensic Nurse Specialist can provide direct services to individual clients, consultation services to nursing, medical and law-related agencies, as well as providing expert court testimony in areas dealing with trauma and/or questioned death investigative processes, adequacy of services delivered, and specialized diagnoses of specific medical conditions. Research Findings on the Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs suggests various improvements in each and every step in care of victim of sexual assault.

  2. The DSM-5 and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S

    2013-05-01

    In his first Law and Psychiatry column for the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, the author discusses potential forensic consequences of the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While the transition to DSM-5 may prove challenging for both patients and clinicians, the scrutiny and adversarial process associated with forensic psychiatric practice will entail a unique set of challenges. The philosophy of innovation behind the DSM-5, and the attendant changes, could lead to some unintended consequences, particularly in medicolegal settings. This column highlights some of the major changes in DSM-5 and explores points of particular concern for forensic psychiatric practice, such as the move toward a non-multiaxial diagnostic system and dimensional severity ratings being superimposed on certain categorical diagnoses. The innovative changes featured in DSM-5, and the controversies surrounding some of them, could yield an environment of increased cynicism in courts of law, with renewed skepticism regarding mental health diagnoses and the forensic psychiatrists who testify about them. Fortunately, the best method for forensic psychiatric practice in this environment of change is to continue to adhere to a meticulous and transparent medicolegal process, with recognition that changes in the diagnostic manual will seldom alter essential medicolegal conclusions. Forensic psychiatrists may enhance their credibility and the strength of the opinions they offer by proactively illustrating how nuances in diagnosis do not change legally defined constructs such as insanity or incompetence.

  3. 76 FR 78695 - Barry M. Schultz, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    .... [See Michael G. Dolin, M.D., 65 FR 5,661 (DEA 2000); Jesus R. Juarez, M.D., 62 FR 14,945 (DEA 1997... 1 (citing 21 U.S.C. 801(21), 823(f), 824(a)(3); Layfe Robert Anthony, M.D., 67 FR 20,346 (2009... Roy Chi Lung, M.D., 74 FR 20,346 (2009); Michael Chait, M.D., 73 FR 40,382 (2008); Shahid...

  4. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple. PMID:25527830

  5. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  6. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Blodi, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927-2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966-1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner's work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  7. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy. PMID:27660504

  8. David Kasner, MD, and the Road to Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blodi, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    David Kasner, MD (1927–2001), used his extensive dissections of eye bank eyes and experiences in teaching cataract surgery to resident physicians to realize that excision of vitreous when present in the anterior chamber of eyes undergoing cataract surgery was preferable to prior intraoperative procedures. Noting that eyes tolerated his maneuvers, he then performed planned subtotal open-sky vitrectomies; first on a traumatized eye in 1961, then on two eyes of patients with amyloidosis (1966–1967). The success of these operations was noted by others, most particularly Robert Machemer, MD. Kasner’s work directly led to further surgical developments, including closed pars plana vitrectomy.

  9. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in mitochondrial diseases (MD).

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martínez, A; Arpa, J; Santiago, S; Pérez-Conde, C; Gutiérrez-Molina, M; Campos, Y

    2004-01-01

    Conventional EMG, nerve conduction studies and SFEMG were performed in 18 patients with various phenotypes of MD. 14 cases showed findings consistent with mild myopathy, 2 patients signs of sensory-motor axonal neuropathy and 2 cases a mixture of myopathy and axonal neuropathy. Motor unit fiber density was mild increased in 8 out of 13 tested cases. Jitter was abnormal in 10 out of 18 tested patients. Jitter abnormalities were not related to myopathic or neurogenic features in the EMG study, and may be observed in muscles without clinical weakness. The results suggest the existence of neuromuscular transmission disturbances in patients with MD.

  10. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: A Legal Study Concerning the Forensic Sciences Personnel. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Oliver, Jr.

    The place and function of forensic sciences personnel in American criminal law and court procedure, and the criteria used by criminal trial judges and lawyers to assess the value of forensic sciences personnel were investigated. Federal, state, Virgin Island, and Puerto Rican laws were examined, and a search of the medical and legal literature…

  11. [Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].

    PubMed

    Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

    2001-01-01

    Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality.

  12. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  13. The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Walsh, Simon J; Margot, Pierre

    2006-01-27

    The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation and the crime analysis process, despite evidence of its great potential in various situations and studies. A change of attitude is needed in order to accept an extended role for forensic science that goes beyond the production of evidence for the court. To stimulate and guide this development, a long-term intensive modelling activity of the investigative and crime analysis process that crosses the boundaries of different disciplines has been initiated. A framework that fully integrates forensic case data shows through examples the capital accumulated that may be put to use systematically.

  14. [Forensic telepsychiatry in Portugal: a few reflections].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno; Cintra, Pedro; Vieira, Fernando; Santos, Jorge Costa

    2011-01-01

    Forensic Telepsychiatry has had growing usage in countries such as the USA and England in the last decade, due to ongoing development of technologies which allow a better access to mental health care in needed populations, and improve the outcome of technicians' work, while facing a more demanding performance of Mental Health facilities. In this article we make a revision of literature concerning applications of Forensic Telepsychiatry, analyzing its potencialities and limits in Portugal. The literature shows positive evidence about efficiency, cost and acceptance, to both patients and doctors. On the other hand, several authors rise issues related to technical, ethical and legal aspects, such as restrictions to its application in forensics; privacy, confidentiality, safety, consent, diagnostic skills and professional responsibility. Forensic Telepsychiatry has shown special utility in remote rural populations with poor access to mental health care, victims of domestic violence, victims of sexual abuse, minor inpatients in correctional facilities and convicts in prisons. It may improve exchange of information with courts and penitentiaries, and production of evidence through quick and efficacious auditing. It has also been used in court to communicate forensic reports concerning mental health patients, to clarify issues related to psychiatric evaluations and testify in criminal and civil courts. Besides the literature revision, three areas of applicability for Forensic Telepsychiatry in Portugal are discussed in this article: teleconference for experts - psychiatrists and psychologists - testifying in court sessions; psychiatric and psychological evaluations through teleconference; expert auditions through a hotline, designed to provide specialized support to courts - both for urgent guidance and clarification. The reflections and proposals included in this article aim to make way to empirical studies which could evaluate the applicability of a more widespread

  15. Edward Jenner, MD, and the scourge that was.

    PubMed

    White, P J; Shackelford, P G

    1983-09-01

    This article was inspired by the global eradication of smallpox in 1980. Rather than reiterate the recent history of this remarkable achievement, we have chosen to celebrate the event by reviewing the early history of smallpox immunization and the contribution of Edward Jenner, MD, to this endeavor. In addition, we present these historical events within the context of knowledge acquired by modern virologists.

  16. 77 FR 64709 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., at 77 FR 18963, the Federal Register published our notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), which... Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., Amendment 39-16740 (76 FR 41662, July 15, 2011), and adding the following new AD: 2012-21-01 MD...

