BELSHER JD; MEINERT FL
2009-12-07
This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.
Rheology of Model Dough Formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desai, Kiran; Lele, Smita; Lele, Ashish
2008-07-01
Dough is generally considered a viscoelastic material, and its elasticity is attributed to the hydrated gluten matrix. Since starch is a major constituent of flour (˜70 wt% on dry basis) we may expect it to contribute to dough rheology in a non-trivial manner. Considering dough to belong to the generic class of soft solid materials, we use the Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition (SRFS) technique to study rheology of various model dough compositions in which the starch/gluten ratio is systematically varied from 100/0 to 0/100. We find that for compositions containing 0-25% gluten the SRFS superposition principle works well, while for compositions containing greater than 25% gluten the quality of SRFS mastercurves deteriorates gradually. Thus we propose that starch particles contribute substantially to the rheology of dough containing up to 25% gluten.
Formulation and Application of the Generalized Multilevel Facets Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chih-Yu
2007-01-01
In this study, the authors develop a generalized multilevel facets model, which is not only a multilevel and two-parameter generalization of the facets model, but also a multilevel and facet generalization of the generalized partial credit model. Because the new model is formulated within a framework of nonlinear mixed models, no efforts are…
Computer formulations of aircraft models for simulation studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, J. C.
1979-01-01
Recent developments in formula manipulation compilers and the design of several symbol manipulation languages, enable computers to be used for symbolic mathematical computation. A computer system and language that can be used to perform symbolic manipulations in an interactive mode are used to formulate a mathematical model of an aeronautical system. The example demonstrates that once the procedure is established, the formulation and modification of models for simulation studies can be reduced to a series of routine computer operations.
Discontinuous Galerkin flood model formulation: Luxury or necessity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesserwani, Georges; Wang, Yueling
2014-08-01
The finite volume Godunov-type flood model formulation is the most comprehensive amongst those currently employed for flood risk modeling. The local Discontinuous Galerkin method constitutes a more complex, rigorous, and extended local Godunov-type formulation. However, the practical merit associated with such an increase in the level of complexity of the formulation is yet to be decided. This work makes the case for a second-order Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG2) formulation and contrasts it with the equivalently accurate finite volume (MUSCL) formulation, both of which solve the Shallow Water Equations (SWE) in two space dimensions. The numerical complexity of both formulations are presented and their capabilities are explored for wide-ranging diagnostic and real-scale tests, incorporating all challenging features relevant to flood inundation modeling. Our findings reveal that the extra complexity associated with the RKDG2 model pays off by providing higher-quality solution behavior on very coarse meshes and improved velocity predictions. The practical implication of this is that improved accuracy for flood modeling simulations will result when terrain data are limited or of a low resolution.
Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.
Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang
2011-04-01
The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs.
Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Formulations.
Mitra, Amitava; Zhu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos
2016-09-06
Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are routinely used to enable the delivery of poorly soluble compounds. This type of formulations can enhance bioavailability due to higher kinetic solubility of the drug substance and increased dissolution rate of the formulation, by the virtue of the fact that the drug molecule exists in the formulation in a high energy amorphous state. In this article we report the application of physiologically based absorption models to mechanistically understand the clinical pharmacokinetics of solid dispersion formulations. Three case studies are shown here to cover a wide range of ASD bioperformance in human and modeling to retrospectively understand their in vivo behavior. Case study 1 is an example of fairly linear PK observed with dose escalation and the use of amorphous solubility to predict bioperformance. Case study 2 demonstrates the development of a model that was able to accurately predict the decrease in fraction absorbed (%Fa) with dose escalation thus demonstrating that such model can be used to predict the clinical bioperformance in the scenario where saturation of absorption is observed. Finally, case study 3 shows the development of an absorption model with the intent to describe the observed incomplete and low absorption in clinic with dose escalation. These case studies highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of ASD performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.
AERMOD: MODEL FORMULATION AND EVALUATION RESULTS
AERMOD is an advanced plume model that incorporates updated treatments of the boundary layer theory, understanding of turbulence and dispersion, and includes handling of terrain interactions. This paper presents an overview of AERMOD's features relative to ISCST3.
AERM...
Wavelet formulation of the polarizable continuum model.
Weijo, Ville; Randrianarivony, Maharavo; Harbrecht, Helmut; Frediani, Luca
2010-05-01
The first implementation of a wavelet discretization of the Integral Equation Formalism (IEF) for the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) is presented here. The method is based on the application of a general purpose wavelet solver on the cavity boundary to solve the integral equations of the IEF-PCM problem. Wavelet methods provide attractive properties for the solution of the electrostatic problem at the cavity boundary: the system matrix is highly sparse and iterative solution schemes can be applied efficiently; the accuracy of the solver can be increased systematically and arbitrarily; for a given system, discretization error accuracy is achieved at a computational expense that scales linearly with the number of unknowns. The scaling of the computational time with the number of atoms N is formally quadratic but a N(1.5) scaling has been observed in practice. The current bottleneck is the evaluation of the potential integrals at the cavity boundary which scales linearly with the system size. To reduce this overhead, interpolation of the potential integrals on the cavity surface has been successfully used.
On the formulation of a crystal plasticity model.
Marin, Esteban B.
2006-08-01
This report presents the formulation of a crystal elasto-viscoplastic model and the corresponding integration scheme. The model is suitable to represent the isothermal, anisotropic, large deformation of polycrystalline metals. The formulation is an extension of a rigid viscoplastic model to account for elasticity effects, and incorporates a number of changes with respect to a previous formulation [Marin & Dawson, 1998]. This extension is formally derived using the well-known multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into an elastic and plastic components, where the elastic part is additionally decomposed into the elastic stretch V{sup e} and the proper orthogonal R{sup e} tensors. The constitutive equations are written in the intermediate, stress-free configuration obtained by unloading the deformed crystal through the elastic stretch V{sup e-}. The model is framed in a thermodynamic setting, and developed initially for large elastic strains. The crystal equations are then specialized to the case of small elastic strains, an assumption typically valid for metals. The developed integration scheme is implicit and proceeds by separating the spherical and deviatoric crystal responses. An ''approximate'' algorithmic material moduli is also derived for applications in implicit numerical codes. The model equations and their integration procedure have been implemented in both a material point simulator and a commercial finite element code. Both implementations are validated by solving a number of examples involving aggregates of either face centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystals subjected to different loading paths.
Oil ganglion dynamics during immiscible displacement: model formulation
Payatakes, A.C.; Ng, K.M.; Flumerfelt, R.W.
1980-05-01
A model is formulated in order to study the transient behavior of oil ganglion populations during immiscible displacement in oil recovery processes. The model is composed of 3 components: a suitable model for granular porous media; a stochastic simulation method capable of predicting the expected fate (mobilization, breakup, stranding) of solitary oil ganglia moving through granular porous media; and 2 coupled ganglion population balance equations, one applying to moving ganglia and the other to stranded ones. The porous medium model consists of a regular network of randomly sized unit cells of the constricted tube type. 32 references.
A binary model of textile composites; 1: Formulation
Cox, B.N.; Carter, W.C. ); Fleck, N.A. . Engineering Dept.)
1994-10-01
This paper presents a finite element model of polymer composites with three-dimensional (3D) reinforcement. The model performs Monte Carlo simulations of failure under monotonic and fatigue loading. The formulation of the model is guided by extensive prior experimental observations of 3D woven composites. Special emphasis is placed on realistic representation of the pattern of reinforcing tows, random irregularity in two positioning, randomness of the strengths of constituent elements, and the mechanics of stress redistribution around sites of local failure. The constitutive properties of model elements (or their distributions) are based on micromechanical models of observed failure events. Material properties that are appropriate analyzed by the model are contrasted with those amenable to much simpler models. Some illustrative model simulations are presented. Prescriptions for the calibration of the model for design and reliability applications and details of its performance in simulating the elastic and damaged regimes of 3D woven composites will appear in subsequent papers.
Space-time formulation for finite element modeling of superconductors
Ashworth, Stephen P; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frederic; Laforest, Marc
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a new model for computing the current density and field distributions in superconductors by means of a periodic space-time formulation for finite elements (FE). By considering a space dimension as time, we can use a static model to solve a time dependent problem. This allows overcoming one of the major problems of FE modeling of superconductors: the length of simulations, even for relatively simple cases. We present our first results and compare them to those obtained with a 'standard' time-dependent method and with analytical solutions.
Lumped mass formulations for modeling flexible body systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rampalli, Rajiv
1989-01-01
The efforts of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. in obtaining a general formulation for flexible bodies in a multibody setting are discussed. The efforts being supported by MDI, both in house and externally are summarized. The feasibility of using lumped mass approaches to modeling flexibility in a multibody dynamics context is examined. The kinematics and kinetics for a simple system consisting of two rigid bodies connected together by an elastic beam are developed in detail. Accuracy, efficiency and ease of use using this approach are some of the issues that are then looked at. The formulation is then generalized to a superelement containing several nodes and connecting several bodies. Superelement kinematics and kinetics equations are developed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the use of some examples illustrating phenomena common in the context of spacecraft motions.
EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES
KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA
2012-03-07
Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.
EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES
Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Vienna, John D.; Kruger, Albert A.
2012-11-07
Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquidus temperature (TL), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T0.01), nominally below 1050°C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions (~ 850°C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.
Retrostructural model to predict biomass formulations for barrier performance.
Zhu Ryberg, Y Z; Edlund, U; Albertsson, A-C
2012-08-13
Barrier performance and retrostructural modeling of the macromolecular components demonstrate new design principles for film formulations based on renewable wood hydrolysates. Hardwood hydrolysates, which contain a fair share of lignin coexisting with poly- and oligosaccharides, offer excellent oxygen-barrier performance. A Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) model has been developed to convert the complex hydrolysate structural compositions into relevant matrix oxygen-permeability data allowing a systematic prediction of how the biomass should be formulated to generate an efficient barrier. HSP modeling suggests that the molecular packing ability plays a key role in the barrier performance. The actual size and distribution of free volume holes in the matrices were quantified in the subnanometer scale with Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) verifying the affinity-driven assembly of macromolecular segments in a densely packed morphology and regulating the diffusion of small permeants through the matrix. The model is general and can be adapted to determine the macromolecular affinities of any hydrolysate biomass based on chemical composition.
Modeling downstream fining in sand-bed rivers. I: Formulation
Wright, S.; Parker, G.
2005-01-01
In this paper a numerical modeling formulation is presented for simulation of the development of the longitudinal profile and bed sediment distribution in sand-bed rivers. The objective of the model application, which is presented in the companion paper (Wright and Parker, 2005), is to study the development of two characteristics of large, low-slope, sand-bed rivers: (1) a downstream decrease in bed slope (i.e. concave upward longitudinal profile) and (2) a downstream decrease in characteristic bed sediment diameter (e.g. the median bed surface size D50). Three mechanisms that lead to an upward concave profile and downstream fining are included in the modeling formulation: (1) a delta prograding into standing water at the downstream boundary, (2) sea-level rise, and (3) tectonic subsidence. In the companion paper (Wright and Parker, 2005) the model is applied to simulate the development of the longitudinal profile and downstream fining in sand-bed rivers flowing into the ocean during the past 5000 years of relatively slow sea-level rise. ?? 2005 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research.
A general formulation for a mathematical PEM fuel cell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baschuk, J. J.; Li, Xianguo
A general formulation for a comprehensive fuel cell model, based on the conservation principle is presented. The model formulation includes the electro-chemical reactions, proton migration, and the mass transport of the gaseous reactants and liquid water. Additionally, the model formulation can be applied to all regions of the PEM fuel cell: the bipolar plates, gas flow channels, electrode backing, catalyst, and polymer electrolyte layers. The model considers the PEM fuel cell to be composed of three phases: reactant gas, liquid water, and solid. These three phases can co-exist within the gas flow channels, electrode backing, catalyst, and polymer electrolyte layers. The conservation of mass, momentum, species, and energy are applied to each phase, with the technique of volume averaging being used to incorporate the interactions between the phases as interfacial source terms. In order to avoid problems arising from phase discontinuities, the gas and liquid phases are considered as a mixture. The momentum interactions between the fluid and solid phases are modeled by the Darcy-Forchheimer term. The electro-oxidation of H and CO, the reduction of O, and the heterogeneous oxidation of H and CO are considered in the catalyst layers. Due to the small pore size of the polymer electrolyte layer, the generalized Stefan-Maxwell equations, with the polymer considered as a diffusing species, are used to describe species transport. One consequence of considering the gas and liquid phases as a mixture is that expressions for the velocity of the individual phases relative to the mixture must be developed. In the gas flow channels, the flow is assumed homogeneous, while the Darcy and Schlögl equations are used to describe liquid water transport in the electrode backing and polymer electrolyte layers. Thus, two sets of equations, one for the mixture and another for the solid phase, can be developed to describe the processes occurring within a PEM fuel cell. These equations are in
A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model. 1. Model formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yihua; Brashers, Bart; Finkelstein, Peter L.; Pleim, Jonathan E.
