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Sample records for mdck cell line

  1. The MDCK epithelial cell line expresses a cell surface antigen of the kidney distal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to identify epithelial cell surface macromolecules involved in renal function. Lymphocyte hybrids were generated by fusing P3U-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a C3H mouse immunized with MDCK cells. Hybridomas secreting anti-MDCK antibodies were obtained and clonal lines isolated in soft agarose. We are reporting on one hybridoma line that secretes a monoclonal antibody that binds to MDCK cells at levels 20-fold greater than background binding. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to study the distribution of antibody binding on MDCK cells and on frozen sections of dog kidney and several nonrenal tissues. In the kidney the fluorescence staining pattern demonstrates that the antibody recognizes an antigenic determinant that is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loops and the distal convoluted tubule and appears to be localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. This antigen also has a unique distribution in non-renal tissues and can only be detected on cells known to be active in transepithelial ion movements. These results indicate the probable distal tubule origin of MDCK and suggest that the monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell surface antigen involved in physiological functions unique to the kidney distal tubule and transporting epithelia of nonrenal tissues. PMID:6178742

  2. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results.

  3. The multiplication of an influenza C virus in an established line of canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Nerome, K; Ishida, M

    1978-04-01

    JJ/50 and four other strains of influenza C virus grew in an established line of canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Multicycle virus growth was markedly enhanced by the addition of trypsin to the culture medium and these viruses could be passaged serially in this system. The addition of appropriate concentrations of trypsin to the agar overlay medium enabled plaquing of influenza C/JJ/50 virus. Titration by plaque assay on MDCK cells was more sensitive than that by intra-amniotic inoculation of fertile hens' eggs.

  4. Evidence of active transport involvement in morphine transport via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, S O; Sattari, M R; Routledge, P A

    2010-07-01

    Several transporters appear to be important in transporting various drugs. Many patients, who receive morphine as analgesic medication, also receive other medications with potency of changing morphine transport by affecting P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and oatp2 transport system. This could influence morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of present study was to elucidate the transport mechanisms involved in transporting morphine via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cells. Morphine permeability was examined in the presence of various compounds with ability in inhibiting different transport systems including: digoxin, probenecid and d- glucose. The effect of morphine concentration changes on its transport was also examined. Morphine concentration was measured using HPLC with electrochemical detector. Morphine permeability via a MDCK II cells was greater than sucrose permeability, and reduced when a P-GP expressed cell line was used. Its permeability was increased significantly in the presence of a strong P-GP inhibitor. Morphine permeability decreased significantly in the presence of digoxin but not in the presence of d-glucose or probenecid. These results showed that morphine was a P-GP substrate, and digoxin related transporters such as oatp2 were involved in its transport. Morphine was not substrate for glucose or probenecid-sensitive transporters. PMID:21589798

  5. Evidence of active transport involvement in morphine transport via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mashayekhi, S.O.; Sattari, M.R.; Routledge, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Several transporters appear to be important in transporting various drugs. Many patients, who receive morphine as analgesic medication, also receive other medications with potency of changing morphine transport by affecting P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and oatp2 transport system. This could influence morphine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of present study was to elucidate the transport mechanisms involved in transporting morphine via MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cells. Morphine permeability was examined in the presence of various compounds with ability in inhibiting different transport systems including: digoxin, probenecid and d- glucose. The effect of morphine concentration changes on its transport was also examined. Morphine concentration was measured using HPLC with electrochemical detector. Morphine permeability via a MDCK II cells was greater than sucrose permeability, and reduced when a P-GP expressed cell line was used. Its permeability was increased significantly in the presence of a strong P-GP inhibitor. Morphine permeability decreased significantly in the presence of digoxin but not in the presence of d-glucose or probenecid. These results showed that morphine was a P-GP substrate, and digoxin related transporters such as oatp2 were involved in its transport. Morphine was not substrate for glucose or probenecid-sensitive transporters. PMID:21589798

  6. Plaque assay and primary isolation of influenza A viruses in an established line of canine kidney cells (MDCK) in the presence of trypsin.

    PubMed

    Tobita, K; Sugiura, A; Enomote, C; Furuyama, M

    1975-12-30

    A wide variety of influenza A viruses, comprising human, equine, porcine, and avian strains, grew productively in an established line of canine kidney cells (MDCK) under an overlay medium containing trypsin, and formed well-defined plaques regardless of their prior passage history. Plaquing efficiency was comparable to the efficiency of infection in fertile eggs via allantoic route. MDCK cells have also been successfully employed for the primary isolation of influenza A virus from throat washings of patients. Parallel titration of several clinical specimens showed that the inoculation into MDCK cells followed by incubation in the presence of trypsin was an isolation procedure as sensitive as the amniotic inoculation into fertile eggs.

  7. Establishment of MDCK Stable Cell Lines Expressing TMPRSS2 and MSPL and Their Applications in Propagating Influenza Vaccine Viruses in Absence of Exogenous Trypsin

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhiyuan; Wu, Chao; Chen, Weiye; Zeng, Xianying; Shi, Jianzhong; Ge, Jinying; Chen, Hualan; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    We established two Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines stably expressing human airway transmembrane protease: transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and mosaic serine protease large form (MSPL) which support multicycle growth of two H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) recombinant vaccines (Re-5 and Re-6) and an H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) recombinant vaccine (Re-9) in the absence of trypsin. Data showed that the cell lines stably expressed TMPRSS2 and MSPL after 20 serial passages. Both MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL could proteolytically cleave the HA of Re-5, Re-6, and Re-9 and supported high-titer growth of the vaccine without exogenous trypsin. Re-5, Re-6, and Re-9 efficiently infected and replicated within MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL cells and viral titer were comparable to the virus grown in MDCK cells with TPCK-trypsin. Thus, our results indicate a potential application for these cell lines in cell-based influenza vaccine production and may serve as a useful tool for HA proteolytic cleavage-related studies. PMID:25918647

  8. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  9. MDCK-SIAT1 cells show improved isolation rates for recent human influenza viruses compared to conventional MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Barr, Ian G; Mosse, Jenny A; Laurie, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    The ability to isolate and propagate influenza virus is an essential tool for the yearly surveillance of circulating virus strains and to ensure accurate clinical diagnosis for appropriate treatment. The suitability of MDCK-SIAT1 cells, engineered to express increased levels of alpha-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors, as an alternative to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of circulating influenza virus was assessed. A greater number of influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B viruses from stored human clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2007 were isolated following inoculation in MDCK-SIAT1 cells than in MDCK cells. In addition, a higher titer of virus was recovered following culture in MDCK-SIAT1 cells. All A(H1N1) viruses recovered from MDCK-SIAT1 cells were able to agglutinate both turkey and guinea pig red blood cells (RBC), while half of the A(H3N2) viruses recovered after passage in MDCK-SIAT1 cells lost the ability to agglutinate turkey RBC. Importantly, the HA-1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene was genetically stable after passaging in MDCK-SIAT1 cells, a feature not always seen following MDCK cell or embryonated chicken egg passage of human influenza virus. These data indicate that the MDCK-SIAT1 cell line is superior to conventional MDCK cells for isolation of human influenza virus from clinical specimens and may be used routinely for the isolation and propagation of current human influenza viruses for surveillance, diagnostic, and research purposes.

  10. Gene expression alterations during HGF-induced dedifferentiation of a renal tubular epithelial cell line (MDCK) using a novel canine DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Balkovetz, Daniel F; Gerrard, Edward R; Li, Shixiong; Johnson, David; Lee, James; Tobias, John W; Rogers, Katherine K; Snyder, Richard W; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2004-04-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elicits a broad spectrum of biological activities, including epithelial cell dedifferentiation. One of the most widely used and best-studied polarized epithelial cell lines is the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Here, we describe and validate the early response of polarized monolayers of MDCK cells stimulated with recombinant HGF using a novel canine DNA microarray designed to query 12,473 gene sequences. In our survey, eight genes previously implicated in the HGF signaling pathway were differentially regulated, demonstrating that the system was responsive to HGF. Also identified were 117 genes not previously known to be involved in the HGF pathway. The results were confirmed by real-time PCR or Western blot analysis for 38 genes. Of particular interest were the large number of differentially regulated genes encoding small GTPases, proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum translation, proteins involved in the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the hematopoietic and prostaglandin systems.

  11. Intracellular signaling via ERK/MAPK completes the pathway for tubulogenic fibronectin in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Greco, Andres J; Hellman, Nathan E; Spector, June; Robinson, Jonathan; Tang, Oliver T; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2007-02-16

    A classic in vitro model of branching morphogenesis utilizes the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. MDCK Strain II cells form hollow monoclonal cysts in a three-dimensional collagen matrix over the course of 10 days and tubulate in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We and our colleagues previously showed that activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK, aka MAPK) pathway is necessary and sufficient to induce tubulogenesis in MDCK cells. We also showed in a microarray study that one of the genes upregulated by HGF was the known tubulogene fibronectin. Given that HGF activates a multitude of signaling pathways, including ERK/MAPK, to test the intracellular regulatory pathway, we used two distinct inhibitors of ERK activation (U0126 and PD098059). Following induction of MDCK Type II cells with HGF, tubulogenic fibronectin mRNA was upregulated fourfold by real-time PCR, and minimal or no change in fibronectin expression was seen when HGF was added with either U0126 or PD098059. We confirmed these results using an MDCK cell line inducible for Raf, which is upstream of ERK. Following activation of Raf, fibronectin mRNA and protein expression were increased to a similar degree as was seen following HGF induction. Furthermore, MDCK Strain I cells, which originate from collecting ducts and have constitutively active ERK, spontaneously initiate tubulogenesis. We show here that MDCK Strain I cells have high levels of fibronectin mRNA and protein compared to MDCK Strain II cells. When U0126 and PD098059 were added to MDCK Strain I cells, fibronectin mRNA, and protein levels were decreased to levels seen in MDCK Strain II cells. These data allow us to complete what we believe is the first description of a tubulogenic pathway from receptor/ligand (HGF/CMET), through an intracellular signaling pathway (ERK/MAPK), to transcription and, finally, secretion of a critical tubuloprotein (fibronectin).

  12. Conversion of MDCK cell line to suspension culture by transfecting with human siat7e gene and its application for influenza virus production.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Lugovtsev, Vladimir; Golding, Hana; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    MDCK cells are currently being considered as an alternative to embryonated eggs for influenza virus propagation and hemagglutinin (HA) production intended for vaccine manufacturing. MDCK cells were found suitable for the virus production but their inability to grow in suspension burdens the process of scale up and hence their production capability. Anchorage-dependent MDCK cells were converted to anchorage-independent cells, capable of growing in suspension as a result of transfection with the human siat7e gene (ST6GalNac V). This gene was previously identified as having an important role in cellular adhesion when the transcriptions of genes from anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent HeLa cells were compared. Unlike the parental MDCK cells, the siat7e-expressing cells were capable of growing in shake flasks as suspension cultures, achieving maximum concentration of 7 x 10(5) cells/mL while keeping close to 100% viability throughout the growth phase. In production experiments, the siat7e-expressing cells were infected with the Influenza B/Victoria/504/2000 strain. It was determined that the cell-derived viruses retained similar antigenic properties as those obtained from egg-derived viruses and their nucleotide sequences were identical. The specific production of hemagglutinin (expressed in hemagglutination units per 10(6) cells) from the siat7e-expressing cells was approximately 20 times higher than the specific production from the parental MDCK cells. If this suspension process scales up, the production potential of HA from 10 L of siat7e-expressing cells at a concentration of 10(6) cells/mL would be equivalent to the amount of HA obtained from 10,000 embryonated eggs. PMID:19706449

  13. Conversion of MDCK cell line to suspension culture by transfecting with human siat7e gene and its application for influenza virus production

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia; Lugovtsev, Vladimir; Golding, Hana; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    MDCK cells are currently being considered as an alternative to embryonated eggs for influenza virus propagation and hemagglutinin (HA) production intended for vaccine manufacturing. MDCK cells were found suitable for the virus production but their inability to grow in suspension burdens the process of scale up and hence their production capability. Anchorage-dependent MDCK cells were converted to anchorage-independent cells, capable of growing in suspension as a result of transfection with the human siat7e gene (ST6GalNac V). This gene was previously identified as having an important role in cellular adhesion when the transcriptions of genes from anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent HeLa cells were compared. Unlike the parental MDCK cells, the siat7e-expressing cells were capable of growing in shake flasks as suspension cultures, achieving maximum concentration of 7 × 105 cells/mL while keeping close to 100% viability throughout the growth phase. In production experiments, the siat7e-expressing cells were infected with the Influenza B/Victoria/504/2000 strain. It was determined that the cell-derived viruses retained similar antigenic properties as those obtained from egg-derived viruses and their nucleotide sequences were identical. The specific production of hemagglutinin (expressed in hemagglutination units per 106 cells) from the siat7e-expressing cells was approximately 20 times higher than the specific production from the parental MDCK cells. If this suspension process scales up, the production potential of HA from 10 L of siat7e-expressing cells at a concentration of 106 cells/mL would be equivalent to the amount of HA obtained from 10,000 embryonated eggs. PMID:19706449

  14. The exocyst localizes to the primary cilium in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine K; Wilson, Patricia D; Snyder, Richard W; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Wei; Burrow, Christopher R; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2004-06-18

    Primary cilia play a role in the maintenance of tubular epithelial differentiation and ciliary dysfunction can result in abnormal cyst formation, such as occurs in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We previously showed that the exocyst, an eight-protein complex involved in the biogenesis of polarity from yeast to mammals, is centrally involved in cyst formation [Mol. Biol. Cell. 11 (2000) 4259]. Here we show that the exocyst complex localizes to the primary cilium in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tubular epithelial cells. We further show that the exocyst is overexpressed in both cell lines and primary cell cultures of ADPKD origin, suggesting that the exocyst may be involved in the pathogenesis of ADPKD.

  15. Stable Ectopic Expression of ST6GALNAC5 Induces Autocrine MET Activation and Anchorage-Independence in MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Bottaro, Donald P; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Shiloach, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex cancer progression that can boost the metastatic potential of transformed cells by inducing migration, loss of cell adhesion, and promoting proliferation under anchorage-independent conditions. A DNA microarray analysis was performed comparing parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells and anchorage-independent MDCK cells that were engineered to express human siat7e (ST6GALNAC5). The comparison identified several genes involved in the EMT process that were differentially expressed between the anchorage-dependent and the anchorage-independent MDCK cell lines. The hepatocyte growth factor gene (hgf) was found to be over-expressed in the engineered MDCK-siat7e cells at both transcription and protein expression levels. Phosphorylation analysis of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase confirmed the activation of an autocrine loop of the HGF/ MET signaling pathway in the MDCK-siat7e cells. When MET activities were suppressed by using the small-molecular inhibitor drug PF-02341066 (Crizotinib), the anchorage-independent MDCK-siat7e cells reverted to the cellular morphology of the parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells. These observations indicate that the MET receptor plays a central role in the growth properties of the MDCK cells and its phosphorylation status is likely dependent on sialylation. Further investigation of the downstream signaling targets in the MET network showed that the degree of MDCK cell adhesion correlated with secretion levels of a matrix metalloproteinase, MMP1, suggesting a role of metalloproteinases in the EMT process. These results demonstrate that in addition to its application in biotechnology processes, MDCK-siat7e may serve as a model cell for metastasis studies to decipher the sequence of events leading up to the activation of EMT. PMID:26848584

  16. Stable Ectopic Expression of ST6GALNAC5 Induces Autocrine MET Activation and Anchorage-Independence in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia; Bottaro, Donald P.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Shiloach, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex cancer progression that can boost the metastatic potential of transformed cells by inducing migration, loss of cell adhesion, and promoting proliferation under anchorage-independent conditions. A DNA microarray analysis was performed comparing parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells and anchorage-independent MDCK cells that were engineered to express human siat7e (ST6GALNAC5). The comparison identified several genes involved in the EMT process that were differentially expressed between the anchorage-dependent and the anchorage-independent MDCK cell lines. The hepatocyte growth factor gene (hgf) was found to be over-expressed in the engineered MDCK-siat7e cells at both transcription and protein expression levels. Phosphorylation analysis of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase confirmed the activation of an autocrine loop of the HGF/ MET signaling pathway in the MDCK-siat7e cells. When MET activities were suppressed by using the small-molecular inhibitor drug PF-02341066 (Crizotinib), the anchorage-independent MDCK-siat7e cells reverted to the cellular morphology of the parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells. These observations indicate that the MET receptor plays a central role in the growth properties of the MDCK cells and its phosphorylation status is likely dependent on sialylation. Further investigation of the downstream signaling targets in the MET network showed that the degree of MDCK cell adhesion correlated with secretion levels of a matrix metalloproteinase, MMP1, suggesting a role of metalloproteinases in the EMT process. These results demonstrate that in addition to its application in biotechnology processes, MDCK-siat7e may serve as a model cell for metastasis studies to decipher the sequence of events leading up to the activation of EMT. PMID:26848584

  17. Proliferative effects of apical, but not basal, matrix metalloproteinase-7 activity in polarized MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Permila C.; McCawley, Lisa J.; Fingleton, Barbara; McIntyre, J. Oliver; Matrisian, Lynn M. . E-mail: lynn.matrisian@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-02-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is primarily expressed in glandular epithelium. Therefore, its mechanism of action may be influenced by its regulated vectorial release to either the apical and/or basolateral compartments, where it would act on its various substrates. To gain a better understanding of where MMP-7 is released in polarized epithelium, we have analyzed its pattern of secretion in polarized MDCK cells expressing stably transfected human MMP-7 (MDCK-MMP-7), and HCA-7 and Caco2 human colon cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, latent MMP-7 was secreted to both cellular compartments, but was 1.5- to 3-fold more abundant in the basolateral compartment as compared to the apical. However, studies in the MDCK system demonstrated that MMP-7 activity was 2-fold greater in the apical compartment of MDCK-MMP-7{sup HIGH}-polarized monolayers, which suggests the apical co-release of an MMP-7 activator. In functional assays, MMP-7 over-expression increased cell saturation density as a result of increased cell proliferation with no effect on apoptosis. Apical MMP-7 activity was shown to be responsible for the proliferative effect, which occurred, as demonstrated by media transfer experiments, through cleavage of an apical substrate and not through the generation of a soluble factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the importance of MMP-7 secretion in relation to its mechanism of action when expressed in a polarized epithelium.

  18. Comparison of immunogenicity of cell-and egg-passaged viruses for manufacturing MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shin, Duckhyang; Park, Kuk Jin; Lee, Hyeon; Cho, Eun Young; Kim, Mi Suk; Hwang, Mi Hui; Kim, Soo In; Ahn, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    While cell culture-based technology has been recently used for manufacturing influenza vaccines, currently available seed viruses are mostly egg-derived reassortants that are egg-adapted to achieve high virus growth in eggs. For use as viruses for cell culture-based influenza vaccine manufacturing, egg-adapted viral seeds may undergo several passages in manufacturing cell lines. However, the suitability of such cell-passaged viruses for vaccine production remains largely unelucidated. In this study, influenza viruses produced in suspension Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell cultures were compared to those produced in embryonated hen's eggs for manufacturing MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccines through comparability studies of virus productivity and vaccine immunogenicity. The results indicate no change in the amino acid sequence of the main antigens, including hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), of cell-passaged viruses after three passages in suspension MDCK cells. In lab-scale (3-L) single-use bioreactors, suspension MDCK culture supernatants inoculated with cell-passaged viruses were found to show higher virus productivity, suspension MDCK culture supernatants inoculated with egg-passaged viruses, in respect to the HA titers and HA contents determined by single radial immunodiffusion. Finally, comparable hemagglutination inhibition and influenza-specific IgG titers were determined in the mice immunized with cell culture-based vaccines produced with cell- or egg-passaged viruses. These results indicate that MDCK cell-passaged viruses from egg-adapted viruses, as well as egg-derived seed virus, are suitable for MDCK cell culture-based influenza vaccine production.

  19. Influence of borneol and muscone on geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells as blood-brain barrier in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Lu, Yang; Du, Shou-Ying; Shang, Ke-Xin; Cai, Cheng-Bo

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to characterize geniposide transport through MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cell lines to confirm its transport mechanism and (2) to evaluate the effect of borneol and muscone as enhancers of geniposide transport in the BBB models so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of geniposide were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral and from basolateral to apical sides. Drug concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Geniposide showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients ranging from 0.323×10(-6) to 0.422×10(-6) cm/s. The in vitro experiments showed that geniposide transport in both directions was not concentration dependent and saturable, indicating purely passive diffusion. The efflux ratio of geniposide was less than 2 in the two cell models, which suggested that geniposide was not P-gp substrates. Geniposide transport in both directions significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of borneol and muscone. Actin staining results indicated that borneol and muscone increased geniposide transport in the BBB models may attribute to disassembly effect on tight junction integrity.

  20. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases are necessary and sufficient to initiate tubulogenesis in renal tubular MDCK strain I cell cysts.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Nathan E; Greco, Andres J; Rogers, Katherine K; Kanchagar, Chitra; Balkovetz, Daniel F; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2005-10-01

    A classic in vitro model of renal cyst and tubule formation utilizes the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line, of which two strains exist. Most cyst and tubule formation studies that utilized MDCK cells have been performed with MDCK strain II cells. MDCK strain II cells form hollow cysts in a three-dimensional collagen matrix over 10 days and tubulate in response to hepatocyte growth factor, which increases levels of active (phosphorylated) ERK1/2. In this study, we demonstrate that MDCK strain I cells also form cysts when grown in a collagen matrix; however, MDCK strain I cell cysts spontaneously initiate the primary steps in tubulogenesis. Analysis of time-lapse microscopy of both MDCK strain I and strain II cell cysts during the initial stages of tubulogenesis demonstrates a highly dynamic process with cellular extensions and retractions occurring rapidly and continuously. MDCK strain I cell cysts can spontaneously initiate tubulogenesis mainly because of relatively higher levels of active ERK in MDCK strain I, compared with strain II, cells. The presence of either of two distinct inhibitors of ERK activation (UO126 and PD09059) prevents tubulogenesis from occurring spontaneously in MDCK strain I cell cysts and, in response to hepatocyte growth factor, in strain II cell cysts. The difference between MDCK strain I and strain II cell lines is likely explained by differing embryological origins, with strain I cells being of collecting duct, and hence ureteric bud, origin. Ureteric bud cells also have high levels of active ERK and spontaneously tubulate in our in vitro collagen gel system, with tubulogenesis inhibited by UO126 and PD09059. These results suggest that a seminal event in kidney development may be the activation of ERK in the mesonephric duct/ureteric bud cells destined to form the collecting tubules.

  1. P2Y receptors of MDCK cells: epithelial cell regulation by extracellular nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Insel, P A; Ostrom, R S; Zambon, A C; Hughes, R J; Balboa, M A; Shehnaz, D; Gregorian, C; Torres, B; Firestein, B L; Xing, M; Post, S R

    2001-04-01

    1. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a well- differentiated renal epithelial cell line derived from distal tubule/collecting duct, respond to extracellular nucleotides by altering ion flux and the production of arachidonic acid-derived products, in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our work has defined the receptors and signalling events involved in such responses. 2. We have found evidence for expression of at least three P2Y receptor subtypes (P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y11) in MDCK-D1 cells, a subclone from parental MDCK. 3. These receptors appear to couple to increases in calcium and protein kinase C activity, probably via a Gq/G11-mediated activation of phospholipase C. 4. In addition, P2Y receptor activation can promote a prominent increase in cAMP. This includes both a P2Y2 receptor-mediated cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-dependent component and another COX-independent component mediated by other P2Y receptors. 5. We have documented that changing media in which cells are grown releases ATP and, in turn, activates P2Y receptors. Such release of ATP contributes in a major way to basal cAMP levels in these cells. 6. The data indicate that MDCK cells are a useful model to define the regulation of epithelial cells by extracellular nucleotides. Of particular note, spontaneous or stretch-induced release of ATP and subsequent activation of one or more P2Y receptors contributes to establishing the basal activity of signalling pathways. PMID:11339212

  2. P2Y receptors of MDCK cells: epithelial cell regulation by extracellular nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Insel, P A; Ostrom, R S; Zambon, A C; Hughes, R J; Balboa, M A; Shehnaz, D; Gregorian, C; Torres, B; Firestein, B L; Xing, M; Post, S R

    2001-04-01

    1. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a well- differentiated renal epithelial cell line derived from distal tubule/collecting duct, respond to extracellular nucleotides by altering ion flux and the production of arachidonic acid-derived products, in particular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our work has defined the receptors and signalling events involved in such responses. 2. We have found evidence for expression of at least three P2Y receptor subtypes (P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y11) in MDCK-D1 cells, a subclone from parental MDCK. 3. These receptors appear to couple to increases in calcium and protein kinase C activity, probably via a Gq/G11-mediated activation of phospholipase C. 4. In addition, P2Y receptor activation can promote a prominent increase in cAMP. This includes both a P2Y2 receptor-mediated cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-dependent component and another COX-independent component mediated by other P2Y receptors. 5. We have documented that changing media in which cells are grown releases ATP and, in turn, activates P2Y receptors. Such release of ATP contributes in a major way to basal cAMP levels in these cells. 6. The data indicate that MDCK cells are a useful model to define the regulation of epithelial cells by extracellular nucleotides. Of particular note, spontaneous or stretch-induced release of ATP and subsequent activation of one or more P2Y receptors contributes to establishing the basal activity of signalling pathways.

  3. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L

    1984-08-01

    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  4. Differential microtubule requirements for transcytosis in MDCK cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, W; Mâle, P; Mellman, I

    1990-01-01

    Given the role of microtubules in directing the transport of many intracellular organelles, we investigated whether intact microtubules were also required for transcytosis across epithelia. Using polarized MDCK cells expressing receptors for the Fc domain of IgG (FcRII-B2) or polymeric immunoglobulin (pIg-R), we examined the involvement of microtubules in apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transcytosis, respectively. While depolymerization of microtubules with nocodozole had no effect on apical to basolateral transcytosis via FcR, basolateral to apical transcytosis of dimeric IgA via pIg-R was almost completely blocked. Inhibition due to nocodozole was selective for basolateral to apical transcytosis, since neither endocytosis nor receptor recycling was significantly affected at either plasma membrane domain. As shown by confocal microscopy, the block in transcytosis was due to the inability of MDCK cells to translocate IgA-containing vesicles from the basolateral to the apical cytoplasm in the absence of an intact microtubule network. The nocodazole sensitive step could be partially by-passed, however, by allowing cells to internalize IgA at 17 degrees C prior to nocodazole treatment. Although incubation at 17 degrees C blocked release of IgA into the apical medium, it did not prevent translocation of IgA-containing vesicles to the apical cytoplasm. Thus, receptor-mediated transcytosis in opposite directions exhibits distinct requirements for microtubules, a feature which reflects the spatial organization of MDCK cells. Images Fig.3 Fig.7 PMID:2170116

  5. High Yield Production of Influenza Virus in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells with Stable Knockdown of IRF7

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes a contagious respiratory disease. Vaccination is the most effective strategy to reduce transmission and prevent influenza. In recent years, cell-based vaccines have been developed with continuous cell lines such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero. However, wild-type influenza and egg-based vaccine seed viruses will not grow efficiently in these cell lines. Therefore, improvement of virus growth is strongly required for development of vaccine seed viruses and cell-based influenza vaccine production. The aim of our research is to develop novel MDCK cells supporting highly efficient propagation of influenza virus in order to expand the capacity of vaccine production. In this study, we screened a human siRNA library that involves 78 target molecules relating to three major type I interferon (IFN) pathways to identify genes that when knocked down by siRNA lead to enhanced production of influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 in A549 cells. The siRNAs targeting 23 candidate genes were selected to undergo a second screening pass in MDCK cells. We examined the effects of knockdown of target genes on the viral production using newly designed siRNAs based on sequence analyses. Knockdown of the expression of a canine gene corresponding to human IRF7 by siRNA increased the efficiency of viral production in MDCK cells through an unknown process that includes the mechanisms other than inhibition of IFN-α/β induction. Furthermore, the viral yield greatly increased in MDCK cells stably transduced with the lentiviral vector for expression of short hairpin RNA against IRF7 compared with that in control MDCK cells. Therefore, we propose that modified MDCK cells with lower expression level of IRF7 could be useful not only for increasing the capacity of vaccine production but also facilitating the process of seed virus isolation from clinical specimens for manufacturing of vaccines. PMID:23555825

  6. Volume and ion effects of adenosine on MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, A.K.; Allen, J.C.; Coutermarsh, B.A.; Mills, J.W.

    1986-03-01

    Adenosine (ADO) receptors, both internal inhibitory (P-site) and external stimulatory (A2) and inhibitory (Al) have been shown to modulate adenylate cyclase levels. Since the authors have previously shown that cAMP modulates ion content and volume of confluent monolayers of MDCK epithelial cells, the authors investigated the effects of ADO on these parameters. Exposure of MDCK cells to 0.1 mM ADO significantly increased cell volumes (2.35 +/- .10 pL/cell vs. control 2.08 +/- .01; p < .001) as determined by /sup 14/C-urea distribution space, and increased Na content (133 +/- 13 vs. 91 +/- 11 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells; p < .0002). Cl/sup -/ content also increased while K did not change. These effects were completely inhibited by treatment with the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange inhibitor amiloride (0.1 mM) and by incubation in Na-free media. Together these results suggest that cell volume increased due to Na/sup +/ entry via the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchanger. However, 2-chloroadenosine (2CA), a potent analogue of ADO, caused a significant decrease in cell volume (1.99 +/- .86 vs. 2.21 +/- 0.13 pL/cell; p < .02) and Na (97 +/- 22 vs. 141 +/- 21 nmol/10/sup 6/ cells; p < .005). Measurement of cell cAMP by radioimmunoassay showed an increase in response to 2CA but not to ADO. Since the effects of 2CA mimic those of exogenous cAMP, MDCK cells appear to have a stimulatory (A2) receptor. However, ADO itself did not interact with this receptor and may have produced its effects by binding to a higher affinity, inhibitory receptor.

  7. Cell Volume Fluctuations in MDCK Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Zehnder, Steven M.; Suaris, Melanie; Bellaire, Madisonclaire M.; Angelini, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving collectively in tissues constitute a form of active matter, in which collective motion depends strongly on driven fluctuations at the single-cell scale. Fluctuations in cell area and number density are often seen in monolayers, yet their role in collective migration is not known. Here we study density fluctuations at the single- and multicell level, finding that single-cell volumes oscillate with a timescale of 4 h and an amplitude of 20%; the timescale and amplitude are found to depend on cytoskeletal activity. At the multicellular scale, density fluctuations violate the central limit theorem, highlighting the role of nonequilibrium driving forces in multicellular density fluctuations. PMID:25606673

  8. Validation of the safety of MDCK cells as a substrate for the production of a cell-derived influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Onions, David; Egan, William; Jarrett, Ruth; Novicki, Deborah; Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2010-09-01

    Cell culture-based production methods may assist in meeting increasing demand for seasonal influenza vaccines and developing production flexibility required for addressing influenza pandemics. MDCK-33016PF cells are used in propagation of a cell-based seasonal influenza vaccine (Optaflu); but, like most continuous cell lines, can grow in immunocompromised mice to produce tumors. It is, therefore, essential that no residual cells remain within the vaccine, that cell lysates or DNA are not oncogenic, and that the cell substrate does not contain oncogenic viruses or oncogenic DNA. Multiple, redundant processes ensure the safety of influenza vaccines produced in MDCK-33016PF cells. The probability of a residual cell being present in a dose of vaccine is approximately 1 in 10(34). Residual MDCK-DNA is < or =10 ng per dose and the ss-propiolactone used to inactivate influenza virus results in reduction of detectable DNA to less than 200 base pairs (bp). Degenerate PCR and specific PCR confirm exclusion of oncogenic viruses. The manufacturing process has been validated for its capacity to remove and inactivate viruses. We conclude that the theoretical risks arising from manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccine using MDCK-33016PF cells are reduced to levels that are effectively zero by the multiple, orthogonal processes used during production. PMID:20537553

  9. Presence of a novel influx pathway for Mg2+ in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Quamme, G A; Dai, L J

    1990-09-01

    Basal free Mg2+ concentration was 0.49 +/- 0.03 mM in normal single Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as measured by fluorescence with the aid of mag-fura-2. Accordingly, Mg2+ may enter the cell down a transmembrane electrical gradient. The present study describes some aspects of Mg2+ entry into the established MDCK cell line. MDCK cells were Mg2(+)-depleted (0.26 +/- 0.01 mM) by culturing in Mg2(+)-free media for 16-20 h. Cells were subsequently exposed to 5 mM MgCl2, and intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) was monitored with fluorescence. [Mg2+]i returned to normal basal levels, 0.56 +/- 0.05 mM, with a refill rate of 272 +/- 39 nM/s, n = 4. Mg2+ entry was not changed by 5.0 mM external Ca2+ but was completely inhibited with 5.0 mM La3+. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was not altered by Mg2+ depletion or during Mg2+ repletion. Mg2+ uptake was inhibited by verapamil (0 +/- 27 nM/s, n = 3), was inhibited less so by diltiazem (141 +/- 34 nM/s, n = 3), and was not affected by nifedipine (300 +/- 53 nM/s, n = 6). These inhibitors were fully reversible on removal, and [Mg2+]i returned to normal levels. These data indicate the presence of a unique Mg2+ entry pathway in MDCK cells that may be important in Mg2+ homeostasis. The model of Mg2+ refill into Mg2(+)-depleted cells may be useful in other cell types.

  10. Measuring receptor recycling in polarized MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luciana; Apodaca, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of proteins such as channels, pumps, and receptors is critical for epithelial cell function. In this chapter we present a method to measure receptor recycling in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using an iodinated ligand. We describe a technique to iodinate transferrin (Tf), we discuss how (125)I-Tf can be used to label a cohort of endocytosed Tf receptor, and then we provide methods to measure the rate of recycling of the (125)I-Tf-receptor complex. We also show how this approach, which is easily adaptable to other proteins, can be used to simultaneously measure the normally small amount of (125)I-Tf transcytosis and degradation.

  11. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells leads to epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ju; Jin, Guoxiang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zai; Lin, Raozhou; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-07-17

    Polarization of epithelial cells requires vectorial sorting and transport of polarity proteins to apical or basolateral domains. Kif5b is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC). To investigate the function of Kif5b in epithelial cells, we examined the phenotypes of Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate, profound changes in cell morphology, loss of epithelial cell marker, and gain of mesenchymal marker, as well as increased cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis abilities. E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells, and their expression levels were decreased in Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA in Kif5b depleted MDCK cells could decrease mesenchymal marker expression and cell migration ability. These results indicate that stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells can lead to epithelial–mesenchymal transition, which is mediated by defective E-cadherin and NMMIIA expression. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate. • Kif5b deficient MDCK cells underwent epithelial–mesenchymal transition. • E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells. • Decreased E-cadherin and NMMIIA levels mediate EMT in Kif5b deficient MDCK cells. • Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA reverse the effects of Kif5b knockdown.

  12. Cilostazol reduces proliferation through c-Myc down-regulation in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Balam; Huerta, Miriam; López-Bayghen, Esther

    2009-08-15

    Cilostazol, a drug commonly used in the treatment of intermittent claudication is a selective phosphodiesterase III inhibitor. It affects cell proliferation, increases cAMP levels, activates the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and inhibits E2F in vascular cells. Polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder, is characterized by increased cell proliferation, basement membrane abnormalities and fluid secretion. An established in vitro model of this disease is the canine Madin-Darby cell line (MDCK). In this communication, we investigated the effects of cilostazol exposure in MDCK cells. A reduced cell proliferation rate with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle was detected. Accordingly, several transcription factors associated with cell cycle control were affected by cilostazol, particularly c-myc. c-Myc DNA binding as well as its transcriptional activity was severely impaired in cilostazol-treated cells. Pharmacological tools demonstrated that besides the involvement of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases I/II participate in the response. These results suggest that cilostazol inhibits cell proliferation through c-myc transcriptional control, also pave the way to our better understanding of molecular transactions triggered by this drug and strengthen its potential use in other malignancies.

  13. Shear-induced volume decrease in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z

    2012-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm(2) resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ∼ 20 - 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (∼ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 µM Hg(2+) significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 µM DIDS, or 100 µM Gd(3+) suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K(+) and Cl(-)channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca(2+) independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca(2+) level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model.

  14. Serum-Free Suspension Culture of MDCK Cells for Production of Influenza H1N1 Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ding; Peng, Wen-Juan; Ye, Qian; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Xia-Hou, Kang; Jia, Han-Jing; Luo, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Ting; Li, Bei-Bei; Wang, Shi-Lei; Xu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Ze; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-01-01

    Development of serum-free suspension cell culture processes is very important for influenza vaccine production. Previously, we developed a MDCK suspension cell line in a serum-free medium. In the present study, the growth kinetics of suspension MDCK cells and influenza virus production in the serum-free medium were investigated, in comparison with those of adherent MDCK cells in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. It was found that the serum-free medium supported the stable subculture and growth of both adherent and suspension cells. In batch culture, for both cell lines, the growth kinetics in the serum-free medium was comparable with those in the serum-containing medium and a commercialized serum-free medium. In the serum-free medium, peak viable cell density (VCD), haemagglutinin (HA) and median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) titers of the two cell lines reached 4.51×106 cells/mL, 2.94Log10(HAU/50 μL) and 8.49Log10(virions/mL), and 5.97×106 cells/mL, 3.88Log10(HAU/50 μL), and 10.34Log10(virions/mL), respectively. While virus yield of adherent cells in the serum-free medium was similar to that in the serum-containing medium, suspension culture in the serum-free medium showed a higher virus yield than adherent cells in the serum-containing medium and suspension cells in the commercialized serum-free medium. However, the percentage of infectious viruses was lower for suspension culture in the serum-free medium. These results demonstrate the great potential of this suspension MDCK cell line in serum-free medium for influenza vaccine production and further improvements are warranted. PMID:26540170

  15. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Living Mammalian Cells: An Enabling Tool for Sulfur Metabolomics. in Situ Observation of Uptake of Taurine Into MDCK Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gnida, M.; Sneeden, E.Yu; Whitin, J.C.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.; Korbas, M.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur is essential for life, with important roles in biological structure and function. However, because of a lack of suitable biophysical techniques, in situ information about sulfur biochemistry is generally difficult to obtain. Here, we present an in situ sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-XAS) study of living cell cultures of the mammalian renal epithelial MDCK cell line. A great deal of information is retrieved from a characteristic sulfonate feature in the X-ray absorption spectrum of the cell cultures, which can be related to the amino acid taurine. We followed the time and dose dependence of uptake of taurine into MDCK cell monolayers. The corresponding uptake curves showed a typical saturation behavior with considerable levels of taurine accumulation inside the cells (as much as 40% of total cellular sulfur). We also investigated the polarity of uptake of taurine into MDCK cells, and our results confirmed that uptake in situ is predominantly a function of the basolateral cell surface.

  16. Basolateral protein transport in streptolysin O-permeabilized MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have reconstituted polarized protein transport in streptolysin O- permeabilized MDCK cells from the TGN to the basolateral surface and to the apical surface. These transport steps are dependent on temperature, energy and exogenously supplied cytosol. Using this in vitro system we show that a whole tail peptide (WT peptide) corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail of a basolaterally sorted protein, the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) inhibits the TGN to basolateral transport but does not affect any other transport step. Inhibition of VSV G transport to basolateral surface by WT peptide did not result in missorting of the protein to the apical surface. Mutation of the single tyrosine residue in the WT peptide reduced its inhibitory potency four- to fivefold. These results suggest that the VSV G tail physically interacts with a component of the sorting machinery. Using a cross- linking approach, we have identified proteins that associate with the cytoplasmic tail domain of VSV G. One of these polypeptides, Tin-2 (Tail interacting protein-2), associates with VSV G in the TGN, the site of protein sorting, but not in the ER nor at the cell surface. Tin- 2 does not associate with apically targeted hemagglutinin. WT peptide that inhibited the basolateral transport of VSV G also inhibited the association of Tin-2 with VSV G. Together, these properties make Tin-2 a candidate basolateral sorter. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the SLO-permeabilized cell system in dissecting the sorting machinery. PMID:8195286

  17. PrPC Undergoes Basal to Apical Transcytosis in Polarized Epithelial MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Arkhipenko, Alexander; Syan, Sylvie; Victoria, Guiliana Soraya; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The Prion Protein (PrP) is an ubiquitously expressed glycosylated membrane protein attached to the external leaflet of the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI). While the misfolded PrPSc scrapie isoform is the infectious agent of prion disease, the cellular isoform (PrPC) is an enigmatic protein with unclear function. Of interest, PrP localization in polarized MDCK cells is controversial and its mechanism of trafficking is not clear. Here we investigated PrP traffic in MDCK cells polarized on filters and in three-dimensional MDCK cysts, a more physiological model of polarized epithelia. We found that, unlike other GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), PrP undergoes basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in fully polarized MDCK cells. Following this event full-length PrP and its cleavage fragments are segregated in different domains of the plasma membrane in polarized cells in both 2D and 3D cultures. PMID:27389581

  18. PrPC Undergoes Basal to Apical Transcytosis in Polarized Epithelial MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipenko, Alexander; Syan, Sylvie; Victoria, Guiliana Soraya

    2016-01-01

    The Prion Protein (PrP) is an ubiquitously expressed glycosylated membrane protein attached to the external leaflet of the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI). While the misfolded PrPSc scrapie isoform is the infectious agent of prion disease, the cellular isoform (PrPC) is an enigmatic protein with unclear function. Of interest, PrP localization in polarized MDCK cells is controversial and its mechanism of trafficking is not clear. Here we investigated PrP traffic in MDCK cells polarized on filters and in three-dimensional MDCK cysts, a more physiological model of polarized epithelia. We found that, unlike other GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), PrP undergoes basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in fully polarized MDCK cells. Following this event full-length PrP and its cleavage fragments are segregated in different domains of the plasma membrane in polarized cells in both 2D and 3D cultures. PMID:27389581

  19. Overexpression of the alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase in MDCK cells increases influenza virus sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Carr, Jackie; Roberts, Noel A; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2003-08-01

    No reliable cell culture assay is currently available for monitoring human influenza virus sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI). This can be explained by the observation that because of a low concentration of sialyl-alpha2,6-galactose (Sia[alpha2,6]Gal)-containing virus receptors in conventional cell lines, replication of human virus isolates shows little dependency on viral neuraminidase. To test whether overexpression of Sia(alpha2,6)Gal moieties in cultured cells could make them suitable for testing human influenza virus sensitivity to NAI, we stably transfected MDCK cells with cDNA of human 2,6-sialyltransferase (SIAT1). Transfected cells expressed twofold-higher amounts of 6-linked sialic acids and twofold-lower amounts of 3-linked sialic acids than parent MDCK cells as judged by staining with Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis agglutinin, respectively. After transfection, binding of a clinical human influenza virus isolate was increased, whereas binding of its egg-adapted variant which preferentially bound 3-linked receptors was decreased. The sensitivity of human influenza A and B viruses to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate was substantially improved in the SIAT1-transfected cell line and was consistent with their sensitivity in neuraminidase enzyme assay and with the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding phenotype. MDCK cells stably transfected with SIAT1 may therefore be a suitable system for testing influenza virus sensitivity to NAI. PMID:12857911

  20. Comparison of metabolic flux distributions for MDCK cell growth in glutamine- and pyruvate-containing media.

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, Yury; Wahl, Aljoscha; Dauner, Michael; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2008-01-01

    In mammalian cell cultures, ammonia that is released into the medium as a result of glutamine metabolism and lactate that is excreted due to incomplete glucose oxidation are both known to essentially inhibit the growth of cells. For some cell lines, for example, hybridoma cells, excreted ammonia also has an effect on product formation. Although glutamine has been generally considered as the major energy source for mammalian cells, it was recently found that various adherent cell lines (MDCK, CHO-K1, and BHK21) can grow as well in glutamine-free medium, provided glutamine is substituted with pyruvate. In such a medium the level of both ammonia and lactate released was significantly reduced. In this study, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was applied to Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells cultivated in glutamine-containing and glutamine-free medium. The results of the MFA allowed further investigation of the influence of glutamine substitution with pyruvate on the metabolism of MDCK cells during different growth stages of adherent cells, e.g., early exponential and late contact-inhibited phase. Pyruvate seemed to directly enter the TCA cycle, whereas most of the glucose consumed was excreted as lactate. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear so far, this resulted in a reduction of the glucose uptake necessary for cellular metabolism in glutamine-free medium. Furthermore, consumption of ATP by futile cycles seemed to be significantly reduced when substituting glutamine with pyruvate. These findings imply that glutamine-free medium favors a more efficient use of nutrients by cells. However, a number of metabolic fluxes were similar in the two cultivations considered, e.g., most of the amino acid uptake and degradation rates or fluxes through the branch of the TCA cycle converting alpha-ketoglutarate to malate, which is responsible for the mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Besides, the specific rate of cell growth was approximately the same in both cultivations. Thus

  1. Alterations of proteins in MDCK cells during acute potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peerapen, Paleerath; Ausakunpipat, Nardtaya; Chanchaem, Prangwalai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Chronic K(+) deficiency can cause hypokalemic nephropathy associated with metabolic alkalosis, polyuria, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial injury. However, effects of acute K(+) deficiency on the kidney remained unclear. This study aimed to explore such effects by evaluating changes in levels of proteins in renal tubular cells during acute K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were cultivated in normal K(+) (NK) (K(+)=5.3 mM), low K(+) (LK) (K(+)=2.5 mM), or K(+) depleted (KD) (K(+)=0 mM) medium for 24 h and then harvested. Cellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (5 gels per group). Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed a total 48 protein spots that had significantly differential levels among the three groups. Among these, 46 and 30 protein spots had differential levels in KD group compared to NK and LK groups, respectively. Comparison between LK and NK groups revealed only 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed. All of these differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), ezrin, lamin A/C, tubulin, chaperonin-containing TCP1 (CCT1), and calpain 1 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis showed three main functional networks, including 1) cell growth and proliferation, 2) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and 3) protein folding in which the altered proteins were involved. Further investigations on these networks may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of low K(+)-induced renal injury. PMID:26976750

  2. Alterations of proteins in MDCK cells during acute potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peerapen, Paleerath; Ausakunpipat, Nardtaya; Chanchaem, Prangwalai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Chronic K(+) deficiency can cause hypokalemic nephropathy associated with metabolic alkalosis, polyuria, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial injury. However, effects of acute K(+) deficiency on the kidney remained unclear. This study aimed to explore such effects by evaluating changes in levels of proteins in renal tubular cells during acute K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were cultivated in normal K(+) (NK) (K(+)=5.3 mM), low K(+) (LK) (K(+)=2.5 mM), or K(+) depleted (KD) (K(+)=0 mM) medium for 24 h and then harvested. Cellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (5 gels per group). Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed a total 48 protein spots that had significantly differential levels among the three groups. Among these, 46 and 30 protein spots had differential levels in KD group compared to NK and LK groups, respectively. Comparison between LK and NK groups revealed only 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed. All of these differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), ezrin, lamin A/C, tubulin, chaperonin-containing TCP1 (CCT1), and calpain 1 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis showed three main functional networks, including 1) cell growth and proliferation, 2) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and 3) protein folding in which the altered proteins were involved. Further investigations on these networks may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of low K(+)-induced renal injury.