  17. 75 FR 54069 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... (75 FR 30747-30750). The rulemaking concerned eliminating the need for a bridge tender by allowing the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625--AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... Avenue Bridge, at mile 0.9, across Curtis Creek at Baltimore, MD. The requested change would have...

  18. 77 FR 12476 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore..., across Curtis Creek, mile 1.0, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation allows the bridge to operate on...

  19. 75 FR 50707 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... operation of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation... vessels bound for the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay, as well as a significant amount of commercial...

  20. 76 FR 9225 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 50707). The temporary deviation... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... changing the drawbridge operation regulations of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile...

  1. 75 FR 1705 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... operation of the I695 Bridge across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. The deviation is necessary to... section of Curtis Creek and the bridge will not be able to open in the event of an emergency. Coast...

  2. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned would... proposed rulemaking the bridge owner displayed on the Wise Avenue Bridge signage that stated a 48-hour advance notice was required to open the draw bridge. This signage portrayed improper...

  3. 76 FR 70528 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Maryland (FEMA-4038-DR), dated 10/05/2011 . Incident: Remnants of Tropical Storm... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 10/05/2011, is hereby amended to...

  4. 78 FR 11725 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Maryland (FEMA-4091-DR), dated 12/14/ 2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Maryland, dated 12/14/2012 is...

  5. 75 FR 20400 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of MARYLAND (FEMA-1875-DR), dated 02/19/2010. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 02/19/2010, is hereby amended to...

  6. 76 FR 70527 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00018

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00018 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Maryland (FEMA-4038-DR), dated 10/05/2011. Incident: Remnants of Tropical Storm... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 10/05/2011,...

  7. 77 FR 74908 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of MARYLAND (FEMA-4091-DR), dated 11/20/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of MARYLAND, dated 11/20/2012, is hereby amended to include...

  8. 78 FR 3496 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of Maryland (FEMA-4091-DR), dated 11/20/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 11/20/2012, is hereby amended to include...

  9. 77 FR 76587 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Maryland (FEMA-4091-DR), dated 11/20/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 11/20/2012, is hereby amended to include...

  10. 76 FR 67245 - Maryland Disaster Number MD-00016

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Maryland Disaster Number MD-00016 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Maryland (FEMA-4034-DR), dated 09/16/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Maryland, dated 09/16/2011, is hereby amended to include...

  11. Multiple personality and forensic issues.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D O; Bard, J S

    1991-09-01

    As clinicians become more sophisticated regarding MPD, we can expect many more cases to come to the court's attention, especially among violent offenders. This is because violence and MPD have very similar origins in early extraordinary physical and sexual abuse. As offenders become more knowledgeable, we can also expect to encounter more and better malingering. At this time, however, we are far more likely to overlook the problem than we are to overdiagnose it. Why is it that MPD is recognized so infrequently in the offender population? Probably because so many of its characteristics are similar to the symptoms associated with antisocial personality. For example, amnesia for behaviors is dismissed as lying, fugue states appear to be attempts to evade justice; finding things in one's possession looks like stealing; self-mutilation and suicide attempts seem manipulative; and the use of different names at different times and in different circumstances is interpreted as the conscious use of aliases in order to evade the law. Even the dramatic, at times heart-wrenching emotional catharses relating to abuse revealed during hypnosis are so painful that the average person has difficulty accepting that they happened and, therefore, dismisses them as exaggeration or total fabrication. Most often, the diagnosis is missed because the clinician does not even consider it a possibility. In this article we have reviewed some of the ways in which courts have approached the issue of MPD and some of the problems specific to its diagnosis in forensic settings. The clinician must keep in mind that in cases in which issues of mental illness are raised, the law reflects that which it is taught by alleged experts. The case law on multiple personality is still sparse, leaving much room for new data and new interpretations of these data. The current tendency to treat each alternate as though it were a whole and responsible individual as opposed to an imaginary construct, a symptom of a

  12. Present and foreseeable future of metabolomics in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Peinado, L S; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-06-21

    The revulsive publications during the last years on the precariousness of forensic sciences worldwide have promoted the move of major steps towards improvement of this science. One of the steps (viz. a higher involvement of metabolomics in the new era of forensic analysis) deserves to be discussed under different angles. Thus, the characteristics of metabolomics that make it a useful tool in forensic analysis, the aspects in which this omics is so far implicit, but not mentioned in forensic analyses, and how typical forensic parameters such as the post-mortem interval or fingerprints take benefits from metabolomics are critically discussed in this review. The way in which the metabolomics-forensic binomial succeeds when either conventional or less frequent samples are used is highlighted here. Finally, the pillars that should support future developments involving metabolomics and forensic analysis, and the research required for a fruitful in-depth involvement of metabolomics in forensic analysis are critically discussed.

  13. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  14. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  15. Spectroscopic studies beyond N = 152 neutron gap : decay of {sup 255 ovr sub 101}Md and {sup 256 ovr sub 101}Md.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Chasman, R. R.; Fields, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    The isotopes {sup 255}Md and {sup 256}Md were produced by the irradiation of {sup 253}Es with 35-45 MeV {alpha} particles by ({alpha},n) and ({alpha},2n) reactions and were removed from the target by a helium jet system. {alpha}, {gamma}, and {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence spectra were measured with Si and Ge(Li) detectors. From the EC decays of {sup 255}Md and {sup 256}Md, levels in {sup 255}Fm and {sup 256}Fm were deduced. Favored {alpha} decay of {sup 255}Md was found to populate the 7/2{sup -}[514] single-particle state in {sup 251}Es, thus establishing the 7/2{sup -}[514] as the {sup 255}Md ground state. Several {gamma} rays were observed in the {sub 256}Md {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence spectrum. {sup 256}Fm is the heaviest nucleus in which excited intrinsic states have been identified.

  16. Spectroscopic studies beyond the N=152 neutron gap: Decay of {sub 101}{sup 255}Md and {sub 101}{sup 256}Md

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Chasman, R. R.; Fields, P. R.

    2000-04-01

    The isotopes {sup 255}Md and {sup 256}Md were produced by the irradiation of {sup 253}Es with 35-45 MeV {alpha} particles by ({alpha},n) and ({alpha},2n) reactions and were removed from the target by a helium jet system. {alpha}, {gamma}, and {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence spectra were measured with Si and Ge(Li) detectors. From the EC decays of {sup 255}Md and {sup 256}Md, levels in {sup 255}Fm and {sup 256}Fm were deduced. Favored {alpha} decay of {sup 255}Md was found to populate the 7/2{sup -}[514] single-particle state in {sup 251}Es, thus establishing the 7/2{sup -}[514] as the {sup 255}Md ground state. Several {gamma} rays were observed in the {sup 256}Md {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence spectrum. {sup 256}Fm is the heaviest nucleus in which excited intrinsic states have been identified. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Developing Improved MD Codes for Understanding Processive Cellulases

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, M. F.; Uberbacher, E. C.; Brooks III, C. L.; Walker, R.C.; Nimlos, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose.