2003-01-01
A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM; [1998]) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration was improved, and an aerodynamic resistance based on Monin-Obukhov theory was added. An appropriate parameterization for the leaf boundary layer resistance was chosen. A biochemical stomatal resistance model was chosen based on comparisons of four different existing stomatal resistance schemes. It describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for sunlit and shaded leaves separately. Various aspects of the photosynthetic process in both C3 and C4 plants are considered in the model. To drive the photosynthesis model, the canopy radiation scheme has been updated. Leaf area index measurements are adjusted to account for stem area index. A normalized soil water stress factor was applied to potential photosynthesis to account for plant response to both drought and water-logging stresses. A new cuticle resistance model was derived based on membrane passive transport theory and Fick's first law. It accounts for the effects of diffusivity and solubility of specific gases in the cuticle membrane, as well as the thickness of the cuticle membrane. The model is designed for use in the nationwide dry deposition networks, for example, the Clean Air Status And Trends Network (CASTNet), and mesoscale models, for example, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) and even the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF).
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Formulation of a k - ω based DDES model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudra Reddy, Karthik; Durbin, Paul
2013-11-01
DES models fall under the category of Hybrid RANS/LES models, and they employ RANS to resolve near-wall boundary layers in the flow domain and LES away from the surface. The idea of DES is applicable to any RANS model, and various versions of the method reflect this. A general DDES formulation was put forth (Spalart et al., 2006) suitable for use with any RANS model, and later adapted for use with the k - ω SST model (Gritskevich et al., 2012). The current work develops a variant based on the k - ω model. In this version, length scales enter directly in the subgrid eddy-viscosity, rather than being used in the dissipation term of the k-equation; indeed, one can approach it as replacing length-scale clipping, in standard DDES, with velocity scale clipping. The length scales were modified in order to account for the log-layer mismatch, a well-known issue with DDES. Simulation results from channel flow and flow over a backward-facing step are presented.
A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION
A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...
Differential geometry based solvation model I: Eulerian formulation.
Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A; Wei, G W
2010-11-01
This paper presents a differential geometry based model for the analysis and computation of the equilibrium property of solvation. Differential geometry theory of surfaces is utilized to define and construct smooth interfaces with good stability and differentiability for use in characterizing the solvent-solute boundaries and in generating continuous dielectric functions across the computational domain. A total free energy functional is constructed to couple polar and nonpolar contributions to the salvation process. Geometric measure theory is employed to rigorously convert a Lagrangian formulation of the surface energy into an Eulerian formulation so as to bring all energy terms into an equal footing. By minimizing the total free energy functional, we derive coupled generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (GPBE) and generalized geometric flow equation (GGFE) for the electrostatic potential and the construction of realistic solvent-solute boundaries, respectively. By solving the coupled GPBE and GGFE, we obtain the electrostatic potential, the solvent-solute boundary profile, and the smooth dielectric function, and thereby improve the accuracy and stability of implicit solvation calculations. We also design efficient second order numerical schemes for the solution of the GPBE and GGFE. Matrix resulted from the discretization of the GPBE is accelerated with appropriate preconditioners. An alternative direct implicit (ADI) scheme is designed to improve the stability of solving the GGFE. Two iterative approaches are designed to solve the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Extensive numerical experiments are designed to validate the present theoretical model, test computational methods, and optimize numerical algorithms. Example solvation analysis of both small compounds and proteins are carried out to further demonstrate the accuracy, stability, efficiency and robustness of the present new model and numerical approaches. Comparison is given to
Differential geometry based solvation model I: Eulerian formulation
Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A.; Wei, G. W.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a differential geometry based model for the analysis and computation of the equilibrium property of solvation. Differential geometry theory of surfaces is utilized to define and construct smooth interfaces with good stability and differentiability for use in characterizing the solvent-solute boundaries and in generating continuous dielectric functions across the computational domain. A total free energy functional is constructed to couple polar and nonpolar contributions to the salvation process. Geometric measure theory is employed to rigorously convert a Lagrangian formulation of the surface energy into an Eulerian formulation so as to bring all energy terms into an equal footing. By minimizing the total free energy functional, we derive coupled generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (GPBE) and generalized geometric flow equation (GGFE) for the electrostatic potential and the construction of realistic solvent-solute boundaries, respectively. By solving the coupled GPBE and GGFE, we obtain the electrostatic potential, the solvent-solute boundary profile, and the smooth dielectric function, and thereby improve the accuracy and stability of implicit solvation calculations. We also design efficient second order numerical schemes for the solution of the GPBE and GGFE. Matrix resulted from the discretization of the GPBE is accelerated with appropriate preconditioners. An alternative direct implicit (ADI) scheme is designed to improve the stability of solving the GGFE. Two iterative approaches are designed to solve the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Extensive numerical experiments are designed to validate the present theoretical model, test computational methods, and optimize numerical algorithms. Example solvation analysis of both small compounds and proteins are carried out to further demonstrate the accuracy, stability, efficiency and robustness of the present new model and numerical approaches. Comparison is given to
Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model
Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.
2014-07-10
The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058
Biomechanical behaviour of ankle ligaments: constitutive formulation and numerical modelling.
Forestiero, A; Carniel, E L; Natali, A N
2014-01-01
This study was aimed at the definition of a constitutive formulation of ankle ligaments and of a procedure for the constitutive parameters evaluation, for the biomechanical analysis by means of numerical models. To interpret the typical features of ligaments mechanical response, as anisotropic configuration, geometric non-linearity, non-linear elasticity and time-dependent behaviour, a specific fibre-reinforced visco-hyperelastic model is provided. The identification of constitutive parameters is performed by a stochastic-deterministic procedure that minimises the discrepancy between experimental and computational results. A preliminary evaluation of parameters is performed by analytical models in order to define reference values. Afterwards, solid models are developed to consider the complex histo-morphometric configuration of samples as a basis for the definition of numerical models. The results obtained are adopted for upgrading parameter values by comparison with specific mechanical tests. Assuming the new parameters set, the final numerical results are compared with the overall set of experimental data, to assess the reliability and efficacy of the analysis developed for the interpretation of the mechanical response of ankle ligaments.
A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models
Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, M.
2007-01-01
Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by nondetection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and Win BUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site
A Bayesian state-space formulation of dynamic occupancy models.
Royle, J Andrew; Kéry, Marc
2007-07-01
Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by non-detection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and WinBUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site
Differential geometry based solvation model. III. Quantum formulation.
Chen, Zhan; Wei, Guo-Wei
2011-11-21
to many other classic and quantum models. By using experimental data, we show that the present quantum formulation of our differential geometry based multiscale solvation model improves the prediction of our earlier models, and outperforms some explicit solvation model.
The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality
Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.
2015-07-23
The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.
The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; Patel, P.; Zhou, Y.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G. C.
2015-07-01
The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human-Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human-Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.
The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality
Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; ...
2015-07-23
The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less
Microscopic formulation of the interacting boson model for rotational nuclei
Nomura, Kosuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Guo, Lu
2011-04-15
We propose a novel formulation of the interacting boson model (IBM) for rotational nuclei with axially symmetric, strong deformation. The intrinsic structure represented by the potential-energy surface (PES) of a given multinucleon system has a certain similarity to that of the corresponding multiboson system. Based on this feature, one can derive an appropriate boson Hamiltonian, as already reported. This prescription, however, has a major difficulty in the rotational spectra of strongly deformed nuclei: the bosonic moment of inertia is significantly smaller than the corresponding nucleonic one. We present that this difficulty originates in the difference between the rotational response of a nucleon system and that of the corresponding boson system, and could arise even if the PESs of the two systems were identical. We further suggest that the problem can be solved by implementing the L{center_dot}L term into the IBM Hamiltonian, with the coupling constant derived from the cranking approach of Skyrme mean-field models. The validity of the method is confirmed for rare-earth and actinoid nuclei, as their experimental rotational yrast bands are reproduced nicely.
Potts-model formulation of the random resistor network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, A. B.; Lubensky, T. C.
1987-05-01
The randomly diluted resistor network is formulated in terms of an n-replicated s-state Potts model with a spin-spin coupling constant J in the limit when first n, then s, and finally 1/J go to zero. This limit is discussed and to leading order in 1/J the generalized susceptibility is shown to reproduce the results of the accompanying paper where the resistor network is treated using the xy model. This Potts Hamiltonian is converted into a field theory by the usual Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and thereby a renormalization-group treatment is developed to obtain the corrections to the critical exponents to first order in ɛ=6-d, where d is the spatial dimensionality. The recursion relations are shown to be the same as for the xy model. Their detailed analysis (given in the accompanying paper) gives the resistance crossover exponent as φ1=1+ɛ/42, and determines the critical exponent, t for the conductivity of the randomly diluted resistor network at concentrations, p, just above the percolation threshold: t=(d-2)ν+φ1, where ν is the critical exponent for the correlation length at the percolation threshold. These results correct previously accepted results giving φ=1 to all orders in ɛ. The new result for φ1 removes the paradox associated with the numerical result that t>1 for d=2, and also shows that the Alexander-Orbach conjecture, while numerically quite accurate, is not exact, since it disagrees with the ɛ expansion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Natesan, Prathiba; Limbers, Christine; Varni, James W.
2010-01-01
The present study presents the formulation of graded response models in the multilevel framework (as nonlinear mixed models) and demonstrates their use in estimating item parameters and investigating the group-level effects for specific covariates using Bayesian estimation. The graded response multilevel model (GRMM) combines the formulation of…
Differential geometry based solvation model II: Lagrangian formulation
Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A.; Wei, G. W.
2010-01-01
Solvation is an elementary process in nature and is of paramount importance to more sophisticated chemical, biological and biomolecular processes. The understanding of solvation is an essential prerequisite for the quantitative description and analysis of biomolecular systems. This work presents a Lagrangian formulation of our differential geometry based solvation model. The Lagrangian representation of biomolecular surfaces has a few utilities/advantages. First, it provides an essential basis for biomolecular visualization, surface electrostatic potential map and visual perception of biomolecules. Additionally, it is consistent with the conventional setting of implicit solvent theories and thus, many existing theoretical algorithms and computational software packages can be directly employed. Finally, the Lagrangian representation does not need to resort to artificially enlarged van der Waals radii as often required by the Eulerian representation in solvation analysis. The main goal of the present work is to analyze the connection, similarity and difference between the Eulerian and Lagrangian formalisms of the solvation model. Such analysis is important to the understanding of the differential geometry based solvation model. The present model extends the scaled particle theory (SPT) of nonpolar solvation model with a solvent-solute interaction potential. The nonpolar solvation model is completed with a Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory based polar solvation model. The differential geometry theory of surfaces is employed to provide a natural description of solvent-solute interfaces. The minimization of the total free energy functional, which encompasses the polar and nonpolar contributions, leads to coupled potential driven geometric flow and Poisson-Boltzmann equations. Due to the development of singularities and nonsmooth manifolds in the Lagrangian representation, the resulting potential-driven geometric flow equation is embedded into the Eulerian representation for
Differential geometry based solvation model II: Lagrangian formulation.
Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A; Wei, G W
2011-12-01
Solvation is an elementary process in nature and is of paramount importance to more sophisticated chemical, biological and biomolecular processes. The understanding of solvation is an essential prerequisite for the quantitative description and analysis of biomolecular systems. This work presents a Lagrangian formulation of our differential geometry based solvation models. The Lagrangian representation of biomolecular surfaces has a few utilities/advantages. First, it provides an essential basis for biomolecular visualization, surface electrostatic potential map and visual perception of biomolecules. Additionally, it is consistent with the conventional setting of implicit solvent theories and thus, many existing theoretical algorithms and computational software packages can be directly employed. Finally, the Lagrangian representation does not need to resort to artificially enlarged van der Waals radii as often required by the Eulerian representation in solvation analysis. The main goal of the present work is to analyze the connection, similarity and difference between the Eulerian and Lagrangian formalisms of the solvation model. Such analysis is important to the understanding of the differential geometry based solvation model. The present model extends the scaled particle theory of nonpolar solvation model with a solvent-solute interaction potential. The nonpolar solvation model is completed with a Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory based polar solvation model. The differential geometry theory of surfaces is employed to provide a natural description of solvent-solute interfaces. The optimization of the total free energy functional, which encompasses the polar and nonpolar contributions, leads to coupled potential driven geometric flow and PB equations. Due to the development of singularities and nonsmooth manifolds in the Lagrangian representation, the resulting potential-driven geometric flow equation is embedded into the Eulerian representation for the purpose of
Modeling individual effects in the Cormack-Jolly-Seber Model: A state-space formulation
Royle, J. Andrew
2008-01-01
In population and evolutionary biology, there exists considerable interest in individual heterogeneity in parameters of demographic models for open populations. However, flexible and practical solutions to the development of such models have proven to be elusive. In this article, I provide a state-space formulation of open population capture-recapture models with individual effects. The state-space formulation provides a generic and flexible framework for modeling and inference in models with individual effects, and it yields a practical means of estimation in these complex problems via contemporary methods of Markov chain Monte Carlo. A straightforward implementation can be achieved in the software package WinBUGS. I provide an analysis of a simple model with constant parameter detection and survival probability parameters. A second example is based on data from a 7-year study of European dippers, in which a model with year and individual effects is fitted.