  3. Efficient influenza B virus propagation due to deficient interferon-induced antiviral activity in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Frensing, Timo; Seitz, Claudius; Heynisch, Bjoern; Patzina, Corinna; Kochs, Georg; Reichl, Udo

    2011-09-22

    Influenza B virus infections are mainly restricted to humans, which is partially caused by the inability of influenza B virus NS1 protein to counteract the innate immune response of other species. However, for cell culture-based influenza vaccine production non-human cells, such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, are commonly used. Therefore, the impact of cellular pathogen defence mechanisms on influenza B virus propagation in MDCK cells was analysed in this study. Activation of the cellular antiviral defence by interferon stimulation slowed down influenza B virus replication at early time points but after 48h the same virus titres were reached in stimulated and control cells. Furthermore, suppression of the antiviral host defence by transient expression of a viral antagonist, the rabies virus phosphoprotein, could not increase influenza B virus replication. Finally, canine Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins showed no antiviral activity in an influenza B virus-specific minireplicon assay in contrast to the murine Mx1 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that an insufficient antiviral defence in MDCK cells promotes efficient influenza B virus replication favouring the use of MDCK cells in influenza vaccine production.

  4. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, M.; Pereira, S.; Pohl, L.; Ketelhut, S.; Kemper, B.; Gorzelanny, C.; Galla, H. -J.; Moerschbacher, B. M.; Goycoolea, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 μM, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability. PMID:25970096

  5. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M; Pereira, S; Pohl, L; Ketelhut, S; Kemper, B; Gorzelanny, C; Galla, H-J; Moerschbacher, B M; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-05-13

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 μM, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability.

  6. Influence of NaCl, urea, potassium and pH on HSP72 expression in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Neuhofer, W; Müller, E; Grünbein, R; Thurau, K; Beck, F X

    1999-12-01

    The renal inner medulla is characterised by elevated extracellular concentrations of NaCl, urea, potassium and hydrogen ions, an environment that may affect cell viability negatively. High amounts of HSP72, a stress protein allowing cells to resist harmful situations, are also observed in this region. The present study examined HSP72 induction by various medullary stress factors, individually or in combination, in MDCK cells, a renal epithelial cell line expressing characteristics of the medullary collecting duct. MDCK cells were incubated for 3 days in media containing elevated concentrations of NaCl, urea, potassium and hydrogen ions individually or in combination. HSP72 mRNA and protein expression were determined by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. HSP72 expression was enhanced moderately by addition of 50 mM NaCl to normal medium at pH 7.4 but enhanced strongly when added at pH 6.5. The latter degree of HSP72 induction was comparable to that observed when 150 mM NaCl was added at pH 7.4. In normal medium (pH 7.4) containing 300 mM urea, MDCK HSP72 expression was not different from controls. In contrast, urea-induced HSP72 expression was clearly evident when medium pH was lowered to 6.5. Potassium at 20 or 40 mM induced HSP72 only slightly. These results indicate that expression of HSP72 in renal epithelial cells is regulated synergistically by NaCl, urea and pH. Since HSP72 is only slightly induced by increased potassium, this probably reflects the changes in medium osmolality rather than a specific effect of potassium. The high medullary HSP72 content observed even in diuresis may be due to co-operative effects of medullary solutes on HSP72 expression.

  7. Sphingomyelin metabolism is involved in the differentiation of MDCK cells induced by environmental hypertonicity

    PubMed Central

    Favale, Nicolás Octavio; Santacreu, Bruno Jaime; Pescio, Lucila Gisele; Marquez, Maria Gabriela; Sterin-Speziale, Norma Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are relevant lipid components of eukaryotic cells. Besides regulating various cellular processes, SLs provide the structural framework for plasma membrane organization. Particularly, SM is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains. We have previously shown that the adherens junction (AJ) complex, the relevant cell-cell adhesion structure involved in cell differentiation and tissue organization, is located in an SM-rich membrane lipid domain. We have also demonstrated that under hypertonic conditions, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells acquire a differentiated phenotype with changes in SL metabolism. For these reasons, we decided to evaluate whether SM metabolism is involved in the acquisition of the differentiated phenotype of MDCK cells. We found that SM synthesis mediated by SM synthase 1 is involved in hypertonicity-induced formation of mature AJs, necessary for correct epithelial cell differentiation. Inhibition of SM synthesis impaired the acquisition of mature AJs, evoking a disintegration-like process reflected by the dissipation of E-cadherin and β- and α-catenins from the AJ complex. As a consequence, MDCK cells did not develop the hypertonicity-induced differentiated epithelial cell phenotype. PMID:25670801

  8. Thiazolidinediones inhibit MDCK cyst growth through disrupting oriented cell division and apicobasal polarity

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhiguo; Streets, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones have been reported to retard cystic disease in rodent models by uncertain mechanisms. We hypothesized that their major effect in retarding cystogenesis was through inhibiting cell proliferation or stimulating apoptosis. In the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell (MDCK) model, rosiglitazone inhibited cyst growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner and this was accompanied by a reduction in basal proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we also observed a striking abnormality in lumen formation resulting in a characteristic multiple lumen or loss of lumen phenotype in treated cells at doses which did not inhibit cell proliferation. These changes were preceded by mislocalization of gp135 and Cdc42, misorientation of the mitotic spindle, and retardation in centrosome reorientation with later changes in primary cilia length and mislocalization of E-cadherin. Cdc42 activation was unaffected by rosiglitazone in monolayer culture but was profoundly inhibited in three-dimensional culture. MDCK cells stably expressing mutant Cdc42 showed a similar mislocalization of gp135 expression and multilumen phenotype in the absence of rosiglitazone. We conclude that rosiglitazone influences MDCK cyst growth by multiple mechanisms involving dosage-dependent effects on proliferation, spindle orientation, centrosome migration, and lumen formation. Correct spatial Cdc42 activation is critical for lumen formation, but the effect of rosiglitazone is likely to involve both Cdc42 and non-Cdc42 pathways. PMID:21429973

  9. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  10. Disruption of MDCK cell tight junctions by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Mineko; Martínez-Castillo, Moisés; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Navarro-García, Fernando; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Sabanero, Myrna; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This parasite invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa. However, the mechanism of epithelium penetration is not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of N. fowleri trophozoites and the non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tight junction proteins, including claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1, as well as on the actin cytoskeleton. Trophozoites from each of the free-living amoeba species were co-cultured with MDCK cells in a 1 : 1 ratio for 1, 3, 6 or 10 h. Light microscopy revealed that N. fowleri caused morphological changes as early as 3 h post-infection in an epithelial MDCK monolayer. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that after 10 h of co-culture, N. fowleri trophozoites induced epithelial cell damage, which was characterized by changes in the actin apical ring and disruption of the ZO-1 and claudin-1 proteins but not occludin. Western blot assays revealed gradual degradation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 as early as 3 h post-infection. Likewise, there was a drop in transepithelial electrical resistance that resulted in increased epithelial permeability and facilitated the invasion of N. fowleri trophozoites by a paracellular route. In contrast, N. gruberi did not induce alterations in MDCK cells even at 10 h post-infection. Based on these results, we suggest that N. fowleri trophozoites disrupt epithelial monolayers, which could enable their penetration of the olfactory epithelium and subsequent invasion of the central nervous system.

  11. Rapid production of a H₉ N₂ influenza vaccine from MDCK cells for protecting chicken against influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenghua; Lu, Zhongzheng; Wang, Lei; Huo, Zeren; Cui, Jianhua; Zheng, Tingting; Dai, Qing; Chen, Cuiling; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Meihua; Yang, Rirong

    2015-04-01

    H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses are widespread in domestic poultry, and vaccination remains the most effective way to protect the chicken population from avian influenza pandemics. Currently, egg-based H9N2 influenza vaccine production has several disadvantages and mammalian MDCK cells are being investigated as candidates for influenza vaccine production. However, little research has been conducted on low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) such as H9N2 replicating in mammalian cells using microcarrier beads in a bioreactor. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of a safe H9N2 influenza vaccine derived from MDCK cells for protecting chickens against influenza virus infection. In 2008, we isolated two novel H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens raised in southern China, and these H9N2 viruses were adapted to MDCK cells. The H9N2 virus was produced in MDCK cells in a scalable bioreactor, purified, inactivated, and investigated for use as a vaccine. The MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine was able to induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in chickens of different ages. Histopathological examination, direct immunofluorescence, HI assay, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio test, and cytokine evaluation indicated that the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine evoked a rapid and effective immune response to protect chickens from influenza infection. High titers of H9N2-specific antibodies were maintained in chickens for 5 months, and the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine had no effects on chicken growth. The use of MDCK cells in bioreactors for LPAIV vaccine production is an attractive option to prevent outbreaks of LPAIV in poultry.

  12. The carcinogen safrole increases intracellular free Ca2+ levels and causes death in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chuan; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Huang, Chun-Jen; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chang, Hong-Tai; Huang, Jong-Khing; Chen, Jin-Shyr; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-02-28

    The effect of the carcinogen safrole on intracellular Ca2+ movement in renal tubular cells has not been explored previously. The present study examined whether safrole could alter Ca2+ handling in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Cytosolic free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) in populations of cells were measured using fura-2 as a fluorescent Ca2+ probe. Safrole at concentrations above 33 microM increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 400 microM. The Ca2+ signal was reduced by 90% by removing extracellular Ca2+, but was not affected by nifedipine, verapamil, or diltiazem. Addition of Ca2+ after safrole had depleted intracellular Ca(2+)-induced dramatic Ca2+ influx, suggesting that safrole caused store-operated Ca2+ entry. In Ca(2+)-free medium, after pretreatment with 650 microM safrole, 1 microM thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor) failed to release more Ca 2+. Inhibition of phospholipase C with 2 microM U73122 did not affect safrole-induced Ca2+ release. Trypan blue exclusion assays revealed that incubation with 650 microM safrole for 30 min did not kill cells, but killed 70% of cells after incubation for 60 min. Collectively, the data suggest that in MDCK cells, safrole induced a [Ca2+] increase by causing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in a phospholipase C-independent fashion, and by inducing Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ entry. Furthermore, safrole can cause acute toxicity to MDCK cells.

  13. Iron repletion relocalizes hephaestin to a proximal basolateral compartment in polarized MDCK and Caco2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Min; Attieh, Zouhair K.; Son, Hee Sook; Chen, Huijun; Bacouri-Haidar, Mhenia; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in non-polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin localizes in the perinuclear space in iron deficient and polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin with apical iron moves near to basolateral membrane of polarized cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peri-basolateral location of hephaestin is accessible to the extracellular space. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hephaestin is involved in iron mobilization from the intestine to circulation. -- Abstract: While intestinal cellular iron entry in vertebrates employs multiple routes including heme and non-heme routes, iron egress from these cells is exclusively channeled through the only known transporter, ferroportin. Reduced intestinal iron export in sex-linked anemia mice implicates hephaestin, a ferroxidase, in this process. Polarized cells are exposed to two distinct environments. Enterocytes contact the gut lumen via the apical surface of the cell, and through the basolateral surface, to the body. Previous studies indicate both local and systemic control of iron uptake. We hypothesized that differences in iron availability at the apical and/or basolateral surface may modulate iron uptake via cellular localization of hephaestin. We therefore characterized the localization of hephaestin in two models of polarized epithelial cell lines, MDCK and Caco2, with varying iron availability at the apical and basolateral surfaces. Our results indicate that hephaestin is expressed in a supra-nuclear compartment in non-polarized cells regardless of the iron status of the cells and in iron deficient and polarized cells. In polarized cells, we found that both apical (as FeSO{sub 4}) and basolateral iron (as the ratio of apo-transferrin to holo-transferrin) affect mobilization of hephaestin from the supra-nuclear compartment. We find that the presence of apical iron is essential for relocalization of hephaestin to a

  14. Imaging excised apical plasma membrane patches of MDCK cells in physiological conditions with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lärmer, J; Schneider, S W; Danker, T; Schwab, A; Oberleithner, H

    1997-07-01

    We combined the patch-clamp technique with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize plasma membrane proteins protruding from the extracellular surface of cultured kidney cells (MDCK cells). To achieve molecular resolution, patches were mechanically isolated from whole MDCK cells by applying the patch-clamp technique. The excised inside-out patches were transferred on freshly cleaved mica and imaged with the AFM in air and under physiological conditions (i. e. in fluid). Thus, the resolution could be increased considerably (lateral and vertical resolutions 5 and 0.1 nm, respectively) as compared to experiments on intact cells, where plasma membrane proteins were hardly detectable. The apical plasma membrane surface of the MDCK cells showed multiple protrusions which could be identified as membrane proteins through the use of pronase. These proteins had a density of about 90 per micron(2), with heights between 1 and 9 nm, and lateral dimensions of 20-60 nm. Their frequency distribution showed a peak value of 3 nm for the protein height. A simplified assumption - modelling plasma membrane proteins as spherical structures protruding from the lipid bilayer - allowed an estimation of the possible molecular weights of these proteins. They range from 50 kDa to 710 kDa with a peak value of 125 kDa. We conclude that AFM can be used to study the molecular structures of membranes which were isolated with the patch-clamp technique. Individual membrane proteins and protein clusters, and their arrangement and distribution in a native plasma membrane can be visualized under physiological conditions, which is a first step for their identification. PMID:9178623

  15. Permeability of exendin-4-loaded chitosan nanoparticles across MDCK cell monolayers and rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengshu; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Bingxue; Sun, Yanan; Gong, Xin; Wu, Yongge; Zhang, Xizhen; Kong, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability of exendin-4-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer as an in vitro model and the rat intestine as an ex vivo model of the human intestinal barrier. A series of formulations of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and chitosan with different molecular weights and degrees of deacetylation was evaluated. The formulation consisting of 0.1% TPP and 0.2% chitosan (400 kDa, 95% degree of deacetylation), which gave optimized monodispersed particle size (303.1±10.36 nm), zeta potential (18.37±1.15 mV) and encapsulation efficiency (38.0±2.6%), was used for further analysis. After determining their biocompatibility, the transport potential of drug-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated and compared with free exendin-4 using both MDCK cell monolayers and different rat intestinal segments. Mechanisms underlying enhanced transport of exendin-4 in the cell model were also explored. Compared with free exendin-4, the absorption of optimized chitosan nanoparticles was enhanced by 4.7-fold in MDCK cell monolayers and by 2.0-2.78-fold in different rat intestinal segments, with no significant difference between the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. As supported by confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis, the lower enhancement of absorption in the intestine compared to the cell monolayer likely resulted from the chitosan nanoparticle-mediated opening of cellular tight junctions and not through intracellular transport. These findings suggest that the potential application of chitosan nanoparticles as delivery carriers of exendin-4 is limited and may need further modifications.

  16. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment.

  17. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    PubMed

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment. PMID:26320877

  18. Effects of adenine nucleotide and sterol depletion on tight junction structure and function in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ladino, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumor agent Hadacidin (H), N-formyl-hydroxyamino-acetic acid, reversibly inhibited the multiplication of clone 4 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at a 4 mM concentration within 24-48 hours. Treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. Accompanying this action was a 16-fold increase in the area occupied b the cells and a refractoriness to trypsin treatment. To test whether this effect was due to an increase in tight junction integrity, electrical resistance (TER) was measured across H-treated monolayers. Addition of H at the onset of junction formation reversibly prevented the development of TER. ATP and cAMP levels were decreased by H, as well as the rate of ({sup 3}H)-leucine incorporation into protein. When 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP (d.cAMP) and theophylline were added, H had no effect on cell division or protein synthesis, and TER was partially restored. The addition of 1 mM d.cAMP and 1 mM theophylline to control cultures decreased TER, indicating a biphasic effect on TER development/maintenance. In a separate study, the effect of sterol depletion on tight junctions formation/maintenance in wild-type MDCK cells was investigated.

  19. Modulation of the epithelial barrier by dexamethasone and prolactin in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, E B M I; Collares-Buzato, C B

    2006-02-01

    Glucocorticoids and prolactin (PRL) have a direct effect on the formation and maintenance of tight junctions (TJs) in cultured endothelial and mammary gland epithelial cells. In this work, we investigated the effect of a synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and PRL on the paracellular barrier function in MDCK renal epithelial cells. DEX (4 microM)+PRL (2 microg/ml) and DEX alone increased significantly the transepithelial electrical resistance after chronic treatment (4 days) of confluent MDCK monolayers or after 24 h treatment of subconfluent monolayers. Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry revealed no changes in the expression and distribution of TJ-associated proteins occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-1 in confluent monolayers after hormone addition. However, a marked increase in junctional content for occludin and ZO-1 with no changes in their total expression was observed in subconfluent MDCK monolayers 24 h exposed to DEX or DEX+PRL. No change in cell proliferation/growth was detected at subconfluent conditions following hormone treatment. An increase in the total number of viable cells was observed only in confluent MDCK monolayers after exposure to DEX+PRL suggesting that the main effect of these hormones on already established barrier may be associated with the inhibition of cell death. In conclusion, our data suggest that these hormones (specially dexamethasone) have an effect on TJ structure and function only during the formation of MDCK epithelial barrier by probably modulating the localization, stability or assembly of TJ proteins to membrane sites of intercellular contact.

  20. Activation of caspase-8 and Erk-1/2 in domes regulates cell death induced by confluence in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Heng; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Wang, Yang-Kao; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Su, Hsiao-Wen; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2007-04-01

    Under normal culture conditions, cells adhere to culture dish, spread out, proliferate, and finally cover all areas and reach confluence. During the confluent stage, cell proliferation ceases and differentiation is enhanced. Meanwhile, cell death also appears as the monolayer confluence proceeds. To delineate the mechanism of cell death induced by the confluent process, we employed Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. When approaching confluence, MDCK cells exhibited increase the levels of caspase-2 and enhanced the activity of caspase-8. Using various caspase inhibitors to block apoptosis, we found that only z-VAD-fmk and z-IETD-fmk can inhibit confluent cell death, indicating that confluent cell death is mediated by activation of caspase-8. Overexpression of Bcl-2 inhibited confluent cell death, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria-dependent pathway in confluent cell death. Interestingly, the activity of phospho-Erk (p-Erk) was initially decreased before confluence, but markedly increased after confluence. Immunofluorescence staining studies showed that p-Erk was expressed exclusively on dome-forming cells that underwent apoptosis. Treatment of confluent MDCK cells with PD98059 and UO126, the inhibitors of MEK, enhanced apoptosis as well as activity of caspase-8. These data indicate that elevation of p-Erk activity during confluence may serve to suppress confluent cell death. Taken together, activation of caspase-8 contributes to and results in confluent cell death, whereas elevated p-Erk activity serves to prevent confluent cell death by regulating activation of caspase-8.

  1. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cho, M J; Adson, A; Kezdy, F J

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37 degrees C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by [14C]CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the "unstirred" boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  2. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  3. The influence of active transport systems on morphine -6-glucuronide transport in MDCKII and MDCK-PGP cells

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, M.; Routledge, PA.; Mashayekhi, SO.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is a potent metabolite of morphine which has high penetration into the brain despite its high polarity, which could be the result of an active transport system involved in M6G transport through blood brain barrier. Examples of such transporters are p-glycoprotein (PGP), probenecid-sensitive transport mechanism, multidrug resistance related protein 1-3, the organic anion transporter family, and the organic anion transporter polypeptide family. The aim of present study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in transporting morphine's potent metabolite, M6G. Methods M6G permeability via two cell lines; MDCKII and MDCK-PGP, was compared with that of sucrose. M6G transport was examined in different concentrations and in the presence of inhibitors of different transport systems such as cyclosporine, digoxin and probenecid. M6G concentration was measured using ELISA assay. The method was sensitive, reliable and reproducible. Results The results confirmed that M6G could cross a layer of MDCK II or MDR-PGP cells more than sucrose could. It was also observed that M6G is a PGP transporter substrate. Its permeability was increased by the use of a PGP expressed cell line, and also in the presence of a strong PGP inhibitor. Digoxin related transporters such as Oatp2 may also involved in transport of M6G. M6G seemed to be a glucose transporter 1 substrate, but was not a substrate to probenecid sensitive transporters. Major conclusion It is concluded that different transporters are responsible for M6G transports via different membrane, which could have effects on its pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. PMID:23008686

  4. Evaluation of MDCK cell-derived influenza H7N9 vaccine candidates in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Chia, Min-Yuan; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Weng, Tsai-Chuan; Lai, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jun-Yang; Chen, Po-Ling; Wang, Ya-Fang; Chao, Sin-Ru; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Hwang, Yi-Shiuh; Yeh, Chia-Tsui; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Yee-Chun; Su, Ih-Jen; Lee, Min-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) viruses emerged as human pathogens in China in early 2013 and have killed >100 persons. Influenza vaccines are mainly manufactured using egg-based technology which could not meet the surging demand during influenza pandemics. In this study, we evaluated cell-based influenza H7N9 vaccines in ferrets. An egg-derived influenza H7N9 reassortant vaccine virus was adapted in MDCK cells. Influenza H7N9 whole virus vaccine antigen was manufactured using a microcarrier-based culture system. Immunogenicity and protection of the vaccine candidates with three different formulations (300 μg aluminum hydroxide, 1.5 μg HA, and 1.5 μg HA plus 300 μg aluminum hydroxide) were evaluated in ferrets. In ferrets receiving two doses of vaccination, geometric mean titers of hemagglutination (HA) inhibition and neutralizing antibodies were <10 and <40 for the control group (adjuvant only), 17 and 80 for the unadjuvanted (HA only) group, and 190 and 640 for the adjuvanted group (HA plus adjuvant), respectively. After challenge with wild-type influenza H7N9 viruses, virus titers in respiratory tracts of the adjuvanted group were significantly lower than that in the control, and unadjuvanted groups. MDCK cell-derived influenza H7N9 whole virus vaccine candidate is immunogenic and protective in ferrets and clinical development is highly warranted. PMID:25799397

  5. Metabolic flux profiling of MDCK cells during growth and canine adenovirus vector production

    PubMed Central

    Carinhas, Nuno; Pais, Daniel A. M.; Koshkin, Alexey; Fernandes, Paulo; Coroadinha, Ana S.; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.; Teixeira, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus vector type 2 (CAV2) represents an alternative to human adenovirus vectors for certain gene therapy applications, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. However, more efficient production processes, assisted by a greater understanding of the effect of infection on producer cells, are required. Combining [1,2-13C]glucose and [U-13C]glutamine, we apply for the first time 13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) to study E1-transformed Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells metabolism during growth and CAV2 production. MDCK cells displayed a marked glycolytic and ammoniagenic metabolism, and 13C data revealed a large fraction of glutamine-derived labelling in TCA cycle intermediates, emphasizing the role of glutamine anaplerosis. 13C-MFA demonstrated the importance of pyruvate cycling in balancing glycolytic and TCA cycle activities, as well as occurrence of reductive alphaketoglutarate (AKG) carboxylation. By turn, CAV2 infection significantly upregulated fluxes through most central metabolism, including glycolysis, pentose-phosphate pathway, glutamine anaplerosis and, more prominently, reductive AKG carboxylation and cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A formation, suggestive of increased lipogenesis. Based on these results, we suggest culture supplementation strategies to stimulate nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis for improved canine adenoviral vector production. PMID:27004747

  6. Transformed MDCK cells secrete elevated MMP1 that generates LAMA5 fragments promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Shashi K.; Greening, David W.; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J.; Mathias, Rommel A.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances the migration and invasion of cancer cells, and is regulated by various molecular mechanisms including extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Previously, we reported transformation of epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells) induces EMT, and significantly elevates MMP1 expression. To explore the biological significance, in this study we characterized 21D1 cells with knocked-down MMP1 expression (21D1−MMP1). MMP1 silencing diminished 21D1 cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Additionally, 21D1−MMP1 cells displayed reduced tumour volume when grown as in vivo subcutaneous xenografts in mice. Depletion of MMP1 lowered the ability of the cellular secretome (extracellular culture medium) to influence recipient cell behaviour. For example, supplementation with 21D1 secretome elevated cell migration of recipient fibroblasts, and enhanced endothelial cell angiogenesis (vessel length and branching). By contrast, 21D1−MMP1 secretome was less potent in both functional assays. We reveal laminin subunit alpha-5 (LAMA5) as a novel biological substrate of MMP1, that generates internal and C-terminal proteolytic fragments in 21D1 secretome. Furthermore, antibody-based inhibition of integrin αvβ3 on endothelial cells nullified the angiogenic capability of 21D1 secretome. Therefore, we report this as a new VEGF-independent mechanism that oncogenic cells may employ to promote tumour angiogenesis. PMID:27324842

  7. Receptor-mediated transcytosis of IgA in MDCK cells is via apical recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Classically, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and its ligand, IgA, are thought to be sorted from basolateral early endosomes into transcytotic vesicles that directly fuse with the apical plasma membrane. In contrast, we have found that in MDCK cells IgA is delivered from basolateral endosomes to apical endosomes and only then to the apical cell surface. When internalized from the basolateral surface of MDCK cells IgA is found to accumulate under the apical plasma membrane in a compartment that is accessible to two apically added membrane markers: anti-secretory component Fab fragments, and avidin internalized from the biotinylated apical pole of the cell. This accumulation occurs in the presence of apical trypsin, which prevents internalization of the ligand from the apical cell surface. Using a modification of the diaminobenzidine density-shift assay, we estimate that approximately 80% of basolaterally internalized IgA resides in the apical endosomal compartment. In addition, approximately 50% of basolaterally internalized transferrin, a basolateral recycling protein, has access to this apical endosomal compartment and is efficiently recycled back to the basolateral surface. Microtubules are required for the organization of the apical endosomal compartment and it is dispersed in nocodazole-treated cells. Moreover, this compartment is largely inaccessible to fluid-phase markers added to either pole of the cell, and therefore seems analogous to the recycling endosome described in nonpolarized cells. We propose a model in which transcytosis is not a specialized pathway that uses unique transcytotic vesicles, but rather combines portions of pathways used by non- transcytosing molecules. PMID:8138576

  8. Three-dimensional morphogenesis of MDCK cells induced by cellular contractile forces on a viscous substrate

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Misako; Furusawa, Kazuya; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Substrate physical properties are essential for many physiological events such as embryonic development and 3D tissue formation. Physical properties of the extracellular matrix such as viscoelasticity and geometrical constraints are understood as factors that affect cell behaviour. In this study, we focused on the relationship between epithelial cell 3D morphogenesis and the substrate viscosity. We observed that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells formed 3D structures on a viscous substrate (Matrigel). The structures appear as a tulip hat. We then changed the substrate viscosity by genipin (GP) treatment. GP is a cross-linker of amino groups. Cells cultured on GP-treated-matrigel changed their 3D morphology in a substrate viscosity-dependent manner. Furthermore, to elucidate the spatial distribution of the cellular contractile force, localization of mono-phosphorylated and di-phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (P-MRLCs) was visualized by immunofluorescence. P-MRLCs localized along the periphery of epithelial sheets. Treatment with Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, blocked the P-MRLCs localization at the edge of epithelial sheets and halted 3D morphogenesis. Our results indicate that the substrate viscosity, the substrate deformation, and the cellular contractile forces induced by P-MRLCs play crucial roles in 3D morphogenesis. PMID:26374384

  9. Three-dimensional morphogenesis of MDCK cells induced by cellular contractile forces on a viscous substrate.

    PubMed

    Imai, Misako; Furusawa, Kazuya; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Substrate physical properties are essential for many physiological events such as embryonic development and 3D tissue formation. Physical properties of the extracellular matrix such as viscoelasticity and geometrical constraints are understood as factors that affect cell behaviour. In this study, we focused on the relationship between epithelial cell 3D morphogenesis and the substrate viscosity. We observed that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells formed 3D structures on a viscous substrate (Matrigel). The structures appear as a tulip hat. We then changed the substrate viscosity by genipin (GP) treatment. GP is a cross-linker of amino groups. Cells cultured on GP-treated-matrigel changed their 3D morphology in a substrate viscosity-dependent manner. Furthermore, to elucidate the spatial distribution of the cellular contractile force, localization of mono-phosphorylated and di-phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain (P-MRLCs) was visualized by immunofluorescence. P-MRLCs localized along the periphery of epithelial sheets. Treatment with Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, blocked the P-MRLCs localization at the edge of epithelial sheets and halted 3D morphogenesis. Our results indicate that the substrate viscosity, the substrate deformation, and the cellular contractile forces induced by P-MRLCs play crucial roles in 3D morphogenesis. PMID:26374384

  10. [The morphological and karyological characteristics of MDCK and vero (B) cells cultures on plant hydrolyzate-based nutrient media].

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, G R; Mazurkova, N A; Podchernyaeva, R Ya; Ryabchikova, E I; Troshkova, G P; Shishkina, L N

    2011-01-01

    MDCK and Vero (B) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media. The karyological, morphological, and proliferative characteristics of continuous cultures were examined and compared. The experimental media supplied with 3% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, U.S.A.) showed high growth-enhancing properties and failed to affect their morphology. After propagated during 10 passages in the experimental media preserved a stable karyotype. MDCK cell cultures in the nutrient media based on rice and soybean powder hydrolyzates low (2%) in FBS caused no substantial changes in the proliferation indices and morphological and karyological characteristics of cell cultures.

  11. Production and antigenic properties of influenza virus from suspension MDCK-siat7e cells in a bench-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Lugovtsev, Vladimir; Lewis, Andrew; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph

    2010-10-18

    In efforts to overcome limitations associated with egg-based influenza vaccines, mammalian cell substrates have gradually emerged as potential production platforms. Recently, a suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line for influenza virus production was created by expressing the human siat7e gene. To examine the broad susceptibility of this novel cell line, the scalability of the production process, and the antigenic stability of cell-derived progeny viruses, infection experiments using four current influenza vaccine strains (A/California/07/2009 X-179A H1N1, A/Brisbane/59/2007 IVR-148 H1N1, A/Uruguay/716/2007 X-175C H3N2, and B/Brisbane/60/2008) were performed. In small-scale experiments, this cell line was found to support high-titer replication of all four virus strains. Subsequently, production in a bench-scale bioreactor and the antigenic characteristics of progeny viruses were assessed. High titers of hemagglutinin (at least 1:512) were produced in a 2-L bench-scale bioreactor with all four strains. Immunoblot results demonstrated higher yields in the cells than those obtained in chicken embryonated eggs with three of the four tested strains. Progeny viruses collected after serial passages in this cell line exhibited minimal mutations in the HA-encoding gene. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays using ferret antiserum confirmed the antigenic stability. As a proof-of-concept this work demonstrates that by using a proper strategy, high yields of biologically active hemagglutinin can be produced from scalable cultures of suspension MDCK-siat7e cells. PMID:20800699

  12. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca(2+) movement and viability in MDCK renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, He-Hsiung; Lu, Yi-Chau; Lu, Ti; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Fang, Yi-Chien; Chai, Kuo-Liang; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2012-10-01

    The effect of the insecticide methoxychlor on the physiology of renal tubular cells is unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of methoxychlor on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) in MDCK renal tubular cells using the Ca(2+) -sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2. Methoxychlor at 5-20 μM increased [Ca(2+) ](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. The signal was reduced by 80% by removing extracellular Ca(2+) . Methoxychlor-induced Ca(2+) entry was not affected by nifedipine and SK&F96365 but was inhibited by econazole and protein kinase C modulators. In Ca(2+) -free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) partly inhibited methoxychlor-induced [Ca(2+) ](i) rise. Incubation with methoxychlor also inhibited thapsigargin- or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+) ](i) rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 nearly abolished methoxychlor-induced [Ca(2+) ](i) rise. At 5-15 μM, methoxychlor slightly increased cell viability, whereas at 20 μM, it decreased viability. The cytotoxic effect of methoxychlor was not reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM). Annexin V-FITC data suggest that 10 μM methoxychlor inhibited apoptosis, while 20 μM methoxychlor enhanced apoptosis. Methoxychlor (10 and 20 μM) increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Together, in renal tubular cells, methoxychlor induced [Ca(2+) ](i) rise by inducing phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from multiple stores and Ca(2+) entry via protein kinase C- and econazole-sensitive channels. Methoxychlor slightly enhanced or inhibited cell viability in a concentration-dependent, Ca(2+) -independent manner. Methoxychlor induced cell death that may involve apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways.

  13. Virions and intracellular nucleocapsids produced during mixed heterotypic influenza infection of MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sklyanskaya, E.I.; Varich, N.L.; Amvrosieva, T.V.; Kaverin, N.V.

    1985-02-01

    Phenotypically mixed virus yields, obtained by coinfection of MDCK cells with influenza A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses, contained both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 NP proteins, as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified /sup 14/C-amino acids-labeled virus. Virions were lysed with 0.6 M KCl-Triton X-100 buffer, and nucleocapsids were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against NP protein of influenza A virus. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitate revealed NP protein of A/WSN/33 but not of B/Lee/40 virus. However, in similar experiments with the lysates of doubly infected cells, the band of B/Lee/40 NP protein was revealed in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of the immunoprecipitates. In an attempt to analyze the RNA content of the immune complexes, the authors absorbed the lysates of doubly infected (/sup 3/H)uridine-labeled cells with protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus covered with antibodies against the NP protein of influenza A virus. RNA extracted from the immune complexes contained genomic RNA segments of both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses. In control samples containing an artificial mixture of cell lysates separately infected with each virus, the analysis revealed homologous components (i.e., A/WSN/33 NP protein or RNA segments) in the immune complexes. The results suggest the presence of phenotypically mixed nucleocapsids in the cells doubly infected with influenza A and B viruses; in the course of the virion formation, the nucleocapsids lacking the heterologous NP protein are selected.

  14. Production of cell culture (MDCK) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process.

    PubMed

    George, Meena; Farooq, Masiha; Dang, Thi; Cortes, Bernadette; Liu, Jonathan; Maranga, Luis

    2010-08-15

    The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production. PMID:20589670

  15. Evidence that plasma membrane electrical potential is required for vesicular stomatitis virus infection of MDCK cells: a study using fluorescence measurements through polycarbonate supports.

    PubMed

    Akeson, M; Scharff, J; Sharp, C M; Neville, D M

    1992-01-01

    We used fluorescence microscopy of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells grown on polycarbonate filters to study a possible link between plasma membrane electrical potential (delta psi pm) and infectivity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Complete substitution of K+ for extracellular Na+ blocks VSV infection of MDCK cells as well as baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. When we independently perfused the apical and basal-lateral surfaces of high resistance monolayers, high K+ inhibited VSV infection of MDCK cells only when applied to the basal-lateral side; high K+ applied apically had no effect on VSV infection. This morphological specificity correlates with a large decrease in delta psi pm of MDCK cells when high K+ buffer is perfused across the basal-lateral surface. Depolarization of the plasma membrane by 130 mM basal K+ causes a sustained increase of cytosol pH in MDCK cells from 7.3 to 7.5 as reported by the fluorescent dye BCECF. Depolarization also causes a transient increase of cytosol Ca2+ from 70 to 300 nM as reported by the dye Fura-2. Neither increase could explain the block of VSV infectivity by plasma membrane depolarization. One alternative hypothesis is that delta psi pm facilitates membrane translocation of viral macromolecules as previously described for colicins, mitochondrial import proteins, and proteins secreted by Escherichia coli.

  16. Id-1 is induced in MDCK epithelial cells by activated Erk/MAPK pathway in response to expression of the Snail and E47 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Jorda, Mireia; Vinyals, Antonia; Marazuela, Anna; Cubillo, Eva; Olmeda, David; Valero, Eva; Cano, Amparo; Fabra, Angels . E-mail: afabra@idibell.org

    2007-07-01

    Id-1, a member of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion of many types of human cancers. We have previously shown that stable expression of E47 and Snail repressors of the E-cadherin promoter in MDCK epithelial cell line triggers epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) concomitantly with changes in gene expression. We show here that both factors activate the Id-1 gene promoter and induce Id-1 mRNA and protein. The upregulation of the Id-1 gene occurs through the transactivation of the promoter by the Erk/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, oncogenic Ras is also able to activate Id-1 promoter in MDCK cells in the absence of both E47 and Snail transcription factors. Several transcriptionally active regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter, including AP-1, Sp1 and four putative E-boxes. By EMSA, we only detected an increased binding to Sp1 and AP-1 elements in E47- and Snail-expressing cells. Binding is affected by the treatment of cells with PD 98059 MEK inhibitor, suggesting that MAPK/Erk contributes to the recruitment or assembly of proteins to Id-1 promoter. Small interfering RNA directed against Sp1 reduced Id-1 expression and the upregulation of the promoter, indicating that Sp1 is required for Id-1 induction in E47- and Snail-expressing cells. Our results provide new insights into how some target genes are activated during and/or as a consequence of the EMT triggered by both E47 and Snail transcription factors.

  17. Spatio-temporal PLC activation in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated single MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Yasunori; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ transients are evoked either by the opening of Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane or by phospholipase C (PLC) activation resulting in IP3 production. Ca2+ wave propagation is known to occur in mechanically stimulated cells; however, it remains uncertain whether and how PLC activation is involved in intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated cells. To answer these questions, it is indispensable to clarify the spatio-temporal relations between intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation. Thus, we visualized both cytosolic Ca2+ and PLC activation using a real-time dual-imaging system in individual Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. This system allowed us to simultaneously observe intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation in a spatio-temporal manner in a single mechanically stimulated MDCK cell. The results showed that PLC was activated not only in the mechanically stimulated region but also in other subcellular regions in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation. These results support a model in which PLC is involved in Ca2+ signaling amplification in mechanically stimulated cells.

  18. Entry of PIP3-containing polyplexes into MDCK epithelial cells by local apical-basal polarity reversal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuifeng; de Jong, Edwin; Sjollema, Klaas A.; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    2016-01-01

    The polarized architecture of epithelium presents a barrier to therapeutic drug/gene carriers, which is mainly due to a limited (apical) internalization of the carrier systems. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa invades epithelial cells by inducing production of apical phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-triphosphate (PIP3), which results in the recruitment of basolateral receptors to the apical membrane. Since basolateral receptors are known receptors for gene delivery vectors, apical PIP3 may improve the internalization of such vectors into epithelial cells. PIP3 and nucleic acids were complexed by the cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI), forming PEI/PIP3 polyplexes. PEI/PIP3 polyplexes showed enhanced internalization compared to PEI polyplexes in polarized MDCK cells, while basolateral receptors were found to redistribute and colocalize with PEI/PIP3 polyplexes at the apical membrane. Following their uptake via endocytosis, PEI/PIP3 polyplexes showed efficient endosomal escape. The effectiveness of the PIP3-containing delivery system to generate a physiological effect was demonstrated by an essentially complete knock down of GFP expression in 30% of GFP-expressing MDCK cells following anti-GFP siRNA delivery. Here, we demonstrate that polyplexes can be successfully modified to mimic epithelial entry mechanisms used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These findings encourage the development of pathogen-inspired drug delivery systems to improve drug/gene delivery into and across tissue barriers. PMID:26899207

  19. Replication and plaque assay of influenza virus in an established line of canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Gaush, C R; Smith, T F

    1968-04-01

    A plaque assay system has been developed for types A and B influenza viruses in an established line of canine kidney cells (MDCK-USD). In addition to a homogeneous susceptible cell, consistent plaque production depends on the use of highly purified agar (Agarose). This quantitative system was used to determine the rate of adsorption, synthesis, and thermal inactivation of influenza viruses, as well as to determine a dose response curve. Plaque assays on the MDCK-USD line and the parent MDCK line showed that the latter was more sensitive to A/Swine and A(2)/Japan 305 viruses. Titration of standard virus pools in embryonated eggs and MDCK-USD indicated that the cell culture system was as sensitive as the in ovo assay.

  20. The transcription factor LEF-1 induces an epithelial–mesenchymal transition in MDCK cells independent of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Wakako; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The transcription factor LEF-1 induces an EMT in MDCK cells. •A mutant LEF-1 that cannot interact with β-catenin retained the ability. •The nuclear function of β-catenin was not necessary for the LEF-1-induced EMT. •The mRNA levels of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 increased significantly in these cells. -- Abstract: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell–cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. LEF-1 is a member of the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) family of DNA-binding transcription factors, which interact with nuclear β-catenin and act as central transcriptional mediators of Wnt signaling. To investigate the role of LEF-1 in EMT, we generated stable LEF-1 transfectants using MDCK cells. The transfectants had a spindle-shaped mesenchymal morphology, and enhanced migration and invasiveness relative to control cells. These EMT changes were accompanied by the downregulation of an epithelial marker protein, E-cadherin, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, vimentin and N-cadherin. Consistent with these observations, the mRNA levels of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2—EMT-related transcription factors—increased significantly. Although the N-terminally deleted mutant LEF-1 cannot interact with β-catenin, it retained the ability to induce EMT. Consistent with these observations, neither the expression of a dominant negative β-catenin/engrailed chimera, nor the expression of a cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin that sequesters β-catenin from binding to LEF/TCF, reversed LEF-1-induced EMT. Together, these data indicated that the nuclear function of β-catenin was not necessary for the induction of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 expression leading to EMT.

  1. Effects of Thymol on Ca²⁺ Homeostasis and Apoptosis in MDCK Renal Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Tai; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Lu, Ti; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Shieh, Pochuen; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2014-04-30

    Thymol is a natural essential oil present in many plants and has many different effects in various cell types. However, the effect of thymol on the physiology of MDCK renal tubular cells is unknown. The action of the phytochemical thymol on cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells was explored. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was used to assess [Ca²⁺]i. Thymol at concentrations of 200-500 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²⁺ partially reduced the effects of thymol. Thymol-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In a Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited thymol-induced [Ca²⁺]i increases. Treatment with thymol also inhibited thapsigargin-induced [Ca²⁺]i rise. Thymol killed cells at concentrations of 300-500 μM in a concentrationdependent fashion. Chelating cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent thymol cytotoxicity. Thymol (400 and 500 μM) induced apoptosis detected by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. At 400 or 500 μM, thymol increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Together, in MDCK cells, thymol induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels. Our data suggest that thymol-induced apoptosis might involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:24694198

  2. Oncogenic H-ras reprograms Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived exosomal proteins following epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Bow J; Mathias, Rommel A; Greening, David W; Gopal, Shashi K; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A; Coleman, Bradley M; Hill, Andrew F; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Hallows, Janice L; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40-100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken

  3. Key role for constitutive cyclooxygenase-2 of MDCK cells in basal signaling and response to released ATP.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, R S; Gregorian, C; Drenan, R M; Gabot, K; Rana, B K; Insel, P A

    2001-08-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells release ATP upon mechanical or biochemical activation, initiating P2Y receptor signaling that regulates basal levels of multiple second messengers, including cAMP (J Biol Chem 275: 11735--11739, 2000). Data shown here document inhibition of cAMP formation by Gd(3+) and niflumic acid, channel inhibitors that block ATP release. cAMP production is stimulated via Ca(2+)-dependent activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), release of arachidonic acid (AA), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent production of prostaglandins, which activate prostanoid receptors coupled to G(s) and adenylyl cyclase. In the current investigation, we assessed the expression and functional role of the two known isoforms of COX, COX-1 and COX-2. Treatment of cells with either a COX-1-selective inhibitor, SC-560, or COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-58125 or NS-398, inhibited basal and UTP-stimulated cAMP levels. COX inhibitors also decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, implying this response is in part attributable to an action of AA metabolites. These findings imply an important role for the inducible form of COX, COX-2, under basal conditions. Indeed, COX-2 expression was readily detectable by immunoblot, and treatments that induce or reduce COX-2 expression in other cells (interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phorbol ester, or dexamethasone) had minimal or no effect on the levels of COX-2 immunoreactivity. RT-PCR using isoform-specific primers detected COX-2 mRNA. We conclude that COX-2 is constitutively expressed in MDCK-D(1) cells and participates in basal and P2Y(2)-mediated signaling, implying a key role for COX-2 in regulation of epithelial cell function. PMID:11443051

  4. Key role for constitutive cyclooxygenase-2 of MDCK cells in basal signaling and response to released ATP.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, R S; Gregorian, C; Drenan, R M; Gabot, K; Rana, B K; Insel, P A

    2001-08-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells release ATP upon mechanical or biochemical activation, initiating P2Y receptor signaling that regulates basal levels of multiple second messengers, including cAMP (J Biol Chem 275: 11735--11739, 2000). Data shown here document inhibition of cAMP formation by Gd(3+) and niflumic acid, channel inhibitors that block ATP release. cAMP production is stimulated via Ca(2+)-dependent activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), release of arachidonic acid (AA), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent production of prostaglandins, which activate prostanoid receptors coupled to G(s) and adenylyl cyclase. In the current investigation, we assessed the expression and functional role of the two known isoforms of COX, COX-1 and COX-2. Treatment of cells with either a COX-1-selective inhibitor, SC-560, or COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-58125 or NS-398, inhibited basal and UTP-stimulated cAMP levels. COX inhibitors also decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, implying this response is in part attributable to an action of AA metabolites. These findings imply an important role for the inducible form of COX, COX-2, under basal conditions. Indeed, COX-2 expression was readily detectable by immunoblot, and treatments that induce or reduce COX-2 expression in other cells (interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phorbol ester, or dexamethasone) had minimal or no effect on the levels of COX-2 immunoreactivity. RT-PCR using isoform-specific primers detected COX-2 mRNA. We conclude that COX-2 is constitutively expressed in MDCK-D(1) cells and participates in basal and P2Y(2)-mediated signaling, implying a key role for COX-2 in regulation of epithelial cell function.

  5. Complete Knockout of Endogenous Mdr1 (Abcb1) in MDCK Cells by CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Simoff, Ivailo; Karlgren, Maria; Backlund, Maria; Lindström, Anne-Christine; Gaugaz, Fabienne Z; Matsson, Pär; Artursson, Per

    2016-02-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells transfected with one or several transport proteins are commonly used models to study drug transport. In these cells, however, endogenous transporters such as canine Mdr1/P-glycoprotein (Abcb1) complicate the interpretation of transport studies. The aim of this investigation was to establish a Madin-Darby canine kidney II cell line using CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology to knock out endogenous canine Mdr1 (cMdr1) expression. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated Abcb1 homozygous disruption occurred at frequencies of around 20% and resulted in several genotypes. We selected 1 clonal cell line, cMdr1 KO Cl2, for further examination. Consistent with an on-target effect of CRISPR-Cas9 in specific regions of the endogenous canine Abcb1 gene, we obtained a cell clone with Abcb1 gene alterations and without any cMdr1 expression, as confirmed by genome sequencing and quantitative protein analysis. Functional studies of these cells, using digoxin and other prototypic MDR1 substrates, showed close to identical transport in the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions, resulting in efflux ratios indistinguishable from unity.