  18. The forensic expert witness--an issue of competency.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jehuda; Freund, Maya; Kahana, Tzipi

    2007-05-24

    Scientists submitting expert opinions within the legal system are expected to be knowledgeable in the forensic aspects of their particular science, as well as to be ethical and unbiased. Scientists are seldom able to decline a request to provide an expert opinion in their field, even when their forensic expertise is minimal. The competence of scientists providing expert opinions in forensic cases is reviewed here. Three examples of the perils of uninformed "expertise" in forensic biology, medicine and anthropology are presented.

  19. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    PubMed

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  20. [On the interaction between State Forensic Medical Centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor): topical problems and possibilities for their solution].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, P V

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the consideration of topical problems pertaining to the interaction between state forensic medical centers of the Russian Ministry of Defense (SFMF MD RF) and territorial organs of the Russian Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer Rights (Roszdravnadzor) in the framework of unscheduled inspections of the organization and conduction of forensic medical expertise. Such inspections not infrequently give rise to conflicts between the administration of SFMF ND RF and commissions of territorial organs of Roszdravnadzor. The principal source of such conflicts is the representatives of Roszdavnadzor frequently fail to observe the requirements envisaged by the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation regulating activities of this state agency and the laws of the Russian Federation governing action management in the field of forensic medical expertise. The main causes behind the conflicts and their consequences are discussed, recommendations are proposed to resolve them. PMID:21938943

  1. Child neglect and forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Lessig, R

    2001-08-15

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLEN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F. canicularis adults are attracted to both feces and urine. From the face, larvae of the bluebottle fly Calliphora vomitoria L. were collected. C. vomitoria maggots are typical early inhabitants of corpses. From the developmental times of the flies, it was estimated that the anal-genital area of the child had not been cleaned for about 14 days (7-21 day range), and that death occurred only 6-8 days prior to discovery of the body. This is the first report where an examination of the maggot fauna on a person illustrated neglect that had occurred prior to death. PMID:11457624

  2. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  3. [Infanticide. Social and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Bätje, C; Schläfke, D; Nedopil, N; Hässler, F

    2011-07-01

    Infanticides are not specifically classified in German criminal records. Thus, the number of infanticides varies depending on different sources of information. Reports from expert witnesses (n=48, 1980-2007) from the German regions around Munich and Rostock were analyzed retrospectively in order to identify sociodemographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of child murders. In 87.5% of the cases the victims were the natural children of which 25 were younger than 1 year old. Female offenders outnumbered male offenders by 3:1 and on average females were 8 years younger than males (26.5 years for females and 34.2 years for males). The motives included unwanted pregnancy/child, altruistic deeds, acute psychoses, child abuse (sexual abuse, neglect or negligence), drug or alcohol abuse, sadistic punishment of the child and revenge on partners. In 27 cases a restricted or exemption from criminal responsibility was acknowledged. About one third of the offenders consulted a physician before the crime. For an improvement in primary prevention, support networks should be integrated and sensitized to the problem.

  4. [Some problems in forensic assessment].

    PubMed

    Schlegel, J; Amboss, M

    1988-11-01

    The establishing of facts in criminal cases calls for the marshalling of evidence, from every angle and without bias, in strict compliance with the law. The findings of the court in respect of criminal accountability must likewise be established beyond doubt; probability is inadequate as a basis for conviction. The highest degree is inadequate as a basis for conviction. The highest degree of forensic competence in matters psychiatric and psychological must be assured. Expert opinion must proceed from an evaluation of the accused person's capacity to distinguish between right and wrong, taking account of the nature of the offense. Part of this evaluation consists in the determination of the combined effect of the principal determining factors. Greater depth of knowledge is required respecting the part played by alcohol in the capacity to distinguish right from wrong compared with impulse, mental deficiency, grave abnormal development, etc. In the interests of securing a sound judgment of criminal accountability, further research is desirable into the complexus of determining factors, for example, into the multifunctional contribution of deranged physiological structures and processes which take a mental and/or psychopathological course.

  5. Gray areas in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ryans, M M

    1978-08-01

    The field of forensic psychiatry is not always compatible with legalities in our court system, causing some cases to be in a "gray" area. A case is presented, demonstrating shortcomings of the M'Naghten rule, which is meant to protect the mentally ill person from being incarcerated when he is not aware of the nature or the seriousness of the crime of which he stands accused. However, this rule is not applicable when there is awareness, even if the patient is laboring under a delusional system. In the case to be considered, the individual suffers by being given a criminal record instead of being found not guilty by reason of insanity, although the end result is the same.The author feels there should be a much broader interpretation of the M'Naghten rule to encompass the full intent of protecting the mentally ill person but to exclude the sociopath and those with character disorders. The Durham rule is not workable because of this inclusion.

  6. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

  7. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world.

  8. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined.

  9. Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.

    PubMed

    Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.

  10. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large.

  11. Doing forensic work, I: starting the case.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2012-03-01

    The private forensic work discussed here is performed as an "expert" or "expert witness," defined in law as a person who is allowed to offer opinions to a court. One should not be an expert in forensic matters that involve one's own patients. Initial communication with the potential retaining entity (e.g., lawyer, court, agency, insurance company) should clarify the case, the lack of conflict of interest, one's possible forensic role, and practicalities such as fees, scheduling, and the way in which the work will be performed. One should guard against being misused, or having one's opinions misconstrued, in forensic matters, including being named as an expert witness without actually being retained (a "phantom expert"). Communicating orally with the retaining entity about progress and findings is important; written findings or opinions should be created or communicated only if the lawyer (or other retaining entity) requests them. Opinions should not be rendered without adequate review of complete and credible records and/or other sources, and even then caveats or disclaimers may be ethically or legally required. The forensic work routine almost always begins with record review, and may or may not include examining a litigant or other person. PMID:22418403

  12. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  13. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  14. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  15. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  16. Practice Parameter for Child and Adolescent Forensic Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Parameter addresses the key concepts that differentiate the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents from a clinical assessment. There are ethical issues unique to the forensic evaluation, because the forensic evaluator's duty is to the person, court, or agency requesting the evaluation, rather than to the patient. The forensic…

  17. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  18. Setting Course: The Case for the Credentialing of Forensic Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Mike; Vieth, Victor I.; Campos, Hector M.