Schwinger Boson Formulation and Solution of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen Models of Quasispecies Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Man; Deem, Michael W.
2006-11-01
We express the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of quasispecies theory in a functional integral representation. We formulate the spin coherent state functional integrals using the Schwinger Boson method. In this formulation, we are able to deduce the long-time behavior of these models for arbitrary replication and degradation functions. We discuss the phase transitions that occur in these models as a function of mutation rate. We derive for these models the leading order corrections to the infinite genome length limit.
The formulations of the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee's applied air dispersion model (AERMOD) as related to the characterization of the planetary boundary layer are described. This is the first in a series of three articles. Part II describes the formulation of...
Modeling of polymer networks for application to solid propellant formulating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, H. E.
1979-01-01
Methods for predicting the network structural characteristics formed by the curing of pourable elastomers were presented; as well as the logic which was applied in the development of mathematical models. A universal approach for modeling was developed and verified by comparison with other methods in application to a complex system. Several applications of network models to practical problems are described.
An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.
A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saylor, Rick D.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Hicks, Bruce B.
2014-01-01
The Multilayer Model (MLM) has been used for many years to infer dry deposition fluxes from measured trace species concentrations and standard meteorological measurements for national networks in the U.S., including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). MLM utilizes a resistance analogy to calculate deposition velocities appropriate for whole vegetative canopies, while employing a multilayer integration to account for vertically varying meteorology, canopy morphology and radiative transfer within the canopy. However, the MLM formulation, as it was originally presented and as it has been subsequently employed, contains a non-physical representation related to the leaf-level quasi-laminar boundary layer resistance that affects the calculation of the total canopy resistance. In this note, the non-physical representation of the canopy resistance as originally formulated in MLM is discussed and a revised, physically consistent, formulation is suggested as a replacement. The revised canopy resistance formulation reduces estimates of HNO3 deposition velocities by as much as 38% during mid-day as compared to values generated by the original formulation. Inferred deposition velocities for SO2 and O3 are not significantly altered by the change in formulation (less than 3%). Inferred deposition loadings of oxidized and total nitrogen from CASTNet data may be reduced by 10-20% and 5-10%, respectively, for the Eastern U. S. when employing the revised formulation of MLM as compared to the original formulation.
Automated model formulation for time-varying flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, B. J.; Hanagud, S.
1989-01-01
Presented here is an identification technique that uses the sensor information to choose a new model out of a finite set of discrete model space, in order to follow the observed changes to the given time varying flexible structure. Boundary condition sets or other information on model variations are used to organize the set of possible models laterally into a search tree with levels of abstraction used to order the models vertically within branches. An object-oriented programming approach is used to represent the model set in the search tree. A modified A (asterisk) best first search algorithm finds the model where the model response best matches the current observations. Several extensions to this methodology are discussed. Methods of possible integration of rules with the current search algorithm are considered to give weight to interpreted trends that may be found in a series of observations. This capability might lead, for instance, to identifying a model that incorporates a progressive damage rather than with incorrect paramenters such as added mass. Another new direction is to consider the use of noisy time domain sensor feedback rather than frequency domain information in the search algorithm to improve the real-time capability of the developed procedure.
Practical Formulations of the Latent Growth Item Response Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGuire, Leah Walker
2010-01-01
Growth modeling using longitudinal data seems to be a promising direction for improving the methodology associated with the accountability movement. Longitudinal modeling requires that the measurements of ability are comparable over time and on the same scale. One way to create the vertical scale is through concurrent estimation with…
Savic, Ivana M; Nikolic, Katarina; Nikolic, Goran; Savic, Ivan; Agbaba, Danica; Cakic, Milorad
2013-07-01
New formulation for treatment a copper deficiency in human organism was developed and optimized by application of mathematical modeling. This formulation contained copper (II) complex with polysaccharide pullulan, as active substance. The binder concentration [polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP %)], the disintegrant concentration (corn starch %) and the resistance to crushing (hardness) were taken as independent variables. In vitro measured drug release characteristics of the tablets at pH 1.20 and 7.56 were studied as response variables. Initially, the created full factorial 2(3) model showed that the resistance to crushing has the most significant effect on copper (II) complex release from the formulation. Optimal tablet formulation F2, with lower Hardness (50 N), lower Starch (20.0%) and higher PVP (2.7%) concentrations, is selected using the partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling. The selected formulation F2 has expressed the best drug release profile at both pH (98.66% pH = 1.20; 93.35% pH = 7.56), and the lowest variation of tablets weight. The presented theoretical approach and created PLS model can be readily applied in future copper complexes studies and formulation design.
Isotope-based Fluvial Organic Carbon (ISOFLOC) Model: Model formulation, sensitivity, and evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, William I.; Fox, James F.
2015-06-01
Watershed-scale carbon budgets remain poorly understood, in part due to inadequate simulation tools to assess in-stream carbon fate and transport. A new numerical model termed ISOtope-based FLuvial Organic Carbon (ISOFLOC) is formulated to simulate the fluvial organic carbon budget in watersheds where hydrologic, sediment transport, and biogeochemical processes are coupled to control benthic and transported carbon composition and flux. One ISOFLOC innovation is the formulation of new stable carbon isotope model subroutines that include isotope fractionation processes in order to estimate carbon isotope source, fate, and transport. A second innovation is the coupling of transfers between carbon pools, including algal particulate organic carbon, fine particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and particulate and dissolved inorganic carbon, to simulate the carbon cycle in a comprehensive manner beyond that of existing watershed water quality models. ISOFLOC was tested and verified in a low-gradient, agriculturally impacted stream. Results of a global sensitivity analysis suggested the isotope response variable had unique sensitivity to the coupled interaction between fluvial shear resistance of algal biomass and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon. Model calibration and validation suggested good agreement at event, seasonal, and annual timescales. Multiobjective uncertainty analysis suggested inclusion of the carbon stable isotope routine reduced uncertainty by 80% for algal particulate organic carbon flux estimates.
Coastal Modeling System: Mathematical Formulations and Numerical Methods
2014-03-01
number [rad/m]. The wave radiation stresses and their gradients are computed within the wave model and interpolated in space and time in the flow...operator. The equation is solved given any number of user-specified initial salinity values at locations within the model domain, using the initial...load correction factors based on the logarithmic velocity profile and (a) exponential and (b) Rouse suspended sediment profile. The Rouse number is
Colbourn, E A; Roskilly, S J; Rowe, R C; York, P
2011-10-09
This study has investigated the utility and potential advantages of gene expression programming (GEP)--a new development in evolutionary computing for modelling data and automatically generating equations that describe the cause-and-effect relationships in a system--to four types of pharmaceutical formulation and compared the models with those generated by neural networks, a technique now widely used in the formulation development. Both methods were capable of discovering subtle and non-linear relationships within the data, with no requirement from the user to specify the functional forms that should be used. Although the neural networks rapidly developed models with higher values for the ANOVA R(2) these were black box and provided little insight into the key relationships. However, GEP, although significantly slower at developing models, generated relatively simple equations describing the relationships that could be interpreted directly. The results indicate that GEP can be considered an effective and efficient modelling technique for formulation data.
An Inadequacy Formulation for an Uncertain Flamelet Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sondak, David; Oliver, Todd; Simmons, Chris; Moser, Robert
2016-11-01
We report progress on the development of an uncertain flamelet library for use in non-premixed turbulent combustion. A stochastic inadequacy operator is generalized from previous work and is now used to incorporate uncertainties in chemical reaction mechanisms in a flamelet model. The original form of the inadequacy operator was designed to enforce positivity of chemical species concentrations and conservation of species while representing inadequacies in reduced chemical mechanisms. As a first step towards generalization, we are exploring temperature dependent modifications to the inadequacy operator. The temperature dependence helps ensure that the operator is inactive in the absence of chemical reactions and becomes active only after ignition. A Bayesian inverse problem is used to calibrate the stochastic operator on a hydrogen-oxygen zero-dimensional reactor and to infer model parameters, and their uncertainties, from data obtained via a detailed chemical mechanism. The inferred model parameters are then propagated through a laminar, non-premixed, counterflow hydrogen-oxygen flame. Temperature and species profiles at various scalar dissipation rates are compared to those predicted from a five-reaction reduced model and the detailed model.
Mathematical Formulation Requirements and Specifications for the Process Models
Steefel, C.; Moulton, D.; Pau, G.; Lipnikov, K.; Meza, J.; Lichtner, P.; Wolery, T.; Bacon, D.; Spycher, N.; Bell, J.; Moridis, G.; Yabusaki, S.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zyvoloski, G.; Andre, B.; Zheng, L.; Davis, J.
2010-11-01
The Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) is intended to be a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The ASCEM program is aimed at addressing critical EM program needs to better understand and quantify flow and contaminant transport behavior in complex geological systems. It will also address the long-term performance of engineered components including cementitious materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities, in order to reduce uncertainties and risks associated with DOE EM's environmental cleanup and closure activities. Building upon national capabilities developed from decades of Research and Development in subsurface geosciences, computational and computer science, modeling and applied mathematics, and environmental remediation, the ASCEM initiative will develop an integrated, open-source, high-performance computer modeling system for multiphase, multicomponent, multiscale subsurface flow and contaminant transport. This integrated modeling system will incorporate capabilities for predicting releases from various waste forms, identifying exposure pathways and performing dose calculations, and conducting systematic uncertainty quantification. The ASCEM approach will be demonstrated on selected sites, and then applied to support the next generation of performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal and facility decommissioning across the EM complex. The Multi-Process High Performance Computing (HPC) Simulator is one of three thrust areas in ASCEM. The other two are the Platform and Integrated Toolsets (dubbed the Platform) and Site Applications. The primary objective of the HPC Simulator is to provide a flexible and extensible computational engine to simulate the coupled processes and flow scenarios described by the conceptual models developed using the ASCEM Platform. The graded and iterative approach to assessments naturally
Demenais, F M
1991-01-01
Statistical models have been developed to delineate the major-gene and non-major-gene factors accounting for the familial aggregation of complex diseases. The mixed model assumes an underlying liability to the disease, to which a major gene, a multifactorial component, and random environment contribute independently. Affection is defined by a threshold on the liability scale. The regressive logistic models assume that the logarithm of the odds of being affected is a linear function of major genotype, phenotypes of antecedents and other covariates. An equivalence between these two approaches cannot be derived analytically. I propose a formulation of the regressive logistic models on the supposition of an underlying liability model of disease. Relatives are assumed to have correlated liabilities to the disease; affected persons have liabilities exceeding an estimable threshold. Under the assumption that the correlation structure of the relatives' liabilities follows a regressive model, the regression coefficients on antecedents are expressed in terms of the relevant familial correlations. A parsimonious parameterization is a consequence of the assumed liability model, and a one-to-one correspondence with the parameters of the mixed model can be established. The logits, derived under the class A regressive model and under the class D regressive model, can be extended to include a large variety of patterns of family dependence, as well as gene-environment interactions. PMID:1897524
Formulating the Brogden Classification Framework as a Discrete Choice Model
2012-11-01
that satisfy the job quota constraints using an MMNL parameter estimation algorithm. Biogeme ( Bierle , 2003) model files for carrying out the...demand. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bierle , M. (2003). An introduction to BIOGEME (Version 1.3) http://roso.epfl.ch/biogeme. Brogden, H. E. (1954). A
White, Robin R; Capper, Judith L
2014-03-01
The objective of this study was to use a precision nutrition model to simulate the relationship between diet formulation frequency and dairy cattle performance across various climates. Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS) CattlePro diet-balancing software (Cornell Research Foundation, Ithaca, NY) was used to compare 3 diet formulation frequencies (weekly, monthly, or seasonal) and 3 levels of climate variability (hot, cold, or variable). Predicted daily milk yield (MY), metabolizable energy (ME) balance, and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded for each frequency-variability combination. Economic analysis was conducted to calculate the predicted revenue over feed and labor costs. Diet formulation frequency affected ME balance and MY but did not affect DMI. Climate variability affected ME balance and DMI but not MY. The interaction between climate variability and formulation frequency did not affect ME balance, MY, or DMI. Formulating diets more frequently increased MY, DMI, and ME balance. Economic analysis showed that formulating diets weekly rather than seasonally could improve returns over variable costs by $25,000 per year for a moderate-sized (300-cow) operation. To achieve this increase in returns, an entire feeding system margin of error of <1% was required. Formulating monthly, rather than seasonally, may be a more feasible alternative as this requires a margin of error of only 2.5% for the entire feeding system. Feeding systems with a low margin of error must be developed to better take advantage of the benefits of precision nutrition.