  6. Correctly sorted molecules of a GPI-anchored protein are clustered and immobile when they arrive at the apical surface of MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Hannan, L A; Lisanti, M P; Rodriguez-Boulan, E; Edidin, M

    1993-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are sorted to the apical surface of many epithelial cell types. To better understand the mechanism for apical segregation of these proteins, we analyzed the lateral mobility and molecular associations of a model GPI-anchored protein, herpes simplex virus gD1 fused to human decay accelerating factor (gD1-DAF) (Lisanti, M. P., I. W. Caras, M. A. Davitz, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:2145-2156) shortly after arrival and after long-term residence at the surface of confluent, polarized MDCK cells. FRAP measurements of lateral diffusion showed that the mobile fraction of newly arrived gD1-DAF molecules was much less than the mobile fraction of long-term resident molecules (40 vs. 80-90%). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements showed that the newly arrived molecules were clustered, while resident molecules were not. Newly delivered gD1-DAF molecules were clustered but not immobilized in mutant, Concanavalin A-resistant MDCK cells that failed to sort gD1-DAF. Our results indicate that GPI-anchored proteins in MDCK cells are clustered before delivery to the surface. However, clustering alone does not target molecules for apical delivery. The immobilization observed when gD1-DAF is correctly sorted suggests that the clusters must associate some component of the cell's cytoplasm.

  7. A mathematical method for the 3D analysis of rotating deformable systems applied on lumen-forming MDCK cell aggregates.

    PubMed

    Marmaras, Anastasios; Berge, Ulrich; Ferrari, Aldo; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kroschewski, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Cell motility contributes to the formation of organs and tissues, into which multiple cells self-organize. However such mammalian cellular motilities are not characterized in a quantitative manner and the systemic consequences are thus unknown. A mathematical tool to decipher cell motility, accounting for changes in cell shape, within a three-dimensional (3D) cell system was missing. We report here such a tool, usable on segmented images reporting the outline of clusters (cells) and allowing the time-resolved 3D analysis of circular motility of these as parts of a system (cell aggregate). Our method can analyze circular motility in sub-cellular, cellular, multi-cellular, and also non-cellular systems for which time-resolved segmented cluster outlines are available. To exemplify, we characterized the circular motility of lumen-initiating MDCK cell aggregates, embedded in extracellular matrix. We show that the organization of the major surrounding matrix fibers was not significantly affected during this cohort rotation. Using our developed tool, we discovered two classes of circular motion, rotation and random walk, organized in three behavior patterns during lumen initiation. As rotational movements were more rapid than random walk and as both could continue during lumen initiation, we conclude that neither the class nor the rate of motion regulates lumen initiation. We thus reveal a high degree of plasticity during a developmentally critical cell polarization step, indicating that lumen initiation is a robust process. However, motility rates decreased with increasing cell number, previously shown to correlate with epithelial polarization, suggesting that migratory polarization is converted into epithelial polarization during aggregate development. PMID:20183868

  8. [HPLC specific chromatogram spectrum-effect relationship for Shuanghuanglian on MDCK cell injury induced by influenza A virus (H1N1)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Hai-dan; Di, Liu-qing; Kang, An; Zhao, Xiao-li; Zhu, Xuan-xuan; Li, Jun-song

    2015-11-01

    To establish HPLC specific chromatogram and its correlation with the protection effect of Shuanghuanglian on MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cell injury induced by influenza A virus( H1N1). Nine recipes of Shuanghuanglian based on the official prescription were prepared according to orthogonal test for HPLC analysis and MDCK cells protection experiment separately (cytopathic effect (CPE) method was used for observing the virus infectivity and MTT staining results were used as the determining indexes for drug concentration selection and analyzing cell viability). The results suggested that all the other Shuang-Huang-Lian recipes except recipe1 demonstrate protecting effect on MDCK cell injury induced by influenza A virus (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analysis was used for analyzing the relationships between HPLC fingerprint and the protecting effect of Shuanghuanglian on influenza A virus induced MDCK cell injury. Peak 2, 3, 6, 8 and 12 were found to be strongly related with anti-influenza A virus efficacy. Stepwise regression analysis of recipes data and efficacy data showed that Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus were positively associated with the protecting effect of cells injury. From HPLC fingerprints, we found that peak 2, 3, 12 were from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and peak 6, 8 were from Forsythiae Fructus. Four peaks were identified through comparing the retention time between the standard and Shuanghuanglian recipes, and they were chlorogenicacid, cryptochlorogenic acid, forsythoside B and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid respectively. Caffeic acid derivatives in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus were found to be greatly correlated with anti-influenza A virus efficacy and maybe the substance basis of Shuanghuanglian. PMID:27071255

  9. Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-12

    Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48 h post-infection was 0.013 h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3) HA units/50μL, 11.70±0.22 μg/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3) virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production.

  10. Effects of different concentrations of artemisinin and artemisinin-iron combination treatment on Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Payman; Mohammadpour, Hemn; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquitrepenelactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is a naturally occurring substance from Artemisia species plants. Artemisia species have been used in oriental medicine for centuries to treat malaria, gastrointestinal helminthosia, diarrhea, and as an antipyretic and sedative agent. Antileishmanial activity of the plants has been announced a few years ago. Dogs are the most important reservoir of leishmaniasis in some parts of the world. To use it as an antileishmanial drug in dogs, its side effects on different organs, among them the kidney as the organ of elimination have to be elucidated. Artemisinin with different concentrations (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 μg/ml) was added to the culture of MDCK (Madin darby canine kidney) cells with and without iron (86 μg/dl). All the changes were controlled and photographed every 12 hours using an invert microscope. After 60 hours, supernatants and cell extracts were examined for LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) concentration and total protein. Also TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was performed on cell extracts. Some microscopic slides were prepared from the cells and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic exams. Biochemical parameters showed cellular reaction and injury in a concentration dependent manner. Cell injury was more severe in the iron-added groups. Microscopic exams showed cell and nuclear swelling, granular degeneration, vacuole and vesicle formation, cellular detachment, piknosis, karyorrhexis, cellular necrosis and inhibition of new mitosis. On using the drug for leishmaniasis treatment in the dog, it should be done with caution and supervision. PMID:22783147

  11. Production of high-titer human influenza A virus with adherent and suspension MDCK cells cultured in a single-use hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Felipe; Vogel, Thomas; Genzel, Yvonne; Behrendt, Ilona; Hirschel, Mark; Gangemi, J David; Reichl, Udo

    2014-02-12

    Hollow fiber bioreactors (HFBRs) have been widely described as capable of supporting the production of highly concentrated monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Only recently HFBRs have been proposed as new single-use platforms for production of high-titer influenza A virus. These bioreactors contain multiple hollow fiber capillary tubes that separate the bioreactor in an intra- and an extra-capillary space. Cells are usually cultured in the extra-capillary space and can grow to a very high cell concentration. This work describes the evaluation of the single-use hollow fiber bioreactor PRIMER HF (Biovest International Inc., USA) for production of influenza A virus. The process was setup, characterized and optimized by running a total of 15 cultivations. The HFBRs were seeded with either adherent or suspension MDCK cells, and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), and the pandemic strain A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1). High HA titers and TCID₅₀ of up to 3.87 log₁₀(HA units/100 μL) and 1.8 × 10(10)virions/mL, respectively, were obtained for A/PR/8/34 influenza strain. Influenza virus was collected by performing multiple harvests of the extra-capillary space during a virus production time of up to 12 days. Cell-specific virus yields between 2,000 and 8,000 virions/cell were estimated for adherent MDCK cells, and between 11,000 and 19,000 virions/cell for suspension MDCK.SUS2 cells. These results do not only coincide with the cell-specific virus yields obtained with cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors and other high cell density systems, but also demonstrate that HFBRs are promising and competitive single-use platforms that can be considered for commercial production of influenza virus.

  12. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase in MDCK cells by prostaglandin E1: a role for calcium as well as cAMP.

    PubMed

    Taub, Mary; Borsick, Maryanne; Geisel, Janet; Matlhagela, Keikantse; Rajkhowa, Trivikram; Allen, Cheryl

    2004-09-10

    Prostaglandins (PGs) play a significant role in the regulation of sodium reabsorption by the kidney, in addition to accumulating during inflammation as well as in several solid tumors. Previously, we presented evidence indicating that prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)), a supplement in the serum-free medium for MDCK cells, increases the activity of the Na,K-ATPase in MDCK cells, in addition to its growth stimulatory effect [J. Cell. Physiol. 151 (1992) 337]. This report defines the molecular mechanisms, and signaling pathways responsible for the increased Na,K-ATPase activity. Our results indicate that the increased activity of the Na,K-ATPase in MDCK monolayers treated with either PGE(1) or 8Bromocyclic AMP (8Br-cAMP) can be attributed to an increase in the rate of biosynthesis of the Na,K-ATPase, and an increase in the levels of Na,K-ATPase alpha and beta subunit mRNAs. As beta subunit mRNA increased to a larger extent than alpha subunit mRNA, transient transfection studies were conducted using a human beta1 promoter/luciferase construct [Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (1993) 2619]. While an 8Br-cAMP stimulation was observed (suggesting the involvement of cAMP), our results also suggest that the observed PGE(1) stimulation could be explained by the involvement of Ca(2+) as well protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with the involvement of Ca(2+), TMB-8 (which inhibits Ca(2+) efflux from intracellular stores) inhibited the PGE(1) stimulation. Moreover, PGE(1) was observed to stimulate the translocation of PKC beta1 from the soluble to the particulate fraction. The translocation of PKC, the PGE(1) stimulation of transcription, and the PGE(1)-mediated increase in the beta subunit mRNA level were all inhibited by the PKC inhibitor Gö6989. These results can be explained by the involvement of two classes of cell surface receptors in mediating the PGE(1) stimulation, including the EP1subtype (which activates phospholipase C), as well as the EP2 subtype (which activates adenylate cyclase).

  13. Reevaluating the Role of Acanthamoeba Proteases in Tissue Invasion: Observation of Cytopathogenic Mechanisms on MDCK Cell Monolayers and Hamster Corneal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; González-Robles, Arturo; Iliana Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Méndez Cruz, Adolfo René; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    The morphological analysis of the cytopathic effect on MDCK cell monolayers and hamster cornea and qualitative and quantitative analyses of conditioned medium and proteases were evaluated and compared between two strains of Acanthamoeba genotype T4. Further than highlighting the biological differences found between both strains, the most important observation in this study was the fact that proteases both in total extracts and in conditioned medium are apparently not determinant in tissue destruction. An interestingly finding was that no lysis of corneal tissue was observed as it was previously suggested. These results, together with previous studies, allow us to conclude that the invasion and disruption of corneal tissue is performed by the penetration of the amoebae through cell junctions, either by the action of proteases promoting cellular separation but not by their destruction and/or a mechanical effect exerted by amoebae. Therefore, contact-dependent mechanisms in Acanthamoeba pathogenesis are more relevant than it has been previously considered. This is supported because the phagocytosis of recently detached cells as well as those attached to the corneal epithelium leads to the modification of the cellular architecture facilitating the migration and destruction of deeper layers of the corneal epithelium. PMID:23484119

  14. Induction of differentiation in v-Ha-ras-transformed MDCK cells by prostaglandin E2 and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP is associated with a decrease in steady-state level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y Y; Lin, M C

    1990-01-01

    We used Ha-ras-transformed Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as a model to study possible signal transduction mechanisms underlying the induction of glucagon responsiveness by the differentiation inducers prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-bromo-cyclic (8-Br-cAMP) AMP and the inhibition of induction by phorbol ester or a serum factor. The steady-state level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was higher in Ha-ras-transformed MDCK cells than in parental MDCK cells. In contrast, the steady-state level of intracellular cAMP of transformed cells was similar to that of normal cells. PGE2 and 8-Br-cAMP increased cAMP content but decreased IP3 levels in a concentration-dependent fashion after 5 days of treatment. We examined the time course for effects of PGE2 and 8-Br-cAMP and found that there was a lag period of 8 to 16 h between elevation of cAMP after the addition of 8-Br-cAMP or PGE2 and the decrease of IP3 levels. Another lag period of 2 days existed before the induction of differentiation. Both the reduction of IP3 levels and the induction of glucagon responsiveness were blocked by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or serum, suggesting that a decrease in the IP3 level might be causally involved in induction of differentiation in transformed MDCK cells. However, induction of differentiation was not due to changes in the expression or guanine nucleotide-binding properties of p21 protein. It is likely that cAMP has a direct regulatory effect on the phospholipid signaling pathway. We conclude that perturbation of the inositol phosphate signaling pathway may be responsible for the induction of differentiation by PGE2 and 8-Br-cAMP in transformed MDCK cells. Images PMID:2152966

  15. A membrane-cytoskeletal complex containing Na+,K+-ATPase, ankyrin, and fodrin in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells: implications for the biogenesis of epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, ankyrin, and the alpha- and beta-subunits of fodrin are components of the basolateral membrane-cytoskeleton and are colocalized with the Na+,K+-ATPase, a marker protein of the basolateral plasma membrane. Recently, we showed with purified proteins that the Na+,K+-ATPase is competent to bind ankyrin with high affinity and specificity (Nelson, W. J., and P. J. Veshnock. 1987. Nature (Lond.). 328:533-536). In the present study we have sought biochemical evidence for interactions between these proteins in MDCK cells. Proteins were solubilized from MDCK cells with an isotonic buffer containing Triton X-100 and fractionated rapidly in sucrose density gradients. Complexes of cosedimenting proteins were detected by analysis of sucrose gradient fractions in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. The results showed that ankyrin and fodrin cosedimented in sucrose gradient. Analysis of the proteins from the sucrose gradient in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels revealed two distinct ankyrin:fodrin complexes that differed in their relative electrophoretic mobilities; both complexes had electrophoretic mobilities slower than that of purified spectrin heterotetramers. Parallel analysis of the distribution of solubilized Na+,K+-ATPase in sucrose gradients showed that there was a significant overlap with the distribution of ankyrin and fodrin. Analysis by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the alpha- and beta- subunits of the Na+,K+-ATPase colocalized with the slower migrating of the two ankyrin:fodrin complexes. The faster migrating ankyrin:fodrin complex did not contain Na+,K+-ATPase. These results indicate strongly that the Na+,K+-ATPase, ankyrin, and fodrin are coextracted from whole MDCK cells as a protein complex. We suggest that the solubilized complex containing these proteins reflects the interaction of the Na+,K+-ATPase, ankyrin, and fodrin in the cell. This interaction may play an

  16. Evaluation of chicken-origin (DF-1) and quail-origin (QT-6) fibroblast cell lines for replication of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-W; Jung, K; Jadhao, S J; Suarez, D L

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are isolated routinely and propagated in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and mammalian origin Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. Continuous avian cell lines offer advantages for propagation of AIVs over MDCK cells because they maintain species specificity, and lower recurring costs compared to ECE. In this study, the characteristics of two avian fibroblast cell lines were evaluated, DF-1 (chicken-origin) and QT-6 (quail-origin), and their ability to support the growth of AIVs (n=19) belonging to nine different hemagglutinin subtypes from a variety of avian species. The replication efficiency of the AIVs in QT-6 and DF-1 cells was comparable to those in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and MDCK cells. Receptor distribution analysis demonstrated high prevalence of SA alpha2,3-gal linked receptors in QT-6 and DF-1 cells which support a high growth of AIVs in these cell lines. Furthermore, the QT-6 and DF-1 cells supported high plaque-forming ability of representative highly pathogenic Eurasian H5N1 and H7N1 subtype AIVs. These two avian cell lines, especially QT-6 cells, also showed high transfection efficiency and could be useful for reverse genetics based rescue of AIVs. This study indicates that the DF-1 and QT-6 cell lines may be useful as a substitute for primary CEF and MDCK cells for AIV research in the areas of in vitro host range, molecular pathobiology and molecular genetics.

  17. Inhibitory effects of neochamaejasmin B on P-glycoprotein in MDCK-hMDR1 cells and molecular docking of NCB binding in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanying; Hu, Haihong; Wang, Xiangjun; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Chen, Jianzhong; Lou, Yan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in Mongolia, Tibet and the northern parts of China. Its roots are commonly used as "Langdu", which is embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of the P.R. China (2010) as a toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is claimed to have antivirus, antitumor and antibacterial properties in China and other Asian countries. Studies were carried out to characterize the inhibition of neochamaejasmin B (NCB) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). Rhodamine-123 (R-123) transport and accumulation studies were performed in MDCK-hMDR1 cells. ABCB1 (MDR1) mRNA gene expression and P-gp protein expression were analyzed. Binding selectivity studies based on molecular docking were explored. R-123 transport and accumulation studies in MDCK-hMDR1 cells indicated that NCB inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the P-gp expression was suppressed by NCB. To investigate the inhibition type of NCB on P-gp, Ki and Ki' values were determined by double-reciprocal plots in R-123 accumulation studies. Since Ki was greater than Ki', the inhibition of NCB on P-gp was likely a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The results were confirmed by molecular docking in our current work. The docking data indicated that NCB had higher affinity to P-gp than to Lig1 ((S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one).

  18. The function of tight junctions in maintaining differences in lipid composition between the apical and the basolateral cell surface domains of MDCK cells.

    PubMed Central

    van Meer, G; Simons, K

    1986-01-01

    Tight junctions in epithelial cells have been postulated to act as barriers inhibiting lateral diffusion of lipids and proteins between the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains. To study the fence function of the tight junction in more detail, we have fused liposomes containing the fluorescent phospholipid N-Rh-PE into the apical plasma membrane of MDCK cells. Liposome fusion was induced by low pH and mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin, which was expressed on the apical cell surface after viral infection. Redistribution of N-Rh-PE to the basolateral surface, monitored at 0 degree C by fluorescence microscopy, appeared to be dependent on the transbilayer orientation of the fluorescent lipids in the plasma membrane. Asymmetric liposomes containing over 85% of the N-Rh-PE in the external bilayer leaflet, as shown by a phospholipase A2 assay, were generated by octyl beta-D-glucoside dialysis. When these asymmetric liposomes were fused with the apical plasma membrane, fluorescent lipid did not move to the basolateral side. Symmetric liposomes which contained the marker in both leaflets were obtained by freeze-thawing asymmetric liposomes or by reverse-phase evaporation. Upon fusion of these with the apical membrane, redistribution to the basolateral membrane occurred immediately. Redistribution could be observed with asymmetric liposomes only when the tight junctions were opened by incubation in a Ca2+-free medium. During the normal experimental manipulations the tight junctions remained intact since a high trans-epithelial electrical resistance was maintained over the cell monolayer. We conclude that the tight junction acts as a diffusion barrier for the fluorescent phospholipid N-Rh-PE in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane but not in the cytoplasmic leaflet. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3743548

  19. MDCK cells expressing constitutively active Yes-associated protein (YAP) undergo apical extrusion depending on neighboring cell status.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takanori; Ishihara, Erika; Miyamura, Norio; Narumi, Rika; Kajita, Mihoko; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Akira; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a cell-cell interaction by which a cell compares its fitness to that of neighboring cells. The cell with the relatively lower fitness level is the "loser" and actively eliminated, while the cell with the relatively higher fitness level is the "winner" and survives. Recent studies have shown that cells with high Yes-associated protein (YAP) activity win cell competitions but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we report the unexpected finding that cells overexpressing constitutively active YAP undergo apical extrusion and are losers, rather than winners, in competitions with normal mammalian epithelial cells. Inhibitors of metabolism-related proteins such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) suppressed this apical extrusion, as did knockdown of vimentin or filamin in neighboring cells. Interestingly, YAP-overexpressing cells switched from losers to winners when co-cultured with cells expressing K-Ras (G12V) or v-Src. Thus, the role of YAP in deciding cell competitions depends on metabolic factors and the status of neighboring cells. PMID:27324860

  20. MDCK cells expressing constitutively active Yes-associated protein (YAP) undergo apical extrusion depending on neighboring cell status

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takanori; Ishihara, Erika; Miyamura, Norio; Narumi, Rika; Kajita, Mihoko; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Akira; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a cell-cell interaction by which a cell compares its fitness to that of neighboring cells. The cell with the relatively lower fitness level is the “loser” and actively eliminated, while the cell with the relatively higher fitness level is the “winner” and survives. Recent studies have shown that cells with high Yes-associated protein (YAP) activity win cell competitions but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we report the unexpected finding that cells overexpressing constitutively active YAP undergo apical extrusion and are losers, rather than winners, in competitions with normal mammalian epithelial cells. Inhibitors of metabolism-related proteins such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), or p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) suppressed this apical extrusion, as did knockdown of vimentin or filamin in neighboring cells. Interestingly, YAP-overexpressing cells switched from losers to winners when co-cultured with cells expressing K-Ras (G12V) or v-Src. Thus, the role of YAP in deciding cell competitions depends on metabolic factors and the status of neighboring cells. PMID:27324860

  1. Spontaneous Cell Competition in Immortalized Mammalian Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo I.; Chen, Yi-Ju; Li, Jinyang; Witze, Eric S.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cell competition is a form of cell-cell interaction by which cells compare relative levels of fitness, resulting in the active elimination of less-fit cells, “losers,” by more-fit cells, “winners.” Here, we show that in three routinely-used mammalian cell lines – U2OS, 3T3, and MDCK cells – sub-clones arise stochastically that exhibit context-dependent competitive behavior. Specifically, cell death is elicited when winner and loser sub-clones are cultured together but not alone. Cell competition and elimination in these cell lines is caspase-dependent and requires cell-cell contact but does not require de novo RNA synthesis. Moreover, we show that the phenomenon involves differences in cellular metabolism. Hence, our study demonstrates that cell competition is a common feature of immortalized mammalian cells in vitro and implicates cellular metabolism as a mechanism by which cells sense relative levels of “fitness.” PMID:26200654

  2. In vitro infection of Cryptosporidium parvum to four different cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yu, J R; Choi, S D; Kim, Y W

    2000-06-01

    To determine a suitable condition for in vitro infection model of Cryptosporidium parvum, four different cell lines, AGS, MDCK, HCT-8 and Caco-2, were used as host cell lines which were cultured at various concentrations of added supplements. These supplement include fetal bovine serum (FBS), sodium choleate, ascorbic acid, folic acid, calcium pantothenate, para-aminobenzoic acid and pyruvate and their effects on the cell lines which were infected with C. parvum were evaluated. The results of this study showed that the AGS cell line was most susceptible to C. parvum whereas the Caco-2 cells appeared to be least susceptible to C. parvum. In regards to the serum condition, 10% FBS was suitable for the growth of AGS and HCT-8 cells, and 1% FBS was good for the growth of the MDCK cells when they were inoculated with C. parvum. Vitamins had a positive effect on the AGS cells, and pyruvate also showed positive effects on all of the cell lines except for Caco-2. Modified medium for each cell line was prepared by adding appropriate amounts of each supplement which resulted in the highest parasite infection number. Modified media increased the number of parasites infected on AGS cells to 2.3-fold higher when compared to the control media. In this study, we found that the AGS cell line was a suitable host model for evaluating C. parvum in vitro study and the media contents for the optimal infection conditions were suggested. PMID:10905066

  3. Dynamic bio-adhesion of polymer nanoparticles on MDCK epithelial cells and its impact on bio-membranes, endocytosis and paracytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bing; Yuan, Lan; Dai, Wenbing; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, concern about the use of nanotechnology for biomedical application is unprecedentedly increasing. In fact, nanosystems applied for various potential clinical uses always have to cross the primary biological barrier consisting of epithelial cells. However, little is really known currently in terms of the influence of the dynamic bio-adhesion of nanosystems on bio-membranes as well as on endocytosis and transcytosis. This was investigated here using polymer nanoparticles (PNs) and MDCK epithelial cells as the models. Firstly, the adhesion of PNs on cell membranes was found to be time-dependent with a shift of both location and dispersion pattern, from the lateral adhesion of mainly mono-dispersed PNs initially to the apical coverage of the PN aggregate later. Then, it was interesting to observe in this study that the dynamic bio-adhesion of PNs only affected their endocytosis but not their transcytosis. It was important to find that the endocytosis of PNs was not a constant process. A GM1 dependent CDE (caveolae dependent endocytosis) pathway was dominant in the preliminary stage, followed by the co-existence of a CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis) pathway for the PN aggregate at a later stage, in accordance with the adhesion features of PNs, suggesting the modification of PN adhesion patterns on the endocytosis pathways. Next, the PN adhesion was noticed to affect the structure of cell junctions, via altering the extra- and intra-cellular calcium levels, leading to the enhanced paracellular transport of small molecules, but not favorably enough for the obviously increased passing of PNs themselves. Finally, FRAP and other techniques all demonstrated the obvious impact of PN adhesion on the membrane confirmation, independent of the adhesion location and time, which might lower the threshold for the internalization of PNs, even their aggregates. Generally, these findings confirm that the transport pathway mechanism of PNs through epithelial cells is rather

  4. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Lignans and Malabaricones from the Seeds of Myristica fragrans in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ni; Xu, Wei; Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-01-22

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of twelve lignans and three phenolic malabaricones from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were studied with the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model. The samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. Among the fifteen test compounds, benzonfuran-type, dibenzylbutane-type and arylnaphthalene-type lignans showed poor to moderate permeabilities with Papp values at 10(-8)-10(-6) cm/s; those of 8-O-4'-neolignan and tetrahydrofuran-lignan were at 10(-6)-10(-5) cm/s, meaning that their permeabilities are moderate to high; the permeabilities of malabaricones were poor as their Papp values were at 10(-8)-10(-7) cm/s. To 5-methoxy-dehydrodiisoeugenol (2), erythro-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propan-1-ol acetate (6), verrucosin (8), and nectandrin B (9), an efflux way was involved and the main transporter for 6, 8 and 9 was demonstrated to be P-glycoprotein. The time and concentration dependency experiments indicated the main transport mechanism for neolignans dehydrodiisoeugenol (1), myrislignan (7) and 8 was passive diffusion. This study summarized the relationship between the BBB permeability and structure parameters of the test compounds, which could be used to preliminarily predict the transport of a compound through BBB. The results provide a significant molecular basis for better understanding the potential central nervous system effects of nutmeg.

  5. Development of an Influenza A Master Virus for Generating High-Growth Reassortants for A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9) Vaccine Production in Qualified MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Nobusawa, Eri

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the first case of human infection with an avian influenza A virus (H7N9) was reported in China, and the human infection with this virus has continued as of 2016. At the request of the WHO, we have successfully developed candidate reassortant vaccine virus using A/Anhui/1/2013 and the high egg-growth master virus A/PR/8/1934. Recent plans regarding influenza vaccine production include using cell-cultured systems in Japan and several other countries. However, egg-based vaccine viruses are not always suitable for cell-cultured vaccine production due to potential issues with growth, protein yield and antigenic stability. Therefore, in this study, we have developed a high-growth master virus (hg-PR8) adapted to qualified NIID-MDCK cells that are competent for vaccine production. The virus hg-PR8 was obtained after 20 serial passages of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) in NIID-MDCK cells. The viral titer of hg-PR8 was 108.6 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL). Seven amino acid substitutions were identified in the amino acid sequences of PB2, PB1, PA, NA, M and NS of hg-PR8 compared to the sequence of the original PR8 (org-PR8) strain. The growth capacities of the reassortant viruses, which possess heterologous internal genes from hg-PR8 or org-PR8, indicated that the amino acid changes in PB2 and NS2 similarly affected growth capacity in NIID-MDCK cells. To assess the suitability of hg-PR8 as a master virus, we generated 6:2 reassortant viruses possessing the HA and NA segments from A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and the remaining segments from hg-PR8. The virus titers of the reassortant strains were 107−108 PFU/mL. The antigenicity of the viruses was stable during ten passages of the viruses in NIID-MDCK cells. In comparison with the egg-based reassortant vaccine viruses with identical HA and NA segments, the hg-PR8-based viruses showed 1.5- to 2-fold higher protein yields in NIID-MDCK cells. PMID:27454606

  6. Development of an Influenza A Master Virus for Generating High-Growth Reassortants for A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9) Vaccine Production in Qualified MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Nobusawa, Eri

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the first case of human infection with an avian influenza A virus (H7N9) was reported in China, and the human infection with this virus has continued as of 2016. At the request of the WHO, we have successfully developed candidate reassortant vaccine virus using A/Anhui/1/2013 and the high egg-growth master virus A/PR/8/1934. Recent plans regarding influenza vaccine production include using cell-cultured systems in Japan and several other countries. However, egg-based vaccine viruses are not always suitable for cell-cultured vaccine production due to potential issues with growth, protein yield and antigenic stability. Therefore, in this study, we have developed a high-growth master virus (hg-PR8) adapted to qualified NIID-MDCK cells that are competent for vaccine production. The virus hg-PR8 was obtained after 20 serial passages of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) in NIID-MDCK cells. The viral titer of hg-PR8 was 108.6 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL). Seven amino acid substitutions were identified in the amino acid sequences of PB2, PB1, PA, NA, M and NS of hg-PR8 compared to the sequence of the original PR8 (org-PR8) strain. The growth capacities of the reassortant viruses, which possess heterologous internal genes from hg-PR8 or org-PR8, indicated that the amino acid changes in PB2 and NS2 similarly affected growth capacity in NIID-MDCK cells. To assess the suitability of hg-PR8 as a master virus, we generated 6:2 reassortant viruses possessing the HA and NA segments from A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and the remaining segments from hg-PR8. The virus titers of the reassortant strains were 107-108 PFU/mL. The antigenicity of the viruses was stable during ten passages of the viruses in NIID-MDCK cells. In comparison with the egg-based reassortant vaccine viruses with identical HA and NA segments, the hg-PR8-based viruses showed 1.5- to 2-fold higher protein yields in NIID-MDCK cells. PMID:27454606

  7. Replication of influenza A viruses in a green monkey kidney continuous cell line (Vero).

    PubMed

    Govorkova, E A; Kaverin, N V; Gubareva, L V; Meignier, B; Webster, R G

    1995-07-01

    A Vero cell line was investigated as a suitable host system for primary isolation and cultivation of influenza A viruses. The efficiency of primary isolation for currently circulating (H3N2) strains was similar in Vero and MDCK cells. Of 72 egg-adapted strains investigated, 90.3% were detectable hy hemagglutinin (HA) titration in Vero cells after the first passage and 51.4% after the second. The amino acid sequences of the HA1 region of influenza A viruses isolated and passaged in Vero cells were identical to those of their MDCK-grown counterparts. At low MOI, high yields of influenza virus were achieved in Vero cells by multiple additions of trypsin to the medium. After 20 passages of A/England/1/53 (H1N1) in Vero cells, the titer of infectious virus was 8.37 log10 TCID50/mL, and virus protein yields were as high as in MDCK cells.

  8. The Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Lignans and Malabaricones from the Seeds of Myristica fragrans in the MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ni; Xu, Wei; Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Yan-Fang; Yang, Xin-Bao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of twelve lignans and three phenolic malabaricones from the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were studied with the MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer model. The samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. Among the fifteen test compounds, benzonfuran-type, dibenzylbutane-type and arylnaphthalene-type lignans showed poor to moderate permeabilities with Papp values at 10(-8)-10(-6) cm/s; those of 8-O-4'-neolignan and tetrahydrofuran-lignan were at 10(-6)-10(-5) cm/s, meaning that their permeabilities are moderate to high; the permeabilities of malabaricones were poor as their Papp values were at 10(-8)-10(-7) cm/s. To 5-methoxy-dehydrodiisoeugenol (2), erythro-2-(4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propan-1-ol acetate (6), verrucosin (8), and nectandrin B (9), an efflux way was involved and the main transporter for 6, 8 and 9 was demonstrated to be P-glycoprotein. The time and concentration dependency experiments indicated the main transport mechanism for neolignans dehydrodiisoeugenol (1), myrislignan (7) and 8 was passive diffusion. This study summarized the relationship between the BBB permeability and structure parameters of the test compounds, which could be used to preliminarily predict the transport of a compound through BBB. The results provide a significant molecular basis for better understanding the potential central nervous system effects of nutmeg. PMID:26805808

  9. Shear stress-induced volume decrease in C11-MDCK cells by BK-α/β4

    PubMed Central

    Holtzclaw, J. David; Liu, Liping; Grimm, P. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are expressed in principal cells (PC) and intercalated cells (IC) in mammalian nephrons as BK-α/β1 and BK-α/β4, respectively. IC, which protrude into the lumens of tubules, express substantially more BK than PC despite lacking sufficient Na-K-ATPase to support K secretion. We previously showed in mice that IC exhibit size reduction when experiencing high distal flows induced by a high-K diet. We therefore tested the hypothesis that BK-α/β4 are regulators of IC volume via a shear stress (τ)-induced, calcium-dependent mechanism, resulting in a reduction in intracellular K content. We determined by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis that C11-Madin-Darby canine kidney cells contained a predominance of BK-α/β4. To determine the role of BK-α/β4 in τ-induced volume reduction, we exposed C11 cells to τ and measured K efflux by flame photometry and cell volume by calcein staining, which changes inversely to cell volume. With 10 dynes/cm2, calcein intensity significantly increased 39% and monovalent cationic content decreased significantly by 37% compared with static conditions. Furthermore, the shear-induced K loss from C11 was abolished by the reduction of extracellular calcium, addition of 5 mM TEA, or BK-β4 small interfering (si) RNA, but not by addition of nontarget siRNA. These results show that BK-α/β4 plays a role in shear-induced K loss from IC, suggesting that BK-α/β4 regulate IC volume during high-flow conditions. Furthermore, these results support the use of C11 cells as in vitro models for studying BK-related functions in IC of the kidney. PMID:20576683

  10. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} facilitates ATP accumulation via phosphocreatine/creatine kinase in the endoplasmic reticulum extracted from MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jing; Ogata, Shigenori; Segawa, Masaru; Usune, Sadaharu; Zhao, Yumei; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-07-02

    So far, the content and accumulation of ATP in isolated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are little understood. First, we confirmed using electron microscopic and Western blotting techniques that the samples extracted from MDCK cells are endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The amounts of ATP in the extracted ER were measured from the filtrate after a spinning down of ultrafiltration spin column packed with ER. When the ER sample (5 {mu}g) after 3 days freezing was suspended in intracellular medium (ICM), 0.1% Triton X and ultrapure water (UPW), ATP amounts from the ER with UPW were the highest and over 10 times compared with that from the control with ICM, indicating that UPW is the most effective tool in destroying the ER membrane. After a 10-min-incubation with ICM containing phosphocreatine (PCr)/creatine kinase (CK) of the fresh ER. ATP amounts in the filtrate obtained by spinning down were not changed from that in the control (no PCr/CK). However, ATP amounts in the filtrate from the second spinning down of the ER (treated with PCr/CK) suspended in UPW became over 10-fold compared with the control. When 1 {mu}M inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) was added in the incubation medium (ICM with PCr/CK), ATP amounts from the filtrate after the second spinning down were further enhanced around three times. This enhancement was almost canceled by Ca{sup 2+}-removal from ICM and by adding thapsigargin, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase inhibitor, but not by 2-APB and heparin, Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} receptor antagonists. Administration of 500 {mu}M adenosine to the incubation medium (with PCr/CK) failed to enhance the accumulation of ATP in the ER. These findings suggest that the ER originally contains ATP and ATP accumulation in the ER is promoted by PCr/CK and Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}.

  11. [Study of biological characteristics of the IVpi-189 virus derived from persistent influenza A virus-infected cell line].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Lei-Ying; Na, Li-Xin; Yan, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Bei-Xing

    2011-07-01

    To investigate biological characteristics of the IVpi-189 progeny virus derived from the culture of influenza A virus as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. Persistent infection of a cultured cell line with influenza A virus (MDCK-IVpi) was established by incubating continuously influenza virus-infected cells at a lower temperature. The infectious progeny virus derived from MDCK-IVpi cells at the 189rd subculture was designated as the IVpi-189 strain of influenza virus. The cytopathic effect induced by IVpi-189 virus was observed under different temperature conditions. The production of infectious progeny virus was examined at 38 and 32 degrees C by plaque titration of cell-associated and released virus. IVpi-189 virus showed cytopathic effect as strong as that of IVwt in infected cell line of MDCK at 32 degrees C. However, when culture temperature was raised to 38 degrees C, the cytopathic effect induced by IVpi-189 virus was delayed and less pronounced. Virus growth in IVpi-189 virus-infected cells at 38 degrees C was significantly reduced as compared with that of IVwt virus, although both viruses yielded nearly equivalent high titers of cell-associated and released virus at 32 degrees C. The reasons of the decreased proliferative ability of IVpi-189 virus at high culture temperature were unrelated with virus inactivation or the release of progeny virus, but associated with the decreased replication of infectious progeny virus in the infected cells. IVpi-189 virus derived from MDCK cells infected persistently with influenza A virus showed biological characteristics as a potential live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

  12. Transient activation and delayed inhibition of Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport in ATP-treated C11-MDCK cells involve distinct P2Y receptor subtypes and signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akimova, Olga A; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Bundey, Richard A; Bourcier, Nathalie; Gekle, Michael; Insel, Paul A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2006-10-20

    In C11-MDCK cells, which resemble intercalated cells from collecting ducts of the canine kidney, P2Y agonists promote transient activation of the Na+,K+,Cl- cotransporter (NKCC), followed by its sustained inhibition. We designed this study to identify P2Y receptor subtypes involved in dual regulation of this carrier. Real time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that C11-MDCK cells express abundant P2Y1 and P2Y2 mRNA compared with that of other P2Y receptor subtypes. The rank order of potency of agents (ATP approximately UTP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP (2MeSATP); adenosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (ADPbetaS) inactive) indicated that P2Y2 rather than P2Y1 receptors mediate a 3-4-fold activation of NKCC within the first 5-10 min of nucleotide addition. NKCC activation in ATP-treated cells was abolished by the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists trifluoroperazine and W-7, and KN-62, an inhibitor of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II. By contrast with the transient activation, 30-min incubation with nucleotides produced up to 4-5-fold inhibition of NKCC, and this inhibition exhibited a rank order of potency (2MeSATP > ADPbetaS > ATP > UTP) typical of P2Y1 receptors. Unlike the early response, delayed inhibition of NKCC occurred in 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-loaded cells and was completely abolished by the P2Y1 antagonists MRS2179 and MRS2500. Transient activation and delayed inhibition of NKCC in C11 cell monolayers were observed after the addition of ATP to mucosal and serosal solutions, respectively. NKCC inhibition triggered by basolateral application of ADPbetaS was abolished by MRS2500. Our results thus show that transient activation and delayed inhibition of NKCC in ATP-treated C11-MDCK cells is mediated by Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II- and Ca2+-independent signaling triggered by apical P2Y2 and basolateral P2Y1 receptors, respectively

  13. Comparison of In vitro Nanoparticles Uptake in Various Cell Lines and In vivo Pulmonary Cellular Transport in Intratracheally Dosed Rat Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yurong; Chiang, Po-Chang; Blom, Jason D.; Li, Na; Shevlin, Kimberly; Brayman, Timothy G.; Hu, Yiding; Selbo, Jon G.; Hu, Liangbiao George

    2008-09-01

    In present study, the potential drug delivery of nanoformulations was validated via the comparison of cellular uptake of nanoparticles in various cell lines and in vivo pulmonary cellular uptake in intratracheally (IT) dosed rat model. Nanoparticles were prepared by a bench scale wet milling device and incubated with a series of cell lines, including Caco-2, RAW, MDCK and MDCK transfected MDR1 cells. IT dosed rats were examined for the pulmonary cellular uptake of nanoparticles. The processes of nanoparticle preparation did not alter the crystalline state of the material. The uptake of nanoparticles was observed most extensively in RAW cells and the least in Caco-2 cells. Efflux transporter P-gp did not prevent cell from nanoparticles uptake. The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was also confirmed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells and in bronchiolar epithelial cells, type II alveolar epithelial cells in the intratracheally administrated rats. The nanoparticles uptake in MDCK, RAW cells and in vivo lung epithelial cells indicated the potential applications of nanoformulation for poorly soluble compounds. The observed limited direct uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells suggests that the improvement in oral bioavailability by particle size reduction is via increased dissolution rate rather than direct uptake.

  14. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  15. Comparison of primary skunk brain and kidney and raccoon kidney cells with established cell lines for isolation and propagation of street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Umoh, J U; Blenden, D C

    1983-09-01

    Cell cultures prepared from skunk kidney, raccoon kidney, and skunk brain were compared with CER, murine neuroblastoma (C1300, clone NA), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21, S-13), and dog kidney (MDCK) cell lines for virus isolation and propagation of street and fixed rabies virus. The skunk brain cells were suitable for efficient replication of all the virus isolates. They were comparable to CER and murine neuroblastoma cells for virus isolation and propagation. None of the other cell cultures was satisfactory. Further work is under way to refine the skunk brain cell cultures.

  16. [Analyses of chromosomal karyotypes and cytogenetic variations of animal cell lines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, D L; Li, L J; Xia, G T; He, X Y; Gao, B X; Bai, X H; Huang, G S; Liu, S G; Yan, L F; Fang, F D; Hu, C L; Wang, L J; Jiang, H H; Feng, A M; Zhang, G M; An, S G; Ren, Y Q; Guo, J M; Hu, S X; Fan, J X; Niu, Y L; Song, Z J; Li, Y; Fan, S J

    2001-01-01

    After the master cell stock(mcs) and working cell bank of more than 30 different strains of 7 animal kidney cell lines (F-81 or CRFK cell line, MDCK cell line, Vero or Vero-2 cell line, MA-104 cell line and BHK-21 cell line) were established in China, the chromosomal number variations and structural aberrations of the above lines, primary feline or canine kidney cell (FKC or CKC) and HeLa cell line were investigated and their karyotypes of routine or Giemsa chromosomal bands were analyzed. The carcinogenesis or tumorigenicity testing of these cells in about 700 nude mice and for colony formation in soft agar (SA) and for agglutination under different concentration of plant lectins was carried out. Both tumorigenicity-negative strains of F-81, CRFK, Vero or Vero-2 lines and very-low-tumorigenicity strains of MDCK line were successfully selected and evaluated for the production of canine or feline combination viral vaccines, which are free of infectious agents, and described with respect to cytogenetic characteristics and tumorigenicity. Rate of modal chromosome number represents the ratio of cell number having modal chromosome number to all the split cell number analyzed at random. Rate of difference represents the ratio of difference of the rate of modal chromosome number between mcs (master cell stock) + n and mcs passages. The chromosomal analysis results showed that the ratio of difference of the rate of modal chromosome number between mcs + n and mcs passages was not more than 5%-15% and the structure aberrations was generally 0%-3%, not more than 5%-10%, thus the hereditary character of cell lines is comparatively stable without significant difference between different passages. The genetic characteristics of chromosomal number of cell lines determines their tumorigenicity, but it is species specific. Experimental models were established for the researches on the prevention and prophylaxis of malignant tumors or cancers and their genetically biological

  17. Characterization of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line for influenza virus production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi; Huber, Victor C.; McCormick, Kara; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Boon, Adrianus C. M.; Zhu, Longchao; Hause, Ben; Webby, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a porcine intestine epithelial cell line, designated SD-PJEC for the propagation of influenza viruses. The SD-PJEC cell line is a subclone of the IPEC-J2 cell line, which was originally derived from newborn piglet jejunum. Our results demonstrate that SD-PJEC is a cell line of epithelial origin that preferentially expresses receptors of oligosaccharides with Sia2-6Gal modification. This cell line is permissive to infection with human and swine influenza A viruses and some avian influenza viruses, but poorly support the growth of human-origin influenza B viruses. Propagation of swine-origin influenza viruses in these cells results in a rapid growth rate within the first 24 h post-infection and the titres ranged from 4 to 8 log10 TCID50 ml−1. The SD-PJEC cell line was further tested as a potential alternative cell line to Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in conjunction with 293T cells for rescue of swine-origin influenza viruses using the reverse genetics system. The recombinant viruses A/swine/North Carolina/18161/02 (H1N1) and A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (H3N2) were rescued with virus titres of 7 and 8.25 log10 TCID50 ml−1, respectively. The availability of this swine-specific cell line represents a more relevant substrate for studies and growth of swine-origin influenza viruses. PMID:22739061

  18. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA damage and methylation in mammary and kidney epithelial cell lines exposed to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Carlotta; Rebucci, Raffaella; Fusi, Eleonora; Rossi, Luciana; Saccone, Francesca; Baldi, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro damage induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in BME-UV1 and MDCK epithelial cells. Both cells lines were treated with OTA (0 up to 10 μg/mL), and cell viability (MTT assay), membrane stability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay) and apoptotic cell rate (Tunel assay) were investigated. Further, the effect of the incubation with OTA has been evaluated at DNA level by the determination of DNA integrity, by the quantification of DNA adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and by the assessment of the global DNA methylation status (5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC)). The obtained results showed that after 24 h of OTA treatment, BME-UV1 cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent way. OTA significantly (P < 0.05) increased LDH release in BME-UV1 cells at all concentrations tested. OTA (1.25 μg/mL) induced 35 % LDH release in MDCK cells (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) change in percentages of apoptotic BME-UV1 (10 ± 0.86) and MDCK (25 ± 0.88) cells was calculated when the cells were co-incubated with OTA. The level of 8-OHdG adduct formation was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in BME-UV1 cells treated with 1.25 μg/mL of OTA. The results of the present study suggest that a different mechanism of action may occur in these cell lines. Graphical abstract Study results overview. PMID:27154019

  19. The avian cell line AGE1.CR.pIX characterized by metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human vaccine manufacturing some pathogens such as Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, measles, mumps virus as well as influenza viruses are still produced on primary material derived from embryonated chicken eggs. Processes depending on primary cell culture, however, are difficult to adapt to modern vaccine production. Therefore, we derived previously a continuous suspension cell line, AGE1.CR.pIX, from muscovy duck and established chemically-defined media for virus propagation. Results To better understand vaccine production processes, we developed a stoichiometric model of the central metabolism of AGE1.CR.pIX cells and applied flux variability and metabolic flux analysis. Results were compared to literature dealing with mammalian and insect cell culture metabolism focusing on the question whether cultured avian cells differ in metabolism. Qualitatively, the observed flux distribution of this avian cell line was similar to distributions found for mammalian cell lines (e.g. CHO, MDCK cells). In particular, glucose was catabolized inefficiently and glycolysis and TCA cycle seem to be only weakly connected. Conclusions A distinguishing feature of the avian cell line is that glutaminolysis plays only a minor role in energy generation and production of precursors, resulting in low extracellular ammonia concentrations. This metabolic flux study is the first for a continuous avian cell line. It provides a basis for further metabolic analyses to exploit the biotechnological potential of avian and vertebrate cell lines and to develop specific optimized cell culture processes, e.g. vaccine production processes. PMID:25077436

  20. Biology of SNU Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ja-Lok

    2005-01-01

    SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. These SNU cell lines have been distributed to biomedical researchers domestic and worldwide through the KCLB (Korean Cell Line Bank), and have proven to be of value in various scientific research fields. The characteristics of these cell lines have been reported in over 180 international journals by our laboratory and by many other researchers from 1987. In this paper, the cellular and molecular characteristics of SNU human cancer cell lines are summarized according to their genetic and epigenetic alterations and functional analysis. PMID:19956504

  1. Effects of sulfated fucan, ascophyllan, from the brown Alga Ascophyllum nodosum on various cell lines: a comparative study on ascophyllan and fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Yokose, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2010-07-01

    The effects of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, ascophyllan and fucoidan, isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, on the growth of various cell lines (MDCK, Vero, PtK(1), CHO, HeLa, and XC) were investigated. In a colony formation assay, ascophyllan and fucoidan showed potent cytotoxic effects on Vero and XC cells, while other cell lines were relatively resistant to these polysaccharides. Almost no significant effects of these polysaccharides were observed in the cell lines tested using the Alamar blue cytotoxicity assay over 48 h with varying initial cell densities (2500-20,000 cells/well) in growth medium. Interestingly, a significant growth promoting effect of ascophyllan on MDCK cells was observed, whereas treatment with fucoidan showed growth suppressive effects on this cell line under the same experimental conditions. These results suggest that ascophyllan is distinguishable from fucoidan in terms of their bioactivities. This is the first report of the growth promoting effects of a sulfated fucan on a mammalian cell line under normal growth conditions. PMID:20541128

  2. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  3. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  4. Establishment and characterization of a Madin-Darby canine kidney reporter cell line for influenza A virus assays.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Jaber; Perez, Sandra; Guo, Zhu; Chen, Li-Mei; Donis, Ruben O

    2010-07-01

    Influenza virus diagnosis has traditionally relied on virus isolation in chicken embryo or cell cultures. Many laboratories have adopted rapid molecular methods for detection of influenza viruses and discontinued routine utilization of the relatively slow viral culture methods. We describe an influenza A virus reporter cell line that contributes to more efficient viral detection in cell culture. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were engineered to constitutively produce an influenza virus genome-like luciferase reporter RNA driven by the canine RNA polymerase I promoter. Induction of a high level of luciferase activity was detected in the Luc9.1 cells upon infection with various strains of influenza A virus, including 2009 H1N1 pandemic and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. In contrast, infection with influenza B virus or human adenovirus type 5 did not induce significant levels of reporter expression. The reporter Luc9.1 cells were evaluated in neutralizing antibody assays with convalescent H3N2 ferret serum, yielding a neutralization titer comparable to that obtained by the conventional microneutralization assay, suggesting that the use of the reporter cell line might simplify neutralization assays by facilitating the establishment of infectious virus endpoints. Luc9.1 cells were also used to determine the susceptibility of influenza A viruses to a model antiviral drug. The equivalence to conventional antiviral assay results indicated that the Luc9.1 cells could provide an alternative cell-based platform for high-throughput drug discovery screens. In summary, the MDCK-derived Luc9.1 reporter cell line is highly permissive for influenza A virus replication and provides a very specific and sensitive approach for simultaneous detection and isolation of influenza A viruses as well as functional evaluation of antibodies and antiviral molecules. PMID:20504984

  5. Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a)-induced apoptosis in MDCK involves both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

    PubMed

    Doley, Juwar; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Saxena, Lovleen; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Shikha; Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Rajmani, R S; Santra, Lakshman; Palia, S K; Tiwari, S; Harish, D R; Kumar, Arvind; Desai, G S; Gupta, Smita; Gupta, Shishir K; Tiwari, A K

    2014-01-01

    The canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) causes an acute disease in dogs. It has been found to induce cell cycle arrest and DNA damage leading to cellular lysis. In this paper, we evaluated the apoptotic potential of the "new CPV-2a" in MDCK cells and elucidated the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis. The exposure of MDCK cells to the virus was found to trigger apoptotic response. Apoptosis was confirmed by phosphatidylserine translocation, DNA fragmentation assays, and cell cycle analysis. Activation of caspases-3, -8, -9, and -12 and decrease in mitochondrial potential in CPV-2a-infected MDCK cells suggested that the CPV-2a-induced apoptosis is caspase dependent involving extrinsic, intrinsic, and endoplasmic reticulum pathways. Increase in p53 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio was also observed in CPV-2a-infected cells.