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a history of efforts to develop a credentialing or certification process for forensic interviewers and reviews the multitiered credentialing process offered by the National Association of Certified Child Forensic Interviewers. The authors argue the benefits of a credentialing process for forensic interviewers and respond to…

  19. Forensic social work in a mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Goldmeier, J; Wise, B F; Wright, C U

    1986-01-01

    In forensic social work, a relatively new field of practice, significant contact between social work and the law is prominent. A statewide program of services to forensic psychiatric patients in Maryland demonstrates the principles and issues involved in forensic work and the widespread applicability of social work concerns in the criminal justice and mental health systems.

  20. Computer Forensics: Is It the Next Hot IT Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Victor G.; Revels, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forensics is not just the recovery of data or information from computer systems and their networks. It is not a procedure that can be accomplished by software alone, and most important, it is not something that can be accomplished by other than a trained IT forensic professional. Digital Forensics is an emerging science and was developed…

  1. Remarks on forensically interesting Microsoft XBox 360 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Microsoft Xbox 360 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analysed more precisely. One of the main aspects of the study is to analyse the used file system which was examined for forensic features. Possible difficulties that might be of importance to the forensic investigator are discussed.

  2. 28 CFR 90.14 - Forensic medical examination payment requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forensic medical examination for the purpose of gathering evidence of a sexual assault (e.g., the full cost... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forensic medical examination payment... Program § 90.14 Forensic medical examination payment requirement. (a) For the purpose of this subpart B,...

  3. Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

    2008-12-01

    The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography. PMID:19145795

  4. Forensic science, genetics and wildlife biology: getting the right mix for a wildlife DNA forensics lab.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob

    2010-09-01

    Wildlife DNA forensics is receiving increasing coverage in the popular press and has begun to appear in the scientific literature in relation to several different fields. Recognized as an applied subject, it rests on top of very diverse scientific pillars ranging from biochemistry through to evolutionary genetics, all embedded within the context of modern forensic science. This breadth of scope, combined with typically limited resources, has often left wildlife DNA forensics hanging precariously between human DNA forensics and academics keen to seek novel applications for biological research. How best to bridge this gap is a matter for regular debate among the relatively few full-time practitioners in the field. The decisions involved in establishing forensic genetic services to investigate wildlife crime can be complex, particularly where crimes involve a wide range of species and evidential questions. This paper examines some of the issues relevant to setting up a wildlife DNA forensics laboratory based on experiences of working in this area over the past 7 years. It includes a discussion of various models for operating individual laboratories as well as options for organizing forensic testing at higher national and international levels.

  5. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist

    PubMed Central

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D.; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C.; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public. PMID:23162478

  6. Collaboration: The Paradigm of Practice Approach between the Forensic Psychiatrist and the Forensic Psychologist.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo-Goyea, Ernest Ayodele; Akpudo, Hilary; Jackson, Cynthia D; Wassef, Tamer; Barker, Narviar C; Cunningham-Burley, Rhonda; Ali, Shahid A; Jabeen, Shagufta; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    The importance and relevance of forensic practice to societal evolution has increased exponentially in recent years. As society evolves in its understanding of the complex relationships between mankind and society, we rely more and more on the services of forensic experts. This article elucidates the professions of forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology. We examine the two distinct professions from the spectrum of collaboration, integration of services, differences, and similarities. We also compare and contrast the educational background and training requirements for these two professions; and present illustrative scenarios and real life examples of the daily functions of both professionals. Lastly, we present demographic data for the areas of employment, numbers, and geographic distribution of the two professions. Forensic psychiatry is the interface between medicine and law, while forensic psychology is the interface between psychology and law. As such, these professions are mired with complexities and challenged by vulnerabilities. Professionals from both fields can serve as expert witnesses in court and therefore face similar challenges in their course of professional practice. Collaboration between these two professions has the potential to increase both the credibility and utility of forensic services to the courts, the individuals served, and the general public.

  7. Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

    2008-12-01

    The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography.

  8. Awareness of forensic odontology among police personnel: A new ray of hope in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Jeergal, Prabhakar; Venkatesh, Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Police personnel play an important role in collecting and producing evidence. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic as well as dental sciences and related evidence in them provide a golden opportunity to forensic odontologists to actively participate in the identification of the accused or victim. They can also act as an expert witness in court to produce forensic dental evidence. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about the utilization of forensic odontology during evidence collection by the crime scene investigation (CSI) officers. Materials and Methods: Four hundred police officers were included in this survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the awareness and knowledge about forensic odontology and application of the known knowledge in identifying and considering the dental evidences. Data were analyzed using the software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Il, USA) version 17.0 by comparing the overall awareness of forensic odontology among the trained SI officers and trainee police personnel. Results: The collected results showed that there is a requirement for changes in the current practice of evidence collection and highlighted the need for better communication between the police personnel and forensic odontologists. A significantly higher number of police officers in both the trained and trainee groups reported knowledge about the subject (P < 0.001) through newspapers and mass media as the sources of knowledge. Conclusion: Even though the respondents have knowledge about forensic odontology, there is a lack of communication and facilities in their system; hence, steps must be taken to educate the police personnel about the application of forensic odontology. PMID:27051225

  9. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. PMID:26409570

  10. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed.

  11. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily. PMID:19804526

  12. The future of forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-08-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles.

  13. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  14. Bite injuries: pathophysiology, forensic analysis, and management.

    PubMed

    Liston, P N; Tong, D C; Firth, N A; Kieser, J A

    2001-06-01

    Bites are serious injuries that constitute 1 percent of all emergency-department visits in the United States of America. Human bite injuries may lead to loss of function, infection, and gross disfigurement, and often are associated with interpersonal and sexual violence, and child abuse. Issues with infection from oral contaminants, tissue damage, and difficult surgical reconstruction make the management of human bite injuries a challenge. The unique nature of teeth and the bite marks they produce are invaluable in forensic pathology. A systematic and detailed evaluation of bite injuries should be performed by a forensic odontologist in order to provide the necessary information for forensic purposes. Management of human bite injuries includes wound debridement, surgery to repair or replace damaged tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. PMID:11468936

  15. Nuclear Forensics for High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

    2011-04-01

    We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3--7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students. We acknowledge generous support from the Department of Homeland Security and the AIP Meggars Award.

  16. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  17. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies.

    PubMed

    Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-06-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide.

  18. Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2006-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law, and with the flow of mentally disordered offenders along a continuum of social systems. Modern forensic psychiatry has benefited from four key developments: the evolution in the understanding and appreciation of the relationship between mental illness and criminality; the evolution of the legal tests to define legal insanity; the new methodologies for the treatment of mental conditions providing alternatives to custodial care; and the changes in attitudes and perceptions of mental illness among the public. This paper reviews the current scope of forensic psychiatry and the ethical dilemmas that this subspecialty is facing worldwide. PMID:16946941

  19. The future of forensic DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of ‘faster, higher, stronger’, forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  20. Clinical criminology: a bridge between forensic professionals.