Industrial processing of complex fluids: Formulation and modeling
Scovel, J.C.; Bleasdale, S.; Forest, G.M.; Bechtel, S.
1997-08-01
The production of many important commercial materials involves the evolution of a complex fluid through a cooling phase into a hardened product. Textile fibers, high-strength fibers(KEVLAR, VECTRAN), plastics, chopped-fiber compounds, and fiber optical cable are such materials. Industry desires to replace experiments with on-line, real time models of these processes. Solutions to the problems are not just a matter of technology transfer, but require a fundamental description and simulation of the processes. Goals of the project are to develop models that can be used to optimize macroscopic properties of the solid product, to identify sources of undesirable defects, and to seek boundary-temperature and flow-and-material controls to optimize desired properties.
Sublethal toxicant effects with dynamic energy budget theory: model formulation.
Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M; Berkley, Heather A
2010-01-01
We develop and test a general modeling framework to describe the sublethal effects of pollutants by adding toxicity modules to an established dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. The DEB model describes the rates of energy acquisition and expenditure by individual organisms; the toxicity modules describe how toxicants affect these rates by changing the value of one or more DEB parameters, notably the parameters quantifying the rates of feeding and maintenance. We investigate four toxicity modules that assume: (1) effects on feeding only; (2) effects on maintenance only; (3) effects on feeding and maintenance with similar values for the toxicity parameters; and (4) effects on feeding and maintenance with different values for the toxicity parameters. We test the toxicity modules by fitting each to published data on feeding, respiration, growth and reproduction. Among the pollutants tested are metals (mercury and copper) and various organic compounds (chlorophenols, toluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tetradifon and pyridine); organisms include mussels, oysters, earthworms, water fleas and zebrafish. In most cases, the data sets could be adequately described with any of the toxicity modules, and no single module gave superior fits to all data sets. We therefore propose that for many applications, it is reasonable to use the most general and parameter sparse module, i.e. module 3 that assumes similar effects on feeding and maintenance, as a default. For one example (water fleas), we use parameter estimates to calculate the impact of food availability and toxicant levels on the long term population growth rate.
Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott D; Rolland, Rosalind M; Knowlton, Amy R; Hamilton, Philip K; Pettis, Heather M; Thomas, Len; Harwood, John; Clark, James S
2016-01-01
Right whales are vulnerable to many sources of anthropogenic disturbance including ship strikes, entanglement with fishing gear, and anthropogenic noise. The effect of these factors on individual health is unclear. A statistical model using photographic evidence of health was recently built to infer the true or hidden health of individual right whales. However, two important prior assumptions about the role of missing data and unexplained variance on the estimates were not previously assessed. Here we tested these factors by varying prior assumptions and model formulation. We found sensitivity to each assumption and used the output to make guidelines on future model formulation.
Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations
Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.
2014-06-01
A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads tomore » energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.« less
Variational formulation of macroparticle models for electromagnetic plasma simulations
Stamm, Alexander B.; Shadwick, Bradley A.; Evstatiev, Evstati G.
2014-06-01
A variational method is used to derive a self-consistent macroparticle model for relativistic electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations. Extending earlier work, discretization of the electromagnetic Low Lagrangian is performed via a reduction of the phase-space distribution function onto a collection of finite-sized macroparticles of arbitrary shape and discretization of field quantities onto a spatial grid. This approach may be used with lab frame coordinates or moving window coordinates; the latter can greatly improve computational efficiency for studying some types of laser-plasma interactions. The primary advantage of the variational approach is the preservation of Lagrangian symmetries, which in our case leads to energy conservation and thus avoids difficulties with grid heating. In addition, this approach decouples particle size from grid spacing and relaxes restrictions on particle shape, leading to low numerical noise. The variational approach also guarantees consistent approximations in the equations of motion and is amenable to higher order methods in both space and time. We restrict our attention to the 1.5-D case (one coordinate and two momenta). Lastly, simulations are performed with the new models and demonstrate energy conservation and low noise.
Formulation of consumables management models. Volume 1: Mission planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torian, J. G.; Zamora, M. A.
1978-01-01
Development of an STS (Space Transportation System) interactive computer program MPP (Mission Planning Processor) working model was conducted. A summary of the computer program development and those supporting tasks conducted is presented. Development of the MPP Computer Program is discussed. This development was supported by several parallel tasks. These tasks either directly supported the program development, or provided information for future application and/or modification to the program in relation to the flight planning and flight operations of the STS and advanced spacecraft. The supporting tasks also included development of a Space Station MPP to demonstrate the applicability of the analytical methods developed under this RTOP to more advanced spacecraft than the STS.
Liu, Ying; Yi, Tao; Di, Huan; Xiao, Lu; He, Ji-Kui
2011-08-01
A new dynamic in vitro intestinal absorption model for screening and evaluating lipid formulations was established by means of the characteristics of the intestinal digestion and absorption of the lipid formulations. This model was composed of two systems, including intestinal digestion and the intestinal tissue culture, which drew the evaluation method of intestinal absorption into the in vitro lipolysis model. The influence of several important model parameters such as Ca2+, D-glucose, K+ on the two systems of this model has been investigated. The results showed that increasing of Ca2+ concentration could be significantly conductive to intestinal digestion. The increasing of D-glucose concentration could stepped significantly down the decay of the intestinal activity. K+ was able to maintain intestinal activity, but the influence of different concentration levels on the decay of the intestinal activity was of no significant difference. Thus the model parameters were set up as follows: Ca2+ for 10 mmol x L(-1), D-glucose for 15 mmol x L(-1) and K+ for 5.5 mmol x L(-1). Type I lipid formulation was evaluated with this model, and there was a significant correlation between the absorption curve in vitro and absorption curve in vivo of rats (r = 0.995 6, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that this model can be an attractive and great potential method for the screening, evaluating and predicting of the lipid formulations.
A local formulation of lattice Wess-Zumino model with exact U(1)R symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikukawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2005-02-01
A lattice Wess-Zumino model is formulated on the basis of Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. In perturbation theory, our formulation is equivalent to the formulation by Fujikawa and Ishibashi and by Fujikawa. Our formulation is, however, free from a singular nature of the latter formulation due to an additional auxiliary chiral supermultiplet on a lattice. The model posssesses an exact U(1)R symmetry as a supersymmetric counterpart of the Lüscher lattice chiral U(1) symmetry. A restration of the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identity in the continuum limit is analyzed in renormalized perturbation theory. In the one-loop level, a supersymmetric continuum limit is ensured by suitably adjusting a coefficient of a single local term tilde F*tilde F. The non-renormalization theorem holds to this order of perturbation theory. In higher orders, on the other hand, coefficents of local terms with dimension <= 4 that are consistent with the U(1)R symmetry have to be adjusted for a supersymmetric continuum limit. The origin of this complexicity in higher-order loops is clarified on the basis of the Reisz power counting theorem. Therefore, from a view point of supersymmetry, the present formulation is not quite better than a lattice Wess-Zumino model formulated by using Wilson fermions, although a number of coefficients which require adjustment is much less due to the exact U(1)R symmetry. We also comment on an exact non-linear fermionic symmetry which corresponds to the one studied by Bonini and Feo; an existence of this exact symmetry itself does not imply a restoration of supersymmetry in the continuum limit without any adjustment of parameters.
Application of co-grinding to formulate a model pMDI suspension.
Williams, R O; Repka, M A; Barron, M K
1999-09-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of co-grinding the model drug, triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), with a polymeric surfactant on the in vitro performance of a model pMDI suspension system. The physicochemical properties of TAA after co-grinding with the surfactant, Pluronic F77, were determined by laser light diffraction, helium pycnometry and equilibrium solubility measurements. TAA-surfactant interaction was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The suspension characteristics of pMDI formulations prepared with co-ground TAA and surfactant were investigated by determining their in situ sedimentation, rheological profiles and vapor pressure. The performance characteristics of the pMDI formulations were determined by cascade impaction and dose delivery through-the-valve (DDV) measurements. It was found that the presence of Pluronic F77 decreased the solubility of TAA in the propellant medium. Co-grinding TAA particles with Pluronic F77 influenced the particle size distribution, sedimentation and flocculation characteristics of the pMDI suspension formulation. The addition of Pluronic F77 decreased the viscosity of the pMDI formulation. Formulating the suspension pMDI system with co-ground TAA and Pluronic F77 decreased the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the emitted aerosol and increased the percent respirable fraction (%RF). The co-ground TAA and Pluronic F77 pMDI suspension formulation exhibited greater physical stability which was due to the influence of the co-grinding technique on the physicochemical properties of the TAA particle surface and the propellant dispersion medium. The changes induced by co-grinding with Pluronic F77 improved the performance characteristics of a pMDI suspension formulation by stabilizing the suspension and influencing the flocculation characteristics. Co-grinding is a process which may be useful when developing new pMDI systems containing
Model-based optimal design of experiments - semidefinite and nonlinear programming formulations.
Duarte, Belmiro P M; Wong, Weng Kee; Oliveira, Nuno M C
2016-02-15
We use mathematical programming tools, such as Semidefinite Programming (SDP) and Nonlinear Programming (NLP)-based formulations to find optimal designs for models used in chemistry and chemical engineering. In particular, we employ local design-based setups in linear models and a Bayesian setup in nonlinear models to find optimal designs. In the latter case, Gaussian Quadrature Formulas (GQFs) are used to evaluate the optimality criterion averaged over the prior distribution for the model parameters. Mathematical programming techniques are then applied to solve the optimization problems. Because such methods require the design space be discretized, we also evaluate the impact of the discretization scheme on the generated design. We demonstrate the techniques for finding D-, A- and E-optimal designs using design problems in biochemical engineering and show the method can also be directly applied to tackle additional issues, such as heteroscedasticity in the model. Our results show that the NLP formulation produces highly efficient D-optimal designs but is computationally less efficient than that required for the SDP formulation. The efficiencies of the generated designs from the two methods are generally very close and so we recommend the SDP formulation in practice.
Model-based optimal design of experiments - semidefinite and nonlinear programming formulations
Duarte, Belmiro P.M.; Wong, Weng Kee; Oliveira, Nuno M.C.
2015-01-01
We use mathematical programming tools, such as Semidefinite Programming (SDP) and Nonlinear Programming (NLP)-based formulations to find optimal designs for models used in chemistry and chemical engineering. In particular, we employ local design-based setups in linear models and a Bayesian setup in nonlinear models to find optimal designs. In the latter case, Gaussian Quadrature Formulas (GQFs) are used to evaluate the optimality criterion averaged over the prior distribution for the model parameters. Mathematical programming techniques are then applied to solve the optimization problems. Because such methods require the design space be discretized, we also evaluate the impact of the discretization scheme on the generated design. We demonstrate the techniques for finding D–, A– and E–optimal designs using design problems in biochemical engineering and show the method can also be directly applied to tackle additional issues, such as heteroscedasticity in the model. Our results show that the NLP formulation produces highly efficient D–optimal designs but is computationally less efficient than that required for the SDP formulation. The efficiencies of the generated designs from the two methods are generally very close and so we recommend the SDP formulation in practice. PMID:26949279
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y.; Wright, D.
1998-01-01
A formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography-following coordinates is proposed and diagnostically analyzed by Song. We investigate numerical consistency with respect to global energy conservation, depth-integrated momentum changes, and the represent of the bottom pressure torque.
Archimedes: a new model for simulating health care systems--the mathematical formulation.
Schlessinger, Leonard; Eddy, David M
2002-02-01
This paper designs an object-oriented, continuous-time, full simulation model for addressing a wide range of clinical, procedural, administrative, and financial decisions in health care at a high level of biological, clinical, and administrative detail. The full model has two main parts, which with some simplification can be designated "physiology models" and "models of care processes." The models of care processes, although highly detailed, are mathematically straightforward. However, the mathematics that describes human biology, diseases, and the effects of interventions are more difficult. This paper describes the mathematical formulation and methods for deriving equations, for a variety of different sources of data. Although Archimedes was originally designed for health care applications, the formulation, and equations are general and can be applied to many natural systems.
Droppo, James G.
2006-07-01
The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and
Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation
Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington
2014-12-18
Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples of these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.
Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation
Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington
2014-12-18
Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples ofmore » these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.« less
Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats
Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar
2014-01-01
Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115
Abe, Noriaki; Funato, Hiroki; Hirata, Ayumu; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yagi, Yusuke; Kadota, Aki; Ogi, Kyoko; Yokota, Junko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko
2016-01-01
The introduction of generic drugs is promoted from the perspective of medical economics. In this context, we need to understand not only the bioequivalence of generic drugs specified in "the Guidelines for Bioequivalence Studies of Generic Products", but also formulation properties to consider their effect on pharmacological therapy. We evaluated the pharmaceutical characteristics of rebamipide formulations, a brand-name drug and two generic drugs, and their clinical functionality by using rat models of gastric mucosal injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pharmaceutical evaluation showed significant differences in hardness. The inter-lot variation was small in all rebamipide formulations. In the clinical functionality study, biochemistry test values 7 d after the administration of rebamipide showed no differences among formulations. Higher levels of mucosal fluid secretion and antioxidative enzymes were observed in the groups administered rebamipide than in the control group. The levels of lipid peroxide were lower in the groups administered rebamipide than the control group. Multivariate analysis showed slight divergence between the brand-name and generic drugs. In future, it will be necessary to select generic drugs after careful consideration of bioequivalence, clinical functionality, and therapeutic equivalence by reviewing scientific evidence such as indication and formulation design, not to mention stable provision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garner, G. G.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.
2014-12-01
Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are often used with the intent to aid in climate change decisionmaking. Numerous studies have analyzed the effects of parametric and/or structural uncertainties in IAMs, but uncertainties regarding the problem formulation are often overlooked. Here we use the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE) to analyze the effects of uncertainty surrounding the problem formulation. The standard DICE model adopts a single objective to maximize a weighted sum of utilities of per-capita consumption. Decisionmakers, however, may be concerned with a broader range of values and preferences that are not captured by this a priori definition of utility. We reformulate the problem by introducing three additional objectives that represent values such as (i) reliably limiting global average warming to two degrees Celsius and minimizing both (ii) the costs of abatement and (iii) the damages due to climate change. We derive a set of Pareto-optimal solutions over which decisionmakers can trade-off and assess performance criteria a posteriori. We illustrate the potential for myopia in the traditional problem formulation and discuss the capability of this multiobjective formulation to provide decision support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladkov, Svyatoslav; Kochmann, Julian; Reese, Stefanie; Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob
2016-04-01
The purpose of the current work is the comparison of thermodynamic model formulations for chemically and structurally inhomogeneous solids at finite deformation based on "standard" non-equilibrium thermodynamics [SNET: e. g. S. de Groot and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North Holland, 1962] and the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) [H. C. Öttinger, Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Wiley Interscience, 2005]. In the process, non-isothermal generalizations of standard isothermal conservative [e. g. J. W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, Free energy of a non-uniform system. I. Interfacial energy. J. Chem. Phys. 28 (1958), 258-267] and non-conservative [e. g. S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, A macroscopic theory for antiphase boundary motion and its application to antiphase domain coarsening. Acta Metall. 27 (1979), 1085-1095; A. G. Khachaturyan, Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids, Wiley, New York, 1983] diffuse interface or "phase-field" models [e. g. P. C. Hohenberg and B. I. Halperin, Theory of dynamic critical phenomena, Rev. Modern Phys. 49 (1977), 435-479; N. Provatas and K. Elder, Phase Field Methods in Material Science and Engineering, Wiley-VCH, 2010.] for solids are obtained. The current treatment is consistent with, and includes, previous works [e. g. O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, Thermodynamically consistent models of phase-field type for the kinetics of phase transitions, Phys. D 43 (1990), 44-62; O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, On the relation between the standard phase-field model and a "thermodynamically consistent" phase-field model. Phys. D 69 (1993), 107-113] on non-isothermal systems as a special case. In the context of no-flux boundary conditions, the SNET- and GENERIC-based approaches are shown to be completely consistent with each other and result in equivalent temperature evolution relations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, T.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U. J.; Kolditz, O.
2014-12-01
The design process of geotechnical installations includes the application of numerical simulation tools for safety assessment, dimensioning and long term effectiveness estimations. Underground salt caverns can be used for the storage of natural gas, hydrogen, oil, waste or compressed air. For their design one has to take into account fluctuating internal pressures due to different levels of filling, the stresses imposed by the surrounding rock mass, irregular geometries and possibly heterogeneous material properties [3] in order to estimate long term cavern convergence as well as locally critical wall stresses. Constitutive models applied to rock salt are usually viscoplastic in nature and most often based on a Burgers-type rheological model extended by non-linear viscosity functions and/or plastic friction elements. Besides plastic dilatation, healing and damage are sometimes accounted for as well [2]. The scales of the geotechnical system to be simulated and the laboratory tests from which material parameters are determined are vastly different. The most common material testing modalities to determine material parameters in geoengineering are the uniaxial and the triaxial compression tests. Some constitutive formulations in widespread use are formulated based on equivalent rather than tensorial quantities valid under these specific test conditions and are subsequently applied to heterogeneous underground systems and complex 3D load cases. We show here that this procedure is inappropriate and can lead to erroneous results. We further propose alternative formulations of the constitutive models in question that restore their validity under arbitrary loading conditions. For an efficient numerical simulation, the discussed constitutive models are integrated locally with a Newton-Raphson algorithm that directly provides the algorithmically consistent tangent matrix for the global Newton iteration of the displacement based finite element formulation. Finally, the finite
Limbert, Georges
2011-11-01
Characterising and modelling the mechanical behaviour of biological soft tissues is an essential step in the development of predictive computational models to assist research for a wide range of applications in medicine, biology, tissue engineering, pharmaceutics, consumer goods, cosmetics, transport or military. It is therefore critical to develop constitutive models that can capture particular rheological mechanisms operating at specific length scales so that these models are adapted for their intended applications. Here, a novel mesoscopically-based decoupled invariant-based continuum constitutive framework for transversely isotropic and orthotropic biological soft tissues is developed. A notable feature of the formulation is the full decoupling of shear interactions. The constitutive model is based on a combination of the framework proposed by Lu and Zhang [Lu, J., Zhang, L., 2005. Physically motivated invariant formulation for transversely isotropic hyperelasticity. International Journal of Solids and Structures 42, 6015-6031] and the entropic mechanics of tropocollagen molecules and collagen assemblies. One of the key aspects of the formulation is to use physically-based nanoscopic quantities that could be extracted from experiments and/or atomistic/molecular dynamics simulations to inform the macroscopic constitutive behaviour. This effectively couples the material properties at different levels of the multi-scale hierarchical structure of collagenous tissues. The orthotropic hyperelastic model was shown to reproduce very well the experimental multi-axial properties of rabbit skin. A new insight into the shear response of a skin sample subjected to a simulated indentation test was obtained using numerical direct sensitivity analyses.
Dwivedi, Vibha; Anandan, E. M.; Mony, Rajesh S.; Muraleedharan, T. S.; Valiathan, M. S.; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Lakhotia, Subhash C.
2012-01-01
Background Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their “active” components as is done in most current studies. Methods We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay. Results A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity. Conclusions The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular
Formulation of human-structure interaction system models for vertical vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caprani, Colin C.; Ahmadi, Ehsan
2016-09-01
In this paper, human-structure interaction system models for vibration in the vertical direction are considered. This work assembles various moving load models from the literature and proposes extension of the single pedestrian to a crowd of pedestrians for the FE formulation for crowd-structure interaction systems. The walking pedestrian vertical force is represented as a general time-dependent force, and the pedestrian is in turn modelled as moving force, moving mass, and moving spring-mass-damper. The arbitrary beam structure is modelled using either a formulation in modal coordinates or finite elements. In each case, the human-structure interaction (HSI) system is first formulated for a single walking pedestrian and then extended to consider a crowd of pedestrians. Finally, example applications for single pedestrian and crowd loading scenarios are examined. It is shown how the models can be used to quantify the interaction between the crowd and bridge structure. This work should find use for the evaluation of existing and new footbridges.
Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A.
2006-01-01
In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.
A new pressure formulation for gas-compressibility dampening in bubble dynamics models.
Gadi Man, Yezaz Ahmed; Trujillo, Francisco J
2016-09-01
We formulated a pressure equation for bubbles performing nonlinear radial oscillations under ultrasonic high pressure amplitudes. The proposed equation corrects the gas pressure at the gas-liquid interface on inertial bubbles. This pressure formulation, expressed in terms of gas-Mach number, accounts for dampening due to gas compressibility during the violent collapse of cavitation bubbles and during subsequent rebounds. We refer to this as inhomogeneous pressure, where the gas pressure at the gas-liquid interface can differ to the pressure at the centre of the bubble, in contrast to homogenous pressure formulations that consider that pressure inside the bubble is spatially uniform from the wall to the centre. The pressure correction was applied to two bubble dynamic models: the incompressible Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the compressible Keller and Miksis equation. This improved the predictions of the nonlinear radial motion of the bubble vs time obtained with both models. Those simulations were also compared with other bubble dynamics models that account for liquid and gas compressibility effects. It was found that our corrected models are in closer agreement with experimental data than alternative models. It was concluded that the Rayleigh-Plesset family of equations improve accuracy by using our proposed pressure correction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coradeschi, Francesco; de Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele
2010-07-01
We consider the continuum limit of a moose model corresponding to a generalization to N sites of the degenerate BESS model. The five-dimensional formulation emerging in this limit is a realization of a RS1 type model with SU(2)L⊗SU(2)R in the bulk, broken by boundary conditions and a vacuum expectation value on the infrared brane. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived by means of the holographic technique and corresponding bounds on the model parameters are obtained.
Coradeschi, Francesco; De Curtis, Stefania; Dominici, Daniele
2010-07-01
We consider the continuum limit of a moose model corresponding to a generalization to N sites of the degenerate BESS model. The five-dimensional formulation emerging in this limit is a realization of a RS1 type model with SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} in the bulk, broken by boundary conditions and a vacuum expectation value on the infrared brane. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is derived by means of the holographic technique and corresponding bounds on the model parameters are obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghimi, Saeed; Klingbeil, Knut; Gräwe, Ulf; Burchard, Hans
2013-10-01
In this study a model system consisting of the three-dimensional General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) and the third generation wind wave model SWAN was developed. Both models were coupled in two-way mode. The effects of waves were included into the ocean model by implementing the depth-dependent Radiation stress formulation (RS) of Mellor (2011a) and the Vortex force formulation (VF) presented by Bennis et al. (2011). Thus, the developed model system offers a direct comparison of these two formulations. The enhancement of the vertical eddy viscosity due to the energy transfer by white capping and breaking waves was taken into account by means of injecting turbulent kinetic energy at the surface. Wave-current interaction inside the bottom boundary layer was considered as well. The implementation of both wave-averaged formulations was validated against three flume experiments. One of these experiments with long period surface waves (swell), had not been evaluated before. The validation showed the capability of the model system to reproduce the three-dimensional interaction of waves and currents. For the flume test cases the wave-induced water level changes (wave set-up and set-down) and the corresponding depth-integrated wave-averaged velocities were similar for RS and VF. Both formulations produced comparable velocity profiles for short period waves. However, for large period waves, VF overestimated the wave set-down near the main breaking points and RS showed artificial offshore-directed transport at the surface where wave shoaling was taking place. Finally the validated model system was applied to a realistic barred beach scenario. For RS and VF the resulting velocity profiles were similar after being significantly improved by a roller evolution method. Both wave-averaged formulations generally provided similar results, but some shortcomings were revealed. Although VF partly showed significant deviations from the measurements, its results were still physically
Polster, Christopher S; Wu, Sy-Juen; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Sperry, David C
2015-04-06
An artificial stomach duodenum (ASD) model has been used to demonstrate the performance difference between two formulations of LY2300559, a low-solubility acidic developmental drug. The two formulations investigated were a conventional high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) formulation and a solid dispersion formulation. A pharmacokinetic study in humans demonstrated the enhanced performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation. The Cmax and AUC of the solid dispersion was 2.6 and 1.9 times greater, respectively, compared to the HSWG formulation. In the ASD, the solid dispersion formulation performance was characterized by three main phases: (1) rapid release in the stomach, creating a supersaturated concentration of drug, (2) precipitation in the stomach, and (3) rapid redissolution of the precipitate in the duodenum to concentration levels that are supersaturated relative to crystalline drug. A series of complementary experiments were employed to describe this performance behavior mechanistically. Imaging experiments with a pH indicating dye showed that local pH gradients from meglumine in the solid dispersion formulation were responsible for creating a high initial supersaturation concentration in the stomach. Upon dissipation of meglumine, the drug precipitated in the stomach as an amorphous solid. Because the precipitated drug is in an amorphous form, it can then rapidly redissolve as it transits to the more neutral environment of the duodenum. This unexpected sequence of physical state changes gives a mechanistic explanation for the enhanced in vivo performance of the solid dispersion formulation relative to the HSWG formulation.