  6. Transepithelial chemotaxis of rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, C W; Taylor, J E; Walker, J D; Simmons, N L

    1983-12-01

    The migration of peritoneal exudate (PE) cells into plain Millipore filters mounted in Boyden chambers occurs under random, chemokinetic and chemotactic conditions. Significant migration of such cells in vivo, however, involves both transendothelial and transepithelial penetration and occurs predominantly under pathological conditions where chemotactic agents are presumed to be present in gradient form. When Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells are grown as a confluent monolayer on the Millipore filter of a Boyden chamber, transepithelial migration is seen only under chemotactic conditions thus modelling in vivo behaviour more effectively. The MDCK cell line exists as 2 variant strains which model different regions of the mammalian nephron. Strain I MDCK cells share features of the distal and collecting tubules and have relatively high junctional resistance (greater than 1k omega cm2). Strain II MDCK cells model the proximal segment of the nephron and have relatively low junctional resistance (c. 70 omega cm2). We have found that PE cells penetrate the less resistant strain II MDCK monolayer at a faster rate (as assessed by leading front migration) than they penetrate the tighter strain I monolayer. We have also utilized the electrophysiological features of MDCK monolayers to monitor transepithelial penetration. Our electrophysiological data indicate that rat PE cells penetrate MDCK monolayers of either strain by a transjunctional route with consequent reversible dissolution of the junctional complex. This extracellular path of PE cell migration was confirmed by ultrastructural observations. The extent of junctional dissolution and the delay in re-establishment of monolayer integrity (as assessed by electrophysiological means) are related to the concentration of PE cells added to the MDCK monolayer. Brief treatment (10 min) of the MDCK monolayer with the cation chelating agent EDTA also disrupts monolayer integrity, although its re-establishment is

  7. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  8. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  9. Cell line: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    2014-11-20

    2014 marks Cell's 40th anniversary, and over the year we have looked back at how discoveries of the last four decades have molded our understanding of biology. The final decade of the Cell Line features a selection of the exceptional scientific work-both landmark papers and essential reviews. Select entries can be read as an "Annotated Classic," which includes the original paper and accompanying reflections of a leading scientist, considering the work from our current vantage point. Our last installment includes a harbinger of the interplay between microbiota and mammalian hosts in 2004, revolutionary papers in 2006 and 2007 unlocking cellular reprogramming, the discovery of beige adipocytes in 2012, and the first example of CRISPR-based genome editing in a nonhuman primate in 2014. In addition to landmark publications, there were innovative developments at the journal in this decade, with the complete redesign of the print journal and the creation of Leading Edge in late 2005 and the restructuring of the online display of the article in 2010. Keeping pace with the changing nature of biological research, over the decade Cell added new article types, introduced guidelines for the organization of supplementary material, and expanded the journal's web-based content to bring editors' and authors' excitement and perspective on individual papers to the readership. An interactive version of the timeline, with links to the papers, full author lists, and Annotated Classics, is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.004. PMID:25416957

  10. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Montaner, Beatriz; Navarro, Sira; Piqué, Maria; Vilaseca, Marta; Martinell, Marc; Giralt, Ernest; Gil, Joan; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure.Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases.Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens.These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug. PMID:11015311

  11. Prodigiosin from the supernatant of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Montaner, B; Navarro, S; Piqué, M; Vilaseca, M; Martinell, M; Giralt, E; Gil, J; Pérez-Tomás, R

    2000-10-01

    The effects of supernatant from the bacterial strain Serratia marcescens 2170 (CS-2170) on the viability of different haematopoietic cancer cell lines (Jurkat, NSO, HL-60 and Ramos) and nonmalignant cells (NIH-3T3 and MDCK) was studied. We examined whether this cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, and we purified the molecule responsible for this effect and determined its chemical structure. Using an MTT assay we showed a rapid (4 h) decrease in the number of viable cells. This cytotoxic effect was due to apoptosis, according to the fragmentation pattern of DNA, Hoechst 33342 staining and FACS analysis of the phosphatidylserine externalization. This apoptosis was blocked by using the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases. Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by various bacteria including S. marcescens. Using mutants of S. marcescens (OF, WF and 933) that do not synthesize prodigiosin, we further showed that prodigiosin is involved in this apoptosis. This evidence was corroborated by spectroscopic analysis of prodigiosin isolated from S. marcescens. These results indicate that prodigiosin, an immunosuppressor, induces apoptosis in haematopoietic cancer cells with no marked toxicity in nonmalignant cells, raising the possibility of its therapeutic use as an antineoplastic drug.

  12. HLA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wadee, A A; Paterson, A; Coplan, K A; Reddy, S G

    1994-08-01

    The present study undertook to investigate the biological significance of human leucocyte antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate the role of potential modulating agents on human leucocyte antigen expression. These studies used several hepatic tumour-derived cell lines as in vitro model systems. The cell lines included PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander cell line), Hep3B, HepG2, TONG PHC, HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and Mahlavu. The cell lines K562 and Raji were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. K562, a B lymphoid-derived cell line, was shown to express negligible amounts of human leucocyte antigens, while Raji, an erythromyeloid-derived cell line, expressed both class I and class II human leucocyte antigens as well as their respective invariant chains, beta 2-microglobulin and Ii. Using an ELISA, experiments performed on these cell lines confirmed the natural expression of class I and class II antigens by the HA22T/VGH and HA59T/VGH cell lines, whereas PLC/PRF/5 displayed class II surface antigens only. The effects of modulating agents such as interferon-gamma sodium butyrate and clofazimine on human leucocyte antigen expression were investigated using the HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and TONG PHC cell lines. These agents increased class II and class II human leucocyte antigen expression on HA22T/VGH and TONG PHC cells, but had no effect on the HA59T/VGH cell line. The results suggest a potential use for these agents as modulators of human leucocyte antigen expression by human heptocellular cell lines.

  13. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  14. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 control claudin-2 expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney strain I and II cells.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Joshua H; Li, Shixiong; Arisco, Amy; Balkovetz, Daniel F

    2005-02-01

    The tight junction of the epithelial cell determines the characteristics of paracellular permeability across epithelium. Recent work points toward the claudin family of tight junction proteins as leading candidates for the molecular components that regulate paracellular permeability properties in epithelial tissues. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) strain I and II cells are models for the study of tight junctions and based on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) contain "tight" and "leaky" tight junctions, respectively. Overexpression studies suggest that tight junction leakiness in these two strains of MDCK cells is conferred by expression of the tight junction protein claudin-2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation by hepatocyte growth factor treatment of MDCK strain II cells inhibited claudin-2 expression and transiently increased TER. This process was blocked by the ERK 1/2 inhibitor U0126. Transfection of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase into MDCK strain II cells also inhibited claudin-2 expression and increased TER. MDCK strain I cells have higher levels of active ERK 1/2 than do MDCK strain II cells. U0126 treatment of MDCK strain I cells decreased active ERK 1/2 levels, induced expression of claudin-2 protein, and decreased TER by approximately 20-fold. U0126 treatment also induced claudin-2 expression and decreased TER in a high resistance mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (94D). These data show for the first time that the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway negatively controls claudin-2 expression in mammalian renal epithelial cells and provide evidence for regulation of tight junction paracellular transport by alterations in claudin composition within tight junction complexes.

  15. [Pathogenic effect of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 under replication in cultures of human cells].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, O P; Vorob'eva, I V; Safonova, O A; Malyshev, N A; Schwalm, F; Klenk, H -D

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of the pandemic influenza virus H1N1 in cultures of bronchial (Calu-3) and intestinal (Caco-2) differentiated epithelial cells of human origin was studied. The canine epithelial cell lines, MDCK-H and MDCK-2, were comparatively tested. The two human cell lines were found to be highly sensitive to the influenza pandemic strains A/Hamburg/05/09 and A/Moscow/501/2011 and maintained their replication without addition of trypsin to culture medium. Virus strains of seasonal influenza H1N1, such as A/Moscow/450/2003, A/Memphis/14/96, and laboratory strain A/PR/8/34, multiplied in these human cells in similar manner. The intracellular cleavage HA0-->HA1+HA2 by the host virus-activating protease (IAP) occurred in both human cell lines under infection with each influenza virus H1N1 including pandemic ones. Comparatively, this cleavage of all influenza H1N1 virus strains appeared to be either undetectable or low-detectible in MDCK-H and MDCK-2, respectively, thereby implying low levels of active IAP in these cells. Multiplication of pandemic and seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses in Calu-3 and Caco-2 cells caused cytopathic effect, which was accompanied with low autophagy and apoptosis events. These data allow recommending human cell lines, Calu-3 and Caco-2, for optimized isolation and passaging of clinical strains of Influenza pandemic viruses H1N1.

  16. Neuroblastoma cell lines showing smooth muscle cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Mine, H; Horii, Y; Takahashi, K; Nagai, R; Morishita, R; Komada, M; Asada, Y; Sawada, T

    2000-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor that is derived from the neural crest. Recent studies demonstrated that several human neuroblastoma cell lines exhibit at least three morphologic types: neuroblastic (N)-type, substrate-adhesive (S)-type and intermediate (I)-type cells. However, the origin of the S-type cells has not been clearly identified. In this study, the expressions of smooth muscle-specific proteins (desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, basic calponin and the smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms of SM1 and SM2) in three parent and four cloned neuroblastoma cell lines, composed of S-type cells, were examined by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Desmin was found in two of the seven cell lines, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and basic calponin were detected in all of seven of the cell lines. In three parent cell lines and one cloned cell line composed of N-type cells, none of three smooth muscle-specific proteins were detected. In smooth muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms, SM1 was detected in two parent cell lines composed of S-type cells (MP-N-MS and KP-N-YS) by immunofluorescence, Western blot and/or by RT-PCR, whereas the SM2 isoform was detected in one parent cell line (MP-N-MS) by RT-PCR. These findings indicate that S-type cells have either the immature or mature smooth muscle cell phenotype, and neural crest cells very likely have the ability of to differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the human system.

  17. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  18. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area.

  19. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks' genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  20. Killer cell lines against Shope carcinoma cells in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Yamade, I; Seto, A

    1991-09-01

    Killer cell activity against Shope carcinoma cells was not detected in PBL nor in spleen cells from tumor-bearing B/J rabbits, but was induced by in vitro culture of these cells in the presence of IL-2 and X-irradiated carcinoma cells. HTLV-I-transformed killer cell lines were successfully obtained by the culturing of PBL from an HTLV-I-infected and tumor-bearing Chbb:HM rabbit. These killer cells included large cells with azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm and with a reniform nucleus, thus resembling large granular lymphocytes. The killer activity was similar against the Vx2K cell line from a random-bred rabbit and SCB cell lines from an B/J rabbit, suggesting the absence of MHC restriction. PMID:1655241

  1. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  2. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the derivation of hBMECs extended to two new human iPSC lines: BC1 and GFP-labeled BC1. These hBMECs highly express adherens and tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. The addition of retinoic acid upregulates VE-cadherin expression, and results in a significant increase in transendothelial electrical resistance to physiological values. The permeabilities of tacrine, rhodamine 123, and Lucifer yellow are similar to values obtained for MDCK cells. The efflux ratio for rhodamine 123 across hBMECs is in the range 2–4 indicating polarization of efflux transporters. Using the rod assay to assess cell organization in small vessels and capillaries, we show that hBMECs resist elongation with decreasing diameter but show progressive axial alignment. The derivation of hBMECs with a blood-brain barrier phenotype from the BC1 cell line highlights that the protocol is robust. The expression of GFP in hBMECs derived from the BC1-GFP cell line provides an important new resource for BBB research. PMID:27070801

  3. Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Derived from the BC1 iPS Cell Line Exhibit a Blood-Brain Barrier Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Katt, Moriah E; Xu, Zinnia S; Gerecht, Sharon; Searson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells that form capillaries in the brain are highly specialized, with tight junctions that minimize paracellular transport and an array of broad-spectrum efflux pumps that make drug delivery to the brain extremely challenging. One of the major limitations in blood-brain barrier research and the development of drugs to treat central nervous system diseases is the lack of appropriate cell lines. Recent reports indicate that the derivation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the derivation of hBMECs extended to two new human iPSC lines: BC1 and GFP-labeled BC1. These hBMECs highly express adherens and tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. The addition of retinoic acid upregulates VE-cadherin expression, and results in a significant increase in transendothelial electrical resistance to physiological values. The permeabilities of tacrine, rhodamine 123, and Lucifer yellow are similar to values obtained for MDCK cells. The efflux ratio for rhodamine 123 across hBMECs is in the range 2-4 indicating polarization of efflux transporters. Using the rod assay to assess cell organization in small vessels and capillaries, we show that hBMECs resist elongation with decreasing diameter but show progressive axial alignment. The derivation of hBMECs with a blood-brain barrier phenotype from the BC1 cell line highlights that the protocol is robust. The expression of GFP in hBMECs derived from the BC1-GFP cell line provides an important new resource for BBB research.

  4. Differential expression of heat shock protein 27 and 70 in renal papillary collecting duct and interstitial cells - implications for urea resistance.

    PubMed

    Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Fraek, Maria-Luisa; Ouyang, Nengtai; Beck, Franz-X

    2005-05-01

    The adaptation of renal medullary cells to their hyperosmotic environment involves the accumulation of compatible organic osmolytes and the enhanced synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSP) 27 and 70. While the mechanisms leading to osmolyte accumulation are similar in papillary collecting duct (PCD) and papillary interstitial (PI) cells, the present data demonstrate that HSP27 and HSP70 are expressed differentially in these cells both in vivo and in vitro. HSP70 is abundant in PCD, but not expressed in PI cells in the papilla in situ, while HSP27 is expressed in both PCD and PI cells. These observations could be reproduced by non-permeant solutes in cultured cells. Osmotic stress strongly induced HSP70 in MDCK cells (as a model for PCD cells), but not in PI cells, while HSP27 was constitutively expressed in MDCK cells and was up-regulated in PI cells. Since prior hypertonic stress (NaCl addition) protects MDCK against subsequent exposure to high urea concentrations, this effect was also assessed in PI cells. In both cell lines, hypertonic pretreatment prior to urea exposure (400 mm) strongly attenuated caspase-3 activation. Inhibition of HSP27 expression by antisense transfection diminished the protective effect of hypertonic preconditioning in PI cells, while attenuation of HSP70 expression in MDCK cells diminished the protective effect of hypertonic preconditioning in these cells. These observations indicate that PCD and PI cells employ cell-specific mechanisms for protection against high urea concentrations as present in the renal papilla during antidiuresis.

  5. Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate.

  6. Umbelliprenin Induces Apoptosis in CLL Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Gholami, Omid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Amir Hassan; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains an incurable disease that requires innovative new approaches to improve therapeutic outcome. Many Ferula species, including F. asa-foetida, synthesize terpenyloxy coumarins. One of these coumarins is umbelliprenin, which has been implicated with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. In this study induction of apoptosis by umbelliprenin on Jurkat T-CLL and Raji B-CLL cell lines was studied. In this regard, cells were incubated with various concentrations of umbelliprenin in-vitro for different times and assayed for apoptosis with annexin V–FITC/PI double staining flowcytometry method. Results showed that umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in leukemic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that CLL cells were more susceptible to umbelliprenin induced cell death than normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Moreover, we study the induction of apoptosis in Jurkat cells by umbelliprenin in the presence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) as an agent that causes resistance to apoptosis in CLL cells, was also student. We showed that IL-4 can not reduce apoptotic effect of umbelliprenin. The preferential toxicity of umbelliprenin for CLL cells, supports the hypothesis that oral administration of umbelliprenin in the form of foods or folk medicines containing this coumarin, might enhance protection against the development of CLL in man with little side effects. In conclusion, umbelliprenin may be an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of CLL, and thus clinical studies with umbelliprenin may be appropriate. PMID:24250490

  7. [Characterization of a liver metastatic cell line derived from a human gastric cancer cell line].

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, J

    1990-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate whether there is any difference of biological characteristics between a gastric cancer cell line (KATOIII) and another cell line derived from liver metastasis of the same cell line (KATOIII-H2). The liver metastasis was produced by intrasplenic injection of the fluid containing of KATOIII in nude mouse and new cell line was established using the cells of metastatic site. The results are as follows. 1) Inoculation of KATOIII-H2 into the spleen produced liver metastases in all of the experimental animals, whereas the same procedure with KATOIII produced metastasis only in 30% of the animals. 2) KATOIII-H2 exhibited more prominent platelet-aggregating activity than KATOIII. 3) There is no difference between two cell lines on doubling time, histological findings of the xenografts and chromosomal number. 4) DNA index of KATOIII-H2 is lower than KATOIII and the trisomy in NO. 20 chromosome of KATOIII-H2 was noted. The results indicate that metastatic potential is different between two cell lines and this fact is probably in a part because of the different platelet-aggregating activity of each cell line. PMID:2233668

  8. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  9. High titer growth of human and avian influenza viruses in an immortalized chick embryo cell line without the need for exogenous proteases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristen A; Colvin, Christopher J; Weber, Patty S D; Spatz, Stephen J; Coussens, Paul M

    2008-07-01

    The current method of growing influenza virus for vaccine production is through the use of embryonated chicken eggs. This manufacturing system yields a low concentration of virus per egg, requires significant downstream production for purification, and demands a considerable amount of time for production. We have demonstrated an immortalized chick embryo cell line, termed PBS-1, is capable of growing unmodified recent isolates of human and avian influenza A and B viruses to extremely high titers. In many cases, PBS-1 cells out perform primary chick embryo kidney (CEK) cells, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) in growth of recent influenza isolates. PBS-1 cells are free of any exogenous agents, are non-tumorigenic, and are readily adaptable to a variety of culture conditions, including growth on microcarrier beads. Influenza viruses grown in PBS-1 cells are released into the culture fluid without the need for exogenous proteases, thus simplifying downstream processing. In addition to offering a significant improvement in vaccine production, PBS-1 cells should prove valuable in diagnostics and as a cell line of choice for influenza virus research.

  10. Experience with the Vero cell line.

    PubMed

    Montagnon, B J; Vincent-Falquet, J C

    1998-01-01

    The Vero cell line has been managed with the Cell Bank system to produce at the 142nd passage IPV, OPV and rabies vaccines since 1982 by Pasteur Mérieux Serums & Vaccins (PMsv). The safety of the cell line was regularly validated at the Working Cell Bank (WCB) level according to the WHO and European Pharmacopoeia requirements for absence of bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma and viruses. A special emphasis was devoted to research on the absence of simian viruses (SV40, SIV, Retro-D virus and simian CMV). All these specific researches were negative. At a low level of passage, the Vero cells are not tumorigenic. Vaccines have been prepared in low passage level Vero cells and together with the excellent downstream purification have resulted in excellent safety as attested by pharmacovigilance of more than 100 million doses of IPV during 12 years, more than 20 million doses of rabies vaccine during 10 years and more than 1 billion of OPV during eight years.

  11. Cytosine methylation profiling of cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Mathias; Turner, Julia; Gibbs, Peter; Lipton, Lara; Giovanneti, Mara; Cantor, Charles; van den Boom, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    DNA-methylation changes in human cancer are complex and vary between the different types of cancer. Capturing this epigenetic variability in an atlas of DNA-methylation changes will be beneficial for basic research as well as translational medicine. Hypothesis-free approaches that interrogate methylation patterns genome-wide have already generated promising results. However, these methods are still limited by their quantitative accuracy and the number of CpG sites that can be assessed individually. Here, we use a unique approach to measure quantitative methylation patterns in a set of >400 candidate genes. In this high-resolution study, we employed a cell-line model consisting of 59 cancer cell lines provided by the National Cancer Institute and six healthy control tissues for discovery of methylation differences in cancer-related genes. To assess the effect of cell culturing, we validated the results from colon cancer cell lines by using clinical colon cancer specimens. Our results show that a large proportion of genes (78 of 400 genes) are epigenetically altered in cancer. Although most genes show methylation changes in only one tumor type (35 genes), we also found a set of genes that changed in many different forms of cancer (seven genes). This dataset can easily be expanded to develop a more comprehensive and ultimately complete map of quantitative methylation changes. Our methylation data also provide an ideal starting point for further translational research where the results can be combined with existing large-scale datasets to develop an approach that integrates epigenetic, transcriptional, and mutational findings. PMID:18353987

  12. CellLineNavigator: a workbench for cancer cell line analysis.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Markus; Itzel, Timo; Maass, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Galle, Peter R; Teufel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The CellLineNavigator database, freely available at http://www.medicalgenomics.org/celllinenavigator, is a web-based workbench for large scale comparisons of a large collection of diverse cell lines. It aims to support experimental design in the fields of genomics, systems biology and translational biomedical research. Currently, this compendium holds genome wide expression profiles of 317 different cancer cell lines, categorized into 57 different pathological states and 28 individual tissues. To enlarge the scope of CellLineNavigator, the database was furthermore closely linked to commonly used bioinformatics databases and knowledge repositories. To ensure easy data access and search ability, a simple data and an intuitive querying interface were implemented. It allows the user to explore and filter gene expression, focusing on pathological or physiological conditions. For a more complex search, the advanced query interface may be used to query for (i) differentially expressed genes; (ii) pathological or physiological conditions; or (iii) gene names or functional attributes, such as Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway maps. These queries may also be combined. Finally, CellLineNavigator allows additional advanced analysis of differentially regulated genes by a direct link to the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources.

  13. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G.; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems. PMID:27226981

  14. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    PubMed

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  15. Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome Associated with Tumor Formation by Madin–Darby Canine Kidney Cells in Newborn Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 107 Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 102.8 to 107.5); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor–derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  16. On the Ontology Based Representation of Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed. PMID:23144907

  17. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National... tandem repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding information will be posted in a publically held...

  18. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  19. Type I collagen gel induces Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to become fusiform in shape and lose apical-basal polarity

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In the embryo, epithelia give rise to mesenchyme at specific times and places. Recently, it has been reported (Greenburg, G., and E. D. Hay. 1986. Dev. Biol. 115:363-379; Greenberg, G., and E. D. Hay. 1988. Development (Camb.). 102:605-622) that definitive epithelia can give rise to fibroblast-like cells when suspended within type I collagen gels. We wanted to know whether Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, an epithelial line, can form mesenchyme under similar conditions. Small explants of MDCK cells on basement membrane were suspended within or placed on top of extracellular matrix gels. MDCK cells on basement membrane gel are tall, columnar in shape, and ultrastructurally resemble epithelia transporting fluid and ions. MDCK explants cultured on type I collagen gel give rise to isolated fusiform-shaped cells that migrate over the gel surface. The fusiform cells extend pseudopodia and filopodia, lose cell membrane specializations, and develop an actin cortex around the entire cell. Unlike true mesenchymal cells, which express vimentin and type I collagen, fusiform cells produce both keratin and vimentin, continue to express laminin, and do not turn on type I collagen. Fusiform cells are not apically-basally polarized, but show mesenchymal cell polarity. Influenza hemagglutinin and virus budding localize to the front end or entire cell surface. Na,K-ATPase occurs intracellularly and also symmetrically distributes on the cell surface. Fodrin becomes diffusely distributed along the plasma membrane, ZO-1 cannot be detected, and desmoplakins distribute randomly in the cytoplasm. The loss of epithelial polarity and acquisition of mesenchymal cell polarity and shape by fusiform MDCK cells on type I collagen gel was previously unsuspected. The phenomenon may offer new opportunities for studying cytoplasmic and nuclear mechanisms regulating cell shape and polarity. PMID:2537838

  20. Isolation of swine influenza virus in cell cultures and embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Gauger, Phillip C

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus isolation is a procedure to obtain a live and infectious virus that can be used for antigenic characterization, pathogenesis investigation, and vaccine production. Embryonated chicken egg inoculation is traditionally considered the "gold standard" method for influenza virus isolation and propagation. However, many primary cells and continuous cell lines have also been examined or developed for influenza virus isolation and replication. Specifically, swine influenza virus (SIV) isolation and propagation have been attempted and compared in embryonated chicken eggs, some primary porcine cells, and a number of continuous cell lines. Currently Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells remain the most commonly used cell line for isolation, propagation, and titration of SIV. Virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs or in different cell lines offers alternative approaches when SIV isolation in MDCK cells is unsuccessful. Nasal swabs, lung tissues, and oral fluids are three major specimen types for SIV isolation. In this chapter, we describe the procedures of sample processing, SIV isolation in MDCK cells and in embryonated chicken eggs, as well as methods used for confirming the virus isolation results.

  1. Generating Rho-0 Cells Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Gallardo, M. Esther; Dalmao-Fernández, Andrea; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Garesse, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. Methodology Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells were used as reference control. For generation of Rho-0 hMSCs, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with each tested reagent. Total DNA was isolated and mtDNA content was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phenotypic characterization and gene expression assays were performed to determine whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs maintain the same stem properties as untreated 3a6 hMSCs. To evaluate whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs had a phenotype similar to that of 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptotic levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were measured by flow cytometry and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated using a SeaHorse XFp Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The differentiation capacity of 3a6 and 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs was evaluated using real-time PCR, comparing the relative expression of genes involved in osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. Results The results showed the capacity of the 3a6 cell line to deplete its mtDNA and to survive in culture with uridine. Of all tested drugs, Stavudine (dt4) was the most effective in producing 3a6-Rho cells. The data indicate that hMSC Rho-0 cells continue to express the characteristic MSC cell surface receptor pattern. Phenotypic characterization showed that 3a6 Rho-0 cells resembled 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, indicating that hMSC Rho-0 cells are Rho-0 cells. While the adipogenic capability was higher in 3a6 Rho-0 cells than in 3a6 cells, the osteogenic and chondrogenic

  2. Ochratoxin A-binding proteins in rat organs and plasma and in different cell lines of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Schwerdt, G; Freudinger, R; Silbernagl, S; Gekle, M

    1999-07-01

    In order to detect cellular proteins which bind the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) we coupled OTA covalently to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The peroxidase activity of the conjugate was used to detect these proteins in Western (ligand) blot analysis. Only signals caused by OTA binding to proteins were viewable. HRP alone detected no proteins and OTA-HRP binding could be inhibited by free OTA. Several proteins from the rat intestine, liver, spleen, and kidney were detected by OTA. Also rat plasma proteins bind OTA which confirms previous findings. In all renal cell lines investigated (MDCK-C11, OK, LLC-PK1, IHKE, and SKPT) there are several proteins which bind OTA. Comparison of the PonceauS stain on the nitrocellulose sheet with the signal obtained from OTA-HRP unveiled proteins with high specific OTA binding. Especially, proteins with molecular masses between 55 and 60 kDa, 40 and 45 kDa and 25 and 30 kDa showed OTA binding in all samples. OTA was partially displaced by aspartame and phenylalanine from some but not all proteins. Binding to cytosolic and organellar proteins was comparable in all investigated cell lines. In the OK cell organellar compartment a 62 kDa protein is preferentially detected by OTA-HRP although virtually no protein band is detectable. In conclusion we have found a method to clearly detect proteins which bind OTA. With this new method we proved that OTA has the potential to bind to several proteins yet specific binding differs dramatically. Thus, highly specific binding of OTA possibly makes certain proteins a preferential target of OTA toxicity. Furthermore, binding contributes to intracellular accumulation of OTA, thus leading to a prolonged half life in the mammalian body and emphasises the toxic potential of this fungal metabolite.

  3. Derivation of three new human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Cara K; Chami, Omar; Peura, Teija T; Bosman, Alexis; Dumevska, Biljana; Schmidt, Uli; Stojanov, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells capable of extensive self-renewal and differentiation to all cells of the embryo proper. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization of three Sydney IVF human embryonic stem cell lines not already reported elsewhere, designated SIVF001, SIVF002, and SIVF014. The cell lines display typical compact colony morphology of embryonic stem cells, have stable growth rates over more than 40 passages and are cytogenetically normal. Furthermore, the cell lines express pluripotency markers including Nanog, Oct4, SSEA3 and Tra-1-81, and are capable of generating teratoma cells derived from each of the three germ layers in immunodeficient mice. These experiments show that the cell lines constitute pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:20198447

  4. Neuronal cell lines as model dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590

  5. Genetically Encoded Sender–Receiver System in 3D Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Engineering spatial patterning in mammalian cells, employing entirely genetically encoded components, requires solving several problems. These include how to code secreted activator or inhibitor molecules and how to send concentration-dependent signals to neighboring cells, to control gene expression. The Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line is a potential engineering scaffold as it forms hollow spheres (cysts) in 3D culture and tubulates in response to extracellular hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We first aimed to graft a synthetic patterning system onto single developing MDCK cysts. We therefore developed a new localized transfection method to engineer distinct sender and receiver regions. A stable reporter line enabled reversible EGFP activation by HGF and modulation by a secreted repressor (a truncated HGF variant, NK4). By expanding the scale to wide fields of cysts, we generated morphogen diffusion gradients, controlling reporter gene expression. Together, these components provide a toolkit for engineering cell–cell communication networks in 3D cell culture. PMID:24313393

  6. Assembly of enveloped viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: polarized budding from single attached cells and from clusters of cells in suspension

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In confluent monolayers of the dog kidney epithelial cell line Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) assembly of RNA enveloped viruses reflects the functional polarization of the cells. Thus, influenza, Sendai, and Simian virus 5 bud from the apical (free) surface, while vesicular stomatitis virions (VSV) are assembled at basolateral plasma membrane domains (Rodriguez-Boulan, E., and D.D. Sabatini, 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 75:5071-5075). MDCK cells derived from confluent monolayers by dissociation with trypsin-EDTA and maintained as single cells in spinner medium for 12-20 h before infection, lose their characteristic structural polarity. Furthermore, when these cells were infected with influenza or VSV, virions assembled in a nonpolarized fashion over most of the cell surface. However, when dissociated MDCK cells infected in suspension were sparsely plated on collagen gels to prevent intercellular contact and the formation of junctions, the characteristic polarity of viral budding observed in confluent monolayers was again manifested; i.e., VSV budded preferentially from adherent surfaces and influenza almost exclusively from free surface regions. Similar polarization was observed in cells which became aggregated during incubation in spinner medium: influenza budded from the free surface, while VSV was produced at regions of cell-cell contact. It therefore appears that in isolated epithelial cells attachment to a substrate or to another cell is sufficient to trigger the expression of plasma membrane polarity which is manifested in the asymmetric budding of viruses. PMID:6300140

  7. Optimized conditions for MDCK permeability and turbidimetric solubility studies using compounds representative of BCS classes I-IV.

    PubMed

    Taub, Mitchell E; Kristensen, Lisbeth; Frokjaer, Sven

    2002-05-01

    The solubility enhancing effects of various excipients, including their compatibility with in vitro permeability (P(app)) systems, was investigated using drugs representative of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classes I-IV. Turbidimetric solubility determination using nephelometry and transport experiments using MDCK Strain I cell monolayers were employed. The highest usable concentration of each excipient [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and sodium taurocholate] was determined by monitoring apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) [14C]mannitol apparent permeability (P(app)) and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in transport experiments done at pH 6.0 and 7.4. The excipients were used in conjunction with compounds demonstrating relatively low aqueous solubility (amphotericin B, danazol, mefenamic acid, and phenytoin) in order to obtain a drug concentration >50 microM in the donor compartment. The addition of at least one of the selected excipients enhanced the solubility of the inherently poorly soluble compounds to >50 microM as determined via turbidimetric evaluation at pH 6.0 and 7.4. Ethanol and DMSO were found to be generally disruptive to the MDCK monolayer and were not nearly as useful as HPCD and sodium taurocholate. Sodium taurocholate (5 mM) was compatible with MDCK monolayers under all conditions investigated. Additionally, a novel in vitro system aimed at more accurately simulating in vivo conditions, i.e., a pH gradient (6.0 AP/7.4 BL), sodium taurocholate (5 mM, AP), and bovine serum albumin (0.25%, BL), was shown to generate more reliable P(app) values for compounds that are poorly soluble and/or highly protein bound.

  8. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  9. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  10. Distinct differentiation characteristics of individual human embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mikkola, Milla; Olsson, Cia; Palgi, Jaan; Ustinov, Jarkko; Palomaki, Tiina; Horelli-Kuitunen, Nina; Knuutila, Sakari; Lundin, Karolina; Otonkoski, Timo; Tuuri, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Background Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61) from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. Results The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder cells. The cells grew significantly faster and could be passaged enzymatically only on mouse feeders. However, this was found to lead to chromosomal instability after prolonged culture. All hESC lines expressed the established markers of pluripotent cells as well as several primordial germ cell (PGC) marker genes in a uniform manner. However, the cell lines showed distinct features in their spontaneous differentiation patterns. The embryoid body (EB) formation frequency of FES 30 cell line was significantly lower than that of other lines and cells within the EBs differentiated less readily. Likewise, teratomas derived from FES 30 cells were constantly cystic and showed only minor solid tissue formation with a monotonous differentiation pattern as compared with the other lines. Conclusion hESC lines may differ substantially in their differentiation properties although they appear similar in the undifferentiated state. PMID:16895598

  11. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1985-07-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo(a)pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. 2 tabs.

  12. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.

    1989-01-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

  13. VOLIN and KJON-Two novel hyperdiploid myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Våtsveen, Thea Kristin; Børset, Magne; Dikic, Aida; Tian, Erming; Micci, Francesca; Lid, Ana H B; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Coward, Eivind; Waage, Anders; Sundan, Anders; Kuehl, W Michael; Holien, Toril

    2016-11-01

    Multiple myeloma can be divided into two distinct genetic subgroups: hyperdiploid (HRD) or nonhyperdiploid (NHRD) myeloma. Myeloma cell lines are important tools to study myeloma cell biology and are commonly used for preclinical screening and testing of new drugs. With few exceptions human myeloma cell lines are derived from NHRD patients, even though about half of the patients have HRD myeloma. Thus, there is a need for cell lines of HRD origin to enable more representative preclinical studies. Here, we present two novel myeloma cell lines, VOLIN and KJON. Both of them were derived from patients with HRD disease and shared the same genotype as their corresponding primary tumors. The cell lines' chromosomal content, genetic aberrations, gene expression, immunophenotype as well as some of their growth characteristics are described. Neither of the cell lines was found to harbor immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations. The VOLIN cell line was established from a bone marrow aspirate and KJON from peripheral blood. We propose that these unique cell lines may be used as tools to increase our understanding of myeloma cell biology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311012

  14. Cell lines used for the selection of recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Maruniak, J E; Garcia-Canedo, A; Rodrigues, J J

    1994-04-01

    Four insect cell lines were used to isolate two recombinant baculoviruses which had the beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene for colorimetric assay purposes. Plaque assays were performed using two Trichoplusia ni cell lines: BTI-TN-5B1-4 and TN-368, and two Spodptera frugiperda cell lines: IPLB-SF-21AE and SF9. The number of plaques (occlusion positive and blue beta-gal+ recombinants) formed in the Trichoplusia cells was higher than in the Spodoptera cells. The appearance of Autographa californica NPV polyhedra was also faster in the T. ni cell lines. The effect of cell passage on the plaque formation proved to be critical when two different passages of the SF9 cells were tested. The higher passage produced a lower viral titration. The size and time of appearance of the plaques was also different.

  15. Authentication of the R06E Fruit Bat Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J.; Sandig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery. PMID:22754654

  16. Establishment and characterization of the Bombyx mandarina cell line.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masashi; Arai, Rika; Shibano, Yuka; Kawasaki, Hideki; Imanishi, Shigeo

    2009-06-01

    A new cell line, designated as NIAS-Boma-529b, was established from the larval fat bodies of Bombyx mandarina (B. mandarina), which is believed to be an ancestor of Bombyx mori (B. mori). This cell line has been cultured for approximately 150 passages during 2years in an IPL-41 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at a constant temperature of 26 degrees C. The morphology of this line includes adhesive round and spindle-shaped cells. Random-amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) using 7 primers and a statistical analysis based on Nei's genetic distance revealed that this cell line was closely related to B. mori-derived cell lines. An infection study also revealed that this cell line was susceptible to B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV); however, it had no apparent susceptibility to Autographa californica NPV (AcNPV), which is closely related to BmNPV. Nevertheless, cells infected with AcNPV showed an extensive cytopathic effect (CPE), including a rough cell surface, rounding, nuclear expansion, and cell blebbing. These results suggest that this cell line can be useful to clarify the mechanism of host range determination of BmNPV and AcNPV.

  17. Pharmacogenomic agreement between two cancer cell line data sets.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Large cancer cell line collections broadly capture the genomic diversity of human cancers and provide valuable insight into anti-cancer drug response. Here we show substantial agreement and biological consilience between drug sensitivity measurements and their associated genomic predictors from two publicly available large-scale pharmacogenomics resources: The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer databases.

  18. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J.

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  19. Hemin toxicity in a human epithelioid sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Braverman, S; Helson, C; Helson, L

    1995-01-01

    The major cytotoxic component of hemin was identified as metal free protoporphyrin IX in an epithelioid sarcoma cell line (VA-ES-BJ) and a glioblastoma cell line (U-373 MG) by exposing the cell lines to the iron chelator deferoxamine, tin-protoporphyrin IX, and protoporphyrin IX. The contribution of lipid peroxidation and free radical generation to toxicity was examined using DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), and 21-aminosteroid (lazaroid, U74500A). Hemin caused significantly greater toxicity in VA-ES-BJ than in U-373 MG. While exogenous PpIX was more toxic than hemin in both cell lines, this toxicity was not due to iron depletion following intracellular heme formation since ferric citrate did not reverse PpIX toxicity. Pre-treatment with BSO enhanced hemin toxicity in the VA-ES-BJ cell line but not in U-373 MG, suggesting different modes of toxicity in the two cell lines. Exposure to lazaroid protected only VA-ES-BJ from protoporphyrin-induced toxicity implicating a specific sensitivity to lipid peroxidation and/or free radical generation by this cell line. These characteristics of the VA-ES-BJ cell line distinguish it from the glioblastoma and emphasize its utility for exploring cytotoxic effects of hemin and its precursors.

  20. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, P A; Tye, B J; Sneddon, S; Bruce, K; Dand, P; Russell, G; Collins, D M; Greenshields, A; McDonald, K; Bradburn, H; Gardner, J; Downie, J M; Courtney, A; Brison, D R

    2016-03-01

    The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available. PMID:27346018

  1. Regulated expression of erythropoietin by two human hepatoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.A.; Glass, G.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The development of a cell culture system that produces erythropoietin (Epo) in a regulated manner has been the focus of much effort. The authors have screened multiple renal and hepatic cell lines for either constitutive or regulated expression of Epo. Only the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, made significant amounts of Epo as measured both by radioimmunoassay and in vitro bioassay (as much as 330 milliunits per 10/sup 6/ cells in 24 hr). The constitutive production of Epo increased dramatically as a function of cell density in both cell lines. At cell densities < 3.3 x 10/sup 5/ cells per cm/sup 2/, there was little constitutive release of Epo in the medium. With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 ..mu..M cobalt(II) chloride. At similar low cell densities, Epo production in HepG2 cells could be enhanced an average of about 3-fold by stimulation with either hypoxia or cobalt(II) chloride. Upon such stimulation, both cell lines demonstrated markedly elevated levels of Epo mRNA. Hence, both Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines provide an excellent in vitro system in which to study the physiological regulation of Epo expression.

  2. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S.; Morree, Antoine de; Pekkurnaz, Gulcin; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  3. CACO-2 CELL LINES IN DRUG DISCOVERY- AN UPDATED PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalyan K.V; Karnati, Swathi; Reddy, Mamatha B; Chandramouli, R

    2010-01-01

    Cell lines are the invitro models used for the drug permeability studies in the preclinical and clinical phases of the drug discovery. Cell line models are simple and quick to use and avoids the usage of animal models for pharmacological and toxicological studies and hence cost effective, produce reliable and reproducible results for understanding and evaluating the permeability characteristics of the potential lead drug candidates. Different cell line models used in the drug permeability studies, their characteristics has been summarized emphasizing on CACO-2. By virtue of its merits, CACO-2 cell line development, transport experiments, automated assays, optimization of experimental conditions and mechanistic uses of CACO-2 cell lines dealt comprehensively in the following context. PMID:24825967

  4. Derivation of Genea057 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea057 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea057 was demonstrated with 97% of cells expressing Nanog, 81% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.59 and Novelty score of 1.32. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345782

  5. Derivation of Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea042 was demonstrated with 81% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.06, Novelty score of 1.24 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345994

  6. Derivation of Genea002 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Peura, Teija; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea002 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype by CGH and male Allele pattern through STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea002 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 93% Oct4, 83% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a Pluritest pluripotency score of 24.55, Novelty score of 1.39, teratomas with tissues from all embryonic germ layers and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345802

  7. Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345996

  8. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea023 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination. PMID:27346015

  9. Derivation of Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea015 was demonstrated with 80% of cells expressing Nanog, 97% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 29.52, Novelty score of 1.3 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27346028

  10. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Bosman, Alexis; McKernan, Robert; Schmidt, Uli; Peura, Teija

    2016-03-01

    The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination. PMID:27346017

  11. Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345995

  12. Derivation of Genea043 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea043 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea043 was demonstrated with 92% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 61% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 31.74, Novelty score of 1.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345801

  13. Derivation of Genea016 human embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Chami, Omar; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Peura, Teija; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-01-01

    The Genea016 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea016 was demonstrated with 77% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 28.4, Novelty score of 1.37 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27345780

  14. Differential effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Verdijk, R; Franke, H R; Wolbers, F; Vermes, I

    2007-02-01

    Bisphosphonates may induce direct anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, six bisphosphonates were administered to three breast cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation was measured by quantification of the expression of Cyclin D1 mRNA. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of a DNA fragmentation assay. We demonstrated that bisphosphonates have direct effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis in different breast cancer cell lines. However, not all bisphosphonates act equally on breast cancer cells in vitro. Zoledronate seems to be the most potent of the six bisphosphonates. This in vitro study showed that bisphosphonates possess promising anti-tumor potential.

  15. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced.

  16. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. PMID:27322762

  17. Deriving cell lines from zebrafish embryos and tumors.

    PubMed

    Choorapoikayil, Suma; Overvoorde, John; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    Over the last two decades the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism in science. The experimental accessibility, the broad range of zebrafish mutants, and the highly conserved genetic and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and mammals lifted zebrafish to become one of the most attractive vertebrate models to study gene function and to model human diseases. Zebrafish cell lines are highly attractive to investigate cell biology and zebrafish cell lines complement the experimental tools that are available already. We established a straightforward method to culture cells from a single zebrafish embryo or a single tumor. Here we describe the generation of fibroblast-like cell lines from wild-type and ptenb(-/-) embryos and an endothelial-like cell line from a tumor of an adult ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) zebrafish. This protocol can easily be adapted to establish stable cell lines from any mutant or transgenic zebrafish line and the average time to obtain a pro-stable cell line is 3-5 months.

  18. Eternity and functionality - rational access to physiologically relevant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lipps, Christoph; May, Tobias; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    In the first 50 years of cell culture, the development of new cell lines was mainly based on trial and error. Due to the understanding of the molecular networks of aging, senescence, proliferation, and adaption by mutation, the generation of new cell lines with physiologic properties has become more systematic. This endeavor has been supported by the availability of new technological achievements and increasing knowledge about the biology of cell differentiation and cell-cell communication. Here, we review some promising developments that are contributing toward this goal. These include molecular tools frequently used for the immortalization process. In addition to these broadly acting immortalization regimens, we focus on the developments of cell type-specific immortalization and on the methodologies of how to control the growth of newly established cell lines.