    PubMed

    Silfen, P; Ben-David, S

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades a new profession has developed--clinical criminology. The purpose of this article is to highlight its development. Criminology is defined as a interdisciplinary super-profession. We tend to view criminology as a basic profession with a number of specializations. Clinical criminology is one of these specializations. Forensic psychiatry and clinical criminology have common roots in psychiatry, law and behavioural sciences. They overlap in some fields. Members of both professions work in the same setting and share some of the tasks, but the formal and professional responsibilities differ significantly. We perceive clinical criminology and forensic psychiatry as complementary professions belonging to medicine. The multidisciplinary educated clinical criminologist is the only professional in the forensic system who is qualified to moderate between the mental health and legal expert.

  1. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  2. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  3. Bite injuries: pathophysiology, forensic analysis, and management.

    PubMed

    Liston, P N; Tong, D C; Firth, N A; Kieser, J A

    2001-06-01

    Bites are serious injuries that constitute 1 percent of all emergency-department visits in the United States of America. Human bite injuries may lead to loss of function, infection, and gross disfigurement, and often are associated with interpersonal and sexual violence, and child abuse. Issues with infection from oral contaminants, tissue damage, and difficult surgical reconstruction make the management of human bite injuries a challenge. The unique nature of teeth and the bite marks they produce are invaluable in forensic pathology. A systematic and detailed evaluation of bite injuries should be performed by a forensic odontologist in order to provide the necessary information for forensic purposes. Management of human bite injuries includes wound debridement, surgery to repair or replace damaged tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy.

  4. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession. A Survey of Educational Offerings in the Forensic Sciences. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This survey of the educational offerings in the Forensic Sciences was initiated to identify institutions and agencies offering educational courses and/or programs in the forensic sciences and to evaluate the availability of these programs. The information gathered by surveying members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences reveals that…

  5. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam. PMID:12741660

  6. Women's rights in Pakistan: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sibte

    2003-04-01

    Pakistan is a large and an important West Asian country which came into being in the name of Islam and therefore Islamic tenets remain the core of its constitution. The laws of the state have to conform to Islamic law so that they can have a positive impact on the society. Unfortunately, in Pakistan today not all men enjoy the rights and facilities to which they are entitled and women are doubly disadvantaged by poverty and gender. With their own political agendas, various governments have promulgated laws which affect the society in various ways. The laws which directly influence women's rights merit mention, as women comprise more than 50% of the population of Pakistan and are still kept on the sidelines by the male dominant society. The Muslim Family Law Ordinance, 1961, and the Hudood Ordinance, 1979 were both promulgated by military dictators with different visions. The former codified the rights of women bestowed by Islamic law; the latter repealed laws for sexual offences according to the injunctions of Islam and had a negative impact. Both laws need the assistance of forensic medicine as age estimation and medical examinations are necessary if they are to be followed in the right perspective. However, a legal need for an examination by an expert in forensic medicine is sadly lacking in both laws. This has happened due to lack of training of forensic physicians and therefore a lack of research in important areas of forensic medicine in the country. This paper examines these laws and the interaction they have with forensic medicine and proposes that the laws need revision in accordance with modern science, incorporating forensic sciences as well as the injunctions of Islam.

  7. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance.

  8. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. PMID:25378687

  9. Effects of publicity on a forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, S M; Bloom, J D

    1993-01-01

    Oregon's forensic psychiatry hospital experienced a convulsing chain of events that began with the escape of an insanity acquittee who had been hospitalized following two murders. Although the patient was arrested without reoffending, there were major repercussions in the hospital. This event and related state hospital topics became the subject of intense publicity in the local newspaper. Articles ran almost daily for over a month, the majority of which were on page one. We give here an account of the episode and examine the meaning of the media coverage in the light of administration of public mental health systems, particularly where forensic psychiatry is involved.

  10. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  11. [Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

    2010-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic.

  12. Telepsychiatry: critical dimensions for forensic services.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas W; Burton, Deborah C; Hill, Kelly; Luftman, Ginny; Veltkemp, Lane J; Swope, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The use of telepsychiatry technology and services has gained attention among legal and clinical practitioners. In the current article, telepsychiatry is defined, and an innovative model of telepsychiatry care delivery that is in use in a child and adolescent forensic evaluation clinic is examined. Critical factors specific to forensics services are examined, as are those specific to telepsychiatry, including transmission mode, privacy and confidentiality, expense, quality of care, face-to-face versus video transmission, user satisfaction, and liability concerns in the use of telepsychiatry.

  13. Visual Color Comparisons in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1997-06-01

    Color is used extensively in forensic science for the characterization and comparison of physical evidence, and should thus be well understood. Fundamental elements of color perception and color comparison systems are first reviewed. The second portion of this article discusses instances in which defects in color perception may occur, and the recognition of opportunities by means of which color perception and color discrimination may be expressed and enhanced. Application and limitations of color comparisons in forensic science, including soil, paint, and fibers comparisons and color tests, are reviewed.

  14. Forensic perioperative nursing. Advocates for justice.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, M; Collington, P; Tyndall, J

    2000-12-01

    Facts and evidence have been negated or lost by the inexperience of health care professionals who are not cognizant of the legal requirements concerning potential criminal cases. In the perioperative setting, policy and procedure should provide guidelines for potential criminal cases based on the key concepts and principles of forensic science. Potential forensic cases and traumatic injuries are not limited to major health care centres. All hospitals should have policies and procedures which outline: traumatic injuries/death, staff responsibilities, details of collecting evidence, documentation, chain of custody. The procedure should also include care of victims, suspected perpetrators as well as family/persons accompanying patient.

  15. Enhancing MD simulations of proteins using vague and combinatorics information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Ken

    We have developed MELD, a method that `melds' together replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with external information. Traditionally, accelerating MD simulations has only been possible by using information that is precise and correct. In contrast, MELD allows us to leverage information that is vague or corrupted. For example, we give generic instructives, such as `make a hydrophobic core', `make good secondary structures', or `search only compact structures'. Normally, such information implies a loss of ability to compute free energies and populations. But, MELD satisfies detailed balance. We show that it can fold small proteins much faster than brute-force MD can, that it gives reasonable populations, and that it can succeed in CASP, the blind protein-structure prediction event.

  16. Samuel Smith, M.D.: first American professor of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pinta, E R

    1994-04-01

    In 1847 Samuel M. Smith, M.D., was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence and insanity at the Willoughby Medical College of Columbus, Ohio, making him the first person to chair a department of psychiatry at an American medical school. Using materials from newspaper reports, records of the medical school and state medical society, and other sources, the author presents a biographical sketch of this pioneer educator. Dr. Smith received his first practical experience in psychiatry as an assistant to William M. Awl, M.D., one of the 13 founders of the American Psychiatric Association. Over the course of his career, he held many prominent positions, including lecturer and dean at the medical school, president of the Ohio State Medical Society, and surgeon general of Ohio during the Civil War.