Johnson, Richard; Jiskoot, Wim
2012-10-01
An immune response to a therapeutic protein that compromises the biopharmaceutical activity or cross-reacts with an endogenous protein is a serious clinical event. The role of protein aggregates and particles in biopharmaceutical formulations in mediating this immune response has gained considerable attention over the recent past. Model systems that could consistently and reliably predict the relative immunogenicity of biopharmaceutical protein formulations would be extremely valuable. Several approaches have been developed in an attempt to provide this insight, including in silico algorithms, in vitro tests utilizing human leukocytes and in vivo animal models. This commentary provides an update of these various approaches as well as the author's perspectives on the pros and cons of these different methods.
Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas
2014-02-01
We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications.
Gesquiere, Ina; Darwich, Adam S; Van der Schueren, Bart; de Hoon, Jan; Lannoo, Matthias; Matthys, Christophe; Rostami, Amin; Foulon, Veerle; Augustijns, Patrick
2015-01-01
Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the disposition of metoprolol after oral administration of an immediate and controlled-release formulation before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in the same individuals and to validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for predicting oral bioavailability following RYGB. Methods A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of metoprolol tartrate 200 mg immediate release and controlled release was performed in 14 volunteers before and 6–8 months after RYGB. The observed data were compared with predicted results from the PBPK modelling and simulation of metoprolol tartrate immediate and controlled-release formulation before and after RYGB. Results After administration of metoprolol immediate and controlled release, no statistically significant difference in the observed area under the curve (AUC0–24 h) was shown, although a tendency towards an increased oral exposure could be observed as the AUC0–24 h was 32.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36, 63.5] and 55.9% (95% CI 5.73, 106) higher following RYGB for the immediate and controlled-release formulation, respectively. This could be explained by surgery-related weight loss and a reduced presystemic biotransformation in the proximal gastrointestinal tract. The PBPK values predicted by modelling and simulation were similar to the observed data, confirming its validity. Conclusions The disposition of metoprolol from an immediate-release and a controlled-release formulation was not significantly altered after RYGB; there was a tendency to an increase, which was also predicted by PBPK modelling and simulation. PMID:25917170
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torian, J. G.
1977-01-01
Consumables models required for the mission planning and scheduling function are formulated. The relation of the models to prelaunch, onboard, ground support, and postmission functions for the space transportation systems is established. Analytical models consisting of an orbiter planning processor with consumables data base is developed. A method of recognizing potential constraint violations in both the planning and flight operations functions, and a flight data file storage/retrieval of information over an extended period which interfaces with a flight operations processor for monitoring of the actual flights is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koster, Rindal D.; Milly, P. C. D.
1997-01-01
The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) has shown that different land surface models (LSMS) driven by the same meteorological forcing can produce markedly different surface energy and water budgets, even when certain critical aspects of the LSMs (vegetation cover, albedo, turbulent drag coefficient, and snow cover) are carefully controlled. To help explain these differences, the authors devised a monthly water balance model that successfully reproduces the annual and seasonal water balances of the different PILPS schemes. Analysis of this model leads to the identification of two quantities that characterize an LSM's formulation of soil water balance dynamics: (1) the efficiency of the soil's evaporation sink integrated over the active soil moisture range, and (2) the fraction of this range over which runoff is generated. Regardless of the LSM's complexity, the combination of these two derived parameters with rates of interception loss, potential evaporation, and precipitation provides a reasonable estimate for the LSM's simulated annual water balance. The two derived parameters shed light on how evaporation and runoff formulations interact in an LSM, and the analysis as a whole underscores the need for compatibility in these formulations.
Koster, R.D.; Milly, P.C.D.
1997-01-01
The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) has shown that different land surface models (LSMs) driven by the same meteorological forcing can produce markedly different surface energy and water budgets, even when certain critical aspects of the LSMs (vegetation cover, albedo, turbulent drag coefficient, and snowcover) are carefully controlled. To help explain these differences, the authors devised a monthly water balance model that successfully reproduces the annual and seasonal water balances of the different PILPS schemes. Analysis of this model leads to the identification of two quantities that characterize an LSM's formulation of soil water balance dynamics: 1) the efficiency of the soil's evaporation sink integrated over the active soil moisture range, and 2) the fraction of this range over which runoff is generated. Regardless of the LSM's complexity, the combination of these two derived parameters with rates of interception loss, potential evaporation, and precipitation provides a reasonable estimate for the LSM's simulated annual water balance. The two derived parameters shed light on how evaporation and runoff formulations interact in an LSM, and the analysis as a whole underscores the need for compatibility in these formulations.
Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population. PMID:20830213
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suarez, M. J.; Arakawa, A.; Randall, D. A.
1983-01-01
A planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization for general circulation models (GCMs) is presented. It uses a mixed-layer approach in which the PBL is assumed to be capped by discontinuities in the mean vertical profiles. Both clear and cloud-topped boundary layers are parameterized. Particular emphasis is placed on the formulation of the coupling between the PBL and both the free atmosphere and cumulus convection. For this purpose a modified sigma-coordinate is introduced in which the PBL top and the lower boundary are both coordinate surfaces. The use of a bulk PBL formulation with this coordinate is extensively discussed. Results are presented from a July simulation produced by the UCLA GCM. PBL-related variables are shown, to illustrate the various regimes the parameterization is capable of simulating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quadri, Andrea
2006-03-01
We elucidate the geometry of the polynomial formulation of the non-Abelian Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that a natural off-shell nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) differential exists allowing to implement the constraint on the σ field by means of BRST techniques. This is achieved by extending the ghost sector by an additional U(1) factor (Abelian embedding). An important consequence is that a further BRST-invariant but not gauge-invariant mass term can be written for the non-Abelian gauge fields. As all versions of the Stueckelberg theory, also the Abelian embedding formulation yields a nonpower-counting renormalizable theory in D=4. We then derive its natural power-counting renormalizable extension and show that the physical spectrum contains a physical massive scalar particle. Physical unitarity is also established. This model implements the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Abelian embedding formalism.
Early Formulation Model-centric Engineering on NASA's Europa Mission Concept Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Todd; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, Ivair; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, David
2012-01-01
The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter missions were formulated using current state-of-the-art MBSE facilities: - JPL's TeamX, Rapid Mission Architecting - ESA's Concurrent Design Facility - APL's ACE Concurrent Engineering Facility. When JEO became an official "pre-project" in Sep 2010, we had already developed a strong partnership with JPL's Integrated Model Centric Engineering (IMCE) initiative; decided to apply Architecting and SysML-based MBSE from the beginning, begun laying these foundations to support work in Phase A. Release of Planetary Science Decadal Survey and FY12 President's Budget in March 2011 changed the landscape. JEO reverted to being a pre-phase A study. A conscious choice was made to continue application of MBSE on the Europa Study, refocused for early formulation. This presentation describes the approach, results, and lessons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alsaleh, Mustafa I.; Voyiadjis, George Z.; Alshibli, Khalid A.
2006-12-01
It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright
Early Formulation Model-centric Engineering on Nasa's Europa Mission Concept Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Todd; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, David
2012-01-01
By leveraging the existing Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) infrastructure at JPL and adding a modest investment, the Europa Mission Concept Study made striking advances in mission concept capture and analysis. This effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting and successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of system modeling to mission architecting. It clearly demonstrated that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional systems engineering methods. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Jackman, Charles; Fleming, Eric; Considine, David; Kinnison, Douglas; Connell, Peter; Rotman, Douglas
1998-01-01
The summary are: (1) Some chemical differences in background atmosphere are surprisingly large (NOY). (2) Differences in model transport explain a majority of the intertnodel differences in the absence of PSCs. (3) With PSCS, large differences exist in predicted O3 depletion between models with the same transport. (4) AER/LLNL model calculates more O3 depletion in NH than LLNL. (5) AER/GSFC model cannot match calculated O3 depletion of GSFC model in SH. and (6) Results sensitive to interannual temperature variations (at least in NH).
An energetic formulation of a one-dimensional model of superelastic SMA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Kim
2014-03-01
This paper presents an energetic framework for the study of the macroscopic evolution of shape memory alloys (SMA) with softening behavior. It is written for a class of standard rate-independent materials with an internal variable derived from the Drucker-Ilyushin work property. This one-dimensional model is defined by three material functions of the internal variable and one material parameter. The quasi-static evolution is formulated for a one-dimensional bar under traction and is based on two physical principles: a stability criterion which consists in selecting the local minima of the total energy and an energy balance condition which requires the absolute continuity of the total energy. The stability criterion aims to overcome the non-uniqueness issue associated with the intrinsic softening character of SMA while the energy balance condition accounts for evolutions even with possible time discontinuities. While being consistent with the classical Kuhn-Tucker formulation of the phase transformations, such energetic formulation proved to be more suitable than this latter for the study of stress-softening SMA. Both homogeneous and non-homogenous solutions are investigated with respect to this variational evolution problem. Specifically, we show the instability of the homogeneous states for softening materials and construct, in this latter case, a non-homogeneous stable evolution that follows a transformation stress line which corresponds to the Maxwell line of the softening intrinsic behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toro, S.; Sánchez, P. J.; Podestá, J. M.; Blanco, P. J.; Huespe, A. E.; Feijóo, R. A.
2016-10-01
The paper describes the computational aspects and numerical implementation of a two-scale cohesive surface methodology developed for analyzing fracture in heterogeneous materials with complex micro-structures. This approach can be categorized as a semi-concurrent model using the representative volume element concept. A variational multi-scale formulation of the methodology has been previously presented by the authors. Subsequently, the formulation has been generalized and improved in two aspects: (i) cohesive surfaces have been introduced at both scales of analysis, they are modeled with a strong discontinuity kinematics (new equations describing the insertion of the macro-scale strains, into the micro-scale and the posterior homogenization procedure have been considered); (ii) the computational procedure and numerical implementation have been adapted for this formulation. The first point has been presented elsewhere, and it is summarized here. Instead, the main objective of this paper is to address a rather detailed presentation of the second point. Finite element techniques for modeling cohesive surfaces at both scales of analysis (FE^2 approach) are described: (i) finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities are used for the macro-scale simulation, and (ii) continuum-type finite elements with high aspect ratios, mimicking cohesive surfaces, are adopted for simulating the failure mechanisms at the micro-scale. The methodology is validated through numerical simulation of a quasi-brittle concrete fracture problem. The proposed multi-scale model is capable of unveiling the mechanisms that lead from the material degradation phenomenon at the meso-structural level to the activation and propagation of cohesive surfaces at the structural scale.
Boucher, Laurel
2013-07-01
A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)
Schunk, Peter Randall; Cairncross, Richard A.; Madasu, S.
2004-03-01
This report summarizes research advances pursued with award funding issued by the DOE to Drexel University through the Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) program. Professor Rich Cairncross was the recipient of this award in 1997. With it he pursued two related research topics under Sandia's guidance that address the outstanding issue of fluid-structural interactions of liquids with deformable solid materials, focusing mainly on the ubiquitous dynamic wetting problem. The project focus in the first four years was aimed at deriving a predictive numerical modeling approach for the motion of the dynamic contact line on a deformable substrate. A formulation of physical model equations was derived in the context of the Galerkin finite element method in an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The formulation was successfully integrated in Sandia's Goma finite element code and tested on several technologically important thin-film coating problems. The model equations, the finite-element implementation, and results from several applications are given in this report. In the last year of the five-year project the same physical concepts were extended towards the problem of capillary imbibition in deformable porous media. A synopsis of this preliminary modeling and experimental effort is also discussed.