  19. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they differ. The average percent difference (APD) among pairwise combinations from the population of 33 unrelated cell lines was 76.9%, compared with the APD in band sharing among cell lines derived from the same individual (less than or equal to 1.2%). Included in this survey were nine additional cell lines previously implicated as HeLa cell derivatives, and these lines were clearly confirmed as such by DNA fingerprints (APD less than or equal to 0.6%). On the basis of fragment frequencies in the tested cell line population, a simple genetic model was developed to estimate the frequencies of each DNA fingerprint in the population. The median incidence was 2.9 X 10(-17), and the range was 2.4 X 10(-21) to 6.6 X 10(-15). This value approximates the probability that a second cell line selected at random from unrelated individuals will match a given DNA fingerprint. Related calculations address the chance that any two DNA fingerprints would be identical among a large group of cell lines. This estimate is still very slight; for example, the chance of two or more common DNA fingerprints among 1 million distinct individuals is less than .001. The procedure provides a straightforward, easily interpreted, and statistically robust method for identification and individualization of human cells. Images p[504]-a PMID:1975479

  20. [DNA fingerprinting analysis of silkworm embryo cell lines].

    PubMed

    Pan, Min Hui; Feng, Zhen Yue; Tian, Zhi Qiang; Liu, Min; Lu, Cheng

    2006-12-01

    DNA extraction and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used on DNA genomes study of cell lines of Bombyx mori. DNA polymorphic marker analysis was conducted and DNA fingerprint of cell lines of Bombyx mori. was carried out using ISSR and RAPD. Primers that can reliably find polymorphic bands were screened out. 26 ISSR primers were selected from them any available, and 797 polymorphic bands were abtained through PCR amplification in 9 samples, including 3 embryo cell lines of Bombyx mori (BmE-SWU1, BmE-SWU2, BmE-SWU3), 5 passage cell lines (BmE, BmN, Sf9, Sf21, Hi5) and the embryos from which BmE-SWU1 originated. The ration of polymorphic bands was 89.9%. 43 RAPD primers were selected out through PCR amplification, and 1205 polymorphic bands were obtained in 9 samples. The ration of polymorphic bands was 76.6%. There were many DNA polymorphic bands differences in the cell lines of Bombyx mori. The special DNA markers of the 3 embryo cell lines were found respectively. The similarity index Nei and genetic distance of the 9 samples were calculated and the phylogeny tree of 9 samples was constructed by UPGMA. Results showed that 2 groups were divided,one group including the 3 embryo cell lines and the embryo of XQ has close relative. Another group constructed by five insect cell lines came from different species, their genetic distance was closer than the 3 embryo cell lines.

  1. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  2. Development of a cell line from Echinococcus granulosus germinal layer.

    PubMed

    Albani, Clara María; Cumino, Andrea Carina; Elissondo, María Celina; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In vitro culture of parasitic helminths provides an important tool to study cell regeneration and physiology, as well as for molecular biology and genetic engineering studies. In the present study, we established in vitro propagation of cells from Echinococcus granulosus germinal cyst layer. E. granulosus germinal cells grew beyond 100 passages and showed no signs of reduced proliferation capacity. Microscopic analysis revealed that cells grew both attached to the substrate and in suspension, forming three-dimensional structures like mammalian stem cell aggregates. Examination of the chromosome number of attached germinal cells showed a high degree of heteroploidy, suggesting the occurrence of transformation during culture. Monolayer cells survived cryopreservation and were able to proliferate after thawing. Based on the characteristics displayed by E. granulosus germinal cells, we establish a cell line from the E. granulosus germinal layer. Furthermore, we propose that this cell line could be useful for drug screening and for obtaining parasite material.

  3. Vaccine production: upstream processing with adherent or suspension cell lines.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Yvonne; Rödig, Jana; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The production of viral vaccines in cell culture can be accomplished with primary, diploid, or continuous (transformed) cell lines. Each cell line, each virus type, and each vaccine preparation require the specific design of upstream and downstream processing. Media have to be selected as well as production vessels, cultivation conditions, and modes of operation. Many viruses only replicate to high titers in adherently growing cells, but similar to processes established for recombinant protein production, an increasing number of suspension cell lines is being evaluated for future use. Here, we describe key issues to be considered for the establishment of large-scale virus production in bioreactors. As an example upstream processing of cell culture-derived influenza virus production is described in more detail for adherently growing and for suspension cells. In particular, use of serum-containing, serum-free, and chemically defined media as well as choice of cultivation vessel are considered. PMID:24297427

  4. [Decontamination of continual cell lines spontaneously infected with mycoplasmas].

    PubMed

    Machatková, M; Jurmanová, K; Snejdar, V

    1986-07-01

    The continual cell lines of bovine kidneys MDBK and AUBEK, and porcine kidneys RPD and IBRS, spontaneously infected with Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii, were decontaminated by the method of selective elimination. Two elimination procedures were modified to be used for the decontamination: one based on the reduction of infection by the light treatment of the cultures, the other based on the selection of mycoplasma-free cell population through cell clonation. On the basis of a long-continued control of the cell clones a methodical procedure of the preparation of mycoplasma-free cell lines was worked out. PMID:3090766

  5. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014. PMID:25229492

  6. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014.

  7. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  8. Characterization of an epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    German, Tania; Barash, Itamar

    2002-05-01

    Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland's unique characteristics depends on obtaining an authentic cell line that will reproduce its function in vitro. Representative clones from bovine mammary cell populations, differing in their attachment capabilities, were cultured. L-1 cells showed strong attachment to the plate, whereas H-7 cells detached easily. Cultures established from these clones were nontumorigenic upon transplantation to an immunodeficient host; they exhibited the epithelial cell characteristics of positive cytokeratin but not smooth muscle actin staining. Both cell lines depended on fetal calf serum for proliferation. They exhibited distinct levels of differentiation on Matrigel in serum-free, insulin-supplemented medium on the basis of their organization and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) secretion. H-7 cells organized into mammospheres, whereas L-1 cells arrested in a duct-like morphology. In both cell lines, prolactin activated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5-a regulator of milk protein gene transcription, and of PHAS-I-an inhibitor of translation initiation in its nonphosphorylated form. De novo synthesis and secretion of BLG were detected in differentiated cultures: in L-1 cells, BLG was dependent on lactogenic hormones for maximal induction but was less stringently controlled than was beta-casein in the mouse CID-9 cell line. L-1 cells also encompassed a near-diploid chromosomal karyotype and may serve as a tool for studying functional characteristics of the bovine mammary gland.

  9. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease.

    PubMed

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the 'gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies.

  10. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the ‘gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26891694

  11. Mercury specifically induces LINE-1 activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    L1 retro-elements comprise 17% of the human genome. Approximately 100 copies of these autonomous mobile elements are active in our DNA and can cause mutations, gene disruptions, and genomic instability. Therefore, human cells control the activities of L1 elements, in order to prevent their deleterious effects through different mechanisms. However, some toxic agents increase the retrotransposition activity of L1 elements in somatic cells. In order to identify specific effects of neurotoxic metals on L1 activity in neuronal cells, we studied the effects of mercury and cobalt on L1-retroelement activity by measuring levels of cellular transcription, protein expression, and genomic retrotransposition in a neuroblastoma cell line compared with the effects in three non-neuronal cell lines. Our results show that mercury increased the expression of L1 RNA, the activity of the L1 5'UTR, and L1 retrotransposition exclusively in the neuroblastoma cell line but not in non-neuronal cell lines. However, cobalt increased the expression of L1 RNA in neuroblastoma cells, HeLa cells, and wild-type human fibroblasts, and also increased the activity of the L1 5'UTR as well as the SV40 promoter in HeLa cells but not in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to cobalt did not result in increased retrotransposition activity in HeLa cells or neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that non-toxic levels of the neurotoxic agent mercury could influence DNA by increasing L1 activities, specifically in neuronal cells, and may make these cells susceptible to neurodegeneration over time.

  12. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Adam; Verghese, Arun; Byers, Stephen W; Ochs, Michael; Tozeren, Aydin

    2006-01-01

    Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Signaling

  13. Global Conservation of Protein Status between Cell Lines and Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Biau, Julian; Chautard, Emmanuel; Court, Frank; Pereira, Bruno; Verrelle, Pierre; Devun, Flavien; De Koning, Leanne; Dutreix, Marie

    2016-08-01

    Common preclinical models for testing anticancer treatment include cultured human tumor cell lines in monolayer, and xenografts derived from these cell lines in immunodeficient mice. Our goal was to determine how similar the xenografts are compared with their original cell line and to determine whether it is possible to predict the stability of a xenograft model beforehand. We studied a selection of 89 protein markers of interest in 14 human cell cultures and respective subcutaneous xenografts using the reverse-phase protein array technology. We specifically focused on proteins and posttranslational modifications involved in DNA repair, PI3K pathway, apoptosis, tyrosine kinase signaling, stress, cell cycle, MAPK/ERK signaling, SAPK/JNK signaling, NFκB signaling, and adhesion/cytoskeleton. Using hierarchical clustering, most cell culture-xenograft pairs cluster together, suggesting a global conservation of protein signature. Particularly, Akt, NFkB, EGFR, and Vimentin showed very stable protein expression and phosphorylation levels highlighting that 4 of 10 pathways were highly correlated whatever the model. Other proteins were heterogeneously conserved depending on the cell line. Finally, cell line models with low Akt pathway activation and low levels of Vimentin gave rise to more reliable xenograft models. These results may be useful for the extrapolation of cell culture experiments to in vivo models in novel targeted drug discovery. PMID:27567954

  14. Guanylate-Binding Protein-1 protects ovarian cancer cell lines but not breast cancer cell lines from killing by paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Aaron R; Nyabuto, Geoffrey O; Trendel, Jill A; Mazur, Travis M; Wilson, John P; Wadi, Suzan; Justinger, Jacob S; Moore, Garret L; Nguyen, Peter T; Vestal, Deborah J

    2016-09-30

    Forced expression of the cytokine-induced large GTPase, human Guanylate-Binding Protein-1 (hGBP-1), in ovarian cancer cell lines increases resistance to paclitaxel. Elevated hGBP-1 RNA in ovarian tumors correlates with shorter recurrence-free survival. In contract, hGBP-1 is part of a gene signature predicting improved prognosis in all subtypes of breast cancers. hGBP-1 does not confer paclitaxel resistance on MCF-7 and TMX2-28 breast cancer cells. Expression of the isotype of the hGBP-1-interacting protein, PIM1, which may contribute to paclitaxel resistance when associated with hGBP-1, is different in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cell lines express the 44 kDa isoform of PIM-1, and ovarian cancer cell lines express the 33 kDa isoform. PMID:27590579

  15. MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

  16. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  17. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines, towards clinical quality.

    PubMed

    Hovatta, Outi

    2006-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells offer an excellent source of cells for transplantation in the treatment of severe diseases. To be clinically safe, the lines have to be derived using strict quality criteria and good manufacturing practice. Animal proteins are immunogenic and may contain microbes, and they should not be used in establishing or propagating hES cells. Derivation systems have been improved towards clinical quality by establishing all 25 hES cell lines using human skin fibroblasts as feeder cells instead of mouse fibroblasts. A further 21 cell lines have been established using synthetic serum instead of fetal calf serum in the medium. In the five latest derivations, the inner cell mass was isolated mechanically instead of by immunosurgery (animal antibodies). Feeder-free derivation would be optimal, but it is not yet considered safe. Clinical-quality lines can be derived by establishing the skin fibroblast feeders in the good manufacturing practice laboratory with human serum in the medium, and by establishing the hES cells on such feeders. In this process, a serum replacement that contains only human protein can be used, the inner cell mass has to be isolated mechanically, and the colonies have to be split mechanically for passaging. Somatic cell nuclear transfer would help to overcome rejection of transplanted cells. PMID:17147930

  18. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.

  19. Differential sensitivity of epithelial cells to extracellular matrix in polarity establishment.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of apical-basal polarity is crucial for epithelial sheets that form a compartment in the body, which function to maintain the environment in the compartment. Effects of impaired polarization are easily observed in three-dimensional (3-D) culture systems rather than in two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems. Although the mechanisms for establishing the polarity are not completely understood, signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) are considered to be essential for determining the basal side and eventually generating polarity in the epithelial cells. To elucidate the common features and differences in polarity establishment among various epithelial cells, we analyzed the formation of epithelial apical-basal polarity using three cell lines of different origin: MDCK II cells (dog renal tubules), EpH4 cells (mouse mammary gland), and R2/7 cells (human colon) expressing wild-type α-catenin (R2/7 α-Cate cells). These cells showed clear apical-basal polarity in 2-D cultures. In 3-D cultures, however, each cell line displayed different responses to the same ECM. In MDCK II cells, spheroids with a single lumen formed in both Matrigel and collagen gel. In R2/7 α-Cate cells, spheroids showed similar apical-basal polarity as that seen in MDCK II cells, but had multiple lumens. In EpH4 cells, the spheroids displayed an apical-basal polarity that was opposite to that seen in the other two cell types in both ECM gels, at least during the culture period. On the other hand, the three cell lines showed the same apical-basal polarity both in 2-D cultures and in 3-D cultures using the hanging drop method. The three lines also had similar cellular responses to ECM secreted by the cells themselves. Therefore, appropriate culture conditions should be carefully determined in advance when using various epithelial cells to analyze cell polarity or 3-D morphogenesis.

  20. Antiproliferative Effect of Solanum nigrum on Human Leukemic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Reema; Jain, Ramya; Sharma, Anjali; Sarethy, Indira P.; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum nigrum is used in various traditional medical systems for antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antiseizure and hepatoprotective activities. We have evaluated organic solvent and aqueous extracts obtained from berries of Solanum nigrum for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). The cell viability after the treatment with Solanum nigrum extract was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results indicated increased cytotoxicity with increasing extract concentrations. Comparative analysis indicated that 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract is the lowest on both cell lines. PMID:23716874

  1. Measles virus persistence in an immortalized murine macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M B; Buckthal, D J; Picciotto, S; O'Bryan, T A; Goldman, J N

    1995-02-20

    Persistent infection with the Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV) has been established in IC-21 cells, an immortalized murine macrophage cell line. Persistence was established immediately without syncytia formation or cytopathic effects. MV was expressed in the majority of the cells as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, infectious centers assays, and limiting dilution analysis. Hemagglutinin (H) and phosphoprotein expressed in persistently infected IC-21 cells had retarded migration in SDS-PAGE gels when compared to these proteins expressed in Vero cells. H protein differences were also found between freshly infected IC-21 cells and persistently infected IC-21 cells passaged for over 2 years. Six sublines of IC-21 cells, infected at different times, have maintained these characteristics for 2 years of passage. During this time period the intensity of immunofluorescence and the number of infectious virus particles recoverable fluctuated in five of the six cell lines. In one cell line virus expression remained at a consistent high level. The ability to establish a persistent MV infection in murine macrophages allows studies using a cell important in disseminating the infection. It facilitates experiments on immunological aspects of viral immunity by enabling cell mixing experiments with histocompatible cell populations and by making available the wide array of cellular and humoral reagents in the mouse. PMID:7871720

  2. Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  3. Inducible human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Rabson, A B; Kaul, M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1996-01-01

    Packaging cell lines are important tools for transferring genes into eukaryotic cells. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based packaging cell lines are difficult to obtain, in part owing to the problem that some HIV-1 proteins are cytotoxic in a variety of cells. To overcome this, we have developed an HIV-1-based packaging cell line which has an inducible expression system. The tetracycline-inducible expression system was utilized to control the expression of the Rev regulatory protein, which in turn controls the expression of the late proteins including Gag, Pol, and Env. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that the expression of p24gag and gp120env from the packaging cells peaked on days 6 and 7 postinduction. Reverse transcriptase activity could be detected by day 4 after induction and also peaked on days 6 and 7. Defective vector virus could be propagated, yielding titers as high as 7 x 10(3) CFU/ml, while replication-competent virus was not detectable at any time. Thus, the cell line should enable the transfer of specific genes into CD4+ cells and should be a useful tool for studying the biology of HIV-1. We have also established an inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line which could be used to propagate HIV-1 vectors that require only Env in trans. The env-minus vector virus titer produced from the Env-expressing cells reached 2 x 10(4) CFU/ml. The inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line should be a useful tool for the study of HIV-1 Env as well. PMID:8676479

  4. Regeneration of lateral line and inner ear vestibular cells.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    Labelling experiments with [3H]thymidine demonstrate a continuous production of cells in the mechanoreceptive lateral line organs of the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and butterfly fish (Pantodon buchholzi) as well as in the electroreceptive ampullary organ of the transparent catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhus). Shortly after [3H]thymidine injection many cells are labelled in the middle and basal parts of the sensory organ and after a few days' survival sensory cells are also labelled. The vestibular sensory organs of selected species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds also show a continuous production of cells. In the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) labelled cells are found in the basal and middle layer of the sensory epithelium a few hours after injection with [3H]thymidine. A few days after the injection labelled cells are found in non-calyceal hair cells. After one month the calyceal cells are also labelled. Similar experiments with the bat Pipistrellus nathusii and with normal and gentamicin-treated mice (Mus musculus) show no labelled cells in the inner ear sensory epithelia. The lateral line organs and vestibular epithelia of non-mammalian vertebrates all contain a small number of dark cells with the characteristics of apoptotic cells. Macrophages and inclusions in some cells, thought to be remnants of apoptotic cells, are occasionally seen. Fixation at different osmolarities has little effect on the number of dark cells. It is suggested that the continually produced cells replace apoptotic dying cells.

  5. Experimental Adaptation of Rotaviruses to Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Carlos A.; Guerrero, Rafael A.; Silva, Elver; Acosta, Orlando; Barreto, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A number of viruses show a naturally extended tropism for tumor cells whereas other viruses have been genetically modified or adapted to infect tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses have become a promising tool for treating some cancers by inducing cell lysis or immune response to tumor cells. In the present work, rotavirus strains TRF-41 (G5) (porcine), RRV (G3) (simian), UK (G6-P5) (bovine), Ym (G11-P9) (porcine), ECwt (murine), Wa (G1-P8), Wi61 (G9) and M69 (G8) (human), and five wild-type human rotavirus isolates were passaged multiple times in different human tumor cell lines and then combined in five different ways before additional multiple passages in tumor cell lines. Cell death caused by the tumor cell-adapted isolates was characterized using Hoechst, propidium iodide, 7-AAD, Annexin V, TUNEL, and anti-poly-(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and -phospho-histone H2A.X antibodies. Multiple passages of the combined rotaviruses in tumor cell lines led to a successful infection of these cells, suggesting a gain-of-function by the acquisition of greater infectious capacity as compared with that of the parental rotaviruses. The electropherotype profiles suggest that unique tumor cell-adapted isolates were derived from reassortment of parental rotaviruses. Infection produced by such rotavirus isolates induced chromatin modifications compatible with apoptotic cell death. PMID:26828934

  6. Exometabolom analysis of breast cancer cell lines: Metabolic signature

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Lucas; Erbes, Thalia; Halbach, Sebastian; Brummer, Tilman; Jäger, Markus; Hirschfeld, Marc; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells show characteristic effects on cellular turnover and DNA/RNA modifications leading to elevated levels of excreted modified nucleosides. We investigated the molecular signature of different subtypes of breast cancer cell lines and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Prepurification of cell culture supernatants was performed by cis-diol specific affinity chromatography using boronate-derivatized polyacrylamide gel. Samples were analyzed by application of reversed phase chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Collectively, we determined 23 compounds from RNA metabolism, two from purine metabolism, five from polyamine/methionine cycle, one from histidine metabolism and two from nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. We observed major differences of metabolite excretion pattern between the breast cancer cell lines and MCF-10A, just as well as between the different breast cancer cell lines themselves. Differences in metabolite excretion resulting from cancerous metabolism can be integrated into altered processes on the cellular level. Modified nucleosides have great potential as biomarkers in due consideration of the heterogeneity of breast cancer that is reflected by the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Our data suggests that the metabolic signature of breast cancer cell lines might be a more subtype-specific tool to predict breast cancer, rather than a universal approach. PMID:26293811

  7. Generation of stable Drosophila cell lines using multicistronic vectors.

    PubMed

    González, Monika; Martín-Ruíz, Itziar; Jiménez, Silvia; Pirone, Lucia; Barrio, Rosa; Sutherland, James D

    2011-01-01

    Insect cell culture is becoming increasingly important for applications including recombinant protein production and cell-based screening with chemical or RNAi libraries. While stable mammalian cell lines expressing a protein of interest can be efficiently prepared using IRES-based vectors or viral-based approaches, options for stable insect cell lines are more limited. Here, we describe pAc5-STABLEs, new vectors for use in Drosophila cell culture to facilitate stable transformation. We show that viral-derived 2A-like (or "CHYSEL") peptides function in Drosophila cells and can mediate the multicistronic expression of two or three proteins of interest under control of the Actin5C constitutive promoter. The current vectors allow mCherry and/or GFP fusions to be generated for positive selection by G418 resistance in cells and should serve as a flexible platform for future applications. PMID:22355594

  8. A retinoid responsive cytokine gene, MK, is preferentially expressed in the proximal tubules of the kidney and human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, M.; Shirasawa, T.; Mitarai, T.; Muramatsu, T.; Maruyama, N.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the expression of an embryonic cytokine gene, MK, in the normal organs and neoplastic tissues of adults. Northern analysis showed that MK mRNA was exclusively expressed in the kidney among murine organs including thymus, lung, heart, spleen, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that MK expression was localized in the proximal tubules and metaplastic Bowman's epithelium, but not in other nephron segments such as glomeruli, loop of Henle, distal tubules, and collecting ducts. To investigate whether MK expression is a marker of tubular cell lineage, several cell lines originating from renal tubules were tested. No expression of MK was detected in PtK1 and LLC-PK1 cells derived from marsupial and porcine proximal tubules or in MDBK and MDCK cells from bovine and canine distal/collecting tubules. Unexpectedly, the MK gene was expressed in a human renal cell carcinoma line, VMRC-RCW, and the expression was up-regulated in the presence of retinoic acid. To elucidate the involvement of MK in the development of tumors, we further examined its expression in a variety of human neoplastic cell lines: YMB-1-C (breast cancer), EBC-1 (lung squamous cell carcinoma), RERF-LC-OK (lung adenocarcinoma), SBC-3 (lung small cell carcinoma), HSC-2 (mouth squamous cell carcinoma), NUGC-2 (gastric cancer), COLO201 (colon cancer), HepG2 (hepatoma), MIA PaCa-2 (pancreatic cancer), MCAS (ovarian cancer), HeLa (cervical cancer), BeWo (chorionic carcinoma), ITO-II (testicular tumor), T24 (urinary bladder tumor), and G-401 (Wilms' tumor). Strong signals were detected in COLO201, HepG2, ITO-II, T24, G-401, and weaker but distinct signals were detected in YMB-1-C, HSC-2, and MCAS cells. The MK gene was, therefore, widely expressed in neoplastic cells originating from genital organs, intestinal tract, liver, mammary gland, and urinary tract, and the expression was not restricted to adenocarcinomas, but was also observed in other types of

  9. Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Marley, Garry M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  11. Interactions of pharmacologically active snake venom sPLA2 with different cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Doumanov, Jordan; Mladenova, Kirilka; Aleksandrov, Radoslav; Danovski, Georgi; Petrova, Svetla

    2014-01-01

    Secreted Phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent a large family of structurally related enzymes, which target different tissues and organs and induce numerous pharmacological effects based on their catalytic specificity – hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. The neurotoxin vipoxin, isolated from the venom of Vipera ammodytes meriodionalis, is a heterodimeric postsynaptic ionic complex composed of two protein subunits – a basic and toxic His48 sPLA2 enzyme and an acidic, enzymatically inactive and non-toxic component. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that vipoxin sPLA2 enzyme affects cell integrity and viability of four cell types and causes different cell responses. The most dramatic local tissue effects were observed with RPE-1 (retinal pigment epithelial) cells followed by A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar epithelial) cells and MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney epithelial) cells. Products of the enzymatic reaction, lysophospholipids and unsaturated free fatty acids, act as lipid mediators that can induce membrane damaging or can stimulate cell proliferation. Our preliminary results on the cytotoxic effect of vipoxin sPLA2 on A549 cells are promising in searching of its eventual anticancer potential. PMID:26019578

  12. Molecular dissection of AKT activation in lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Du, Jinyan; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2013-01-01

    AKT is a critical signaling node downstream of PI3K, which is often activated in cancer. We analyzed the state of activation of AKT in 80 human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines under serum starvation conditions. We identified 13 lines which showed persistent AKT activation in the absence of serum. In 12 of the 13 lines, AKT activation could be attributed to loss of PTEN, activating mutation in EGFR or PIK3CA, or amplification of ERBB2. HCC2429 was the only cell line that had no alterations in those genes, but had high phospho-AKT(Ser473) levels under serum starvation conditions. However, the activation of AKT in HCC2429 was PI3K- and mTORC2-dependent based upon use of specific inhibitors. Kinome tyrosine phosphorylation profiling showed that both Notch and SRC were highly activated in this cell line. Despite the activation of Notch, AKT activation and cell survival were not affected by Notch inhibitors DAPT or Compound E. In contrast, SRC inhibitors PP2 and dasatinib both significantly decreased pAKT(Ser473) levels and reduced cell survival by inducing apoptosis. Further, a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibition synergistically blocked activation of AKT and induced apoptosis. Over-expression of SRC has been identified previously in human lung cancers, and these results suggest that a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibitors may have unique therapeutic benefit for a subset of lung cancers with these molecular features. PMID:23319332

  13. Heterozygous Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Nonhuman Primate Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Dighe, Vikas; Clepper, Lisa; Pedersen, Darlene; Byrne, James; Ferguson, Betsy; Gokhale, Sumita; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-01-01

    Monoparental parthenotes represent a potential source of histocompatible stem cells that should be isogenic with the oocyte donor and therefore suitable for use in cell or tissue replacement therapy. We generated five rhesus monkey parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PESC) lines with stable, diploid female karyotypes that were morphologically indistinguishable from biparental controls, expressed key pluripotent markers, and generated cell derivatives representative of all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Interestingly, high levels of heterozygosity were observed at the majority of loci that were polymorphic in the oocyte donors. Some PESC lines were also heterozygous in the major histocompatibility complex region, carrying haplotypes identical to those of the egg donor females. Expression analysis revealed transcripts from some imprinted genes that are normally expressed from only the paternal allele. These results indicate that limitations accompanying the potential use of PESC-derived phenotypes in regenerative medicine, including aberrant genomic imprinting and high levels of homozygosity, are cell line-dependent and not always present. PESC lines were derived in high enough yields to be practicable, and their derivatives are suitable for autologous transplantation into oocyte donors or could be used to establish a bank of histocompatible cell lines for a broad spectrum of patients. PMID:18192229

  14. Heterozygous embryonic stem cell lines derived from nonhuman primate parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Vikas; Clepper, Lisa; Pedersen, Darlene; Byrne, James; Ferguson, Betsy; Gokhale, Sumita; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2008-03-01

    Monoparental parthenotes represent a potential source of histocompatible stem cells that should be isogenic with the oocyte donor and therefore suitable for use in cell or tissue replacement therapy. We generated five rhesus monkey parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PESC) lines with stable, diploid female karyotypes that were morphologically indistinguishable from biparental controls, expressed key pluripotent markers, and generated cell derivatives representative of all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Interestingly, high levels of heterozygosity were observed at the majority of loci that were polymorphic in the oocyte donors. Some PESC lines were also heterozygous in the major histocompatibility complex region, carrying haplotypes identical to those of the egg donor females. Expression analysis revealed transcripts from some imprinted genes that are normally expressed from only the paternal allele. These results indicate that limitations accompanying the potential use of PESC-derived phenotypes in regenerative medicine, including aberrant genomic imprinting and high levels of homozygosity, are cell line-dependent and not always present. PESC lines were derived in high enough yields to be practicable, and their derivatives are suitable for autologous transplantation into oocyte donors or could be used to establish a bank of histocompatible cell lines for a broad spectrum of patients.

  15. Novel cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing recombinant human proteins. Transgenic hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Perraud, F; Dalemans, W; Ali-Hadji, D; Pavirani, A

    1992-01-01

    We have used transgenic mouse technology to establish immortalized hepatoma cell lines stably secreting heterologous proteins, such as human alpha 1-antitrypsin and human factor IX. Hepatocyte-specific regulatory DNA sequences were used to target both the expression of an onc gene and the gene coding for the human protein to the liver of transgenic mice which eventually developed hepatocellular carcinomas. Tumour cells were subsequently established as permanent cell lines, which maintained a differentiated phenotype under specific culture conditions, being capable of producing biologically active and correctly processed human alpha 1-antitrypsin and factor IX. Moreover, a preliminary analysis has shown that certain cell lines express elevated total cytochrome P450 activity. These cells could therefore represent a useful alternative to the use of animals or primary cultures in drug safety testing. PMID:1369183

  16. Germ line development: lessons learned from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Medrano, Jose V; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge about mammalian germ line development is mainly based on the mouse model and little is known about how this fundamental process occurs in humans. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic germ line development in mammals, mainly focusing on primordial germ cell (PGC) specification events, comparing the differences between mouse and human models. We also emphasize the knowledge derived from the most successful strategies used to generate germ cell-like cells in vitro in both models and major obstacles to obtaining bona fide in vitro-derived gametes are considered. PMID:25461452

  17. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-01-01

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

  18. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-09-01

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

  19. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019.

    PubMed

    Dumevska, Biljana; Peura, Teija; McKernan, Robert; Goel, Divya; Schmidt, Uli

    2016-03-01

    The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination. PMID:27346002

  20. Tools for Targeted Genome Engineering of Established Drosophila Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Hackney, Jennifer; Gong, Lei; Salzer, Claire; Mauser, Eric; Zhang, Dayu; Cherbas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We describe an adaptation of φC31 integrase–mediated targeted cassette exchange for use in Drosophila cell lines. Single copies of an attP-bounded docking platform carrying a GFP-expression marker, with or without insulator elements flanking the attP sites, were inserted by P-element transformation into the Kc167 and Sg4 cell lines; each of the resulting docking-site lines carries a single mapped copy of one of the docking platforms. Vectors for targeted substitution contain a cloning cassette flanked by attB sites. Targeted substitution occurs by integrase-mediated substitution between the attP sites (integrated) and the attB sites (vector). We describe procedures for isolating cells carrying the substitutions and for eliminating the products of secondary off-target events. We demonstrate the technology by integrating a cassette containing a Cu2+-inducible mCherry marker, and we report the expression properties of those lines. When compared with clonal lines made by traditional transformation methods, which lead to the illegitimate insertion of tandem arrays, targeted insertion lines give more uniform expression, lower basal expression, and higher induction ratios. Targeted substitution, though intricate, affords results that should greatly improve comparative expression assays—a major emphasis of cell-based studies. PMID:26450921

  1. Comparative antibiotic eradication of mycoplasma infections from continuous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

    2002-02-01

    Accumulating data implicate mycoplasma contamination as the single biggest problem in the culture of continuous cell lines. Mycoplasma infection can affect virtually every parameter and functional activity of the eukaryotic cells. A successful alternative to discarding infected cultures is to attempt to eliminate the contaminants by treatment with specific and efficient antimycoplasma antibiotics. The addition of antibiotics to the culture medium during a limited period of time (1-3 wk) is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating continuous cell lines. Here, we examined the effectiveness of several antibiotic treatment protocols that we have employed routinely in our cell lines bank. On an aggregate, 673 cultures from 236 chronically mycoplasma-positive cell lines were exposed to one of the following five antibiotic regimens: mycoplasma removal agent (quinolone; a 1-wk treatment), enrofloxacin (quinolone; 1 wk), sparfloxacin (quinolone; 1 wk), ciprofloxacin (quinolone; 2 wk), and BM-Cyclin (alternating tiamulin and minocycline; 3 wk). The mycoplasma infection was permanently (as determined by three solid mycoplasma detection assays) eliminated by the various antibiotics in 66-85% of the cultures treated. Mycoplasma resistance was seen in 7-21%, and loss of the culture as a result of cytotoxically caused cell death occurred in 3-11% of the cultures treated. Overall, 223 of the 236 mycoplasma-positive cell lines could be cured in a first round of antibiotic treatment with at least one regimen. Taken together, 95% of the mycoplasma-infected cell lines were permanently cleansed of the contaminants by antibiotic treatment, which validates this approach as an efficient and technically simple mycoplasma eradication method.

  2. Comparative antibiotic eradication of mycoplasma infections from continuous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G

    2002-02-01

    Accumulating data implicate mycoplasma contamination as the single biggest problem in the culture of continuous cell lines. Mycoplasma infection can affect virtually every parameter and functional activity of the eukaryotic cells. A successful alternative to discarding infected cultures is to attempt to eliminate the contaminants by treatment with specific and efficient antimycoplasma antibiotics. The addition of antibiotics to the culture medium during a limited period of time (1-3 wk) is a simple, inexpensive, and very practical approach for decontaminating continuous cell lines. Here, we examined the effectiveness of several antibiotic treatment protocols that we have employed routinely in our cell lines bank. On an aggregate, 673 cultures from 236 chronically mycoplasma-positive cell lines were exposed to one of the following five antibiotic regimens: mycoplasma removal agent (quinolone; a 1-wk treatment), enrofloxacin (quinolone; 1 wk), sparfloxacin (quinolone; 1 wk), ciprofloxacin (quinolone; 2 wk), and BM-Cyclin (alternating tiamulin and minocycline; 3 wk). The mycoplasma infection was permanently (as determined by three solid mycoplasma detection assays) eliminated by the various antibiotics in 66-85% of the cultures treated. Mycoplasma resistance was seen in 7-21%, and loss of the culture as a result of cytotoxically caused cell death occurred in 3-11% of the cultures treated. Overall, 223 of the 236 mycoplasma-positive cell lines could be cured in a first round of antibiotic treatment with at least one regimen. Taken together, 95% of the mycoplasma-infected cell lines were permanently cleansed of the contaminants by antibiotic treatment, which validates this approach as an efficient and technically simple mycoplasma eradication method. PMID:11929000

  3. Establishment, Immortalisation and Characterisation of Pteropid Bat Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Todd, Shawn; Grimley, Samantha; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Smith, Craig; Tachedjian, Mary; De Jong, Carol; Virtue, Elena R.; Yu, Meng; Bulach, Dieter; Liu, Jun-Ping; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Middleton, Deborah; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-01-01

    Background Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Findings Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. Conclusions/Significance The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study. PMID:20011515

  4. Monoclonal antibodies against the human leukemia cell line K 562.

    PubMed

    Böttger, V; Hering, S; Jantscheff, P; Micheel, B

    1985-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies raised against K 562, a cell line originally established from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in terminal blast crisis, were selected according to their distinct reaction pattern. Whereas two antibodies (ZIK-C1-A/C5 and ZIK-C1-A/H5 also designated C and H) recognized antigens, present on K 562 cells and other immature and mature hematopoietic cells (cell lines and normal blood and bone marrow cells), antibody ZIK-C1-A/D9 also designated Y showed an exclusive binding to K 562 cells. The results obtained (here and in the following paper) indicate, that antibody ZIK-C1-A/D9 defines an early differentiation antigen of hematopoiesis or a leukemia-associated antigen.

  5. JNK Inhibition Inhibits Lateral Line Neuromast Hair Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chengfu; Lin, Jinchao; Sun, Shaoyang; He, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    JNK signaling is known to play a role in regulating cell behaviors such as cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, and recent studies have suggested important roles for JNK signaling in embryonic development. However, the precise function of JNK signaling in hair cell development remains poorly studied. In this study, we used the small molecule JNK inhibitor SP600125 to examine the effect of JNK signaling abrogation on the development of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line neuromast. Our results showed that SP600125 reduced the numbers of both hair cells and supporting cells in neuromasts during larval development in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, JNK inhibition strongly inhibited the proliferation of neuromast cells, which likely explains the decrease in the number of differentiated hair cells in inhibitor-treated larvae. Furthermore, western blot and in situ analysis showed that JNK inhibition induced cell cycle arrest through induction of p21 expression. We also showed that SP600125 induced cell death in developing neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and this was accompanied with an induction of p53 gene expression. Together these results indicate that JNK might be an important regulator in the development of hair cells in the lateral line in zebrafish by controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:26903805

  6. Non-targeted radiation effects in vertebrate cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Lorna

    Radiation effects, such as bystander effects, hyper radiosensitivity/induced radioresistance (HRS/IRR) and adaptive response that are not related to direct DNA damage are now accepted. However the inter-relationship between them and the possible impact on the scientific basis for radiation protection are highly controversial. This thesis attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of some of these well known but little understood effects. Each paper examines some aspect of bystander effects, adaptive responses and HRS/IRR in an effort to understand how they vary with cell type, dose and time of exposure to single or multiple doses. All the effects involve non-linear dose effect curves and are mainly evident following low doses. Overall findings of the thesis include (1) A clear difference was observed between radioresistant, tumorigenic cell lines with mutant p53 gene expression, and radiosensitive, more normal, cell lines with wild type p53. In general death inducing bystander responses are induced in normal cell populations exposed to low doses of radiation while survival inducing IRR and adaptive responses are seen in the radioresistant tumorigenic cell lines. (2) A cohort of fish cell lines which demonstrated survival promoting bystander effects, also did not show a protective adaptive responses. (3) Adaptive responses traditionally occur when a large challenge dose is given 4--6hrs following low (10--100mGy) priming doses but this thesis shows that for the epithelial cell lines tested, the size of the priming dose (range 0.1--2Gy) does not appear to alter the size of the recovery response. Additionally increased survival could be detected in some cases when the challenge dose was given within one hour of the priming dose. The overall conclusion is that cell lines induce either a bystander response or a protective/adaptive response depending on genetic background and other factors. Care is needed in the interpretation of data generated from only one or two cell lines

  7. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  8. Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma. PMID:21998308

  9. Morphology and growth of murine cell lines on model biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Godek, Marisha L; Duchsherer, Nichole L; McElwee, Quinn; Grainger, David W

    2004-01-01

    All biomaterial implants are assaulted by the host "foreign body" immune response. Understanding the complex, dynamic relationship between cells, biomaterials and milieu is an important first step towards controlling this reaction. Material surface chemistry dictates protein adsorption, and thus subsequent cell interactions. The cell-implant is a microenvironment involving 1) proteins that coat the surface and 2) cells that interact with these proteins. Macrophages and fibroblasts are two cell types that interact with proteins on biomaterials surfaces and play different related, but equally important, roles in biomaterials rejection and implant failure. Growth characteristics of four murine cell lines on model biomaterials surfaces were examined. Murine monocyte-macrophages (RAW 264.7 and J774A.1), murine macrophage (IC-21) and murine fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines were tested to determine whether differences exist in adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, spreading, and fusion (macrophage lineages only) on these surfaces. Differences were observed in the ability of cells to adhere to and subsequently proliferate on polymer surfaces. (Monocyte-) macrophages grew well on all surfaces tested and growth rates were measured on three representative polymer biomaterials surfaces: tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), polystyrene, and Teflon-AF. J774A.1 cultures grown on TCPS and treated with exogenous cytokines IL-4 and GM-CSF were observed to contain multinucleate cells with unusual morphologies. Thus, (monocyte-) macrophage cell lines were found to effectively attach to and interrogate each surface presented, with evidence of extensive spreading on Teflon-AF surfaces, particularly in the IC-21 cultures. The J774A.1 line was able to proliferate and/or differentiate to more specialized cell types (multinucleate/dendritic-like cells) in the presence of soluble chemokine cues. PMID:15133927

  10. Establishment of a rat nasal epithelial tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Hood, A T; Currie, D; Garte, S J

    1987-04-01

    A new cell line designated NAS 2BL has been established from a rat nasal tumor induced by inhalation of the direct-acting carcinogen methylmethane sulfonate. The cells are epithelial in morphology, have a generation time of 34 h, require 10% fetal bovine serum for optimal growth, and exhibit keratinization at confluence. The karyotype is aneuploid, with several marker chromosomes, and the cells are transformed by the criterion of nude mouse tumorigenicity.

  11. Artificial islets from hybrid spheroids of three pancreatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Jang, I J; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Kim, B Y; Nam, B M; Yang, W; Lee, K M; Kim, H; Takebe, T; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2014-05-01

    Pancreatic islets have been the focus of recent studies exploring the pathologic mechanisms of diabetes mellitus as well as more effective and radical treatments for this disease. Islet transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy; however, isolation of pancreatic islets for this purpose has been challenging, because the technique is time consuming and technically difficult, and tissue handling can be variable. Pseudo-islets can be used as an alternative to naïve islets, but require cellular sources or artificial materials. In this study, pancreas-derived cells were used to generate pseudo-islets. Because the pancreas is composed of a variety of cell types, namely α cells, β cells, δ cells, and other pancreatic cells that perform different functions, we used 3 different cell lines-NIT-1 (a β-cell line), α TC1 clone 6 (an α-cell line), and TGP52 (a pancreatic epithelial-like cell line)-which we cocultured in nonadhesive culture plates to produce hybrid cellular spheroids. These pseudo-islets had an oval shape and were morphologically similar to naïve islets; additionally, they expressed and secreted the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrate that pseudo-islets that mimic naïve islets can be successfully generated by a coculture method. These artificial islets can potentially be used for in vitro tests related to diabetes mellitus, specifically, in drug discovery or for investigating pathology. Moreover, they can be useful for examining basic questions pertaining to cell-cell interactions and tissue development. PMID:24815150

  12. Evaluation of blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability of 2-phenoxy-indan-1-one derivatives using in vitro cell models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai-Hong; Bian, Yi-Cong; Liu, Yao; Sheng, Rong; Jiang, Hui-Di; Yu, Lu-Shan; Hu, Yong-Zhou; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-01

    2-Phenoxy-indan-1-one derivatives (PIOs) are a series of novel central-acting cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The adequate distribution of PIOs to the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for its effectiveness. However, articles related with their permeability in terms of CNS penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have not been found. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro BBB and BCSFB transport of PIOs using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), MDCK-MDR1 and Z310 cell line models. As a result, the transepithelial transport of PIOs did not differ between MDCK and MDCK-MDR1, and the result suggested that PIOs were not substrates for P-gp, which means that multidrug resistance (MDR) function would not affect PIOs absorption and brain distribution. High permeability of PIOs in Z310 was found and it suggested that PIOs had high brain uptake potential. The experiment also showed that PIOs had inhibitory effects on the MDR1-mediated transport of Rhodamine123 with an IC50 value of 40-54 μM. And we suggested that 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone might be the pharmacophoric moiety of PIOs that interacts with the binding site of P-gp. PMID:24262988

  13. Comparative proteomic profiling of Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vergara, D; Simeone, P; De Matteis, S; Carloni, S; Lanuti, P; Marchisio, M; Miscia, S; Rizzello, A; Napolitano, R; Agostinelli, C; Maffia, M

    2016-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a malignancy with complex pathogenesis. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of large mononucleated Hodgkin and bi- or multinucleated Reed/Sternberg (H/RS) cells. The origin of HRS cells in cHL is controversial as these cells show the coexpression of markers of several lineages. Using a proteomic approach, we compared the protein expression profile of cHL models of T- and B-cell derivation to find proteins differentially expressed in these cell lines. A total of 67 proteins were found differentially expressed between the two cell lines including metabolic proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and/or cell migration, which were further validated by western blotting. Additionally, the expression of selected B- and T-cell antigens was also assessed by flow cytometry to reveal significant differences in the expression of different surface markers. Bioinformatics analysis was then applied to our dataset to find enriched pathways and networks, and to identify possible key regulators. In the present study, a proteomic approach was used to compare the protein expression profiles of two cHL cell lines. The identified proteins and/or networks, many of which not previously related to cHL, may be important to better define the pathogenesis of the disease, to identify novel diagnostic markers, and to design new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26588820

  14. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  15. Host-cell-dependent role of actin cytoskeleton during the replication of a human strain of influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Arcangeletti, M C; De Conto, F; Ferraglia, F; Pinardi, F; Gatti, R; Orlandini, G; Covan, S; Motta, F; Rodighiero, I; Dettori, G; Chezzi, C

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in the modulation of host permissiveness to A/NWS/33 human influenza virus infection in two mammalian (MDCK and LLC-MK2) cell lines in vitro. During the early stages of infection, no appreciable association between incoming NWS/33 virions and cortical actin was detectable in the permissive MDCK model by confocal microscopy, while extensive colocalization and a slower infection progression were observed in LLC-MK2 cells. In the latter model, we also demonstrated the inability of the virus to carry out multiple replication cycles, irrespective of the presence of cleaved HA subunits in the released virions. Treatment with the actin-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D significantly increased the infection efficiency in LLC-MK2 cells, while a detrimental effect was observed in the MDCK cell line. Our data suggest a selective role of the actin network in inducing a restriction to influenza virus replication, mostly depending on its molecular organization, the host cell type and virus replication phase. PMID:18488136

  16. Characterization of a Novel Radiation-Induced Sarcoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lang, J.E.; Zhu, W.; Nokes, B.T.; Sheth, G.R.; Novak, P.; Fuchs, L.; Watts, G.S.; Futscher, B.W.; Mineyev, N.; Ring, A.; LeBeau, L.; Nagle, R.; Cranmer, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is a potential complication of cancer treatment. No widely available cell line models exist to facilitate studies of RIS. Methods We derived a spontaneously immortalized primary human cell line, UACC-SARC1, from a RIS. Results Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of UACC-SARC1 was virtually identical to its parental tumor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of the tumor and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis of UACC-SARC1 revealed shared expression of vimentin, osteonectin, CD68, Ki67 and PTEN but tumor-restricted expression of the histiocyte markers α1-antitrypsin and α1-antichymotrypsin. Karyotyping of the tumor demonstrated aneuploidy. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) provided direct genetic comparison between the tumor and UACC-SARC1. Sequencing of 740 mutation hotspots revealed no mutations in UACC-SARC1 nor in the tumor. NOD/SCID gamma mouse xenografts demonstrated tumor formation and metastasis. Clonogenicity assays demonstrated that 90% of single cells produced viable colonies. NOD/SCID gamma mice produced useful patient-derived xenografts for orthotopic or metastatic models. Conclusion Our novel RIS strain constitutes a useful tool for pre-clinical studies of this rare, aggressive disease. UACC-SARC1 is an aneuploid cell line with complex genomics lacking common oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes as drivers of its biology. The UACC-SARC1 cell line will enable further studies of the drivers of RIS. Synopsis We derived a spontaneously immortalized primary human cell line, UACC-SARC1, from a radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS). Our novel RIS cell line constitutes a useful tool for pre-clinical studies of this rare, aggressive disease. PMID:25644184

  17. Casein gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines: Dependence upon extracellular matrix and cell type

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, D.; Oborn, C.J. ); Li, M.L.; Bissell, M.J. )

    1987-09-01

    The COMMA-D mammary cell line exhibits mammary-specific functional differentiation under appropriate conditions in cell culture. The cytologically heterogeneous COMMA-D parental line and the clonal lines DB-1, TA-5, and FA-1 derived from the COMMA-D parent were examined for similar properties of functional differentiation. In monolayer cell culture, the cell lines DB-1, TA-5, FA-1, and MA-4 were examined for expression of mammary-specific and epithelial-specific proteins by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The clonal cell lines were relatively homogeneous in their respective staining properties and seemed to represent three subpopulations found in the heterogeneous parental COMMA-D lines. None of the four clonal lines appeared to represent myoepithelial cells. The cell lines were examined for expression of {beta}-casein mRNA in the presence or absence of prolactin. The inducibility of {beta}-casein in the COMMA-D cell line was further enhanced by a reconstituted basement membrane preparation enriched in laminin, collagen IV, and proteoglycans. These results support the hypothesis that the functional response of inducible mammary cell populations is a result of interaction among hormones, multiple extracellular matrix components, and specific cell types.