  17. 78 FR 38001 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Breton Bay; St. Mary's County, Leonardtown, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...; St. Mary's County, Leonardtown, MD'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 21864). The rulemaking concerned... along longitude 076 38'30'' W, located at Leonardtown, MD. The regulations were needed to...

  18. Perryman Substation. Perryman, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 69.30 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perryman Substation. Perryman, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 69.30 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Gunpowder Substation. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 80.00. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gunpowder Substation. Harewood, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 80.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Orangeville Yards. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 91.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Fulton Avenue Bridge/Tunnel. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fulton Avenue Bridge/Tunnel. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 97.56. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. North Point Substation. Rosedale, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, 90.00. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North Point Substation. Rosedale, Baltimore Co., MD. Sec. 1201, 90.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle.

  4. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  5. [Forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yun-Liang; Peng, Ming-Qi

    2013-12-01

    As an important component of judicial expertise, forensic science is broad and highly specialized. With development of network technology, increasement of information resources, and improvement of people's legal consciousness, forensic scientists encounter many new problems, and have been required to meet higher evidentiary standards in litigation. In view of this, evidence-based concept should be established in forensic medicine. We should find the most suitable method in forensic science field and other related area to solve specific problems in the evidence-based mode. Evidence-based practice can solve the problems in legal medical field, and it will play a great role in promoting the progress and development of forensic science. This article reviews the basic theory of evidence-based medicine and its effect, way, method, and evaluation in the forensic medicine in order to discuss the application value of forensic evidence-based medicine in computer communication networks.

  6. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined.

  7. Hybrid MC/MD Method For High Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bojun; Widom, Michael

    High entropy alloys (HEA) are materials that contain multiple components of elements consisting of a single solid solution phase which could make the entropy of mixing very high. From recent investigations, HEA's possess promising properties such as strength at high temperature, tensile strength, thermal stability and corrosion resistance. In this talk, a hybrid Molecular Dynamics (MD)/Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method is introduced to the computational analysis of HEA, treating atomic displacement by MD as well as swapping atomic species by MC. This method efficiently models the phase separation and short range order by swapping between different types of atoms, while structural deviation from the perfect lattice sites of atoms is equilibrated quickly by MD. We apply this method to HfNbTaZr HEA modeled using an embedded-atom potential. The result gives a strong phase separation of Hf-Zr and Nb-Ta pairs shown by the pair correlation function. Diffuse scattering patterns are predicted and compared to experiments. Doe Grant No. DE-SC0014506.

  8. Structure and Properties of HELICAL CARBON NANOTUBES through MD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Akshay; Verma, Deepti; Gupta, Shakti S.

    Helical Carbon Nanotubes (HCNTs) are coiled 3-valent carbon networks which represent pure carbon helix. Here we study the geometries of two classes: hexagonal helix containing purely polyhex networks and the second class with 5-and 7-membered rings besides hexagons. We followed a model of hexagonal, single wall HCNTs, and determined their relaxed configuration using MD simulations based on Tersoff potential. A race-track like structure is observed in the cross-section of HCNTs upon minimization. For generating class two helix, the adjacency matrix eigenvector's (AME) method is applied which utilizes 3-coordinated tiling of the plane by 5-,6-,and 7-membered ring for the construction of helical structures. The application of the AME method to torusenes is crucial for class two helix generation as it is based on an appropriate choice of bi-lobial eigenvectors triplet which can be selected on the basis of their nodal properties as verified here. After 3-D transformations the final structure was obtained with the help of MM3-potential based MD simulations on Tinker commercial code. The spring constants of HCNTs are computed through MD simulations.

  9. 76 FR 71369 - Robert G. Crummie, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... authority under the laws of the state in which he does business. See Scott Sandarg, D.M.D., 74 FR 17528 (DEA 2009); David W. Wang, M.D., 72 FR 54297 (DEA 2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, M.D., 71 FR 39130 (DEA 2006); Dominick A. Ricci, M.D., 58 FR 51104 (DEA 1993); Bobby Watts M.D., 53 FR 11919 (DEA 1988). In the...

  10. 77 FR 67669 - Wayne D. Longmore, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    .... Edwards, M.D., 75 FR 49,991 (DEA 2010); Joseph Baumstarck, M.D., 74 FR 17,525 (DEA 2009). In this case... Baumstarck, M.D., 74 FR at 17,527 (DEA 2009). Thus, because there is no dispute that the Respondent lacks... cancellation); William R. Lockridge, M.D., 71 FR 77,791, 77,797 (DEA 2006) (interpreting 21 CFR 1301.52(a)...

  11. 76 FR 71370 - Silviu Ziscovici, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... the state in which he does business. See Scott Sandarg, D.M.D., 74 FR 17,528 (DEA 2009); David W. Wang, M.D., 72 FR 54,297 (DEA 2007); Sheran ] Arden Yeates, M.D., 71 FR 39,130 (DEA 2006); Dominick A. Ricci, M.D., 58 FR 51,104 (DEA 1993); Bobby Watts M.D., 53 Fed. Reg. 11,919 (DEA 1988)....

  12. 78 FR 7813 - Sanjay Trivedi, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... authority''); Beverley P. Edwards, M.D., 75 FR 49,991 (DEA 2010); Joseph Baumstarck, M.D., 74 FR 17,525 (DEA... Florida. Consequently, his DEA registration must be revoked. See Joseph Baumstarck, M.D., 74 FR 17,525, 17... Coast Specialty Pharmacy, 76 FR 66,965 (DEA 2011); Roy Chi Lung, M.D., 74 FR 20,346 (DEA 2009);...

  13. 77 FR 7182 - Scott W. Houghton, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... practitioner who lacks .'' Roy Chi Lung, 74 FR 20346, 20347 (2009); Scott Sandarg, D.M.D., 74 FR 17528, 174529 (2009); John B. Freitas, D.O., 74 FR 17524, 17525 (2009); Roger A. Rodriguez, M.D., 70 FR 33206, 33207 (2005); Stephen J. Graham, M.D., 69 FR 11661 (2004); Dominick A. Ricci, M.D., 58 FR 51104...

  14. 78 FR 19009 - Gary Alfred Shearer, M.D.; Decision And Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... (2000); Jesus R. Juarez, M.D., 62 FR 14945 (1997); see also Philip E. Kirk, M.D., 48 FR 32887 (1983... proceeding under section 304, 21 U.S.C. 824, of the CSA.'' Zhiwei Lin, 77 FR 18862, 18864 (2012) (citing... Kentucky, not Florida.) \\16\\ See Michael G. Dolin, M.D., 65 FR 5661 (2000); see also Philip E. Kirk,...

  15. 77 FR 67673 - Fernando Valle, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... not required. See Jesus R. Juarez, M.D., 62 FR 14945 (1997); Dominick A. Ricci, M.D., 58 FR 51104... DEA registration. Serenity Caf , 77 FR 35027, 35028 (2012); David W. Wang, 72 FR 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, M.D., 58 FR 51104 (1993); Bobby...