Maness, Michael; Cirillo, Cinzia
2016-11-01
The current state-of-the-art in social influence models of travel behavior is conformity models with direct benefit social influence effects. Indirect effects have seen limited development, but this paper presents a latent class discrete choice model of an indirect informational conformity hypothesis. Moreover, class membership depends on the proportion of group members who adopt a behavior. Membership into the more informed class causes changes in the preferences of those individuals thus making adoption more attractive. Equilibrium properties are derived for this model showing the possibility of multiple equilibria but under different conditions than the direct-benefit formulations. Social influence elasticity is derivedmore » for both models types. The informational conformity model can represent non-linear elasticity behavior unlike the direct-benefit formulation. Additionally, a two-stage control function is developed to obtain consistent parameter estimates in the presence of an endogenous class membership model covariate that is correlated with choice model unobservables. A case study to study social influence in bicycle ownership in the United States is presented. Our results showed that more informed households had a greater chance of owning a bike due to preference changes with less sensitivity to smaller home footprints and limited incomes. The behavioral hypothesis of positive preference change due to information transfer was confirmed. Observed ownership share closely matched predicted local-level equilibrium in some metropolitan areas but was unable to achieve expected prediction rate within confidence intervals. Finally, the elasticity of social influence was found to range locally from about 0.5% to 1.0%.« less
Maness, Michael; Cirillo, Cinzia
2016-11-01
The current state-of-the-art in social influence models of travel behavior is conformity models with direct benefit social influence effects. Indirect effects have seen limited development, but this paper presents a latent class discrete choice model of an indirect informational conformity hypothesis. Moreover, class membership depends on the proportion of group members who adopt a behavior. Membership into the more informed class causes changes in the preferences of those individuals thus making adoption more attractive. Equilibrium properties are derived for this model showing the possibility of multiple equilibria but under different conditions than the direct-benefit formulations. Social influence elasticity is derived for both models types. The informational conformity model can represent non-linear elasticity behavior unlike the direct-benefit formulation. Additionally, a two-stage control function is developed to obtain consistent parameter estimates in the presence of an endogenous class membership model covariate that is correlated with choice model unobservables. A case study to study social influence in bicycle ownership in the United States is presented. Our results showed that more informed households had a greater chance of owning a bike due to preference changes with less sensitivity to smaller home footprints and limited incomes. The behavioral hypothesis of positive preference change due to information transfer was confirmed. Observed ownership share closely matched predicted local-level equilibrium in some metropolitan areas but was unable to achieve expected prediction rate within confidence intervals. Finally, the elasticity of social influence was found to range locally from about 0.5% to 1.0%.
Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Ghosh, Avijit; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin
2016-11-01
A new minimal Segmented Transit and Absorption model (mSAT) model has been recently proposed and combined with intrinsic intestinal effective permeability (P eff,int ) to predict the regional gastrointestinal (GI) absorption (f abs ) of several drugs. Herein, this model was extended and applied for the prediction of oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin and its enantiomers to provide a mechanistic explanation of the higher relative bioavailability observed for oxybutynin's modified-release OROS® formulation compared to its immediate-release (IR) counterpart. The expansion of the model involved the incorporation of mechanistic equations for the prediction of release, transit, dissolution, permeation and first-pass metabolism. The predicted pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin enantiomers after oral administration for both the IR and OROS® formulations were in close agreement with the observed data. The predicted absolute bioavailability for the IR formulation was within 5% of the observed value, and the model adequately predicted the higher relative bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation vs. the IR counterpart. From the model predictions, it can be noticed that the higher bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation was mainly attributable to differences in the intestinal availability (F G ) rather than due to a higher colonic f abs , thus confirming previous hypotheses. The predicted f abs was almost 70% lower for the OROS® formulation compared to the IR formulation, whereas the F G was almost eightfold higher than in the IR formulation. These results provide further support to the hypothesis of an increased F G as the main factor responsible for the higher bioavailability of oxybutynin's OROS® formulation vs. the IR.
A BEM formulation applied in the mechanical material modelling of viscoelastic cracked structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Hugo Luiz; Leonel, Edson Denner
2016-12-01
The present study aims at performing a mechanical analysis of 2D viscoelastic cracked structural materials using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The mesh dimensionality reduction provided by the BEM and its accuracy in representing high gradient fields make this numerical method robust to solve fracture mechanics problems. Viscoelastic models address phenomena that provide changes on the mechanical material properties along time. Well-established viscoelastic models such as Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt and Boltzmann are used in this study. The numerical viscoelastic scheme, which is based on algebraic BEM equations, utilizes the Euler method for time derivative evaluation. Therefore, the unknown variables at the structural boundary and its variations along time are determined through an ordinary linear system of equations. Moreover, time-dependent boundary conditions may be considered, which represent loading phases. The dual BEM formulation is adopted for modelling the mechanical structural behaviour of cracks bodies. Three examples are considered to illustrate the robustness of the adopted formulation. The results achieved by the BEM are in good agreement with reported data and numerical stability is observed.
A BEM formulation applied in the mechanical material modelling of viscoelastic cracked structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Hugo Luiz; Leonel, Edson Denner
2017-03-01
The present study aims at performing a mechanical analysis of 2D viscoelastic cracked structural materials using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The mesh dimensionality reduction provided by the BEM and its accuracy in representing high gradient fields make this numerical method robust to solve fracture mechanics problems. Viscoelastic models address phenomena that provide changes on the mechanical material properties along time. Well-established viscoelastic models such as Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt and Boltzmann are used in this study. The numerical viscoelastic scheme, which is based on algebraic BEM equations, utilizes the Euler method for time derivative evaluation. Therefore, the unknown variables at the structural boundary and its variations along time are determined through an ordinary linear system of equations. Moreover, time-dependent boundary conditions may be considered, which represent loading phases. The dual BEM formulation is adopted for modelling the mechanical structural behaviour of cracks bodies. Three examples are considered to illustrate the robustness of the adopted formulation. The results achieved by the BEM are in good agreement with reported data and numerical stability is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam
2016-06-01
Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biess, J. J.; Yu, Y.; Middlebrook, R. D.; Schoenfeld, A. D.
1974-01-01
A review is given of future power processing systems planned for the next 20 years, and the state-of-the-art of power processing design modeling and analysis techniques used to optimize power processing systems. A methodology of modeling and analysis of power processing equipment and systems has been formulated to fulfill future tradeoff studies and optimization requirements. Computer techniques were applied to simulate power processor performance and to optimize the design of power processing equipment. A program plan to systematically develop and apply the tools for power processing systems modeling and analysis is presented so that meaningful results can be obtained each year to aid the power processing system engineer and power processing equipment circuit designers in their conceptual and detail design and analysis tasks.
Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.
Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A
2016-07-01
A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p < 0.05). Histological analysis indicated a reduction in mast cell tryptase and chymase positive cell numbers in treated biopsies compared with untreated controls at day 7 and day 10 (p < 0.05). Determination of transdermal uptake indicated that GTCs were detected in the biopsies. This model could be adapted to study a range of different topical formulations in both normal and diseased skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietrabissa, Antonio
2011-12-01
The admission control problem can be modelled as a Markov decision process (MDP) under the average cost criterion and formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. The LP formulation is attractive in the present and future communication networks, which support an increasing number of classes of service, since it can be used to explicitly control class-level requirements, such as class blocking probabilities. On the other hand, the LP formulation suffers from scalability problems as the number C of classes increases. This article proposes a new LP formulation, which, even if it does not introduce any approximation, is much more scalable: the problem size reduction with respect to the standard LP formulation is O((C + 1)2/2 C ). Theoretical and numerical simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winckelmans, G. S.; Lund, T. S.; Carati, D.; Wray, A. A.
1996-01-01
Subgrid-scale models for Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in both the velocity-pressure and the vorticity-velocity formulations were evaluated and compared in a priori tests using spectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) databases of isotropic turbulence: 128(exp 3) DNS of forced turbulence (Re(sub(lambda))=95.8) filtered, using the sharp cutoff filter, to both 32(exp 3) and 16(exp 3) synthetic LES fields; 512(exp 3) DNS of decaying turbulence (Re(sub(Lambda))=63.5) filtered to both 64(exp 3) and 32(exp 3) LES fields. Gaussian and top-hat filters were also used with the 128(exp 3) database. Different LES models were evaluated for each formulation: eddy-viscosity models, hyper eddy-viscosity models, mixed models, and scale-similarity models. Correlations between exact versus modeled subgrid-scale quantities were measured at three levels: tensor (traceless), vector (solenoidal 'force'), and scalar (dissipation) levels, and for both cases of uniform and variable coefficient(s). Different choices for the 1/T scaling appearing in the eddy-viscosity were also evaluated. It was found that the models for the vorticity-velocity formulation produce higher correlations with the filtered DNS data than their counterpart in the velocity-pressure formulation. It was also found that the hyper eddy-viscosity model performs better than the eddy viscosity model, in both formulations.
Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.
2013-01-01
We consider an improved model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems described by mixed logical dynamical (MLD) models. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom parametrization that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on objective function weights (such as move suppression) traditionally used in MPC schemes. The controller formulation is motivated by the needs of non-traditional control applications that are suitably described by hybrid production-inventory systems. Two applications are considered in this paper: adaptive, time-varying interventions in behavioral health, and inventory management in supply chains under conditions of limited capacity. In the adaptive intervention application, a hypothetical intervention inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children, is examined. In the inventory management application, the ability of the algorithm to judiciously alter production capacity under conditions of varying demand is presented. These case studies demonstrate that MPC for hybrid systems can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions involving noise and uncertainty. PMID:24348004
Kim, Dong-Sang
2015-03-02
The legacy nuclear wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford site is planned to be separated into high-level waste and low-activity waste fractions and vitrified separately. Formulating optimized glass compositions that maximize the waste loading in glass is critical for successful and economical treatment and immobilization of nuclear wastes. Glass property-composition models have been developed and applied to formulate glass compositions for various objectives for the past several decades. The property models with associated uncertainties and combined with composition and property constraints have been used to develop preliminary glass formulation algorithms designed for vitrification process control and waste form qualification at the planned waste vitrification plant. This paper provides an overview of current status of glass property-composition models, constraints applicable to Hanford waste vitrification, and glass formulation approaches that have been developed for vitrification of hazardous and highly radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford site.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.
2008-12-01
As Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs) continue to exploit the almost unbelievable growth rate of computing resources, they are rapidly moving toward resolving nonhydrostatic mesoscale and microscale circulations, convective clouds, steep topography, and small-scale variations in land cover, soil moisture, and land-water boundaries. Many AGCMs were not originally designed for the finer scales and therefore require significant modification. For example, many models assume hydrostatic balance, represent moist convection only by means of subgrid-scale parameterization, and use a numerical formulation that would be subject to significant error with large topographic slope. A separate class of high resolution models, developed and improved since the 1970s and designed for limited area rather than global coverage, has achieved considerable sophistication in the detailed treatment of cloud dynamics and microphysics, atmosphere- surface interaction, and land surface processes. These models offer valuable techniques for high resolution global modeling. The Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM) was developed at Duke University to investigate a wide range of phenomena important to weather, climate, and the ecosystem, from global to local scales. Its formulation combines advanced techniques in both global and high resolution limited-area modeling, and introduces additional features. OLAM's dynamic core uses an unstructured global geodesic grid that permits local mesh refinement to unlimited degree. Model coordinate levels are horizontal, thus avoiding the transformation terms and numerical errors introduced by terrain-following coordinates, and topography is represented by shaved grid cells. Dynamic equations are fully compressible, finite-volume conservative, and use an explicit time-split differencing method that facilitates efficient parallelization. Physical parameterizations are largely adapted from leading high resolution models, including in particular the
Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna
2016-10-13
In this paper, a novel formulation for nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) has been proposed incorporating the extended Kalman filter (EKF) control concept using a purely data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) model based on measurements for supervisory control. The proposed scheme consists of two modules focusing on online parameter estimation based on past measurements and control estimation over control horizon based on minimizing the deviation of model output predictions from set points along the prediction horizon. An industrial case study for temperature control of a multiproduct semibatch polymerization reactor posed as a challenge problem has been considered as a test bed to apply the proposed ANN-EKFMPC strategy at supervisory level as a cascade control configuration along with proportional integral controller [ANN-EKFMPC with PI (ANN-EKFMPC-PI)]. The proposed approach is formulated incorporating all aspects of MPC including move suppression factor for control effort minimization and constraint-handling capability including terminal constraints. The nominal stability analysis and offset-free tracking capabilities of the proposed controller are proved. Its performance is evaluated by comparison with a standard MPC-based cascade control approach using the same adaptive ANN model. The ANN-EKFMPC-PI control configuration has shown better controller performance in terms of temperature tracking, smoother input profiles, as well as constraint-handling ability compared with the ANN-MPC with PI approach for two products in summer and winter. The proposed scheme is found to be versatile although it is based on a purely data-driven model with online parameter estimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Jason; Meneveau, Charles
2012-12-01
Simulating turbulent flows over objects characterized by hierarchies of length-scales poses special challenges associated with the cost of resolving small-scale elements. If these are treated as subgrid-scale elements, their effects on the resolved scales must be captured realistically. Most importantly, the associated drag forces must be parameterized. Prior work [S. Chester, C. Meneveau, and M. B. Parlange, "Modeling turbulent flow over fractal trees with renormalized numerical simulation," J. Comput. Phys. 225, 427-448 (2007), 10.1016/j.jcp.2006.12.009] proposed a technique called renormalized numerical simulation (RNS), which is applicable to objects that display scale-invariant geometric (fractal) properties. The idea of RNS is similar to that of the dynamic model used in large eddy simulation to determine model parameters for the subgrid-stress tensor model in the bulk of the flow. In RNS, drag forces from the resolved elements that are obtained during the simulation are re-scaled appropriately by determining drag coefficients that are then applied to specify the drag forces associated with the subgrid-scale elements. The technique has already been applied to model turbulent flow over a canopy of fractal trees [S. Chester, C. Meneveau, and M. B. Parlange, "Modeling turbulent flow over fractal trees with renormalized numerical simulation," J. Comput. Phys. 225, 427-448 (2007), 10.1016/j.jcp.2006.12.009], using a particular set of assumptions in evaluating the drag coefficient. In the current work we introduce a generalized framework for describing and implementing the RNS methodology. Furthermore, we describe various other possible practical implementations of RNS that differ on important, technical aspects related to (1) time averaging, (2) spatial localization, and (3) numerical representation of the drag forces. As part of this study, several RNS formulations are presented and compared. The various models are first implemented and compared in simulations of
Kesisoglou, Filippos; Chung, John; van Asperen, Judith; Heimbach, Tycho
2016-09-01
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in drug development and regulatory applications. Although most of the published examples have focused on aspects such as first-in-human (FIH) dose predictions or drug-drug interactions, several publications have highlighted the application of these models in the biopharmaceutics field and their use to inform formulation development. In this report, we present 5 case studies of use of such models in this biopharmaceutics/formulation space across different pharmaceutical companies. The case studies cover different aspects of biopharmaceutics or formulation questions including (1) prediction of absorption prior to FIH studies; (2) optimization of formulation and dissolution method post-FIH data; (3) early exploration of a modified-release formulation; (4) addressing bridging questions for late-stage formulation changes; and (5) prediction of pharmacokinetics in the fed state for a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class I drug with fasted state data. The discussion of the case studies focuses on how such models can facilitate decisions and biopharmaceutic understanding of drug candidates and the opportunities for increased use and acceptance of such models in drug development and regulatory interactions.