  18. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins.

  19. Phase transitions in tumor growth: II prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, A.; De Miguel, M. P.; Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Royuela-García, M.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a mechanism for prostate cancer cell lines growth, LNCaP and PC3 based on a Gompertz dynamics. This growth exhibits a multifractal behavior and a "second order" phase transition. Finally, it was found that the cellular line PC3 exhibits a higher value of entropy production rate compared to LNCaP, which is indicative of the robustness of PC3, over to LNCaP and may be a quantitative index of metastatic potential tumors.

  20. Analysis of LINE-1 expression in human pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Macia, Angela; Morell, Santiago; Garcia-Perez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Half of the human genome is composed of repeated DNA, and some types are mobile within our genome (transposons and retrotransposons). Despite their abundance, only a small fraction of them are currently active in our genome (Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1), Alu, and SVA elements). LINE-1 or L1 elements are a family of active non-LTR retrotransposons, the ongoing mobilization of which still impacts our genome. As selfish DNA elements, L1 activity is more prominent in early human development, where new insertions would be transmitted to the progeny. Here, we describe the conventional methods aimed to determine the expression level of LINE-1 elements in pluripotent human cells.

  1. Registration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines: Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Dae-Yeon; Choi, Young-Sil; Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Kim, Yong-Ou

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to increase the credibility of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines established in Korea, obligatory registration was introduced by the Bioethics and Safety Act 2008, effective as of January 1, 2010. The DNA fingerprint, chromosome stability, expression of pluripotency markers, and contamination of mycoplasma of the submitted lines were analyzed by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). The characterization data and ethical aspects, such as informed consent for donation of surplus embryos, were reviewed by a 10-member advisory review committee for stem cell registry. A total of 55 domestic hESC lines were submitted for registration in 2010; among them 51 were registered. Among these submitted lines, 26 were additionally characterized by KCDC, while 25 lines previously characterized by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology were not additionally analyzed by KCDC. Registration completed an oversight system for embryo research by registering the products of licensed embryo research projects, making embryo research more transparent in Korea. Information about hESC lines is available at the website of the Korea Stem Cell Registry (kscr.nih.go.kr). PMID:24159464

  2. Isolation of dengue virus with a human promonocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Liu, W T; Chen, C L; Lee, S S; Chan, C C; Lo, F L; Ko, Y C

    1991-05-01

    In October-November, 1988 there was an outbreak of dengue fever in the Kaoshiung area of southern Taiwan. We collected 100 serum samples from 96 patients at the onset of their fever for virus cultures and identification. A human promonocyte cell line (HL-CZ) established in our laboratory was used and proved to be susceptible for dengue virus propagation. Type 1 dengue virus in the HL-CZ cell culture was identified by immunofluorescence tests using monoclonal antibodies, and also by hemagglutination tests with goose red blood cells. The density of the virus particles, as measured by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, ranged from 1.186 to 1.224 g/ml. The virus yield from this cell culture is comparable with that from the C6/36 mosquito cell line. There was a significant correlation between the antibody responses tested with Western dot blots and hemagglutination inhibition techniques.

  3. Effect of Predatory Bacteria on Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Tang, Chi; Tran, Michael; Kadouri, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Predatory bacteria are Gram-negative bacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria and have been considered as potential therapeutic agents against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In vivo animal models have demonstrated that predatory bacteria are non-toxic and non-immunogenic in rodents. In order to consider the use of predatory bacteria as live antibiotics, it is important to investigate their effect on human cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100, and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus strain ARL-13 on cell viability and inflammatory responses of five human cell lines, representative of clinically relevant tissues. We found that the predators were not cytotoxic to any of the human cell lines tested. Microscopic imaging showed no signs of cell detachment, as compared to predator-free cells. In comparison to an E. coli control, exposure to higher concentrations of the predators did not trigger a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in four of the five human cell lines tested. Our work underlines the non-pathogenic attributes of predatory bacteria on human cells and highlights their potential use as live antibiotics against human pathogens. PMID:27579919

  4. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  5. Derivation of a Homozygous Human Androgenetic Embryonic Stem Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenhui; Huang, Sunxing; Qi, Quan; Fu, Rui; Zhu, Wanwan; Cai, Bing; Hong, Pingping; Liu, Zhengxin; Gu, Tiantian; Zeng, Yanhong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yanwen; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Canquan

    2015-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have long been considered as a promising source for cell replacement therapy. However, one major obstacle for the use of these cells is immune compatibility. Histocompatible human parthenogenetic ESCs have been reported as a new method for generating human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched hESCs. To further investigate the possibility of obtaining histocompatible stem cells from uniparental embryos, we tried to produce androgenetic haploid human embryos by injecting a single spermatozoon into enucleated human oocyte, and establish human androgenetic embryonic stem (hAGES) cell lines from androgenetic embryos. In the present study, a diploid hAGES cell line has been established, which exhibits typical features of human ESCs, including the expression of pluripotency markers, having differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo, and stable propagation in an undifferentiated state (>P40). Bisulfite sequencing of the H19, Snrpn, Meg3, and Kv imprinting control regions suggested that hAGES cells maintained to a certain extent a sperm methylation pattern. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism, short tandem repeat, and HLA analyses revealed that the hAGES cell genome was highly homozygous. These results suggest that hAGES cells from spermatozoon could serve as a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying genomic imprinting in humans. It might also be used as a potential resource for cell replacement therapy as parthenogenetic stem cells.

  6. Oral bioavailability of glyphosate: studies using two intestinal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vasiluk, Luba; Pinto, Linda J; Moore, Margo M

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly used nonselective herbicide that inhibits plant growth through interference with the production of essential aromatic amino acids. In vivo studies in mammals with radiolabeled glyphosate have shown that 34% of radioactivity was associated with intestinal tissue 2 h after oral administration. The aim of our research was to investigate the transport, binding, and toxicity of glyphosate to the cultured human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, and the rat small intestinal crypt-derived cell line, ileum epithelial cells-18 (IEC-18). An in vitro analysis of the transport kinetics of [14C]-glyphosate showed that 4 h after exposure, approximately 8% of radiolabeled glyphosate moved through the Caco-2 monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of glyphosate to cells was saturable and approximately 4 x 10(11) binding sites/cell were estimated from bound [14C]. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to > or =10 mg/ml glyphosate reduced transmembrane electrical resistance (TEER) by 82 to 96% and increased permeability to [3H]-mannitol, indicating that paracellular permeability increased in glyphosate-treated cells. At 10-mg/ml glyphosate, both IEC-18 and Caco-2 cells showed disruption in the actin cytoskeleton. In Caco-2 cells, significant lactate dehydrogenase leakage was observed when cells were exposed to 15 mg/ml of glyphosate. These data indicate that at doses >10 mg/ml, glyphosate significantly disrupts the barrier properties of cultured intestinal cells.

  7. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  8. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse.

  9. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. PMID:27103160

  10. LINEing germ and embryonic stem cells' silencing of retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Ishiuchi, Takashi; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2014-07-01

    Almost half of our genome is occupied by transposable elements. Although most of them are inactive, one type of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1), is capable of retrotransposition. Two studies in this issue, Pezic and colleagues (pp. 1410-1428) and Castro-Diaz and colleagues (pp. 1397-1409), provide novel insight into the regulation of LINE1s in human embryonic stem cells and mouse germ cells and shed new light on the conservation of complex mechanisms to ensure silencing of transposable elements in mammals.

  11. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 suppression and arginine restriction inhibit cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Fang, Jung-Hua; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer metastasis remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting metastatic gastric cancer. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) expression is increased in gastric cancer. We detected the protein expression of ASS1 in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, NCI-N87, and MKN45) and in murine gastric cancer cell lines (3I and 3IB2). We used vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to silence ASS1 expression in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines, and analyzed the effects of this protein on cell migration and metastasis. We demonstrated that ASS1 silencing suppressed cell migration in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines. ASS1 knockdown significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after the intrasplenic implantation of 3IB2 cancer cell clones. To determine whether arginine restriction may represent a therapeutic approach to treat gastric cancer, the sensitivity of tumor cells to arginine depletion was determined in gastric cancer cells. Arginine depletion significantly inhibited cell migration in the gastric cancer cell line. The silencing of ASS1 expression in MKN45 and 3IB2 gastric cancer cells markedly decreased STAT3 protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ASS1 protein is required for cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25928182

  12. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ciara; Chetrit, Jonathan; Holley, Matthew C; Grundy, David; Nassar, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons. PMID:26053673

  13. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Ciara; Chetrit, Jonathan; Holley, Matthew C.; Grundy, David; Nassar, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons. PMID:26053673

  14. Dengue-2 virus infection of human mononuclear cell lines and establishment of persistent infections.

    PubMed

    Kurane, I; Kontny, U; Janus, J; Ennis, F A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty three human mononuclear cell lines including ten myelomonocytic cell lines, eight B cell lines and five T cell lines, were examined to determine whether they could be infected with dengue-2 virus. All the cell lines were infected with dengue-2 virus as determined by immunofluorescent staining and by virus titration of culture supernatant fluids. K562, Jiyoye and Jurkat, respectively, showed the highest percentage of infected cells of these myelomonocytic, B and T cell lines. Antibody to dengue-2 virus at subneutralizing concentrations augmented dengue-2 virus infection of myelomonocytic cell lines, but not of B cell lines or of T cell lines. Persistent dengue-2 virus infection was established using a myelomonocytic cell line (K562), a B cell line (Raji), and a T cell line (HSB-2). These cell lines maintained a high percentage (more than 70%) of dengue-2 virus antigen-positive cells for at least 25 weeks. Very low titers of infectious dengue-2 virus were detected in the culture supernatant fluids of the persistently infected cells. Dengue-2 virus antigen-positive Raji cell clones were established from persistently-infected Raji cells using limiting dilutions and all of the cells in these clones were dengue-2 virus antigen-positive. These findings demonstrate that a variety of human mononuclear cell lines can be infected with dengue-2 virus and may be useful as models for the analysis of dengue virus-human cell interactions in dengue virus infections.

  15. Cytolytic activity against tumor cells by macrophage cell lines and augmentation by macrophage stimulants.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, T; Holden, H T

    1980-07-15

    Previous studies have shown that macrophage cell lines retained the ability to phagocytize, to secrete lysosomal enzymes, and to function as effector cells in antibody-dependent cellular cytoxicity. In this paper, the cytolytic activity of murine macrophage cell lines against tumor target cells was assessed using an 18-h 51Cr release assay. Of the macrophage cell lines tested, RAW 264, PU5-1.8 and IC-21 had intermediate to high levels of spontaneous cytolytic activity, P388D, and J774 had low to intermediate levels, while /WEHI-3 showed little or no cytolytic activity against RBL-5, MBL-2 and TU-5 target cells. Tumor-cell killing by macrophage cell lines could be augmented by the addition of macrophage stimulants, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide and poly I:C, indicating that the activation of macrophages by these stimulants does not require the participation of other cell types. Treatment with interferon also augmented the tumor-cell killing by macrophage cell lines. Although the mechanism by which these cell lines exert their spontaneous or boosted cytotoxic activity is not clear, it does not appear to be due to depletion of nutrients since cell lines with high metabolic and proliferative activities, such as WEHI-3 and RBL-5, showed little or no cytotoxicity and supernatants from the macrophage cell lines did not exert any cytotoxic effects in their essay. Thus, it appears that the different macrophage cell lines represent different levels of activation and/or differentiation and may be useful for studying the development of these processes as well as providing a useful tool for analyzing the mechanisms of macrophage-mediated cytolysis. PMID:6165690

  16. Characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines based on cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cheol Woong; Song, Tae-Jin; Lee, Kun-Ok; Choi, Sae Byeol; Kim, Wan Bae; Suh, Sung Ock; Kim, Young Chul; Choi, Sang Yong

    2012-06-01

    Many studies which focus on the molecules and mechanisms related to the characteristics of the cancer have been performed. In particular, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are known to play a central role in the adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the expression of CAMs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was analyzed and correlated with the characteristics of various HCC cell lines. Eight human HCC cell lines were used in this study. We analyzed the expression of ICAM-1, E-selectin and the integrin subunits of HCC cell lines by western blot analysis and ELISA kit. We estimated the expression of integrin-α5 using western blot analysis and RT-PCR to compare the expression at the gene level with the protein level. In addition, we determined the expression of TGF-β1, as one of the markers for the cellular activity compared to the levels of expression with the expression of integrin-α3 and -α5. ICAM-1 was highly expressed in all of the cell lines except SNU398 and Hep3B, which exhibit a more aggressive nature among the studied HCC cell lines. E-selectin and integrin subunits varied in all HCC cell lines. In particular, integrin-β2 was highly expressed on all HCC cell lines. In conclusion, the levels of expression of the CAMs may not affect cellular activity, morphology or tumorigenicity. However, most HCC cell lines show various expressions of CAMs, suggesting that HCC cell lines expressing the major CAMs remain candidates for molecular targeted therapy, which may need to be patient-tailored for therapy according to the molecular profile.

  17. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E. . E-mail: a.ljungkvist@rther.umcn.nl; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Begg, Adrian C.; Raleigh, James A.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h.

  18. Cell membrane fatty acid composition differs between normal and malignant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xialong; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Mikirova, Nina; Jackson, James; González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna; Trinidad Castillo, Waleska

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-eight fatty acids (C8:0 to C24:l n-9) were measured by gas chromatography in four normal cell lines (C3H / 10T1 / 2, CCD-18Co, CCD-25SK and CCD-37Lu) and seven cancer cell lines (C-41, Caov-3, LS-180, PC-3, SK-MEL-28, SK-MES-1 and U-87 MG). Results show differences in the content and proportions of fatty acids when comparing cancer cell lines with their normal counterparts. Cancer cell lines showed lower C20: 4 n-6, C24:1 n-9, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) and ratios of C20:4 n-6 to C20:5 n-3 and C16:0 to C18:1 n-9 and stearic to oleic (SA/OA) than their normal counterparts. All cancer cell lines had SA/OA ratios lower than 7.0 while normal cell lines had ratios greater than 0.7 (p<0.05). In addition, the ratios of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) to PUFA'S and the concentration of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3 were higher in cancer cell lines as compared to normal cell lines. A positive correlation was detected between C16:0 and longer SFA'S (r = +0.511, p<0.05) in normal cell lines whereas a negative correlation (r=0.608, p<0.05) was obtained for malignant cell lines. Moreover, cancerous cell lines exhibited a particular desaturation defect and an abnormal incorporation of C18:2 n-6 and C20-4 n-6 fatty acids. PMID:15377057

  19. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  20. Comparative proteome analysis across non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Grundner-Culemann, Kathrin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Klammer, Martin; Tebbe, Andreas; Schaab, Christoph; Daub, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines are widely used model systems to study molecular aspects of lung cancer. Comparative and in-depth proteome expression data across many NSCLC cell lines has not been generated yet, but would be of utility for the investigation of candidate targets and markers in oncogenesis. We employed a SILAC reference approach to perform replicate proteome quantifications across 23 distinct NSCLC cell lines. On average, close to 4000 distinct proteins were identified and quantified per cell line. These included many known targets and diagnostic markers, indicating that our proteome expression data represents a useful resource for NSCLC pre-clinical research. To assess proteome diversity within the NSCLC cell line panel, we performed hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis of proteome expression data. Our results indicate that general proteome diversity among NSCLC cell lines supersedes potential effects common to K-Ras or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncoprotein expression. However, we observed partial segregation of EGFR or KRAS mutant cell lines for certain principal components, which reflected biological differences according to gene ontology enrichment analyses. Moreover, statistical analysis revealed several proteins that were significantly overexpressed in KRAS or EGFR mutant cell lines. PMID:26361996

  1. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and will be used to differentiate among cell lines, as...

  2. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of nine esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Contino, Gianmarco; Eldridge, Matthew D; Secrier, Maria; Bower, Lawrence; Fels Elliott, Rachael; Weaver, Jamie; Lynch, Andy G; Edwards, Paul A W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly mutated and molecularly heterogeneous. The number of cell lines available for study is limited and their genome has been only partially characterized. The availability of an accurate annotation of their mutational landscape is crucial for accurate experimental design and correct interpretation of genotype-phenotype findings. We performed high coverage, paired end whole genome sequencing on eight EAC cell lines-ESO26, ESO51, FLO-1, JH-EsoAd1, OACM5.1 C, OACP4 C, OE33, SK-GT-4-all verified against original patient material, and one esophageal high grade dysplasia cell line, CP-D. We have made available the aligned sequence data and report single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and copy number alterations, identified by comparison with the human reference genome and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compare these putative mutations to mutations found in primary tissue EAC samples, to inform the use of these cell lines as a model of EAC. PMID:27594985

  4. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Whyte, J.; Taylor, L.; Sherman, A.; Nair, V.; Kaiser, P.; McGrew, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  5. DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines.

    Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

  6. METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY SOME MAMMALIAN CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS ABSTRACT WAS SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY;. SPACE CONSTRAINTS WERE SEVERE)

    Methylation of Arsenite by Some Mammalian Cell Lines.

    Methylation of arsenite is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of arsenic.
    Aim 1: Determine if there is diffe...

  7. Analysis of tumour cell composition in tumours composed of paired mixtures of mammary tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, F. R.; Wilburn, D. J.; Heppner, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to quantitate the effects of tumour subpopulation interactions, we have devised a method to determine the subpopulation composition of tumours by using paired tumour cell lines able to grow in different selective media. Line 4T07 forms colonies in thioguanine but not in HAT and line 168 forms colonies in HAT but not in thioguanine. An independent technique of determining tumour cell content was used to validate this method: line 168 and 4T07 cells are distinguishable by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide for DNA content. Mixtures of cell suspensions prepared from each unmixed tumour, as well as from tumours arising from mixtures of these lines, were analysed by both the colony formation assay and by the DNA content assay. The colony formation assay yielded values in good agreement with the DNA content assay, but was considerably more sensitive in that it was able to quantitate minority subpopulations that constituted less than 10% of the tumour. Both methods revealed that in tumours arising from mixtures, the tumour cells were almost entirely line 4T07, even when the inoculum had contained a high proportion of 168 cells. Since line 168 cells are very tumorigenic per se, these results suggest that line 4T07 cells are capable of interfering with 168 proliferation in mixed tumours, either directly or through a host-mediated mechanism. PMID:3426919

  8. 9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine preferentially sensitizes radioresistant squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, D.; Mustafi, R.; Schwartz, J.L. |

    1992-06-01

    The effect of 9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) on sensitivity to the deleterious effects of x-rays was studied in six squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Three lines were relatively radioresistant, having D{sub 0} values of 2.31 to 2.89 Gy, and the other three lines were relatively radiosensitive, having D{sub 0} values of between 1.07 and 1.45 Gy. Ara-A (50 or 500 {mu}M) was added to cultures 30 min prior to irradiation and removed 30 min after irradiation, and sensitivity was measured in terms of cell survival. The radiosensitizing effect of ara-A was very dependent on the inherent radiosensitivity of the tumor cell line. Fifty micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized only the two most radioresistant lines, SCC-12B.2 and JSQ-3. Five hundred micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized the more sensitive cell lines, SQ-20B and SQ-9G, but failed to have any effect on the radiation response of the two most sensitive cell lines, SQ-38 and SCC-61. Concentrations of ara-A as low as 10 {mu}M were equally efficient in inhibiting DNA synthesis in all six cell lines. These results suggest that the target for the radiosensitizing effect of ara-A is probably related to the factor controlling the inherent radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. Therefore, ara-A might be useful in overcoming radiation resistance in vivo.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  10. Mitochondrial DNA determines androgen dependence in prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, M; Kudo, T; Suzuki, S; Evans, TT; Sasaki, R; Wada, Y; Shirakawa, T; Sawyer, JR; Gotoh, A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer progresses from an androgen-dependent to androgen-independent stage after androgen ablation therapy. Mitochondrial DNA plays a role in cell death and metastatic competence. Further, heteroplasmic large-deletion mitochondrial DNA is verycommon in prostate cancer. To investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA in androgen dependence of prostate cancers, we tested the changes of normal and deleted mitochondrial DNA in accordance with the progression of prostate cancer. We demonstrated that the androgen-independent cell line C4-2, established byinoculation of the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line into castrated mice, has a greatlyreduced amount of normal mitochondrial DNA and an accumulation of large-deletion DNA. Strikingly, the depletion of mitochondrial DNA from androgen-dependent LNCaP resulted in a loss of androgen dependence. Reconstitution of normal mitochondrial DNA to the mitochondrial DNA-depleted clone restored androgen dependence. These results indicate that mitochondrial DNA determines androgen dependence of prostate cancer cell lines. Further, mitochondrial DNA-deficient cells formed tumors in castrated athymic mice, whereas LNCaP did not. The accumulation of large deletion and depletion of mitochondrial DNA maythus playa role in the development of androgen independence, leading to progression of prostate cancers. PMID:16278679

  11. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Marina; Martín-Cordero, Carmen; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Cortés, Felipe; Ayuso, María Jesús

    2003-10-01

    Methanolic extracts from seven Plantago species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer, were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The results showed that Plantago species exhibited cytotoxic activity, showing a certain degree of selectivity against the tested cells in culture. Since the flavonoids are able to strongly inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, we have identified luteolin-7-O-beta-glucoside as major flavonoid present in most of the Plantago species. Also, we have evaluated this compound and its aglycon, luteolin, for their cytotoxic and DNA topoisomerase I poisons activities. These results could justify the traditional use of the Plantago species and topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage might be a possible mechanism by which flavonoids of Plantago exert their cytotoxicity potential.

  12. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  13. Targeted genetic modification of cell lines for recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Piskareva, Olga; Muniyappa, Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable increases in productivity have been achieved in biopharmaceutical production processes over the last two decades. Much of this has been a result of improvements in media formulation and process development. Though advances have been made in cell line development, there remains considerable opportunity for improvement in this area. The wealth of transcriptional and proteomic data being generated currently hold the promise of specific molecular interventions to improve the performance of production cell lines in the bioreactor. Achieving this—particularly for multi-gene modification—will require specific, targeted and controlled genetic manipulation of these cells. This review considers some of the current and potential future techniques that might be employed to realise this goal. PMID:19003191

  14. Patient sues UCLA over patent on cell line.

    PubMed

    Culliton, B J

    1984-09-28

    A patient's lawsuit against the University of California is raising questions about an individual's rights of ownership in relation to body tissues that have been turned over for biomedical research but are subsequently used commercially. In 1976, John Moore had his spleen removed at the University of California, Los Angeles, in connection with his leukemia treatment. The university and researchers David Golde and Shirley Quan recently received a patent on the biologically interesting Mo cell line, which was derived from Moore's spleen cells. Moore's suit claims that the university misappropriated his tissues and that the researchers failed to obtain a valid informed consent because they did not formally tell him about the potential commercial applications of the cell line.

  15. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Marina; Martín-Cordero, Carmen; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Cortés, Felipe; Ayuso, María Jesús

    2003-10-01

    Methanolic extracts from seven Plantago species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer, were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The results showed that Plantago species exhibited cytotoxic activity, showing a certain degree of selectivity against the tested cells in culture. Since the flavonoids are able to strongly inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, we have identified luteolin-7-O-beta-glucoside as major flavonoid present in most of the Plantago species. Also, we have evaluated this compound and its aglycon, luteolin, for their cytotoxic and DNA topoisomerase I poisons activities. These results could justify the traditional use of the Plantago species and topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage might be a possible mechanism by which flavonoids of Plantago exert their cytotoxicity potential. PMID:12963131

  16. Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

    2014-01-01

    Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

  17. Derivation of Human Skin Fibroblast Lines for Feeder Cells of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christian; Felldin, Ulrika; Rodin, Sergey; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Dilber, Sirac; Hovatta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    After the first derivations of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines on fetal mouse feeder cell layers, the idea of using human cells instead of mouse cells as feeder cells soon arose. Mouse cells bear a risk of microbial contamination, and nonhuman immunogenic proteins are absorbed from the feeders to hESCs. Human skin fibroblasts can be effectively used as feeder cells for hESCs. The same primary cell line, which can be safely used for up to 15 passages after stock preparations, can be expanded and used for large numbers of hESC derivations and cultures. These cells are relatively easy to handle and maintain. No animal facilities or animal work is needed. Here, we describe the derivation, culture, and cryopreservation procedures for research-grade human skin fibroblast lines. We also describe how to make feeder layers for hESCs using these fibroblasts. PMID:26840224

  18. Ellipticine cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines — a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Stiborová, Marie; Poljaková, Jitka; Martínková, Eva; Bořek-Dohalská, Lucie; Eckschlager, Tomáš; Kizek, Rene; Frei, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Ellipticine is a potent antineoplastic agent exhibiting multiple mechanisms of action. This anticancer agent should be considered a pro-drug, whose pharmacological efficiency and/or genotoxic side effects are dependent on its cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and/or peroxidase-mediated activation to species forming covalent DNA adducts. Ellipticine can also act as an inhibitor or inducer of biotransformation enzymes, thereby modulating its own metabolism leading to its genotoxic and pharmacological effects. Here, a comparison of the toxicity of ellipticine to human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, leukemia HL-60 and CCRF-CEM cells, neuroblastoma IMR-32, UKF-NB-3 and UKF-NB-4 cells and U87MG glioblastoma cells and mechanisms of its action to these cells were evaluated. Treatment of all cells tested with ellipticine resulted in inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. This effect was associated with formation of two covalent ellipticine-derived DNA adducts, identical to those formed by 13-hydroxy- and 12-hydroxyellipticine, the ellipticine metabolites generated by CYP and peroxidase enzymes, in MCF-7, HL-60, CCRF-CEM, UKF-NB-3, UKF-NB-4 and U87MG cells, but not in neuroblastoma UKF-NB-3 cells. Therefore, DNA adduct formation in most cancer cell lines tested in this comparative study might be the predominant cause of their sensitivity to ellipticine treatment, whereas other mechanisms of ellipticine action also contribute to its cytotoxicity to neuroblastoma UKF-NB-3 cells. PMID:21753906

  19. Highly efficient site-specific transgenesis in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgenes introduced into cancer cell lines serve as powerful tools for identification of genes involved in cancer. However, the random nature of genomic integration site of a transgene highly influences the fidelity, reliability and level of its expression. In order to alleviate this bottleneck, we characterized the potential utility of a novel PhiC31 integrase-mediated site-specific insertion system (PhiC31-IMSI) for introduction of transgenes into a pre-inserted docking site in the genome of cancer cells. Methods According to this system, a “docking-site” was first randomly inserted into human cancer cell lines and clones with a single copy were selected. Subsequently, an “incoming” vector containing the gene of interest was specifically inserted in the docking-site using PhiC31. Results Using the Pc-3 and SKOV-3 cancer cell lines, we showed that transgene insertion is reproducible and reliable. Furthermore, the selection system ensured that all surviving stable transgenic lines harbored the correct integration site. We demonstrated that the expression levels of reporter genes, such as green fluorescent protein and luciferase, from the same locus were comparable among sister, isogenic clones. Using in vivo xenograft studies, we showed that the genetically altered cancer cell lines retain the properties of the parental line. To achieve temporal control of transgene expression, we coupled our insertion strategy with the doxycycline inducible system and demonstrated tight regulation of the expression of the antiangiogenic molecule sFlt-1-Fc in Pc-3 cells. Furthermore, we introduced the luciferase gene into the insertion cassette allowing for possible live imaging of cancer cells in transplantation assays. We also generated a series of Gateway cloning-compatible intermediate cassettes ready for high-throughput cloning of transgenes and demonstrated that PhiC31-IMSI can be achieved in a high throughput 96-well plate format. Conclusions The novel

  20. Carbon nanoparticles for gene transfection in eukaryotic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; Hollanda, L M; Ceragioli, H J; Ferreira, M S; Machado, D; Lancellotti, M; Catharino, R R; Baranauskas, V; Lobo, A O

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, oxygen terminated cellulose carbon nanoparticles (CCN) was synthesised and applied in gene transfection of pIRES plasmid. The CCN was prepared from catalytic of polyaniline by chemical vapour deposition techniques. This plasmid contains one gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in eukaryotic cells, making them fluorescent. This new nanomaterial and pIRES plasmid formed π-stacking when dispersed in water by magnetic stirring. The frequencies shift in zeta potential confirmed the plasmid strongly connects to the nanomaterial. In vitro tests found that this conjugation was phagocytised by NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines making them fluorescent, which was visualised by fluorescent microscopy. Before the transfection test, we studied CCN in cell viability. Both MTT and Neutral Red uptake tests were carried out using NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines. Further, we use metabolomics to verify if small amounts of nanomaterial would be enough to cause some cellular damage in NG97 cells. We showed two mechanisms of action by CCN-DNA complex, producing an exogenous protein by the transfected cell and metabolomic changes that contributed by better understanding of glioblastoma, being the major finding of this work. Our results suggested that this nanomaterial has great potential as a gene carrier agent in non-viral based therapy, with low cytotoxicity, good transfection efficiency, and low cell damage in small amounts of nanomaterials in metabolomic tests.

  1. Survival of different cell lines in alginate-agarose microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Orive, G; Hernández, R M; Gascón, A R; Igartua, M; Pedraz, J L

    2003-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat a wide range of diseases. The optimisation of this technology depends on several critical issues such as the careful selection of the cell line, the controlled manufacture of microcapsules and the suitable adaptation of the construct design to the selected cell line. In this work, we studied the behavior of hybridoma cells once enclosed in solid and liquefied core alginate-agarose beads. Results show that hybridoma cells presented a better growing pattern and improved their viability and antibody production within liquefied beads. However, when these beads were evaluated with a compression resistance study, they were found to be mechanically more fragile than solid ones. To address this problem, we entrapped non-autologous cells (BHK fibroblast and C2C12 myoblast) in solid alginate-agarose beads and observed that they showed an improved growing profile and prolonged their viability up to 70 days in comparison to the 15 days seen for the hybridoma cells.

  2. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, R R; Agarwal, P; Prasanna, G; Vopat, K; Lambert, W; Sheedlo, H J; Pang, I H; Shade, D; Wordinger, R J; Yorio, T; Clark, A F; Agarwal, N

    2001-01-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the psi2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells. Expression of Thy-1 (a marker for RGC), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a positive marker for Muller cells), HPC-1/syntaxin (a marker for amacrine cells), 8A1 (a marker for horizontal and ganglion cells) and neurotrophins was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. One of the retinal cell clones, designated RGC-5, was positive for Thy-1, Brn-3C, Neuritin, NMDA receptor, GABA-B receptor, and synaptophysin expression and negative for GFAP, HPC-1, and 8A1, suggesting that it represented a putative RGC clone. The results of RT-PCR analysis were confirmed by immunocytochemistry for Thy-1 and GFAP. Upon further characterization by immunoblotting, the RGC-5 clone was positive for Thy-1, negative for GFAP, 8A1 and syntaxin. RGC 5 cells were also positive for the expression of neurotrophins and their cognate receptors. To establish the physiological relevance of RGC-5, the effects of serum/trophic factor deprivation and glutamate toxicity were analyzed to determine if these cells would undergo apoptosis. The protective effects of neurotrophins on RGC-5 after serum deprivation was also investigated. Apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluoresceinated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Serum deprivation resulted in apoptosis and supplementation with both BDNF and NT-4 in the growth media, protected the RGC-5 cells from undergoing apoptosis. On differentiation with succinyl concanavalin A (sConA), RGC-5 cells became sensitive to glutamate toxicity, which could be reversed by inclusion of ciplizone (MK801

  3. Bioenergetic analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines: profiling of histological subtypes and identification of a mitochondria-defective cell line.

    PubMed

    Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L P Madhubhani P; Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1α in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that

  4. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) reduces cell number in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Mona; SAEKI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; TAMAHARA, Satoshi; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) is initially reported to protect macrophages from apoptosis. In this study, we determined the effect of AIM on the macrophage-derived tumor, histiocytic sarcoma cell lines (HS) of dogs. Five HS and five other tumor cell lines were used. When recombinant canine AIM was applied to non-serum culture media, cell numbers of all the HS and two of other tumor cell lines decreased dose-dependently. The DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry tests revealed that AIM induced both of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HS. Although AIM is known as an apoptosis inhibitor, these results suggest that a high dose of AIM could have an opposite function in HS and some tumor cell lines. PMID:27246397

  5. Beta-cell gene expression and functional characterisation of the human insulinoma cell line CM.

    PubMed

    Baroni, M G; Cavallo, M G; Mark, M; Monetini, L; Stoehrer, B; Pozzilli, P

    1999-04-01

    Animal insulinoma cell lines are widely used to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in glucose metabolism and to establish in vitro models for studies on beta-cells. In contrast, human insulinoma cell lines are rarely used because of difficulties in obtaining and culturing them for long periods. The aim of our study was to investigate, under different experimental conditions, the capacity of the human insulinoma cell line CM to retain beta-cell function, particularly the expression of constitutive beta-cell genes (insulin, the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT2, glucokinase), intracellular and secreted insulin, beta-cell granules, and cAMP content. Results showed that CM cells from an early-passage express specific beta-cell genes in response to glucose stimulation, in particular the insulin and GLUT genes. Such capacity is lost at later passages when cells are cultured at standard glucose concentrations. However, if cultured at lower glucose concentration (0.8 mM) for a longer time, CM cells re-acquire the capacity to respond to glucose stimulation, as shown by the increased expression of beta-cell genes (insulin, GLUT2, glucokinase). Nonetheless, insulin secretion could not be restored under such experimental conditions despite the presence of intracellular insulin, although cAMP response to a potent activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, was present indicating a viable system. In conclusion, these data show that the human insulinoma cell line CM, at both early-passage and late-passage, posseses a functional glucose-signalling pathway and insulin mRNA expression similar to normal beta-cells, representing, therefore, a good model for studies concerning the signalling and expression of beta-cells. Furthermore, we have previously shown that it is also a good model for immunological studies. In this respect it is important to note that the CM cell line is one of the very few existing human beta-cell lines in long-term culture.

  6. Recycling of 5'-nucleotidase in a rat hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, R A; du Maine, A P; Geuze, H J; van der Ende, A; Strous, G J

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular movement of cell surface 5'-nucleotidase was studied in H4S cells, a rat hepatoma cell line. Surface labelled cells were incubated for various periods at 37 degrees C and treated with neuraminidase at 0 degrees C. Removal of sialic acid residues from glycoproteins results in a change of their isoelectric points. Analysis with isoelectric focusing was then used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular 5'-nucleotidase. Incubation of 125I-surface-labelled cells at 37 degrees C resulted in a gradual decrease of labelled 5'-nucleotidase at the plasma membrane until, at 60 to 90 min, a steady state was reached with 52% of the label on the cell surface and 48% intracellular. Pretreatment of the cells with the weak base primaquine had no influence on this distribution while at the same time uptake of iron via the transferrin receptor was inhibited. Using immunoelectron microscopy 5'-nucleotidase was found on the cell surface, in multivesicular endosomes and the Golgi complex. Preincubation of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide caused a reduction of labelling in the Golgi complex, whereas the label in the other compartments was retained. These results lead to the conclusion that 5'-nucleotidase does not recycle through the Golgi complex and that in contrast to the transferrin receptor the recycling of 5'-nucleotidase is not inhibited by primaquine. Images PMID:2850162

  7. Whole-genome sequencing of nine esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Contino, Gianmarco; Eldridge, Matthew D.; Secrier, Maria; Bower, Lawrence; Fels Elliott, Rachael; Weaver, Jamie; Lynch, Andy G.; Edwards, Paul A.W.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly mutated and molecularly heterogeneous. The number of cell lines available for study is limited and their genome has been only partially characterized. The availability of an accurate annotation of their mutational landscape is crucial for accurate experimental design and correct interpretation of genotype-phenotype findings. We performed high coverage, paired end whole genome sequencing on eight EAC cell lines—ESO26, ESO51, FLO-1, JH-EsoAd1, OACM5.1 C, OACP4 C, OE33, SK-GT-4—all verified against original patient material, and one esophageal high grade dysplasia cell line, CP-D. We have made available the aligned sequence data and report single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and copy number alterations, identified by comparison with the human reference genome and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compare these putative mutations to mutations found in primary tissue EAC samples, to inform the use of these cell lines as a model of EAC. PMID:27594985

  8. Whole-genome sequencing of nine esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Contino, Gianmarco; Eldridge, Matthew D.; Secrier, Maria; Bower, Lawrence; Fels Elliott, Rachael; Weaver, Jamie; Lynch, Andy G.; Edwards, Paul A.W.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly mutated and molecularly heterogeneous. The number of cell lines available for study is limited and their genome has been only partially characterized. The availability of an accurate annotation of their mutational landscape is crucial for accurate experimental design and correct interpretation of genotype-phenotype findings. We performed high coverage, paired end whole genome sequencing on eight EAC cell lines—ESO26, ESO51, FLO-1, JH-EsoAd1, OACM5.1 C, OACP4 C, OE33, SK-GT-4—all verified against original patient material, and one esophageal high grade dysplasia cell line, CP-D. We have made available the aligned sequence data and report single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels), and copy number alterations, identified by comparison with the human reference genome and known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compare these putative mutations to mutations found in primary tissue EAC samples, to inform the use of these cell lines as a model of EAC.

  9. Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-(/sup 35/S)methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis.

  10. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yslas, Edith I; Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F; Barbero, César A; Rivarola, Viviana A

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using l-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86°±1 to 90°±1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering.

  11. Design of a stable cell line producing a recombinant monoclonal anti-TNFα antibody based on a CHO cell line.

    PubMed

    Voronina, E V; Seregin, Y A; Litvinova, N A; Shvets, V I; Shukurov, R R

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor necrosis factor alpha are widely used in the biopharmaceutical therapy of autoimmune diseases. Currently, a large number of drugs based on these antibodies are available. Accordingly, the development of these products for the Russian market is an important goal. The aim of the current study is to describe the development of one such technology. CHO-DG44-derived cell lines producing mAb were developed using two strategies, one based on individual clones and the other based on cell pools. To obtain recombinant cell lines with highly amplified genes of interest, the clones underwent dihydrofolate reductase-mediated gene amplification. Using the best strategy for the selection and amplification of mAb-producing clones, we achieved the production of more than 1 g/L in small scale, non-optimized conditions. PMID:27652157

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cell lines used for somatic cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, David A; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Sullivan, Eddie; Dykstra, Christine C; Robl, James; Kasinathan, Poothapillai

    2005-03-01

    Culture of cell lines from fetuses or postnatal animals is an essential part of somatic cell cloning. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used in media for propagation of these cells. Unfortunately, bovine fetuses and postnatal animals as well as FBS are all possible sources of non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) which is widely distributed among cattle. This study was prompted when screening of samples sent to veterinary diagnostic labs revealed that 15 of 39 fetal fibroblast cell lines used in cloning research were positive for BVDV as determined by various assays including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Goals of the research were to use both virus isolation and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) to confirm which of the cell lines were actually infected with BVDV and to assay samples of media, FBS and the earliest available passages of each cell line in an attempt to determine the source of the viral infections. Sequence analysis of amplified cDNA from all isolates was performed to provide a definitive link between possible sources of virus and infected cell lines. Only 5 of the 39 cell lines were actually infected with BVDV. Three of these five lines were not infected at the earliest cryopreserved passage, leading to the conclusion that they likely became infected after culture in media containing contaminated FBS. In fact, sequence comparison of the amplified cDNA from one lot of FBS confirmed that it was the source of infection for one of these cell lines. Since BVDV was isolated from the remaining two cell lines at the earliest available passage, the fetuses from which they were established could not be ruled out as the source of the virus.

  13. Interaction of a mouse macrophage cell line with homologous erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singer, J A; Walker, W S; Morrison, M

    1982-06-01

    The interaction of the IC-21 murine macrophage cell line and homologous red blood cells (RBC) was assessed in the absence of exogenous opsonins. These results were used to evaluate this system as a potential model for macrophage-mediated clearance of old or damaged RBC. The binding and ingestion of density-separated and unseparated RBC by IC-21 cells were quantitated in assays that involved both 51Cr-labeled RBC and direct microscopy. The number of unseparated RBC that bound to IC-21 macrophages depended on the number of RBC added. Macrophages phagocytized an appreciable proportion of RBC within 3 hours with the ratio of RBC:macrophage of 10, a point at which the RBC-binding was not rate limiting. The mouse RBC were separated into dense- and less-dense fractions which are presumably enriched for old and young cells, respectively. When these RBC fractions were incubated with the IC-21 macrophage, significantly more of these dense cells were phagocytized. These results show that IC-21 macrophage cell line is a useful model for defining the processes whereby aged or damaged RBC are recognized and removed from circulation by macrophages. PMID:7120230

  14. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  15. Bisphosphonates induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Senaratne, S G; Pirianov, G; Mansi, J L; Arnett, T R; Colston, K W

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer has a prodigious capacity to metastasize to bone. In women with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases, bisphosphonates reduce the incidence of hypercalcaemia and skeletal morbidity. Recent clinical findings suggest that some bisphosphonates reduce the tumour burden in bone with a consequent increase in survival, raising the possibility that bisphosphonates may have a direct effect on breast cancer cells. We have investigated the in vitro effects of bisphosphonates zoledronate, pamidronate, clodronate and EB 1053 on growth, viability and induction of apoptosis in three human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs 578T and MCF-7). Cell growth was monitored by crystal violet dye assay, and cell viability was quantitated by MTS dye reduction. Induction of apoptosis was determined by identification of morphological features of apoptosis using time-lapse videomicroscopy, identifying morphological changes in nucleis using Hoechst staining, quantitation of DNA fragmentation, level of expression of bcl-2 and bax proteins and identification of the proteolytic cleavage of Poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP). All four bisphosphonates significantly reduced cell viability in all three cell lines. Zoledronate was the most potent bisphosphonate with IC50values of 15, 20 and 3 μM respectively in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and Hs 578T cells. Corresponding values for pamidronate were 40, 35 and 25 μM, whereas clodronate and EB 1053 were more than two orders of magnitude less potent. An increase in the proportion of cells having morphological features characteristic of apoptosis, characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus, time-dependent increase in the percentage of fragmented chromosomal DNA, down-regulation in bcl-2 protein and proteolytic cleavage of PARP, all indicate that bisphosphonates have direct anti-tumour effects on human breast cancer cells. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10780527

  16. Identification and Characterization of CD133pos Subpopulation Cells From a Human Laryngeal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hai-ou; Wang, Huifang; Che, Na; Li, Dong; Mao, Yong; Zeng, Qiao; Ge, Rongming

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates that CD133 are expressed in several kinds of stem cells, among which, its high expression in laryngeal carcinoma has caused wide concern. To further explore efficaciously targeting drugs to laryngeal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs), we transplanted a solid tumor from CSCs into abdominal subcutaneous tissue of nude mice, and then compared the biological characteristics of laryngeal solid tumors with or without cisplatin intervention. Material/Methods In this study, the expression of CD133 was detected in the Hep-2 cell line by flow cytometry. By applying magnetic cell sorting (MACS) technology, we reported the results of purifying CD133-positive cells from a Hep-2 cell line. Cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor-forming ability were examined in vitro and in vivo to identify the marker of CSCs in Hep-2 cell line. Results Upon flow cytometry analysis, CD133 was expressed constantly on 40.12±1.32% in Hep-2 cell line. Cell proliferation and colony formation ability were higher in CD133-positive cells compared to CD133-negative cells, and the in vivo tumorigenesis experiment showed the same results as in vitro assay. The 2 subpopulations cells were both sensitive to DDP, among which, the effect of DPP on proliferation ability and tumor-forming ability of CD133-positive cells was obviously greater than that of CD133-negative cells. Conclusions Above all, our study revealed that CD133-positive cells have properties of higher proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenesis in Hep-2 cell line, indicating that CD133 could be a marker to characterize laryngeal cancer stem cells. PMID:27049928

  17. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  18. Regulation of alkaline phosphatase expression in human choriocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T A; Tin, A W; Sussman, H H

    1979-01-01

    The coincident expression of two structurally distinct isoenzymes of human alkaline phosphatase was demonstrated in two independently derived gestational choriocarcinoma cell lines. These proteins were shown to have enzymatic, antigenic, and physical-chemical properties resembling those of isoenzymes from term placenta and adult liver. The regulation of these isoenzymes has been studied during the exposure of both cell lines to 5-bromodeoxyuridine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The responses of the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes to these agents have also been compared with the response of another protein phenotypic to placenta, the alpha subunit of chorionic gonadotropin. The results show that (i) the separate structural genes coding for placental and liver alkaline phosphatases are regulated in a noncoordinate fashion; (ii) both alkaline phosphatase genes respond independently of the alpha subunit; and (iii) the induction of the placental type isoenzyme occurs via at least two independent pathways. Images PMID:218197

  19. Reversal of diabetes following transplantation of an insulin-secreting human liver cell line: Melligen cells.

    PubMed

    Lawandi, Janet; Tao, Chang; Ren, Binhai; Williams, Paul; Ling, Dora; Swan, M Anne; Nassif, Najah T; Torpy, Fraser R; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the transplantation of islets, a human liver cell line has been genetically engineered to reverse type 1 diabetes (TID). The initial liver cell line (Huh7ins) commenced secretion of insulin in response to a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/l. After transfection of the Huh7ins cells with human islet glucokinase, the resultant Melligen cells secreted insulin in response to glucose within the physiological range; commencing at 4.25 mmol/l. Melligen cells exhibited increased glucokinase enzymatic activity in response to physiological glucose concentrations, as compared with Huh7ins cells. When transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, Melligen cells restored normoglycemia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that both cell lines expressed a range of β-cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones. Exposure of Melligen and Huh7ins cells to proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) affected neither their viability nor their ability to secrete insulin to glucose. Gene expression (microarray and qRT-PCR) analyses indicated the survival of Melligen cells in the presence of known β-cell cytotoxins was associated with the expression of NF-κB and antiapoptotic genes (such as BIRC3). This study describes the successful generation of an artificial β-cell line, which, if encapsulated to avoid allograft rejection, may offer a clinically applicable cure for T1D. PMID:26029722

  20. Restoration of WNT4 inhibits cell growth in leukemia-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WNT signaling pathways are significantly altered during cancer development. Vertebrates possess two classes of WNT signaling pathways: the “canonical” WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the “non-canonical” pathways including WNT/Ca2+ and WNT/Planar cell polarity [PCP] signaling. WNT4 influences hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and survival; however, WNT4 function in cancer development and the resulting implications for oncogenesis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine the expression of WNT4 in mature peripheral blood cells and diverse leukemia-derived cells including cell lines from hematopoietic neoplasms and cells from patients with leukemia; second, to identify the effect of this ligand on the proliferation and apoptosis of the blast-derived cell lines BJAB, Jurkat, CEM, K562, and HL60. Methods We determined WNT4 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals, as well as from five leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. To analyze the effect of WNT4 on cell proliferation, PBMCs and cell lines were exposed to a commercially available WNT4 recombinant human protein. Furthermore, WNT4 expression was restored in BJAB cells using an inducible lentiviral expression system. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by the addition of WST-1 to cell cultures and counting cells; in addition, the progression of the cell cycle and the amount of apoptosis were analyzed in the absence or presence of WNT4. Finally, the expression of WNT-pathway target genes was measured by qRT-PCR. Results WNT4 expression was severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. The exposure of cell lines to WNT4 recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell proliferation; inducing WNT4 expression in BJAB

  1. Effect of human procathepsin D on proliferation of human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vĕtvicka, V; Vĕktvicková, J; Fusek, M

    1994-05-16

    We have used human procathepsin D isolated from supernatant of human breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1 to test its mitogenic activity for a broad spectrum of human-derived cell lines. These cell lines included: breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-436, MBA-MD-483 and MDA-MB-231, B lymphoblastoid cell line Raji, the monocytoid cell line U937, T lymphoblastoid cell line 8402, epitheloid carcinoma cell line HELA, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep G2, breast milk epithelial cell line HBL-100 and angiosarcoma cell line HAEND-1. We have tested the level of proliferation of these cell lines depending on the presence of procathepsin D in the medium. In parallel we have also measured the effect of insulin-like growth factor II under the same experimental conditions. We have found a significant difference between the influence of IGF II and that of procathepsin D. While IGF II promoted in practically the same way the proliferation of all cell lines tested, procathepsin D had a very pronounced effect on breast cancer cell lines only. This finding might help to explain some contradictory results of prognostic significance of procathepsin D in human breast cancer.