  16. 77 FR 67671 - Larry Elbert Perry, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Enforcement Administration Larry Elbert Perry, M.D.; Decision and Order On July 2, 2012, Chief Administrative... Elbert Perry, M.D., be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Larry Elbert Perry, M.D., to renew or modify his registration, be, and it hereby is, denied. This Order...

  17. The Application Research of MD5 Encryption Algorithm in DCT Digital Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xijin, Wang; Linxiu, Fan

    This article did the preliminary study of the application of algorithm for MD5 in the digital watermark. It proposed that copyright information will be encrypted using an algorithm MD5, and made rules for the second value image watermarks, through DCT algorithm that embeds an image by the carrier. The extraction algorithms can pick up the watermark and restore MD5 code.

  18. 76 FR 60889 - Stephen L. Reitman, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Stephen L. Reitman, M.D.; Decision and Order On July 20, 2010, Administrative Law... January 19, 2011. In re Stephen Lee Reitman, M.D., Decision at 1 (Cal. Med. Bd. Dec. 20, 2010). I take... substances properly if entrusted with a DEA registration.''' Id. (quoting Leonardo v. Lopez, M.D., 54...

  19. Crystal structure of soluble MD-1 and its interaction with lipid IVa

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Hong, Minsun; Han, Gye Won; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-07-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria is a common pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that induces potent innate immune responses. The host immune response against LPS is triggered by myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) in association with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the cell surface. The MD-2/TLR4-mediated LPS response is regulated by the evolutionarily related complex of MD-1 and Toll-like receptor homolog RP105. Here, we report crystallographic and biophysical data that demonstrate a previously unidentified direct interaction of MD-1 with LPS. The crystal structure of chicken MD-1 (cMD-1) at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution exhibits a {beta}-cup-like fold, similar to MD-2, that encloses a hydrophobic cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. A lipid-like moiety was observed inside the cavity, suggesting the possibility of a direct MD-1/LPS interaction. LPS was subsequently identified as an MD-1 ligand by native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration analyses. The crystal structure of cMD-1 with lipid IVa, an LPS precursor, at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution revealed that the lipid inserts into the deep hydrophobic cavity of the {beta}-cup-like structure, but with some important differences compared with MD-2. These findings suggest that soluble MD-1 alone, in addition to its complex with RP105, can regulate host LPS sensitivity.

  20. Validity of the Medical College Admission Test for Predicting MD-PhD Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.

    2016-01-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…

  1. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 ] Bridge across the Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill MD, has...

  2. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  3. The Rise of Forensic Pathology in Human Medicine: Lessons for Veterinary Forensic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, M S

    2016-09-01

    The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions.

  4. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed.

  5. The Class of 1989 and post-MD training

    PubMed Central

    Ryten, E; Thurber, A D; Buske, L

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: "The Class of 1989" is a longitudinal study of 1722 people who were awarded an MD degree by a Canadian university in 1989. This paper reports on the details of their post-MD training up to spring 1996. METHODS: Several medical professional and educational associations in Canada and the United States provided year-by-year information on field and location of post-MD training, certification achieved, whether in practice and location of practice through to spring 1996. Information from all sources was linked to a list of 1989 medical school graduates. RESULTS: Of the 1722 graduates 57 (3.3%) never entered post-MD training in Canada; 147 (8.5%) did 1 or more years of training in the United States. A total of 222 graduates (12.9%) took a break of at least 1 year from training, and 301 (17.5%) changed their choice of field or specialty after starting training. Substantial numbers took 1 or more years longer to complete training than would be expected based on the prescribed length of the training program chosen. The field or specialty choices of the cohort produced a generalist:specialist ratio of 58:42. The final numbers in several fields depended heavily on trainees changing their initial career choice. INTERPRETATION: The data point out widely differing and often very long lead times from start to completion of training. Since 1993, changes to licensure requirements have reduced opportunities for recent graduating cohorts to delay final career choices, take a break in training, prolong training or change initial career choices. Rigidities in the post-1993 training environment point to the emergence of a number of serious problems, such as dissatisfaction and high anxiety levels among residents, licensing authorities being faced with people who have not completed a training program to certification, and insufficient provision of positions for post-MD training because of underestimates of the time needed to complete training programs. The insights gained

  6. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents. PMID:19241065

  7. Commentary: on research and forensic patients' capacity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard

    2005-01-01

    The author agrees that McDermott and colleagues present evidence that may support and ethically facilitate clinical research in the forensic population. Such research is sorely needed if we are to better understand and find new ways to help this population.

  8. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  9. Online Database Coverage of Forensic Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Bonnie; Ifshin, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Online seaches of sample topics in the area of forensic medicine were conducted in the following life science databases: Biosis Previews, Excerpta Medica, Medline, Scisearch, and Chemical Abstracts Search. Search outputs analyzed according to criteria of recall, uniqueness, overlap, and utility reveal the need for a cross-database approach to…

  10. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  11. Prosecuting Assaultive Forensic and Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Kerri C.; Reddon, John R.; Chudleigh, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Inpatient assault of forensic and psychiatric staff is a complex and multifaceted issue. Hence, the consequences reported in the literature regarding prosecuting assaultive inpatients are quite variable. In this article, issues pertaining to the prosecution of violent inpatients are reviewed. Illustrative cases, challenges of prosecution,…

  12. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Phillips, P. Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A.; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  13. [Preparation of forensic reports of injuries].

    PubMed

    Bórquez V, Pamela

    2012-03-01

    This article makes recommendations, based on good clinical practice, for the elaboration of forensic reports of injuries, required during the administration of justice. According to the new legislature in Chile, physicians must participate in the examination of victims of violent acts or accidents.

  14. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.

  15. Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff, John B.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-01-03

    Chemical and physical signatures for microbial forensics John Cliff and Helen Kreuzer-Martin, eds. Humana Press Chapter 1. Introduction: Review of history and statement of need. Randy Murch, Virginia Tech Chapter 2. The Microbe: Structure, morphology, and physiology of the microbe as they relate to potential signatures of growth conditions. Joany Jackman, Johns Hopkins University Chapter 3. Science for Forensics: Special considerations for the forensic arena - quality control, sample integrity, etc. Mark Wilson (retired FBI): Western Carolina University Chapter 4. Physical signatures: Light and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gravimetry etc. Joseph Michael, Sandia National Laboratory Chapter 5. Lipids: FAME, PLFA, steroids, LPS, etc. James Robertson, Federal Bureau of Investigation Chapter 6. Carbohydrates: Cell wall components, cytoplasm components, methods Alvin Fox, University of South Carolina School of Medicine David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 7. Peptides: Peptides, proteins, lipoproteins David Wunschel, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 8. Elemental content: CNOHPS (treated in passing), metals, prospective cell types John Cliff, International Atomic Energy Agency Chapter 9. Isotopic signatures: Stable isotopes C,N,H,O,S, 14C dating, potential for heavy elements. Helen Kreuzer-Martin, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michaele Kashgarian, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chapter 10. Extracellular signatures: Cellular debris, heme, agar, headspace, spent media, etc Karen Wahl, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Chapter 11. Data Reduction and Integrated Microbial Forensics: Statistical concepts, parametric and multivariate statistics, integrating signatures Kristin Jarman, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. Findings from an Elder Abuse Forensic Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Burnight, Kerry; Younglove, Ted; Jeske, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The first Elder Abuse Forensic Center (EAFC) in the United States was instituted in 2003. People from a variety of disciplines, including Adult Protective Services social workers, law enforcement, the district attorney's office, a medical response team, public guardian deputies, ombudsmen, mental health services, a victim advocate, and a…