  2. Perhexiline maleate toxicity on human liver cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, J Y; Guillouzo, A; Glaise, D; Deugnier, Y; Messner, M; Bourel, M

    1980-01-01

    When added to the culture medium of human liver cell lines, perhexiline maleate induced formation of numerous myeloid bodies containing unicentric or multicentric smooth membranes within a few days. The nine lysosomal enzyme activities studied, except for beta-galactosidase which decreased, remained unchanged. These results indicate that on cultured human liver cells perhexiline maleate has an effect similar to that described on hepatocytes of some patients treated with this drug and suggest that myeloid body formation is not due to impairment of lysosomal enzyme activities. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7192674

  3. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy.

  4. Impairment of cell cycle progression by aflatoxin B1 in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ricordy, R; Gensabella, G; Cacci, E; Augusti-Tocco, G

    2002-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum, which may be present as a food contaminant. It is known to cause acute toxic effects and act as a carcinogenic agent. The carcinogenic action has been related to its ability to form unstable adducts with DNA, which represent possible mutagenic sites. On the other hand, the primary cellular target responsible for its toxic action has not yet been clearly identified. Previous data suggested a possible correlation between cell proliferation and responsiveness to aflatoxin toxicity. These observations led us to investigate the effect of the toxin on cell cycle progression of three human cell lines (HepG2, SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH derived from liver and nervous tissue tumours); they were shown to display different responses to toxin exposure and have different growth kinetics. We performed analysis of the cell cycle, DNA synthesis and expression of p21 and p53 in the presence and absence of the toxin in all cell lines exposed. The results of cell cycle cytofluorometric analysis show significant alterations of cell cycle progression as a result of toxin treatment. In all cell lines exposure to a 24 h toxin treatment causes a dose-dependent accumulation in S phase, however, the ability to recover from impairment to traverse S phase varies in the cell lines under study. SK-N-MC cells appear more prone to resume DNA synthesis when the toxin is removed, while the other two cell lines maintain a significant inhibition of DNA synthesis, as indicated by cytofluorimetry and [(3)H]dTR incorporation. The level of p53 and p21 expression in the three cell lines was examined by western blot analysis and significant differences were detected. The ready resumption of DNA synthesis displayed by SK-N-MC cells could possibly be related to the absence of p53 control of cell cycle progression.

  5. MicroRNA profiles in various hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Fujihara, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Himoto, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Although surgery is considered the most effective treatment for patients with HCC, its indication is restricted by limited criteria and a high relapse rate following surgery; therefore, systemic chemotherapy is required for patients with advanced-stage HCC to prolong their survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs of 18–22 nucleotides in length. It has been reported that aberrant expression of miRNAs is a feature shared by various types of human cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the modulation of non-coding RNAs, particularly miRNAs, may be a valuable therapeutic target for HCC. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the miRNA profiles associated with differentiation and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection observed in HCC cell lines. The human Alex, Hep3B, HepG2, HuH1, HuH7, JHH1, JHH2, JHH5, JHH6, HLE, HLF and Li-7 HCC cell lines were used for an miRNA array. Replicate data were analyzed following their classification into: i) Poorly- and well-differentiated human HCC cells and ii) HBV-positive and -negative human HCC cells. Out of the 1,719 miRNAs, 4 were found to be significantly upregulated and 52 significantly downregulated in the poorly-differentiated cells, as compared with the well-differentiated cells. Conversely, in the HBV-positive cells 125 miRNAs were found to be upregulated and 2 downregulated, as compared with the HBV-negative cells. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis with Pearson's correlation revealed that the miRNA expression levels were clustered both together and separately in each group. In conclusion, miRNA profile characterization based on various parameters may be a novel approach to determine the etiology of HCC. PMID:27588118

  6. Responding to hypoxia: lessons from a model cell line.

    PubMed

    Seta, K A; Spicer, Z; Yuan, Y; Lu, G; Millhorn, D E

    2002-08-20

    Mammalian cells require a constant supply of oxygen to maintain adequate energy production, which is essential for maintaining normal function and for ensuring cell survival. Sustained hypoxia can result in cell death. It is, therefore, not surprising that sophisticated mechanisms have evolved that allow cells to adapt to hypoxia. "Oxygen-sensing" is a special phenotype that functions to detect changes in oxygen tension and to transduce this signal into organ system functions that enhance the delivery of oxygen to tissue in various organisms. Oxygen-sensing cells can be segregated into two distinct cell types: those that functionally depolarize (excitable) and those that do not functionally depolarize (nonexcitable) in response to reduced oxygen. Theoretically, excitable cells have all the same signaling capabilities as the nonexcitable cells, but the nonexcitable cells cannot have all the signaling capabilities as excitable cells. A number of signaling pathways have been identified that regulate gene expression during hypoxia. These include the Ca2+-calmodulin pathway, the 3'-5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, the p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase [(MAPK); also known as the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) for ERK1 and ERK2] pathway, the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; also known as p38 kinase) pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. In this review, we describe hypoxia-induced signaling in the model O2-sensing rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, the current level of understanding of the major signaling events that are activated by reduced O2, and how these signaling events lead to altered gene expression in both excitable and nonexcitable oxygen-sensing cells. PMID:12189251

  7. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:19050827

  8. Rapid micropatterning of cell lines and human pluripotent stem cells on elastomeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Paik, Isha; Scurr, David J; Morris, Bryan; Hall, Graham; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Dixon, James E

    2012-10-01

    Tissue function during development and in regenerative medicine completely relies on correct cell organization and patterning at micro and macro scales. We describe a rapid method for patterning mammalian cells including human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on elastomeric membranes such that micron-scale control of cell position can be achieved over centimeter-length scales. Our method employs surface engineering of hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes by plasma polymerization of allylamine. Deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAAm) using our methods may be spatially restricted using a micro-stencil leaving faithful hydrophilic ppAAm patterns. We employed airbrushing to create aerosols which deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (such as fibronectin and Matrigel™) onto the same patterned ppAAm rich regions. Cell patterns were created with a variety of well characterized cell lines (e.g., NIH-3T3, C2C12, HL1, BJ6, HESC line HUES7, and HiPSC line IPS2). Individual and multiple cell line patterning were also achieved. Patterning remains faithful for several days and cells are viable and proliferate. To demonstrate the utility of our technique we have patterned cells in a variety of configurations. The ability to rapidly pattern cells at high resolution over macro scales should aid future tissue engineering efforts for regenerative medicine applications and in creating in vitro stem cell niches. PMID:22511037

  9. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  10. Rapid micropatterning of cell lines and human pluripotent stem cells on elastomeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Paik, Isha; Scurr, David J; Morris, Bryan; Hall, Graham; Denning, Chris; Alexander, Morgan R; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Dixon, James E

    2012-10-01

    Tissue function during development and in regenerative medicine completely relies on correct cell organization and patterning at micro and macro scales. We describe a rapid method for patterning mammalian cells including human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) on elastomeric membranes such that micron-scale control of cell position can be achieved over centimeter-length scales. Our method employs surface engineering of hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes by plasma polymerization of allylamine. Deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAAm) using our methods may be spatially restricted using a micro-stencil leaving faithful hydrophilic ppAAm patterns. We employed airbrushing to create aerosols which deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (such as fibronectin and Matrigel™) onto the same patterned ppAAm rich regions. Cell patterns were created with a variety of well characterized cell lines (e.g., NIH-3T3, C2C12, HL1, BJ6, HESC line HUES7, and HiPSC line IPS2). Individual and multiple cell line patterning were also achieved. Patterning remains faithful for several days and cells are viable and proliferate. To demonstrate the utility of our technique we have patterned cells in a variety of configurations. The ability to rapidly pattern cells at high resolution over macro scales should aid future tissue engineering efforts for regenerative medicine applications and in creating in vitro stem cell niches.

  11. Preparation of cell lines for single-cell analysis of transcriptional activation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U; Janicki, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Imaging molecularly defined regions of chromatin in single living cells during transcriptional activation has the potential to provide new insight into gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a method for isolating cell lines with multi-copy arrays of reporter transgenes, which can be used for real-time high-resolution imaging of transcriptional activation dynamics in single cells.

  12. Primed Pluripotent Cell Lines Derived from Various Embryonic Origins and Somatic Cells in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hye-Sun; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Min; Lee, Taeheon; Yang, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Ka, Hak-Hyun; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines were first derived from the mouse, tremendous efforts have been made to establish ESC lines in several domestic species including the pig; however, authentic porcine ESCs have not yet been established. It has proven difficult to maintain an ESC-like state in pluripotent porcine cell lines due to the frequent occurrence of spontaneous differentiation into an epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like state during culture. We have been able to derive EpiSC-like porcine ESC (pESC) lines from blastocyst stage porcine embryos of various origins, including in vitro fertilized (IVF), in vivo derived, IVF aggregated, and parthenogenetic embryos. In addition, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) via plasmid transfection of reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into porcine fibroblast cells. In this study, we analyzed characteristics such as marker expression, pluripotency and the X chromosome inactivation status in female of our EpiSC-like pESC lines along with our piPSC line. Our results show that these cell lines demonstrate the expression of genes associated with the Activin/Nodal and FGF2 pathways along with the expression of pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA4, TRA 1–60 and TRA 1–81. Furthermore all of these cell lines showed in vitro differentiation potential, the X chromosome inactivation in female and a normal karyotype. Here we suggest that the porcine species undergoes reprogramming into a primed state during the establishment of pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:23326334

  13. Human Fucci Pancreatic Beta Cell Lines: New Tools to Study Beta Cell Cycle and Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Géraldine; Maugein, Alicia; Cordier, Corinne; Pechberty, Séverine; Garfa-Traoré, Meriem; Martin, Patrick; Scharfmann, Raphaël; Albagli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle in beta cells is poorly understood, especially in humans. We exploited here the recently described human pancreatic beta cell line EndoC-βH2 to set up experimental systems for cell cycle studies. We derived 2 populations from EndoC-βH2 cells that stably harbor the 2 genes encoding the Fucci fluorescent indicators of cell cycle, either from two vectors, or from a unique bicistronic vector. In proliferating non-synchronized cells, the 2 Fucci indicators revealed cells in the expected phases of cell cycle, with orange and green cells being in G1 and S/G2/M cells, respectively, and allowed the sorting of cells in different substeps of G1. The Fucci indicators also faithfully red out alterations in human beta cell proliferative activity since a mitogen-rich medium decreased the proportion of orange cells and inflated the green population, while reciprocal changes were observed when cells were induced to cease proliferation and increased expression of some beta cell genes. In the last situation, acquisition of a more differentiated beta cell phenotype correlates with an increased intensity in orange fluorescence. Hence Fucci beta cell lines provide new tools to address important questions regarding human beta cell cycle and differentiation. PMID:25259951

  14. Cytotoxic Activity of New Acetoxycoumarin Derivatives in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Musiliyu A.; Badisa, Veera L. D.; Latinwo, Lekan M.; Cooperwood, John; Sinclair, Andre; Abdullah, Ahkinyala

    2012-01-01

    Background Coumarin and their derivatives are important and useful compounds with diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of new acetoxycoumarin derivatives: 4-(7-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (1), 4-(1-methyl-3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2-yl)phenyl acetate (2), 4-(6-propionamido-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (3), 4-(7-acetoxy-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (4), 4-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (5), 4-(6-bromo-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (6), 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7), 4-(6,8-dibromo-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (8) against A549 human lung cancer, CRL 1548 rat liver cancer and CRL 1439 normal rat liver cells. Materials and Methods The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by crystal violet dye-binding assay. The effect of compounds 5 and 7 on different phases of the cell cycle was determined using flow cytometry. Results In the A549 lung cancer cell line, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values for compounds 1–4, 6 and 8 were found to be >100 μM while those for 5 and 7 were 89.3 and 48.1 μM, respectively after 48 h treatment. In the CRL 1548 liver cancer cell line, only compound 7 showed toxicity, with an LD50 of 45.1 μM. Compounds 5 and 7 caused different cell phase arrest in lung and liver cancer cell lines. Conclusion The results indicate that 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7) had the highest cytotoxic activity in all of the examined cell lines. PMID:21737617

  15. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines retain the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhixin; Zou, Keke; Zhuang, Liping; Qin, Jianjie; Li, Hong; Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xiaotao; Cen, Jin; Meng, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haibin; Li, Yixue; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines are useful in vitro models for the study of primary HCCs. Because cell lines acquire additional mutations in culture, it is important to understand to what extent HCC cell lines retain the genetic landscapes of primary HCCs. Most HCC cell lines were established during the last century, precluding comparison between cell lines and primary cancers. In this study, 9 Chinese HCC cell lines with matched patient-derived cells at low passages (PDCs) were established in the defined culture condition. Whole genome analyses of 4 HCC cell lines showed that genomic mutation landscapes, including mutations, copy number alterations (CNAs) and HBV integrations, were highly stable during cell line establishment. Importantly, genetic alterations in cancer drivers and druggable genes were reserved in cell lines. HCC cell lines also retained gene expression patterns of primary HCCs during in vitro culture. Finally, sequential analysis of HCC cell lines and PDCs at different passages revealed their comparable and stable genomic and transcriptomic levels if maintained within proper passages. These results show that HCC cell lines largely retain the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary HCCs, thus laying the rationale for testing HCC cell lines as preclinical models in precision medicine. PMID:27273737

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines retain the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary human cancers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhixin; Zou, Keke; Zhuang, Liping; Qin, Jianjie; Li, Hong; Li, Chao; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xiaotao; Cen, Jin; Meng, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Haibin; Li, Yixue; Hui, Lijian

    2016-06-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines are useful in vitro models for the study of primary HCCs. Because cell lines acquire additional mutations in culture, it is important to understand to what extent HCC cell lines retain the genetic landscapes of primary HCCs. Most HCC cell lines were established during the last century, precluding comparison between cell lines and primary cancers. In this study, 9 Chinese HCC cell lines with matched patient-derived cells at low passages (PDCs) were established in the defined culture condition. Whole genome analyses of 4 HCC cell lines showed that genomic mutation landscapes, including mutations, copy number alterations (CNAs) and HBV integrations, were highly stable during cell line establishment. Importantly, genetic alterations in cancer drivers and druggable genes were reserved in cell lines. HCC cell lines also retained gene expression patterns of primary HCCs during in vitro culture. Finally, sequential analysis of HCC cell lines and PDCs at different passages revealed their comparable and stable genomic and transcriptomic levels if maintained within proper passages. These results show that HCC cell lines largely retain the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary HCCs, thus laying the rationale for testing HCC cell lines as preclinical models in precision medicine.

  18. KLN205--a murine lung carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; LePage, G A; Shnitka, T K

    1980-10-01

    KLN205 cells, a cloned cell line established from the Nettesheim lung carcinoma, grow in various synthetic media such as MEM, Fisher's or Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium (RPMI) with the addition of 5 to 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), calf-serum (CS) or horse serum (HS). They grow optimally in minimum Eagle's medium plus nonessential amino acids (NEAA) plus 5 to 10% FBS or HS. The cells are transplantable to DBA/2, BDF1, AKD2F1, and BALB/c, but not to C3H/He or ICR mice. The growth curves, plating efficiency, ultrastructural characteristics, modal number of chromosomes and transplantability to mice of various strains are almost the same for early and late passage of cells passaged in vitro. These parameters for 16th and 36th passages were: doubling time, 31 and 33 hr; plating efficiency, 12.4 +/- 1.2 and 14.6 +/- 2.6%; modal number of chromosomes, 73 and 76; lung colony formation in DBA/2, 50 and 45.9/mouse; and subcutaneous tumor diameter 24.5 and 27.4 mm, respectively. Only the numbers of lung colonies formed in BDF1 mice were different: 24.4/mouse with 16th passage cells, and 10.2/mouse with 36th passage cells. The results suggest that KLN205 is a relatively stable cultured cell line through 36 passages. As was expected, immunosuppression by higher concentrations of triaminolone acetonide (TA) enhanced lung colony formation in BDF1 mice. On the other hand, a low concentration of TA inhibited lung colony formation in DBA/2 mice, which was unexpected. These results suggest that KLN205 offers a model for investigations on metastases to lungs as well as chemotherapy for lung carcinoma.

  19. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

  20. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in vitro study, we investigated the mechanism of anticancer effects of astaxanthin in gastric carcinoma cell lines. Methods The human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines AGS, KATO-III, MKN-45, and SNU-1 were treated with various concentrations of astaxanthin. A cell viability test, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblotting were performed. Results The viability of each cancer cell line was suppressed by astaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner with significantly decreased proliferation in KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase but reduced the proportion of S phase KATO-III and SNU-1 cells. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was decreased in an inverse dose-dependent correlation with astaxanthin concentration, and the expression of p27kip-1 increased the KATO-III and SNU-1 cell lines in an astaxanthin dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation by interrupting cell cycle progression in KATO-III and SNU-1 gastric cancer cells. This may be caused by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK and the enhanced expression of p27kip-1. PMID:26470770

  1. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line. PMID:27267063

  2. Interactions of Streptococcus iniae with phagocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    El Aamri, Fatima; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Acosta, Félix; Real, Fernando; Ramos-Vivas, José; Icardo, José M; Padilla, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus iniae has become one of the most serious aquatic pathogens in the last decade, causing large losses in wild and farmed fish worldwide. There is clear evidence that this pathogen is capable not only of causing serious disease in fish but also of being transferred to and infecting humans. In this study, we investigate the interaction of S. iniae with two murine macrophage cell lines, J774-A1 and RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated significant differences between live and UV-light killed IUSA-1 strains. The burst respiratory activity decreased to baseline after 1 and 4 h of exposure for J774-A1 and RAW 264.7, respectively. Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural study of infected cells confirmed the intracellular localization of bacteria at 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Using qRT-PCR arrays, we investigated the changes in the gene expression of immune relevant genes associated with macrophage activation. In this screening, we identified 11 of 84 genes up-regulated, we observed over-expression of pro-inflammatory response as IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α, without a good anti-inflammatory response. Present findings suggest a capacity of S. iniae to modulate a mammalian macrophages cell lines to their survival and replication intracellular, which makes this cell type as a reservoir for continued infection.

  3. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Koshi N.; Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Itoi, Eiji

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  4. Mechanisms of prodigiosin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Roser; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gimènez-Bonafé, Pepita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Ambrosio, Santiago

    2007-10-31

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial red pigment with cytotoxic properties and potential antitumor activity that has been tested against different cancerous cells. In this study we report the effect and mechanisms of action of prodigiosin against different human neuroblastoma cell lines: SH-SY5Y, LAN-1, IMR-32 (N-type) and SK-N-AS (S-type). We compare the anticancerous effect of prodigiosin with that of cisplatin at different concentrations during 24 h of exposure. Prodigiosin is more potent, with IC50 values lower than 1.5 microM in N-type neuroblastoma cells and around 7 microM in the S-type neuroblastoma cell line. We describe prodigiosin as a proton sequestering agent that destroys the intracellular pH gradient, and propose that its main cytotoxic effect could be related to its action on mitochondria, where it exerts an uncoupling effect on the electronic chain transport of protons to mitochondrial ATP synthase. As a result of this action, ATP production is reduced but without decreasing in oxygen consumption. This mechanism of action differs from those induced by conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, suggesting a possible role for prodigiosin to enhance the effect of antitumor agents in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  5. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie; Frey, Teryl K.

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  6. Airway goblet cells: responsive and adaptable front-line defenders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D F

    1994-09-01

    development of a hypersecretory epithelium include excessive discharge of mucus and increased expression of airway mucin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Cessation of chronic airway stress rapidly reverses the increased number of goblet cells. Irritant-induced increases in number of goblet cells can be inhibited by a variety of drugs with anti-inflammatory and mucoregulatory properties, and the reversal to normal numbers after cessation of the irritation is speeded by these drugs. The ability of goblet cells to be progenitors of ciliated cells, to rapidly produce vast quantities of mucus in response to acute airway insult, and to change in number according to variations in chronic insult indicates that these cells are vitally important responsive and adaptable front-line defenders of the airways. PMID:7995400

  7. Genetically-defined novel oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines for the development of molecular therapies

    PubMed Central

    Fadlullah, Muhammad Zaki Hidayatullah; Chiang, Ivy Kim-Ni; Dionne, Kalen R.; Yee, Pei San; Gan, Chai Phei; Sam, Kin Kit; Tiong, Kai Hung; Ng, Adrian Kwok Wen; Martin, Daniel; Lim, Kue Peng; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Lau, Shin Hin; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Molinolo, Alfredo; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Tan, Aik Choon; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2016-01-01

    Emerging biological and translational insights from large sequencing efforts underscore the need for genetically-relevant cell lines to study the relationships between genomic alterations of tumors, and therapeutic dependencies. Here, we report a detailed characterization of a novel panel of clinically annotated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines, derived from patients with diverse ethnicity and risk habits. Molecular analysis by RNAseq and copy number alterations (CNA) identified that the cell lines harbour CNA that have been previously reported in OSCC, for example focal amplications in 3q, 7p, 8q, 11q, 20q and deletions in 3p, 5q, 8p, 18q. Similarly, our analysis identified the same cohort of frequently mutated genes previously reported in OSCC including TP53, CDKN2A, EPHA2, FAT1, NOTCH1, CASP8 and PIK3CA. Notably, we identified mutations (MLL4, USP9X, ARID2) in cell lines derived from betel quid users that may be associated with this specific risk factor. Gene expression profiles of the ORL lines also aligned with those reported for OSCC. By focusing on those gene expression signatures that are predictive of chemotherapeutic response, we observed that the ORL lines broadly clustered into three groups (cell cycle, xenobiotic metabolism, others). The ORL lines noted to be enriched in cell cycle genes responded preferentially to the CDK1 inhibitor RO3306, by MTT cell viability assay. Overall, our in-depth characterization of clinically annotated ORL lines provides new insight into the molecular alterations synonymous with OSCC, which can facilitate in the identification of biomarkers that can be used to guide diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of OSCC. PMID:27050151

  8. LINE-1 induces hTERT and ensures telomere maintenance in tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aschacher, T; Wolf, B; Enzmann, F; Kienzl, P; Messner, B; Sampl, S; Svoboda, M; Mechtcheriakova, D; Holzmann, K; Bergmann, M

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer cells is an activated telomere maintenance mechanism, which allows prolonged survival of the malignant cells. In more than 80% of tumours, telomeres are elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which adds de novo telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Cancer cells are also characterized by expression of active LINE-1 elements (L1s, long interspersed nuclear elements-1). L1 elements are abundant retrotransposons in the eukaryotic genome that are primarily known for facilitating aberrant recombination. Using L1-knockdown (KD), we show for the first time that L1 is critical for telomere maintenance in telomerase-positive tumour cells. The reduced length of telomeres in the L1-KD-treated cells correlated with an increased rate of telomere dysfunction foci, a reduced expression of shelterin proteins and an increased rate of anaphase bridges. The decreased telomere length was associated with a decreased telomerase activity and decreased telomerase mRNA level; the latter was increased upon L1 overexpression. L1-KD also led to a decrease in mRNA and protein expression of cMyc and KLF-4, two main transcription factors of telomerase and altered mRNA levels of other stem-cell-associated proteins such as CD44 and hMyb, as well as a corresponding reduced growth of spheroids. The KD of KLF-4 or cMyc decreased the level of L1-ORF1 mRNA, suggesting a specific reciprocal regulation with L1. Thus, our findings contribute to the understanding of L1 as a pathogenicity factor in cancer cells. As L1 is only expressed in pathophysiological conditions, L1 now appears to be target in the rational treatment of telomerase-positive cancer.

  9. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young; Hwang, Meeyul; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  10. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  11. Creation and characterization of a cell-death reporter cell line for hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhilei; Simeon, Rudo; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Rice, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the creation and characterization of a hepatoma cell line, n4mBid, that supports all stages of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle and strongly reports HCV infection by a cell-death phenotype. The n4mBid cell line is derived from the highly HCV-permissive Huh-7.5 hepatoma cell line and contains a modified Bid protein (mBid) that is cleaved and activated by the HCV serine protease NS3-4A. N4mBid exhibited a 10–20 fold difference in cell viability between the HCV-infected and mock-infected states, while the parental Huh-7.5 cells showed <2 fold difference under the same conditions. The pronounced difference in n4mBid cell viability between the HCV- and mock-infected states in a 96-well plate format points to its usefulness in cell survival-based high-throughput screens for anti-HCV molecules. The degree of cell death was found to be proportional to the intracellular load of HCV. HCV-low n4mBid cells, expressing an anti-HCV short hairpin RNA, showed a significant growth advantage over naïve cells and could be rapidly enriched after HCV infection, suggesting the possibility of using n4mBid cells for the cell survival-based selection of genetic anti-HCV factors. PMID:20188762

  12. Determining Influenza Virus Shedding at Different Time Points in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Asghar; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Tavassoti Kheiri, Masoumeh; Jamali, Abbas; Jamaati, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Monitoring of influenza virus shedding and optimization of multiplicities of infection (MOI) is important in the investigation of a virus one step growth cycle and for obtaining a high yield of virus in vaccine development and conventional basic diagnostic methods. However, eluted infectious viruses may still be present immediately after virus inoculation and when cells are washed following virus cultivation which may lead to a false positive virus infectivity assay. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we investigated influenza virus progeny production in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with five different MOI at determined time points. The results were analyzed by end point titration tests and immunofluorescence assay. Results: Higher titers of eluted virus were observed following a high MOI inoculation of virus in cell culture. Most probably, this was the result of sialic acid residues from viral hemagglutin in proteins that were cleaved by neuraminidase glycoproteins on the surface of the influenza virus, which promoted viral spread from the host cell to the culture supernatant or during endocytosis, where viruses recycle to the cell surface by recycling endosomes which culminated in virus shedding without replication. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the pattern of influenza virus progeny production was dose-dependent and not uniform. This production was influenced by several factors, particularly MOI. Understanding the exact features of viral particle propagation has a major impact in producing high virus yields in the development of vaccines. Use of lower MOI (0.01) could result in accurate, precise quantitative assays in virus diagnosis and titration methods. PMID:23862114

  13. Characterization of hybrids between bovine (MDBK) and mouse (L-cell) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V G; Floyd, A D; Chinchar, G D; Taylor, M W

    1979-02-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)-deficient mutants of a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK) were selected following mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate or ICR-170G. MDBK mutants were hybridized to thymidine kinase-deficient L cells and selected in HAT medium. Parental and hybrid cells were characterized for isozyme patterns of lactic dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate oxalate transaminase. Chromosomes of MDBK can be distinguished from mouse L cells by configuration and by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33-258 stain. Hybrid cells contained both MDBK and L-cell chromosomes and had elevated DNA content. MDBK cells are normally restrictive for mengovirus replication. Both permissive and restrictive hybrids were found. Our data indicate that there was preferential loss of MDBK chromosomes in the hybrid cell lines.

  14. Internalization of cystatin C in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Ulf; Wallin, Hanna; Lorenzo, Julia; Holmqvist, Bo; Abrahamson, Magnus; Avilés, Francesc X

    2008-09-01

    Altered protease activity is considered important for tumour invasion and metastasis, processes in which the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L are involved. Their natural inhibitor cystatin C is a secreted protein, suggesting that it functions to control extracellular protease activity. Because cystatins added to cell cultures can inhibit polio, herpes simplex and coronavirus replication, which are intracellular processes, the internalization and intracellular regulation of cysteine proteases by cystatin C should be considered. The extension, mechanism and biological importance of this hypothetical process are unknown. We investigated whether internalization of cystatin C occurs in a set of human cell lines. Demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, A-431, MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468 and Capan-1 cells internalized fluorophore-conjugated cystatin C when exposed to physiological concentrations (1 microm). During cystatin C incubation, intracellular cystatin C increased after 5 min and accumulated for at least 6 h, reaching four to six times the baseline level. Western blotting showed that the internalized inhibitor was not degraded. It was functionally intact and extracts of cells exposed to cystatin C showed a higher capacity to inhibit papain and cathepsin B than control cells (decrease in enzyme activity of 34% and 37%, respectively). The uptake of labelled cystatin C was inhibited by unlabelled inhibitor, suggesting a specific pathway for the internalization. We conclude that the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized in significant quantities in various cancer cell lines. This is a potentially important physiological phenomenon not previously described for this group of inhibitors.

  15. Melatonin decreases cell proliferation, impairs myogenic differentiation and triggers apoptotic cell death in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Codenotti, Silvia; Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Salucci, Sara; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Rezzani, Rita; Faggi, Fiorella; Colombi, Marina; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin is a small indole produced by the pineal gland and other tissues, and has numerous functions that aid in the maintenance of the whole body homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep to protection from oxidative stress. Melatonin has also been reported to counteract cell growth and chemoresistance in different types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on different human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. The results showed that melatonin significantly affected the behavior of RMS cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and impairment of myogenic differentiation followed by increased apoptotic cell death, as observed by immunoblotting analysis of apoptosis-related markers including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. Similar findings were observed using a combination of microscopy techniques, including scanning/transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, melatonin in combination with doxorubicin or cisplatin, two compounds commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, increased the sensitivity of RMS cells to apoptosis. These data indicated that melatonin may be effective in counteracting RMS tumor growth and chemoresistance.

  16. Proteomic patterns of cervical cancer cell lines, a network perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major mortality factor in the female population. This neoplastic is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in cancer maintenance, because the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the etiology factor in most cases. With the purpose of characterizing the effects of malignant transformation in cellular activity, proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to monitor the biological alterations induced by this disease. In this contextual scheme, a systemic description that enables the identification of the common events between cell lines of different origins, is required to distinguish the essence of carcinogenesis. Results With this study, we sought to achieve a systemic perspective of the common proteomic profile of six cervical cancer cell lines, both positive and negative for HPV, and which differ from the profile corresponding to the non-tumourgenic cell line, HaCaT. Our objectives were to identify common cellular events participating in cancer maintenance, as well as the establishment of a pipeline to work with proteomic-derived results. We analyzed by means of 2D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the protein extracts of six cervical cancer cell lines, from which we identified a consensus of 66 proteins. We call this group of proteins, the "central core of cervical cancer". Starting from this core set of proteins, we acquired a PPI network that pointed, through topological analysis, to some proteins that may well be playing a central role in the neoplastic process, such as 14-3-3ζ. In silico overrepresentation analysis of transcription factors pointed to the overexpression of c-Myc, Max and E2F1 as key transcription factors involved in orchestrating the neoplastic phenotype. Conclusions Our findings show that there is a "central core of cervical cancer" protein expression pattern, and suggest that 14-3-3ζ is key to determine if the cell proliferates or dies. In addition, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that

  17. Heparanase augments inflammatory chemokine production from colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tsunekawa, Naoki; Higashi, Nobuaki; Kogane, Yusuke; Waki, Michihiko; Shida, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshio; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Nakajima, Motowo; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-01-22

    To explore possible roles of heparanase in cancer-host crosstalk, we examined whether heparanase influences expression of inflammatory chemokines in colorectal cancer cells. Murine colorectal carcinoma cells incubated with heparanase upregulated MCP-1, KC, and RANTES genes and released MCP-1 and KC proteins. Heparanase-dependent production of IL-8 was detected in two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Addition of a heparanase inhibitor Heparastatin (SF4) did not influence MCP-1 production, while both latent and mature forms of heparanase augmented MCP-1 release, suggesting that heparanase catalytic activity was dispensable for MCP-1 production. In contrast, addition of heparin to the medium suppressed MCP-1 release in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, targeted suppression of Ext1 by RNAi significantly suppressed cell surface expression of heparan sulfate and MCP-1 production in colon 26 cells. Taken together, it is concluded that colon 26 cells transduce the heparanase-mediated signal through heparan sulfate binding. We propose a novel function for heparanase independent of its endoglycosidase activity, namely as a stimulant for chemokine production. PMID:26713365

  18. Complementation analysis of the murine scid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zdzienicka, M.Z. |; Priestly, A.; Jeggo, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    It has been shown that several X-ray-sensitive Chinese hamster cell mutants defective in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are also impaired in the process of V(D)J recombination. The hamster mutants with this phenotype represent three distinct complementation groups, represented by the xrs series, XR-1 and V-3. The murine scid cell line also shows the same phenotype, and therefore we examined whether the scid mutant represents a new complementation group or belongs to one of the existing groups. Scid cells were fused with hamster cell mutants representing the three complementation groups. Hybrids between V-3 and scid cells were only partially complemented for X-ray sensitivity, whereas hybrids derived from fusions with the other mutants were resistant to X rays. These results suggest that V-3 and scid cells are defective in the same gene. To confirm this finding, a single human chromosome 8, which is known to carry the scid gene, was introduced into V-3 cells by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Nine hybrid clones derived from V-3 and carrying human chromosome 8 were obtained, and seven were found to be partially complemented for X-ray sensitivity. When human chromosome 8 was introduced into scid cells, seven of eight hybrid clones became resistant to X rays. The results indicate that the defective genes in V-3 and scid are both localized on human chromosome 8. This supports the results from the fusion analysis that V-3 and scid cells are defective in the same gene. 53 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Cycle reset in a melanoma cell line caused by cooling.

    PubMed

    Dewey, D L

    1987-11-01

    When cells in culture are released from G0 into cycle by diluting into fresh medium there is a delay of many hours before they re-enter the cycle and start DNA synthesis. A mouse melanoma cell line designated HP2 has been used to investigate the effects of non-standard temperatures between the time of plating and DNA synthesis. When the cells were incubated in a 5% CO2 box at 8 degrees C for periods during the G0-G1 transition there was an extra delay before the start of S, approximately equal to the time that the cells were held at 8 degrees C and independent of the time when the cold pulse was administered. When the cells were cooled to 25 degrees C the delay was longer than the time for which the cells had been kept at 25 degrees C, and this extra delay was also dependent on the point in G0-G1 when the cells were cooled, as though the cells could be reset to an earlier time by this treatment. It is suggested that a labile substance required for progression is destroyed faster than it is made at 25 degrees C but at 8 degrees C the rate of destruction is very low. Another phenomenon noted during these cooling experiments was that the peak height of the S phase profile, as measured by frequent pulse-thymidine incorporation experiments, was substantially higher for cells which had been cooled at a later stage in the G0-G1 transition, even though the overall times at 37 degrees C and at the colder temperature were identical. By varying the temperature of the cold pulse it was possible to separate the change in the peak height and the delay as separate entities. PMID:3502929

  20. Establishment of Immortalized Human Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Enucleated Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs. PMID:23533656

  1. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajvi H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ‘discarded’ or ‘spare’ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ‘cryopreserve’ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ‘spare’ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ‘cryopreserved’ embryos then these also can be considered as ‘spare’. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, “what about ‘slightly’ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ‘discarded’ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ‘discarding’ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ‘use’ of ESC derived from the ‘abnormal appearing’ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material. PMID:25673530

  2. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  3. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Haraguchi, Misako; Sudo, Akiharu; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail‑induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the downregulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells.

  4. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-11-01

    We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions. PMID:26987926

  5. Development and Characterization of Six New Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Ying C.; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Ryu, Junsun; Chen, Yunyun; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gagea, Mihai; Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Lai, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cell lines are a widely used tool in cancer research. However, despite the relatively high incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), there are only four PTC cell lines available for international research audience. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and characterize new PTC cell lines that represent primary tumor biology. Surgical specimens were obtained to generate PTC cell lines. Short tandem repeat profiling was used to confirm the uniqueness of the cell lines against databases of known cell lines and mutations were assessed using Sequenom. The expression of thyroid-specific genes was examined using real-time PCR. Tumorigenicity was determined using an orthotopic thyroid xenograft tumor mouse model. Results: Six PTC cell lines (five conventional PTCs and one follicular variant of PTC) were generated and found to be unique when compared by short tandem repeat profiling against databases of all existing cell lines. The five conventional PTC cell lines carry the BRAF V600E mutation and the follicular variant of PTC cell line had an NRAS mutation. Five of the six cell lines had a mutation in the promoter of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. None of the cell lines have RET/PTC rearrangements. Three cell lines were tumorigenic in the orthotopic thyroid xenograft tumor mouse model. Conclusions: These five characterized conventional PTC cell lines and the unique follicular variant of PTC cell line should be valuable reagents for thyroid cancer research. The three tumorigenic cell lines can be used for in vivo testing of targeted therapeutic and novel agents. PMID:25427145

  6. Erythropoietin modulates intracellular calcium in a human neuroblastoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Assandri, Roberta; Egger, Marcel; Gassmann, Max; Niggli, Ernst; Bauer, Christian; Forster, Ian; Görlach, Agnes

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that the glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) and its specific receptor (EpoR) are present in the mammalian brain including human, monkey and mouse. These findings suggest a local action of Epo in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible functional interaction of Epo with neuronal cells. To examine the influence of externally applied Epo on Ca2+ homeostasis the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC was chosen as a suitable in vitro model for undifferentiated neuronal cells. Expression of the EpoR in SK-N-MC cells was detected by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Patch-clamp studies of SK-N-MC cells confirmed the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels, whose peak macroscopic current was increased by the addition of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) to the bathing medium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of SK-N-MC cells confirmed a transient increase in intracellular free [Ca2+] in response to externally applied rhEpo. The transient response to Epo was dependent on external Ca2+ and remained even after depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine or thapsigargin. However, after depletion the response to Epo was absent when cells were superfused with the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker flunarizine. This study demonstrates that Epo can interact with neuronal cells by affecting Ca2+ homeostasis through an increase in Ca2+ influx via plasma membrane T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. PMID:10087335

  7. Comparative proteomic phenotyping of cell lines and primary cells to assess preservation of cell type-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiping; Kumar, Chanchal; Bohl, Sebastian; Klingmueller, Ursula; Mann, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Biological experiments are most often performed with immortalized cell lines because they are readily available and can be expanded without limitation. However, cell lines may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Here we introduce a straightforward methodology to compare cell lines to their cognate primary cells and to derive a comparative functional phenotype. We used SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) for quantitative, mass spectrometry-based comparison of the hepatoma cell line Hepa1-6 with primary hepatocytes. The resulting quantitative proteome of 4,063 proteins had an asymmetric distribution, with many proteins down-regulated in the cell line. Bioinformatic analysis of the quantitative proteomics phenotypes revealed that Hepa1-6 cells were deficient in mitochondria, reflecting re-arrangement of metabolic pathways, drastically up-regulate cell cycle-associated functions and largely shut down drug metabolizing enzymes characteristic for the liver. This quantitative knowledge of changes provides an important basis to adapt cell lines to more closely resemble physiological conditions.

  8. Novel antiproliferative flavonoids induce cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Haddad, A Q; Venkateswaran, V; Viswanathan, L; Teahan, S J; Fleshner, N E; Klotz, L H

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between flavonoid intake and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The East Asian diet is very high in flavonoids and, correspondingly, men in China and Japan have the lowest incidence of PCa worldwide. There are thousands of different naturally occurring and synthetic flavonoids. However, only a few have been studied in PCa. Our aim was to identify novel flavonoids with antiproliferative effect in PCa cell lines, as well as determine their effects on cell cycle. We have screened a representative subgroup of 26 flavonoids for antiproliferative effect on the human PCa (LNCaP and PC3), breast cancer (MCF-7), and normal prostate stromal cell lines (PrSC). Using a fluorescence-based cell proliferation assay (Cyquant), we have identified five flavonoids, including the novel compounds 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone and fisetin, with antiproliferative and cell cycle arresting properties in human PCa in vitro. Most of the flavonoids tested exerted antiproliferative effect at lower doses in the PCa cell lines compared to the non-PCa cells. Flow cytometry was used as a means to determine the effects on cell cycle. PC3 cells were arrested in G2/M phase by flavonoids. LNCaP cells demonstrated different cell cycle profiles. Further studies are warranted to determine the molecular mechanism of action of 2,2'-DHC and fisetin in PCa, and to establish their effectiveness in vivo.

  9. Characterization of UV radiation sensitive frog cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Stein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-one subclones of nine frog cell isolates were tested for sensitivity to a panel of DNA damaging agents. Two clones were identified which had a greater than wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation but had a wild type level of sensitivity to the other agents. These clones were the haploid RRP602-7 and the diploid RRP802-1. RRP802-1 was found to be unstable with respect to UV sensitivity. The line was cloned in order to isolate stable sensitive and wild type derivatives. RRP802-1-16, a UV sensitive clone and RRP802-1-13, a clone with a wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation, were isolated. The UV radiation sensitivity of RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 did not correlate with cell size, cell shape, cell cycle distribution or ploidy. The cell cycle distribution after UV irradiation, the rate of DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation, the DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. activity and the sister chromatid exchange frequency were all measured in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 in order to examine the DNA repair capacity. The presence of DNA repair pathways was examined directly in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16. All were found to be proficient in photo-reactivation repair and postreplication repair of UV elicited DNA damage.

  10. Response of a mouse hybridoma cell line to heat shock, agitation, and sparging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passini, Cheryl A.; Goochee, Charles F.

    1989-01-01

    A mouse hybridoma cell line is used as a model system for studying the effect of environmental stress on attachment-independent mammalian cells. The full time course of recovery for a mouse hybridoma cell line from both a mild and intermediate heat shock is examined. The pattern of intracellular synthesis is compared for actively growing, log phase cells and nondividing, stationary phase cells.

  11. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A...

  12. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A...

  13. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A...

  14. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A...

  15. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of... cell line used to prepare a biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section. A...

  16. Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE).

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-06-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it "S-TFE." The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23760492

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  18. Development of a cell line from the American eel brain expressing endothelial cell properties.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Sophia R; Vo, Nguyen T K; Walsh, Sarah K; Chen, Cici; Lee, Lucy E J; Hodson, Peter V; Bols, Niels C

    2016-04-01

    A cell line (eelB) was developed from the outgrowth of adherent cells from brain explants of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur). EelB cells have been grown routinely in L-15 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), undergone over 100 passages, and cryopreserved successfully. The cells from late-passage cultures (>45) were polygonal, formed capillary-like structures (CLS) on Matrigel, and stained immunocytochemically for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and for three tight junction proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin 3, and claudin 5. These results suggest that eelB is an endothelial cell line, one of the few from fish and the first from the brain. Despite this, eelB did not respond to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) with the induction of CYP1A protein. The cells from early-passage cultures (<20) had more varied shapes and did not form CLS on Matrigel. Only cells from early-passage cultures formed in suspension three-dimensional aggregates that had some cells expressing alkaline phosphatase and nestin. These cells are thought to be neural stem cells and the aggregates neurospheres. The emergence of endothelial-like cells upon the continued subcultivation of cells from early-passage cultures that had neural stem cells has been described previously for mammals, but this is a first for teleosts. Remarkably, cells from all passage levels were stained strongly for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-Gal) activity.

  19. Actin stress in cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Yuexiu; Sachs, Frederick; Meng, Fanjie

    2014-01-01

    Cell mechanics plays a role in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation. To understand this process better, we created a genetically encoded optical probe, named actin–cpstFRET–actin (AcpA), to report forces in actin in living cells in real time. We showed that stemness was associated with increased force in actin. We reprogrammed HEK-293 cells into stem-like cells using no transcription factors but simply by softening the substrate. However, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell reprogramming required, in addition to a soft substrate, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog expression. Replating the stem-like cells on glass led to redifferentiation and reduced force in actin. The actin force probe was a FRET sensor, called cpstFRET (circularly permuted stretch sensitive FRET), flanked by g-actin subunits. The labeled actin expressed efficiently in HEK, MDCK, 3T3, and bovine aortic endothelial cells and in multiple stable cell lines created from those cells. The viability of the cell lines demonstrated that labeled actin did not significantly affect cell physiology. The labeled actin distribution was similar to that observed with GFP-tagged actin. We also examined the stress in the actin cross-linker actinin. Actinin force was not always correlated with actin force, emphasizing the need for addressing protein specificity when discussing forces. Because actin is a primary structural protein in animal cells, understanding its force distribution is central to understanding animal cell physiology and the many linked reactions such as stress-induced gene expression. This new probe permits measuring actin forces in a wide range of experiments on preparations ranging from isolated proteins to transgenic animals. PMID:25422450

  20. Identification of a mitotic death signature in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Eichhorn, Joshua M; Alford, Sarah E; Chambers, Timothy C

    2014-02-28

    This study examined the molecular mechanism of action of anti-mitotic drugs. The hypothesis was tested that death in mitosis occurs through sustained mitotic arrest with robust Cdk1 signaling causing complete phosphorylation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and conversely, that mitotic slippage is associated with incomplete phosphorylation of Mcl-1/Bcl-xL. The results, obtained from studying six different cancer cell lines, strongly support the hypothesis and identify for the first time a unique molecular signature for mitotic death. The findings represent an important advance in understanding anti-mitotic drug action and provide insight into cancer cell susceptibility to such drugs which has important clinical implications. PMID:24099917

  1. Identification of a mitotic death signature in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Eichhorn, Joshua M; Alford, Sarah E; Chambers, Timothy C

    2014-02-28

    This study examined the molecular mechanism of action of anti-mitotic drugs. The hypothesis was tested that death in mitosis occurs through sustained mitotic arrest with robust Cdk1 signaling causing complete phosphorylation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and conversely, that mitotic slippage is associated with incomplete phosphorylation of Mcl-1/Bcl-xL. The results, obtained from studying six different cancer cell lines, strongly support the hypothesis and identify for the first time a unique molecular signature for mitotic death. The findings represent an important advance in understanding anti-mitotic drug action and provide insight into cancer cell susceptibility to such drugs which has important clinical implications.

  2. Control of Differentiation of a Mammary Cell Line by Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulbecco, Renato; Bologna, Mauro; Unger, Michael

    1980-03-01

    A rat mammary cell line (LA7) undergoes spontaneous differentiation into domes due to production of specific inducers by the cells. Some of these inducers may be lipids, and we show that lipids regulate this differentiation as both inducers and inhibitors. One inhibitor is the tumor promoter tetradecanoyl-13 phorbol 12-acetate. The inducers are saturated fatty acids of two groups: butyric acid and acids with chain lengths from C13 to C16, especially myristic acid (C14). Other inducers are myristoyl and palmitoyl lysolecithins, myristic acid methyl ester, and two cationic detergents with a tetradecenyl chain. We propose that the lipids with a C14-C16 alkyl chain affect differentiation by recognizing specific receptors through their alkyl chains and that the effects obtained depend on the head groups. These lipids may be physiological regulators in the mammary gland.

  3. In vitro generation of hematopoietic stem cells from an embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, R; Golunski, E; Samaridis, J

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are unique in that they give rise both to new stem cells (self-renewal) and to all blood cell types. The cellular and molecular events responsible for the formation of HSC remain unknown mainly because no system exists to study it. Embryonic stem (ES) cells were induced to differentiate by coculture with the stromal cell line RP010 and the combination of interleukin (IL) 3, IL-6, and F (cell-free supernatants from cultures of the FLS4.1 fetal liver stromal cell line). Cell cytometry analysis of the mononuclear cells produced in the cultures was consistent with the presence of PgP-1+ Lin- early hematopoietic (B-220- Mac-1- JORO 75- TER 119-) cells and of fewer B-220+ IgM- B-cell progenitors and JORO 75+ T-lymphocyte progenitors. The cell-sorter-purified PgP-1+ Lin- cells produced by induced ES cells could repopulate the lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages of irradiated mice. The ES-derived PgP-1+ Lin- cells must possess extensive self-renewal potential, as they were able to produce hematopoietic repopulation of secondary mice recipients. Indeed, marrow cells from irradiated mice reconstituted (15-18 weeks before) with PgP-1+ Lin- cell-sorter-purified cells generated by induced ES cells repopulated the lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages of secondary mouse recipients assessed 16-20 weeks after their transfer into irradiated secondary mice. The results show that the culture conditions described here support differentiation of ES cells into hematopoietic cells with functional properties of HSC. It should now be possible to unravel the molecular events leading to the formation of HSC. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7638225

  4. Characterisation and manipulation of docetaxel resistant prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no effective treatment strategy for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although Docetaxel (Taxotere®) represents the most active chemotherapeutic agent it only gives a modest survival advantage with most patients eventually progressing because of inherent or acquired drug resistance. The aims of this study were to further investigate the mechanisms of resistance to Docetaxel. Three Docetaxel resistant sub-lines were generated and confirmed to be resistant to the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of increasing concentrations of Docetaxel. Results The resistant DU-145 R and 22RV1 R had expression of P-glycoprotein and its inhibition with Elacridar partially and totally reversed the resistant phenotype in the two cell lines respectively, which was not seen in the PC-3 resistant sublines. Resistance was also not mediated in the PC-3 cells by cellular senescence or autophagy but multiple changes in pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were demonstrated. Even though there were lower basal levels of NF-κB activity in the PC-3 D12 cells compared to the Parental PC-3, docetaxel induced higher NF-κB activity and IκB phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hours with only minor changes in the DU-145 cells. Inhibition of NF-κB with the BAY 11-7082 inhibitor reversed the resistance to Docetaxel. Conclusion This study confirms that multiple mechanisms contribute to Docetaxel resistance and the central transcription factor NF-κB plays an immensely important role in determining docetaxel-resistance which may represent an appropriate therapeutic target. PMID:21982118

  5. Oxidative stress induces hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter in a bladder cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Wongpaiboonwattana, Wikrom; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Boonla, Chanchai

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and changes in DNA methylation are frequently detected in bladder cancer patients. We previously demonstrated a relationship between increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the transposable long-interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1). Promoter hypermethylation of a tumor suppressor gene, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), may also be associated with bladder cancer genesis. In this study, we investigated changes of DNA methylation in LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter in a bladder cancer cell (UM-UC-3) under oxidative stress conditions, stimulated by challenge with H2O2 for 72 h. Cells were pretreated with an antioxidant, tocopheryl acetate for 1 h to attenuate oxidative stress. Methylation levels of LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter were measured by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Levels of LINE-1 methylation were significantly decreased in H2O2-treated cells, and reestablished after pretreated with tocopheryl acetate. Methylation of RUNX3 promoter was significantly increased in cells exposed to H2O2. In tocopheryl acetate pretreated cells, it was markedly decreased. In conclusion, hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of RUNX3 promoter in bladder cancer cell line was experimentally induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress promotes urothelial cell carcinogenesis through modulation of DNA methylation. Our data also imply that mechanistic pathways of ROS-induced alteration of DNA methylation in a repetitive DNA element and a gene promoter might differ.

  6. Epigenetic alterations differ in phenotypically distinct human neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and apoptosis were analyzed to investigate the role epigenetic alterations play in determining NB phenotype. Methods Two NB cell lines (tumorigenic LA1-55n and non-tumorigenic LA1-5s) that differ in their ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice were used. Quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on seven genes in LA1-5s, LA1-55n and 5-Aza-dC treated LA1-55n NB cell lines. The methylation status around THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1 and CASP8 promoters was examined using methylation specific PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine histone modifications along the THBS-1 promoter. Luciferase assay was used to determine THBS-1 promoter activity. Cell proliferation assay was used to examine the effect of 5-Aza-dC on NB cell growth. The soft agar assay was used to determine the tumorigenicity. Results Promoter methylation values for THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1, and CASP8 were higher in LA1-55n cells compared to LA1-5s cells. Consistent with the promoter methylation status, lower levels of gene expression were detected in the LA1-55n cells. Histone marks associated with repressive chromatin states (H3K9Me3, H3K27Me3, and H3K4Me3) were identified in the THBS-1 promoter region in the LA1-55n cells, but not the LA1-5s cells. In contrast, the three histone codes associated with an active chromatin state (acetyl H3, acetyl H4, and H3K4Me3) were present in the THBS-1 promoter region in LA1-5s cells, but not the LA1-55n cells, suggesting that an accessible chromatin structure is important for THBS-1 expression. We also show that 5-Aza-dC treatment of LA1-55n cells

  7. Origin of the U87MG glioma cell line: Good news and bad news.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marie; Bjerke, Mia; Edlund, Hanna; Nelander, Sven; Westermark, Bengt

    2016-08-31

    Human tumor-derived cell lines are indispensable tools for basic and translational oncology. They have an infinite life span and are easy to handle and scalable, and results can be obtained with high reproducibility. However, a tumor-derived cell line may not be authentic to the tumor of origin. Two major questions emerge: Have the identity of the donor and the actual tumor origin of the cell line been accurately determined? To what extent does the cell line reflect the phenotype of the tumor type of origin? The importance of these questions is greatest in translational research. We have examined these questions using genetic profiling and transcriptome analysis in human glioma cell lines. We find that the DNA profile of the widely used glioma cell line U87MG is different from that of the original cells and that it is likely to be a bona fide human glioblastoma cell line of unknown origin.

  8. Origin of the U87MG glioma cell line: Good news and bad news.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marie; Bjerke, Mia; Edlund, Hanna; Nelander, Sven; Westermark, Bengt

    2016-08-31

    Human tumor-derived cell lines are indispensable tools for basic and translational oncology. They have an infinite life span and are easy to handle and scalable, and results can be obtained with high reproducibility. However, a tumor-derived cell line may not be authentic to the tumor of origin. Two major questions emerge: Have the identity of the donor and the actual tumor origin of the cell line been accurately determined? To what extent does the cell line reflect the phenotype of the tumor type of origin? The importance of these questions is greatest in translational research. We have examined these questions using genetic profiling and transcriptome analysis in human glioma cell lines. We find that the DNA profile of the widely used glioma cell line U87MG is different from that of the original cells and that it is likely to be a bona fide human glioblastoma cell line of unknown origin. PMID:27582061

  9. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Mieke; Mateizel, Ileana; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Spits, Claudia; Cauffman, Greet; Devroey, Paul; Tournaye, Herman; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. To further investigate potency at the 4-cell stage, we aimed to derive pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) from single blastomeres. METHODS Four 4-cell stage embryos were split on Day 2 of preimplantation development and the 16 blastomeres were individually cultured in sequential medium. On Day 3 or 4, the blastomere-derived embryos were plated on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). RESULTS Ten out of sixteen blastomere-derived morulae attached to the MEFs, and two produced an outgrowth. They were mechanically passaged onto fresh MEFs as described for blastocyst ICM-derived hESC, and shown to express the typical stemness markers by immunocytochemistry and/or RT–PCR. In vivo pluripotency was confirmed by the presence of all three germ layers in the teratoma obtained after injection in immunodeficient mice. The first hESC line displays a mosaic normal/abnormal 46, XX, dup(7)(q33qter), del(18)(q23qter) karyotype. The second hESC line displays a normal 46, XY karyotype. CONCLUSION We report the successful derivation and characterization of two hESC lines from single blastomeres of four split 4-cell stage human embryos. These two hESC lines were derived from distinct embryos, proving that at least one of the 4-cell stage blastomeres is pluripotent. PMID:19633307

  10. Characterization of a mantle cell lymphoma cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736.

    PubMed

    Restelli, Valentina; Chilà, Rosaria; Lupi, Monica; Rinaldi, Andrea; Kwee, Ivo; Bertoni, Francesco; Damia, Giovanna; Carrassa, Laura

    2015-11-10

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14) that leads to constitutive expression of cyclin D1, a master regulator of the G1-S phase. Chk1 inhibitors have been recently shown to be strongly effective as single agents in MCL. To investigate molecular mechanisms at the basis of Chk1 inhibitor activity, a MCL cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736 (JEKO-1 R) was obtained and characterized. The JEKO-1 R cell line was cross resistant to another Chk1 inhibitor (AZD-7762) and to the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775. It displayed a shorter doubling time than parental cell line, likely due to a faster S phase. Cyclin D1 expression levels were decreased in resistant cell line and its re-overexpression partially re-established PF-00477736 sensitivity. Gene expression profiling showed an enrichment in gene sets involved in pro-survival pathways in JEKO-1 R. Dasatinib treatment partly restored PF-00477736 sensitivity in resistant cells suggesting that the pharmacological interference of pro-survival pathways can overcome the resistance to Chk1 inhibitors. These data further corroborate the involvement of the t(11;14) in cellular sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitors, fostering the clinical testing of Chk1 inhibitors as single agents in MCL. PMID:26439697

  11. Characterization of a mantle cell lymphoma cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736

    PubMed Central

    Restelli, Valentina; Chilà, Rosaria; Lupi, Monica; Rinaldi, Andrea; Kwee, Ivo; Bertoni, Francesco; Damia, Giovanna; Carrassa, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(11;14) that leads to constitutive expression of cyclin D1, a master regulator of the G1-S phase. Chk1 inhibitors have been recently shown to be strongly effective as single agents in MCL. To investigate molecular mechanisms at the basis of Chk1 inhibitor activity, a MCL cell line resistant to the Chk1 inhibitor PF-00477736 (JEKO-1 R) was obtained and characterized. The JEKO-1 R cell line was cross resistant to another Chk1 inhibitor (AZD-7762) and to the Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775. It displayed a shorter doubling time than parental cell line, likely due to a faster S phase. Cyclin D1 expression levels were decreased in resistant cell line and its re-overexpression partially re-established PF-00477736 sensitivity. Gene expression profiling showed an enrichment in gene sets involved in pro-survival pathways in JEKO-1 R. Dasatinib treatment partly restored PF-00477736 sensitivity in resistant cells suggesting that the pharmacological interference of pro-survival pathways can overcome the resistance to Chk1 inhibitors. These data further corroborate the involvement of the t(11;14) in cellular sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitors, fostering the clinical testing of Chk1 inhibitors as single agents in MCL. PMID:26439697

  12. "Fluorescent Cell Chip" for immunotoxicity testing: development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines.

    PubMed

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ullerås, Erik; Dastych, Jarosław

    2005-09-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals.

  13. PACAP protects against TNFα-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNFα ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNFα significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNFα-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNFα was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNFα involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  14. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed. PMID:26136685

  15. The Cancer-Related Transcription Factor Runx2 Modulates Cell Proliferation in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Claudia M.J.; Vega, Oscar A.; Osorio, Mariana M.; Tapia, Julio C.; Antonelli, Marcelo; Stein, Gary S.; Van Wijnen, Andre J.; Galindo, Mario A.

    2013-01-01

    Runx2 regulates osteogenic differentiation and bone formation, but also suppresses pre-osteoblast proliferation by affecting cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. The growth suppressive potential of Runx2 is normally inactivated in part by protein destabilization, which permits cell cycle progression beyond the G1/S phase transition, and Runx2 is again up-regulated after mitosis. Runx2 expression also correlates with metastasis and poor chemotherapy response in osteosarcoma. Here we show that six human osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS, MG63, U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B) have different growth rates, which is consistent with differences in the lengths of the cell cycle. Runx2 protein levels are cell cycle-regulated with respect to the G1/S phase transition in U2OS, HOS, G292, and 143B cells. In contrast, Runx2 protein levels are constitutively expressed during the cell cycle in SaOS and MG63 cells. Forced expression of Runx2 suppresses growth in all cell lines indicating that accumulation of Runx2 in excess of its pre-established levels in a given cell type triggers one or more anti-proliferative pathways in osteosarcoma cells. Thus, regulatory mechanisms controlling Runx2 expression in osteosarcoma cells must balance Runx2 protein levels to promote its putative oncogenic functions, while avoiding suppression of bone tumor growth. PMID:22949168

  16. Gene expression profiling analysis of osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LU; LI, JIE; YAN, BING

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy and has a poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms of osteosarcoma, the present analyzed the GSE28424 microarray. GSE28424 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included a collective of 19 OS cell lines and four normal bone cell lines, which were used as controls. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in Bioconductor. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, interactions between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using STRING, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. In addition, modular analysis of the PPI network was performed using the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) in CFinder. A total of 1,170 DEGs were screened, including 530 upreguated and 640 downregulated genes. The enriched functions included organelle fission, immune response and response to wounding. In addition, RPL8 was observed to be involved with the ribosomal pathway in module A of the PPI network of the DEGs. PLCG1, SYK and PLCG2 were also involved in the B-cell receptor signaling pathway in module B and the Fc-epsilon RI signaling pathway in module C. In addition, AURKA (degree=39), MAD2L1 (degree=38), CDCA8 (degree=38), BUB1 (degree=37) and MELK (degree=37) exhibited higher degrees of connectivity in module F. The results of the present study suggested that the RPL8, PLCG1, PLCG2, SYK, MAD2L1, AURKA, CDCA8, BUB1 and MELK genes may be involved in OS. PMID:26096802

  17. Mechanisms of lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: studies using a LFA-1-deficient cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Haskard, D O; Strobel, S; Thornhill, M; Pitzalis, C; Levinsky, R J

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (EC), we have studied the adhesion of a LFA-1-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-KM, which has < 10% of the cell surface LFA-1 expressed on a normal lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-BJ. The adhesion of ICH-KM cells to unstimulated EC was 49.9 +/- 8.6% (mean +/- SD) that of ICH-BJ cells. Moreover, phorbol ester-stimulated ICH-KM cells showed a considerably weaker increase in adhesion to unstimulated EC compared with ICH-BJ cells (mean +/- SD increase in percentage adhesion, 3.8 +/- 2.3 compared with 18.5 +/- 8.0; P<0.025). In contrast, there was no significant difference between the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM cells and ICH-BJ cells to interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated EC. Thus ICH-KM cells showed a 22.7 +/- 11.0 (mean +/- SD) increase in percentage adhesion to IL-1-stimulated EC compared with the 24.8 +/- 8.5 increase in percentage adhesion of ICH-BJ cells. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies had no effect on the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM and ICH-BJ cells to IL-1-stimulated EC but abolished the differences in adhesion between the two cell lines. The study therefore indicates that although a major part of unstimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocyte-EC adhesion is dependent upon LFA-1, the enhanced adhesion due to stimulation of EC with IL-1 is not dependent upon this molecule. The data therefore supports the existence of cytokine-inducible LFA-1-independent adhesion molecules for lymphocytes on EC. PMID:15493272

  18. Standardized orthotopic xenografts in zebrafish reveal glioma cell-line-specific characteristics and tumor cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Welker, Alessandra M.; Jaros, Brian D.; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; Imitola, Jaime; Kaur, Balveen; Beattie, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly brain cancer, for which few effective drug treatments are available. Several studies have used zebrafish models to study GBM, but a standardized approach to modeling GBM in zebrafish was lacking to date, preventing comparison of data across studies. Here, we describe a new, standardized orthotopic xenotransplant model of GBM in zebrafish. Dose-response survival assays were used to define the optimal number of cells for tumor formation. Techniques to measure tumor burden and cell spread within the brain over real time were optimized using mouse neural stem cells as control transplants. Applying this standardized approach, we transplanted two patient-derived GBM cell lines, serum-grown adherent cells and neurospheres, into the midbrain region of embryonic zebrafish and analyzed transplanted larvae over time. Progressive brain tumor growth and premature larval death were observed using both cell lines; however, fewer transplanted neurosphere cells were needed for tumor growth and lethality. Tumors were heterogeneous, containing both cells expressing stem cell markers and cells expressing markers of differentiation. A small proportion of transplanted neurosphere cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or vimentin, markers of more differentiated cells, but this number increased significantly during tumor growth, indicating that these cells undergo differentiation in vivo. By contrast, most serum-grown adherent cells expressed GFAP and vimentin at the earliest times examined post-transplant. Both cell types produced brain tumors that contained Sox2+ cells, indicative of tumor stem cells. Transplanted larvae were treated with currently used GBM therapeutics, temozolomide or bortezomib, and this resulted in a reduction in tumor volume in vivo and an increase in survival. The standardized model reported here facilitates robust and reproducible analysis of glioblastoma tumor cells in real time and provides a platform for

  19. Establishment of a highly differentiated thyroid cancer cell line of Hürthle cell origin.

    PubMed

    Zielke, A; Tezelman, S; Jossart, G H; Wong, M; Siperstein, A E; Duh, Q Y; Clark, O H

    1998-06-01

    Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC) of the thyroid are a variant of follicular thyroid tumors. In contrast to follicular thyroid carcinoma, HCC rarely take up radioiodine and frequently metastasize to the lymph nodes. Histologically they are indistinguishable from Hürthle cell adenomas except for evidence of invasion and metastasis. How these carcinomas develop and why they behave differently than other follicular tumors is not known. Although some differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines exist, none are from Hürthle cell tumors. We have established a well-differentiated thyroid cancer cell line from a metastasis of a HCC, designated XTC.UC1. In vitro, XTC cells display epitheloid morphology, grow with a population doubling time of 4.3 +/- 0.3 days, migrate, and invade through reconstituted basement membranes. The cells are immunoreactive for and release thyroglobulin, respond to thyrotropin (TSH) with increase of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), proliferation, and invasion of reconstituted basement membrane, thus exhibiting characteristics of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In vivo, xenografted XTC cells grow with a doubling time of 9.8 +/- 0.8 days. Tumors spontaneously metastasize to the lymph nodes and less frequently to the lungs and the liver. The cells retained their differentiated function in vivo as assessed by human thyroglobulin (hTG) secretion and immunohistochemistry. This is a first report of the establishment of a unique, highly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line derived from an HCC. Based on the ability to invade through reconstituted basement membrane in vitro and the potential to metastasize in vivo, this cell line may provide a unique model to study invasion and metastazation of well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

  20. Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy – Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klingemann, Hans; Boissel, Laurent; Toneguzzo, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells from a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes and are often dysfunctional. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T cells to prevent graft-versus-host reactions. Cytotoxic cell lines have been established from patients with clonal NK-cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. Except for the NK-92 cell line, though, none of the other six known NK cell lines has consistently and reproducibly shown high antitumor cytotoxicity. Only NK-92 cells can easily be genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been infused into patients with advanced cancer with clinical benefit and minimal side effects. PMID:27014270

  1. Side population cells isolated from KATO III human gastric cancer cell line have cancer stem cell-like characteristics

    PubMed Central

    She, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Ge; Wang, Xuan; Che, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the side population (SP) cells possess cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and the role of SP cells in tumorigenic process in gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the presence of SP cells in different human gastric carcinoma cell lines, and then isolated and identified the SP cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line by flow cytometry. The clonogenic ability and self-renewal were evaluated by clone and sphere formation assays. The related genes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To compare tumorigenic ability, SP and non-side population (NSP) cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. RESULTS: SP cells from the total population accounted for 0.57% in KATO III, 1.04% in Hs-746T, and 0.02% in AGS (CRL-1739). SP cells could grow clonally and have self-renewal capability in conditioned media. The expression of ABCG2, MDRI, Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was different between SP and NSP cells. However, there was no apparent difference between SP and NSP cells when they were injected into nude mice. CONCLUSION: SP cells have some cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and can be used for studying the tumorigenic process in gastric cancer. PMID:22969237

  2. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  3. Identification of Replication Competent Murine Gammaretroviruses in Commonly Used Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sfanos, Karen Sandell; Aloia, Amanda L.; Hicks, Jessica L.; Esopi, David M.; Steranka, Jared P.; Shao, Wei; Sanchez-Martinez, Silvia; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Burns, Kathleen H.; Rein, Alan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered gammaretrovirus, termed XMRV, was recently reported to be present in the prostate cancer cell line CWR22Rv1. Using a combination of both immunohistochemistry with broadly-reactive murine leukemia virus (MLV) anti-sera and PCR, we determined if additional prostate cancer or other cell lines contain XMRV or MLV-related viruses. Our study included a total of 72 cell lines, which included 58 of the 60 human cancer cell lines used in anticancer drug screens and maintained at the NCI-Frederick (NCI-60). We have identified gammaretroviruses in two additional prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC4 and VCaP, and show that these viruses are replication competent. Viral genome sequencing identified the virus in LAPC4 and VCaP as nearly identical to another known xenotropic MLV, Bxv-1. We also identified a gammaretrovirus in the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line EKVX. Prostate cancer cell lines appear to have a propensity for infection with murine gammaretroviruses, and we propose that this may be in part due to cell line establishment by xenograft passage in immunocompromised mice. It is unclear if infection with these viruses is necessary for cell line establishment, or what confounding role they may play in experiments performed with these commonly used lines. Importantly, our results suggest a need for regular screening of cancer cell lines for retroviral “contamination”, much like routine mycoplasma testing. PMID:21698104

  4. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

    2009-01-01

    There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines.

  5. A Human Cell Line Model for Interferon-α Driven Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruben, Jurjen M.; Visser, Lindy L.; Heinhuis, Kimberley M.; O’Toole, Tom; Bontkes, Hetty J.; Westers, Theresia M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A.

    2015-01-01

    The CD34+ MUTZ-3 acute myeloid leukemia cell line has been used as a dendritic cell (DC) differentiation model. This cell line can be cultured into Langerhans cell (LC) or interstitial DC-like cells using the same cytokine cocktails used for the differentiation of their primary counterparts. Currently, there is an increasing interest in the study and clinical application of DC generated in the presence of IFNα, as these IFNα-DC produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and have been suggested to be more potent in their ability to cross-present protein antigens, as compared to the more commonly used IL-4-DC. Here, we report on the generation of IFNα-induced MUTZ-DC. We show that IFNα MUTZ-DC morphologically and phenotypically display characteristic DC features and are functionally equivalent to “classic” IL-4 MUTZ-DC. IFNα MUTZ-DC ingest exogenous antigens and can subsequently cross-present HLA class-I restricted epitopes to specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, mature IFNα MUTZ-DC express CCR7, migrate in response to CCL21, and are capable of priming naïve antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, we show that the MUTZ-3 cell line offers a viable and sustainable model system to study IFNα driven DC development and functionality. PMID:26252775

  6. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teruyuki; Fukuda, Nanaho; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Inada, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT) in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  7. Establishment and characterization of a clear cell carcinoma cell line, designated NOCC, derived from human ovary.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Akihiro; Toyomura, Junko; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Isonishi, Seiji; Takahashi, Haruka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    A cell line, designated NOCC, was established from the ascites of a patient with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. The cell line has been grown without interruption and continuously propagated by serial passaging (more than 76 times) over 7 years. The cells are spherical to polygonal-shaped, display neoplastic, and pleomorphic features, and grow in a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern while forming monolayers without contact inhibition. The cells proliferate rapidly, but are easily floated as a cell sheet. The population doubling time is about 29 h. The number of chromosomes ranges from 60 to 83. The modal number of chromosomes is 70-74 at the 30th passage. NOCC cells secreted 750.5 ng/ml of VEGF over 3 days of culture. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a primary regulator of VEGF under hypoxic conditions. NOCC cells were not sensitive to the anticancer drugs BEV, DOX, GEM, ETP, CDDP, or TXT. The graft of NOCC cells to a scid mouse displayed similar histological aspects to the original tumor. Both the NOCC cells and the graft of the NOCC cells gave a positive PAS reaction. PMID:27541369

  8. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  9. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Damstrup, L.; Rude Voldborg, B.; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Brünner, N.; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.

    1998-01-01

    Formation of metastasis is a multistep process involving attachment to the basement membrane, local proteolysis and migration into surrounding tissues, lymph or bloodstream. In the present study, we have analysed the correlation between in vitro invasion and presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labelling assays. In 11 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, EGFR mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16% of the cells added to the upper chamber were able to traverse the Matrigel membrane. Expression of several matrix metalloproteases (MMP), of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP) and of cathepsin B was evaluated by immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition of this antibody resulted in a significant reduction of the in vitro invasion in three selected EGFR-positive cell lines. Our results show that only EGFR-positive SCLC cell lines had the in vitro invasive phenotype, and it is therefore suggested that the EGFR might play an important role for the invasion potential of SCLC cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9744504

  10. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    DOE PAGES

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; Brown, Ben; Cherbas, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest suchmore » atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. In conclusion, this atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly.« less

  11. Comparison of antibody molecules produced from two cell lines with contrasting productivities and aggregate contents.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation. PMID:25501618

  12. Lipid analysis of eight human breast cancer cell lines with ToF-SIMS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Michael A.; Graham, Daniel J.; Morrish, Fionnuala; Hockenbery, David; Gamble, Lara J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four triple negative (TN) cell lines, three ER+ and PR+ receptor positive (RP) cell lines, and one ER+, PR+, and HER2+ cell line were chemically distinguished from one another using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA scores separation was observed between the individual cell lines within a given classification (TN and RP) and there were distinctly different trends found in the fatty acid and lipid compositions of the two different classifications. These trends indicated that the RP cell lines separated out based on the carbon chain length of the lipids while the TN cell lines showed separation based on cholesterol-related peaks (in the positive ion data). Both cell types separated out by trends in fatty acid chain length and saturation in the negative ions. These chemical differences may be manifestations of unique metabolic processes within each of the different cell lines. Additionally, the HER2+ cell line was distinguished from three other RP cell types as having a unique distribution of fatty acids including anticorrelation to 18-carbon chain fatty acids. As these cell lines could not be grown in the same growth media, a combination of chemical fixation, rinsing, C60+ presputtering, and selection of cellular regions-of-interest is also presented as a successful method to acquire ToF-SIMS data from cell lines grown in different media. PMID:26319020

  13. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  14. Derivation and characterization of matched cell lines from primary and recurrent serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell line models have proven to be effective tools to investigate a variety of ovarian cancer features. Due to the limited number of cell lines, particularly of the serous subtype, the heterogeneity of the disease, and the lack of cell lines that model disease progression, there is a need to further develop cell line resources available for research. This study describes nine cell lines derived from three ovarian cancer cases that were established at initial diagnosis and at subsequent relapse after chemotherapy. Methods The cell lines from three women diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (1369, 2295 and 3133) were derived from solid tumor (TOV) and ascites (OV), at specific time points at diagnosis and relapse (R). Primary treatment was a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin (1369, 3133), or cisplatin/topotecan (2295). Second line treatment included doxorubicin, gemcitabine and topotecan. In addition to molecular characterization (p53, HER2), the cell lines were characterized based on cell growth characteristics including spheroid growth, migration potential, and anchorage independence. The in vivo tumorigenicity potential of the cell lines was measured. Response to paclitaxel and carboplatin was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Results All cell lines had either a nonsense or missense TP53 mutations. The ability to form compact spheroids or aggregates was observed in six of nine cell lines. Limited ability for migration and anchorage independence was observed. The OV3133(R) cell line, formed tumors at subcutaneous sites in SCID mice. Based on IC50 values and dose response curves, there was clear evidence of acquired resistance to carboplatin for TOV2295(R) and OV2295(R2) cell lines. Conclusion The study identified nine new high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines, derived before and after chemotherapy that provides a unique resource for investigating the evolution of this common histopathological subtype of ovarian cancer. PMID:22931248

  15. Detection of antigens specific for B-lymphoid cultured cell lines with human alloantisera.

    PubMed

    Mann, D L; Abelson, L; Harris, S; Amos, D B

    1975-07-01

    Human sera were tested for cytotoxicity to pairs of long-term tissue-cultured cell lines. Each pair had been derived from the same individual and one of the pairs possessed the characteristics of either "T" or "B" cells. The alloantisera used were HL-A-typing reagents or sera obtained from Amish multiparas. Selected cytotoxicity was found against the B-cell lines by direct testing. Cytotoxicity was abolished by absorption with B-cell line but not by absorption with the T-cell lines. The results suggest that a group of allotypic antigens may be expressed exculsively on human B cells. PMID:1080182

  16. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I (2) statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating "hub genes" - heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27688708

  17. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I2 statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating “hub genes” – heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility.

  18. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I2 statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating “hub genes” – heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27688708

  19. Effects of feeder cells (human cancer cell lines) on the development of mouse embryos by co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, I; Tokieda, Y; Ishiwata, C; Okane, N; Iguchi, M; Sato, K; Ishikawa, H

    1997-12-01

    In order to establish the best co-culture system on embryogenesis such as egg fertilization, egg cleavage, blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation etc., several kinds of cell lines as a feeder cell and mouse fertilized eggs (zygotes) were co-cultured in the organ culture dish, and embryotrophic effects of feeder cells were investigated. Best feeder cell on the embryogenesis was SKG-II cell line derived from squamous cell carcinoma of human uterine cervix which was chosen from 10 of the human tumor cell lines. Furthermore, in order to isolate and determinate embryotrophic factors produced by feeder cells, we established a SKG-II SF subline which was grown in serum free medium derived from SKG-II cell line. The SKG-II SF cell line secreted an epidermal growth factor (EGF) into the medium. Also, cleavaged egg produced and secreted interleukin (IL)-1 alpha into the medium. PMID:9573483

  20. Enhancement of Radiation Response in Osteosarcoma and Rhabomyosarcoma Cell Lines by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Blattmann, Claudia; Oertel, Susanne; Ehemann, Volker

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. Results: SAHA induced an inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Conclusion: Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.

  1. Photodynamic therapy-induced programmed cell death in carcinoma cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Sikes, Robert A.; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Chung, L.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1993-06-01

    The mode of cell death following photodynamic therapy (PDT) was investigated from the perspective of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Human prostate carcinoma cells (PC3), human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H322a), and rat mammary carcinoma (MTF7) were treated by PDT following sensitization with dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE). The response of these carcinoma cell lines to PDT was variable. An examination of extracted cellular DNA by gel electrophoresis showed the characteristic DNA ladder pattern indicative of internucleosomal cleavage of DNA during apoptosis. MTF7 and PC3 responded to PDT by inducing apoptosis while H322a had no apoptotic response. The magnitude of the response and the PDT dosage required to induce the effect were different in PC3 and MTF7. MTF7 cells responded with rapid apoptosis at the dose of light and drug that yielded 50% cell death (LD50). In contrast, PC3 showed only marginal apoptosis at the LD50 but had a marked response at the LD85. Furthermore, the onset of apoptosis followed slower kinetics in PC3 (2 hr - 4 hr) than in MTF7 (< 1 hr). H322a cells were killed by PDT but failed to exhibit any apoptotic response. This study indicates that apoptosis may occur during PDT induced cell death, but this pathway is not universal for all cancer cell lines.

  2. Quality Check in Oral Cell Lines: The Need for Molecular Characterization.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Raj, A Thirumal

    2015-11-01

    Oral cell lines have provided valuable insights into the various molecular pathways in oral carcinogenesis. Several landmark studies in oral oncology have utilized commercially available normal, dysplastic and cancer cell lines to decode the genetic alterations leading to the development of oral cancer. Most of these studies have shown a significant degree of variation in their mutation landscapes. These variations were thought to represent the heterogeneity of oral cancer.(1) But in a recent study, Dickman et al have shown that normal and dysplastic cell lines carry specific genetic alterations within the parent cell line, thus questioning the authenticity of several published mutation profiles. These genetic alterations in the commercial cell lines have been attributed to several factors, the most common being immortalization. Normal and dysplastic cell lines unlike cancer cell lines attain senescence following limited number of replication. Immortalization of the normal and dysplastic cell lines would aid the researcher in maintaining a viable population of cells for further studies. Ideally, the immortalized cell line must possess potential for indefinite replication and must retain the genetic makeup of its parent cell line.(2). PMID:26718303

  3. Establishment and characterization of 7 novel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines from patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong; Wang, Ke; Hu, Gang; Xie, Fubo; Ouyang, Kedong; Tang, Xuzhen; Wang, Minjun; Wen, Danyi; Zhu, Yizhun; Qin, Xiaoran

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903) by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3) was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening.

  4. Biological characteristics of a novel giant cell tumor cell line derived from spine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Su; Yang, Cheng; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone(GCTB) is a special bone tumor for it consists of various cell types, and its biological characteristics is different from common benign or malignant neoplasm. In the present study, we report the biological features of a primary Asian GCTB cell line named GCTB28. We analyzed extensive properties of the GCTB28 cells including morphological observations, growth, cell cycle, karyotype, proliferation, proteins expression, surface biomarker verification, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that the stromal cells of GCTB were endowed with self-renewal capacity and played dominant roles in GCTB development. Moreover, we confirmed that GCTB cells can be CD33(-)CD14(-) phenotype which was not in accord with previous study. This study provides an in vitro model system to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and molecular characteristics of GCTB and also provides a useful tool for researching the therapeutic targeting of GCTB.

  5. Tyrosine-Dependent Basolateral Targeting of Human Connexin43-eYFP in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells Can Be Disrupted by the Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Mutation L90V

    PubMed Central

    Chtchetinin, Jana; Gifford, Wes D.; Li, Sichen; Paznekas, William A.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Lai, Albert

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Polarized membrane sorting of Connexin 43 (Cx43) has not been well-characterized. Based on the presence of a putative sorting signal, Y286KLV289, within its carboxy terminal cytoplasmic domain, we hypothesized that Cx43 is selectively expressed on the basolateral surface of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in a tyrosine-dependent manner. We generated stable MDCK cell lines expressing human wild-type and mutant Cx43-eYFP and analyzed the membrane localization of Cx43-eYFP within polarized monolayers using confocal microscopy and selective surface biotinylation. We found that wild-type Cx43-eYFP was selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane domain of MDCK cells. Substitution of alanine for Y286 disrupted basolateral targeting of Cx43-eYFP. Additionally, transplantation of a sequence containing the transferrin receptor internalization signal, LSYTRF, for P284GYKLV289 also disrupted basolateral targeting. Taken together, these results indicate that Y286 in its native amino acid sequence is necessary for targeting Cx43-eYFP to the basolateral membrane domain of MDCK cells. To determine whether the F52dup or L90V oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD)-associated mutations could affect polarized sorting of Cx43-eYFP, we analyzed the expression of these Cx43-eYFP mutant constructs and found that the L90V mutation disrupted basolateral expression. These findings raise the possibility that alteration of polarized targeting of Cx43 by some ODDD- associated mutations may have a phenotypic contribution. PMID:19860828

  6. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  7. A bioassay for metals utilizing a human cell line.

    PubMed

    Shea, J; Moran, T; Dehn, P F

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the HepG2 cell line to function as a bioassay for metal contamination in sediments, using metallothionein (MT) as a biomarker of exposure. Sediments were collected from the eastern and western ends of Lake Erie, extracted using EPA method 200.7, and analyzed for cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) levels using ICP-AES. Sediment extracts were neutralized then used at a 2.5% final concentration in the exposure medium. MT levels were measured using the cadmium-hemoglobin affinity assay after a 48 h exposure. Fortified blanks from the ICP protocol served as positive controls. Also, HepG2 cells were exposed to Cd, Pb or combinations of Cd and Pb to determine whether or not induction of MT observed in cells exposed to sediment extracts was due to a single metal, combinations of metals, pH, or some other factor. Additionally, cells were exposed to a range of Cd concentrations approximating the levels found in the extracts (0.0005-0.1mg/L) to determine if a concentration-response occurred. Total metal levels ranged from 527 to 33.5mg/kg with lead the predominant metal, accounting for 100-88.9% of the total quantifiable metals in the sediments. The biomarker response (MT induction) was strongly correlated (r2=0.9919, r2=0.990) with total metal and lead levels in the sediments, respectively, which supports recent field studies indicating the biomarker can discern differences in the strength of the inducing agent. Statistically significant MT induction was associated with sediments which contained measurable Cd concentrations and no significant differences were observed when comparing Cd only and Cd+Pb exposed cells indicating no interactions between Cd and Pb were occurring and supporting our finding that Cd was the main inducing agent in sediment extracts. MT levels also increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner when cells were exposed only to Cd. Results suggest this human bioassay and the MT

  8. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hideaki . E-mail: hnakajim@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-02-03

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix.

  9. HIG-82: an established cell line from rabbit periarticular soft tissue, which retains the "activatable" phenotype.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, H I; Mendelow, D; Evans, C H

    1988-10-01

    We have isolated a continuous cell line from soft tissue lining the knee joints of rabbits. Designated HIG-82, this line was produced by spontaneous establishment of an aging, late-passage culture of primary cells. Like unpassaged, primary cells, HIG-82 cells can be activated by a number of stimuli, including phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and the endocytosis of latex beads. Activated cells secrete collagenase, gelatinase, caseinase (stromelysin), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into their culture medium. Pseudodiploid, HIG-82 cells combine a high plating efficiency with a doubling time of approximately 24 h. As primary tissue of this origin is difficult to obtain in large quantities and shows cellular heterogeneity, the HIG-82 cell line should facilitate research into the biology and biochemistry of the fibroblastic cells that line the diarthrodial joints of mammals. Such cells are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of various arthritides.

  10. Structure of retroviral RNAs produced by cell lines derived from spontaneous lymphomas of AKR mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, F S; Crowther, R L; Hays, E F; Nowinski, R C; Haseltine, W A

    1982-01-01

    The retrovirus expression of eight independent lymphoid cell lines derived from spontaneous thymomas of AKR mice was investigated. The RNase T1 fingerprints of viral 70S RNA produced by these cell lines were compared with genome structures of the non-leukemogenic Akv virus and with two types of cloned leukemogenic viruses derived from one of the thymoma cell lines. Viral RNAs from three cell lines, SL3, 4, and 7, were indistinguishable from one another. The fingerprint patterns indicated that these cell lines produce equal amounts of two prototype, leukomogenic SL viruses that were previously isolated from the SL3 cell line. Viral RNA produced by the SL1 and SL2 cell lines contained similar components, but at a different ratio. Two other cell lines (SL5 and SL11) produced viral RNAs that resemble those of AKR mink cell focus-forming viruses. One additional line, SL9, produced viral RNA of a novel structure. The complex pattern of viral RNA expression observed for these lymphoid cell lines can be interpreted in terms of recombination among three types of endogenous viral sequences: the Akv virus, a xenotropic virus, and an SL (for spontaneous leukemia) virus. Images PMID:7086955

  11. Characterization of novel low passage primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Arnoud; van Eendenburg, Jaap; Crobach, Stijn; Ruano, Dina; Speetjens, Frank; Calame, Jan; Oosting, Jan; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In vitro models are essential to understanding the molecular characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the testing of therapies for CRC. Many efforts to establish and characterize primary CRC cell lines have been published, most describing a small number of novel cell lines. However, there remains a lack of a large panel of uniformly established and characterized cell lines. To this end we established 20 novel CRC cell lines, of which six were derived from liver metastases. Genetic, genomic and transcriptomic profiling was performed in order to characterize these new cell lines. All data are made publically available upon publication. By combining mutation profiles with CNA and gene expression profiles, we generated an overall profile of the alterations in the major CRC-related signaling pathways. The combination of mutation profiles with genome, transcriptome and methylome data means that these low passage cell lines are among the best characterized of all CRC cell lines. This will allow researchers to select model cell lines appropriate to specific experiments, facilitating the optimal use of these cell lines as in vitro models for CRC. All cell lines are available for further research. PMID:26894854

  12. Selective migration of neuralized embryonic stem cells to stem cell factor and media conditioned by glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Serfozo, Peter; Schlarman, Maggie S; Pierret, Chris; Maria, Bernard L; Kirk, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be induced in vitro to become neural progenitors. Upon transplantation, neural progenitors migrate toward areas of damage and inflammation in the CNS. We tested whether undifferentiated and neuralized mouse ES cells migrate toward media conditioned by glioma cell lines (C6, U87 & N1321) or Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results Cell migration assays revealed selective migration by neuralized ES cells to conditioned media as well as to synthetic SCF. Migration of undifferentiated ES cells was extensive, but not significantly different from that of controls (Unconditioned Medium). RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the three tumor cell lines tested synthesized SCF and that both undifferentiated and neuralized ES cells expressed c-kit, the receptor for SCF. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that undifferentiated ES cells are highly mobile and that neural progenitors derived from ES cells are selectively attracted toward factors produced by gliomas. Given that the glioma cell lines synthesize SCF, SCF may be one of several factors that contribute to the selective migration observed. PMID:16436212

  13. Integromic analysis of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, John N

    2004-01-01

    Microarray-based transcript profiling has become exceedingly popular, particularly for breast cancer. However, other 'omic' profiling technologies at the DNA, RNA, protein, functional, and pharmacological levels are also becoming increasingly practical. We define 'integromics' as the melding of such diverse types of data from different experimental platforms. The whole can sometimes be more than the sum of its parts. We describe here a set of integromic studies in which we have profiled the 60 human cancer cell lines (the NCI-60) used by the National Cancer Institute to screen >100,000 chemical compounds over the last 13 years. Patterns of potency in the screen can be mapped into molecular structures of the compounds or into molecular characteristics of the cells. Here we discuss conceptual and experimental aspects of the profiling, as well as a number of bioinformatic computer programs (CIMminer, MedMiner, MatchMiner, and GoMiner) that we have developed for biological interpretation of the profiles. As briefly reviewed here, we have used the combination of NCI-60 data types to identify markers for distinguishing tumor types and to obtain pharmacogenomic clues for possible individualization of a cancer therapy. PMID:15687693

  14. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. The endocannabinoid system in the human granulosa cell line KGN.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Jana; Grabiec, Urszula; Greither, Thomas; Fischer, Bernd; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian steroidogenesis is embedded in a sensitive network of regulatory mechanisms crucial for human fertility. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents an intrinsic modulating system involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. In the present study we characterized the ECS in the human granulosa cell line KGN and its impact on gonadotropin sensitivity and steroid hormone synthesis under basal and FSH-stimulated conditions. Expression studies were performed and estradiol was measured. CB1, CB2, DAGL, FAAH, GPR55, MAGL, NAPE-PLD and TRPV1 were expressed without FSH-dependent effects. Treatment with selective cannabinoid receptor agonists reduced basal but not FSH-stimulated estradiol and CYP19. Progesterone was not altered by ECS manipulation. CB1 agonist changed the expression of miRNAs associated with granulosa cell function, e.g. miR-23a, miR-24, miR-181a and miR-320a. Present data indicate a modulating role of the intrinsic ovarian ECS in the regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:26773729

  16. Comparison of betanodavirus replication efficiency in ten Indian fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sarath Babu, V; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Madan, N; Sundar Raj, N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2013-06-01

    Ten cell lines established from Indian marine, brackishwater and freshwater fish were tested for their susceptibility to fish nodavirus. In addition, the efficiency of betanodavirus replication was tested in these cell lines. Multiple vacuolation, a typical cytopathic effect for virus infection, was observed in infected SISK, SISS, SIGE and ICF cells. Infection of the different fish cell lines was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunodot blot assay and indirect ELISA. The virus concentration in culture supernatant collected from infected sea bass and grouper cell lines increased progressively from 10(3) at day 1 postinfection to 10(8) TCID50 ml(-1) at day 9. The amount of virus in different cell lines was also quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate the suitability of the SISK, SISS, and SIGE cell lines for fish nodavirus propagation for developing viral diagnostics and vaccines. PMID:23392632

  17. 188Rhenium-induced cell death and apoptosis in a panel of tumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, Antonio; Banzato, Alessandra; Bello, Michele; Bollini, Dante; De Notaristefani, Francesco; Giron, Cecilia; Mazzi, Ulderico; Alafort, Laura Melendez; Moschini, Giuliano; Nadali, Anna; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rosato, Antonio; Tanzarella, Caterina; Uzunov, Nikolay

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of "in vitro" tumor growth inhibition and radiobiological effects, such as apoptosis, have been evaluated in human neoplastic cells of different histotypes (H460 lung cancer cells, U87 glioblastoma, LnCaP prostate tumor cells) treated using solutions of 188Rhenium-perrhenate. The MTT assay, which measures mitochondrial metabolism in the entire cell culture is a recognized test for cytotoxicity and was used in cells exposed 48-72 h to specific activities ranged from 37 to 148 GBq/l. Whereas H460 and LnCaP were particularly sensitive to treatment, U87 glioblastoma cells behaved as radioresistant ones. However, evaluation of 188Re-induced apoptosis indicated that this kind of cell death contributed only marginally to the reduction in cell viability of H460 and LNCaP lines, suggesting the existence of protective mechanisms against apoptosis. In this respect, the membrane receptor, CD44, whose expression is dysregulated in most malignant cell types has proven to alter the response of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli, including ionizing radiation. Cell samples decorated with a FITC-labelled CD44 antibody indicated, that in H460 and U87 cells the CD44(+) correlated well with an apoptosis-resistant response. Conversely, LnCap cells proven as CD44(-) did not display however sensitivity to radio-induced apoptosis.

  18. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide. PMID:27241584

  19. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide.

  20. Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, G R

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the establishment directly from normal preimplantation mouse embryos of a cell line that forms teratocarcinomas when injected into mice. The pluripotency of these embryonic stem cells was demonstrated conclusively by the observation that subclonal cultures, derived from isolated single cells, can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Such embryonic stem cells were isolated from inner cell masses of late blastocysts cultured in medium conditioned by an established teratocarcinoma stem cell line. This suggests that such conditioned medium might contain a growth factor that stimulates the proliferation or inhibits the differentiation of normal pluripotent embryonic cells, or both. This method of obtaining embryonic stem cells makes feasible the isolation of plur