  17. Ethical Considerations in Building a Forensic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Sandra

    There are three systems of ethics applicable to forensics programs. The classical conception borrows from Quintilian's reference to a "good man speaking well." A second approach starts from the context of a democratic society and builds on the principles that should govern a speaker in that setting, among which are the obligation to select and…

  18. Review of Forensic Tools for Smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahankhani, Hamid; Azam, Amir

    The technological capability of mobile devices in particular Smartphones makes their use of value to the criminal community as a data terminal in the facilitation of organised crime or terrorism. The effective targeting of these devices from criminal and security intelligence perspectives and subsequent detailed forensic examination of the targeted device will significantly enhance the evidence available to the law enforcement community. When phone devices are involved in crimes, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and prompt examination of information present on these devices. Smartphones that are compliant to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) standards, will maintains their identity and user's personal information on Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Beside SIM cards, substantial amount of information is stored on device's internal memory and external memory modules. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the currently available forensic software tools that are developed to carry out forensic investigation of mobile devices and point to current weaknesses within this process.

  19. A Forensic Approach to Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Selman A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a forensic-oriented, college-level course in consumer chemistry. Includes course goals, topical outline, and list of chemical ingredients in consumer products useful for student research projects. The first section of the course focuses on mathematics since students in introductory courses may fear doing the most rudimentary mathematical…

  20. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  1. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    PubMed

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  2. Ethics in child and adolescent forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Richard A

    2002-10-01

    Ethical concerns are ever present in the practice of all branches of psychiatry. They are likely to be more acute and commonplace in the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry because of the complication introduced by the immaturity of the patient. Children, depending on their age and developmental stage, may be incapable of giving meaningful consent, and situations in which breaking confidentiality must be considered arise more often. The field of forensic psychiatry is fundamentally different from clinical psychiatry because of the universal involvement of third parties and because interactions with evaluees do not occur within the context of a doctor patient relationship. Arguably, these conditions compel the forensic psychiatrist to function as a double agent. According to Appelbaum, an influential psychiatric ethicist, forensic practice calls for a different set of ethical guidelines that, while humane, do not either imply or derive from the existence of a doctor patient relationship. Others argue that a mix of forensic and clinical ethics is more appropriate. New developments in psychiatry, including the use of the Internet for E-mail and telepsychiatry, require continuing vigilance by the profession so that ethical standards can evolve to cover new circumstances at the frontiers of psychiatric practice.

  3. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  4. Criminal Forensic Psychiatry: A Primer for Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases. PMID:27337424

  5. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  6. [Integrative concepts in modern forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Dittmann, V

    1996-03-01

    Forensic psychiatric diagnosis and treatment should be guided by juridical goals and never be an end in itself. As a whole it is a public service concerning the interests of the perpetrators and the security of the entire population as well. Recent progress in forensic psychiatry is based on integral and comprehensive concepts. In the evaluation of criminal responsibility the new approaches of psychiatric diagnosis like operationalism, application of quantificating instruments and multiaxial diagnostic systems are of considerable importance. The ICD-10 classification of WHO can now be regarded as our reference system. To be acceptable for juridical purposes the evaluation of criminal responsibility has to be based on a systematical analysis of all important factors like actual situation of crime, environment, influence of psychotropic substances, psychosocial stressors, influences of biography and mental disorders. Assessment of prognosis is obligatory by law in many cases. These are juridical decisions, which have to be prepared by the psychiatric experts in the form of risk evaluations considering factors like development of delinquency, analysis of crime, kind of mental disturbance, insight of the perpetrator in his disorder, social competence, selfexamination of the perpetrator of his crime, possible therapies and social circumstances after discharge. Only an integral multiprofessional approach can be regarded as successful in the therapy of forensic high risk patients with paraphilas and aggressive impulse-control disorders. In Switzerland there is still a considerable lack of appropriate institutions for these patients. The vast amount of data accumulated during forensic psychiatric routine should be analysed in multicenter studies with scientific documentation systems to achieve progress in forensic risk calculation and efficiency of therapies.

  7. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  8. Forensic medicine services in Uganda--present and future.

    PubMed

    Bimenya, G S; Bhootra, B L; Mukasa, Nsereko

    2005-04-01

    Forensic medicine services (medico-legal services) as it is provided today in Uganda is discussed with special reference to forensic pathology and also to future plans for improvement to ensure quality service. Forensic medicine services are divided into clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Uganda, these services are rendered partly by pathologists attached to University, by pathologists and medical officers employed by police and by medical officers attached to hospitals. In Uganda, all types of unnatural deaths are reported to nearest police station and appointed investigating police officer(s) will take necessary action to have a medico-legal postmortem done as soon as possible. Currently there is no qualified forensic pathologist in Uganda. Suggestions are made with regard to the enactment of a Forensic Medicine Services Act by the Department of Health, the creation of a forensic medicine unit with, under the administrative umbrella of pathology department, in medical schools and imparting of forensic medicine training to anatomical pathologists to act as a qualified, specialist forensic pathologists.

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-281 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-281 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 281).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-289 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-289 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 289).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-282 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-282 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 282).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-330 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-330 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 330).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-299 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-299 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 299).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-318 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-318 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 318).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-328 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-328 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 328).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-263 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-263 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 263).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-286 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-286 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 286).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-324 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-324 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 324).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-331 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-331 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 331).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-279 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-279 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 279).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-334 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-334 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 334).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-326 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-326 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 326).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-297 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-297 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 297).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-339 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-339 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 339).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-315 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-315 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 315).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-268 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-268 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 268).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-335 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-335 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 335).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-272 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-272 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 272).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-329 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-329 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 329).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-336 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-336 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 336).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-307 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-307 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 307).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-273 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-273 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 273).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-308 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-308 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 308).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-327 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-327 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 327).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-341 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-341 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 341).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-266 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-266 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 266).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-274 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-274 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 274).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-338 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-338 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 338).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-291 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-291 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 291).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-321 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-321 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 321).