Reversible Discrete Event Formulation and Optimistic Parallel Execution of Vehicular Traffic Models
Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S
2009-01-01
Vehicular traffic simulations are useful in applications such as emergency planning and traffic management. High speed of traffic simulations translates to speed of response and level of resilience in those applications. Discrete event formulation of traffic flow at the level of individual vehicles affords both the flexibility of simulating complex scenarios of vehicular flow behavior as well as rapid simulation time advances. However, efficient parallel/distributed execution of the models becomes challenging due to synchronization overheads. Here, a parallel traffic simulation approach is presented that is aimed at reducing the time for simulating emergency vehicular traffic scenarios. Our approach resolves the challenges that arise in parallel execution of microscopic, vehicular-level models of traffic. We apply a reverse computation-based optimistic execution approach to address the parallel synchronization problem. This is achieved by formulating a reversible version of a discrete event model of vehicular traffic, and by utilizing this reversible model in an optimistic execution setting. Three unique aspects of this effort are: (1) exploration of optimistic simulation applied to vehicular traffic simulation (2) addressing reverse computation challenges specific to optimistic vehicular traffic simulation (3) achieving absolute (as opposed to self-relative) speedup with a sequential speed close to that of a fast, de facto standard sequential simulator for emergency traffic. The design and development of the parallel simulation system is presented, along with a performance study that demonstrates excellent sequential performance as well as parallel performance. The benefits of optimistic execution are demonstrated, including a speed up of nearly 20 on 32 processors observed on a vehicular network of over 65,000 intersections and over 13 million vehicles.
Christensen, Neil D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Hu, Jiafen; Balogh, Karla K.
2014-01-01
Current topical treatments for papillomas use ablative, cytotoxic and immunomodulating strategies and reagents. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments using different formulations has not been examined in preclinical models or clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formulation of the small molecule acyclic nucleoside, cidofovir (CDV), could lead to improved therapeutic endpoints following topical treatment of papillomas using the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)/rabbit model. Different formulations with a set dose of 1% cidofovir were tested to establish comparative data. The results demonstrated that anti-papilloma treatments with topical CDV were greatly enhanced when formulated versus unformulated. Best results were obtained with CDV formulated in cremophor, then in carbomer 940, and then in DMSO. Further studies indicated that effective formulations led to complete cures of papillomas at dilutions less than 0.3% CDV. These studies together with previous observations demonstrated that unformulated CDV under the same treatment regime required doses of 2% to achieve cures demonstrating that much less compound can be used when properly formulated. PMID:24946003
3D Higher Order Modeling in the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.
2000-01-01
Higher order divergence- and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits, in both convergence rate and accuracy, in the 2D hybrid finite element/boundary element formulation (P. Fink and D. Wilton, National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, Jan. 2000). A critical issue in achieving the potential for accuracy of the approach is the accurate evaluation of all matrix elements. These involve products of high order polynomials and, in some instances, singular Green's functions. In the 2D formulation, the use of a generalized Gaussian quadrature method was found to greatly facilitate the computation and to improve the accuracy of the boundary integral equation self-terms. In this paper, a 3D, hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases and higher order elements is presented. The improvements in convergence rate and accuracy, compared to those resulting from lower order modeling, are established. Techniques developed to facilitate the computation of the boundary integral self-terms are also shown to improve the accuracy of these terms. Finally, simple preconditioning techniques are used in conjunction with iterative solution procedures to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. In order to handle the boundary integral singularities in the 3D formulation, the parent element- either a triangle or rectangle-is subdivided into a set of sub-triangles with a common vertex at the singularity. The contribution to the integral from each of the sub-triangles is computed using the Duffy transformation to remove the singularity. This method is shown to greatly facilitate t'pe self-term computation when the bases are of higher order. In addition, the sub-triangles can be further divided to achieve near arbitrary accuracy in the self-term computation. An efficient method for subdividing the parent element is presented. The accuracy obtained using higher order bases is compared to that obtained using lower order bases when the number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makel, Darby B.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.
1990-01-01
The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolève, A.; Revil, A.; Janod, F.; Mattiuzzo, J. L.; Jardani, A.
2007-10-01
The classical formulation of the coupled hydroelectrical flow in porous media is based on a linear formulation of two coupled constitutive equations for the electrical current density and the seepage velocity of the water phase and obeying Onsager's reciprocity. This formulation shows that the streaming current density is controlled by the gradient of the fluid pressure of the water phase and a streaming current coupling coefficient that depends on the so-called zeta potential. Recently a new formulation has been introduced in which the streaming current density is directly connected to the seepage velocity of the water phase and to the excess of electrical charge per unit pore volume in the porous material. The advantages of this formulation are numerous. First this new formulation is more intuitive not only in terms of establishing a constitutive equation for the generalized Ohm's law but also in specifying boundary conditions for the influence of the flow field upon the streaming potential. With the new formulation, the streaming potential coupling coefficient shows a decrease of its magnitude with permeability in agreement with published results. The new formulation has been extended in the inertial laminar flow regime and to unsaturated conditions with applications to the vadose zone. This formulation is suitable to model self-potential signals in the field. We investigate infiltration of water from an agricultural ditch, vertical infiltration of water into a sinkhole, and preferential horizontal flow of ground water in a paleochannel. For the three cases reported in the present study, a good match is obtained between finite element simulations performed and field observations. Thus, this formulation could be useful for the inverse mapping of the geometry of groundwater flow from self-potential field measurements.
A robust anisotropic hyperelastic formulation for the modelling of soft tissue.
Nolan, D R; Gower, A L; Destrade, M; Ogden, R W; McGarry, J P
2014-11-01
The Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model for anisotropic hyperelastic behaviour of collagen fibre reinforced materials was initially developed to describe the elastic properties of arterial tissue, but is now used extensively for modelling a variety of soft biological tissues. Such materials can be regarded as incompressible, and when the incompressibility condition is adopted the strain energy Ψ of the HGO model is a function of one isotropic and two anisotropic deformation invariants. A compressible form (HGO-C model) is widely used in finite element simulations whereby the isotropic part of Ψ is decoupled into volumetric and isochoric parts and the anisotropic part of Ψ is expressed in terms of isochoric invariants. Here, by using three simple deformations (pure dilatation, pure shear and uniaxial stretch), we demonstrate that the compressible HGO-C formulation does not correctly model compressible anisotropic material behaviour, because the anisotropic component of the model is insensitive to volumetric deformation due to the use of isochoric anisotropic invariants. In order to correctly model compressible anisotropic behaviour we present a modified anisotropic (MA) model, whereby the full anisotropic invariants are used, so that a volumetric anisotropic contribution is represented. The MA model correctly predicts an anisotropic response to hydrostatic tensile loading, whereby a sphere deforms into an ellipsoid. It also computes the correct anisotropic stress state for pure shear and uniaxial deformations. To look at more practical applications, we developed a finite element user-defined material subroutine for the simulation of stent deployment in a slightly compressible artery. Significantly higher stress triaxiality and arterial compliance are computed when the full anisotropic invariants are used (MA model) instead of the isochoric form (HGO-C model).
Siafaka, Panoraia I; Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Lazaridou, Maria; Papageorgiou, George Z; Koutris, Efthimios; Karavas, Evangelos; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N
2015-08-01
In the present study a series of biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(propylene glutarate) (PCL/PPGlu) polymer blends were investigated as controlled release carriers of Risperidone drug (RISP), appropriate for transdermal drug delivery. The PCL/PPGlu carriers were prepared in different weight ratios. Miscibility studies of blends were evaluated through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Hydrolysis studies were performed at 37°C using a phosphate buffered saline solution. The prepared blends have been used for the preparation of RISP patches via solvent evaporation method, containing 5, 10 and 15wt% RISP. These formulations were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC and WAXD in order to evaluate interactions taking place between polymer matrix and drug, as well as the dispersion and the physical state of the drug inside the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release studies were performed using as dissolution medium phosphate buffered saline simulating body fluids. It was found that in all cases controlled release formulations were obtained, while the RISP release varies due to the properties of the used polymer blend and the different levels of drug loading. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used for dissolution behaviour modelling showing increased correlation efficacy compared to Multi-Linear-Regression (MLR).
Corcelli, S.A.; Kress, J.D.; Pratt, L.R.
1995-08-07
This paper develops and characterizes mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models. We give an example, the Ca{sup ++}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sup {minus}} pair potential of mean force in aqueous solution, for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is difficult and, thus for which mixed direct-iterative methods seem necessary to obtain the required high resolution. For the simplest such formulations, Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the non-symmetric iteration matrix. This establishes that those divergences are due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations used in evaluation of the matrix elements corresponding to accidental close encounters of boundary elements on different atomic spheres. The spectral radii are then greater than one for those diverging cases. This problem is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those cases performing an ``in-line`` Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. These difficulties are not expected and have not been observed for the thoroughly coarsened equations obtained when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of hybrid quantum-classical methods to deprotonation of orthosilicic acid in water.
Silverman, Morton M
2014-09-01
Suicide and other suicidal behaviors are often associated with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctions. Therefore, psychiatrists have significant opportunities to identify at-risk individuals and offer treatment to reduce that risk. Although a suicide risk assessment is a core competency requirement, many clinical psychiatrists lack the requisite training and skills to appropriately assess for suicide risk. Moreover, the standard of care requires psychiatrists to foresee the possibility that a patient might engage in suicidal behavior, hence to conduct a suicide risk formulation sufficient to guide triage and treatment planning. Based on data collected via a suicide risk assessment, a suicide risk formulation is a process whereby the psychiatrist forms a judgment about a patient's foreseeable risk of suicidal behavior in order to inform triage decisions, safety and treatment planning, and interventions to reduce risk. This paper addresses the components of this process in the context of the model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient developed at the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 19 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center by Wortzel et al.
A multibody motorcycle model with rigid-ring tyres: formulation and validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonelli, Luca; Mancinelli, Nicolò
2015-06-01
The aim of this paper is the development and validation of a three-dimensional multibody motorcycle model including a rigid-ring tyre model, taking into account both the slopes and elevation of the road surface. In order to achieve accurate assessment of ride and handling performances of a road racing motorcycle, a tyre model capable of reproducing the dynamic response to actual road excitation is required. While a number of vehicle models with such feature are available for car application, the extension to the motorcycle modelling has not been addressed yet. To do so, a novel parametrisation for the general motorcycle kinematics is proposed, using a mixed reference point and relative coordinates approach. The resulting description, developed in terms of dependent coordinates, makes it possible to include the rigid-ring kinematics as well as road elevation and slopes, without affecting computational efficiency. The equations of motion for the whole multibody system are derived symbolically and the constraint equations arising from the dependent coordinate formulation are handled using the position and velocity vector projection technique. The resulting system of equations is integrated in time domain using a standard ordinary differential equation (ODE) algorithm. Finally, the model is validated with respect to experimentally measured data in both time and frequency domains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Angbo; Mi, Yongli
2013-01-01
The phenomenological antitrapping phase-field model has attained much success in describing alloy solidification. The heuristically introduced antitrapping current enables removing artificial effects due to the use of large interfacial width. Nevertheless, such a model is not thermodynamically consistent and has not been fitted into a variational framework. Here we present two approaches to develop a variational phase-field model to describe patten formation in alloys. Following the principles of linear irreversible thermodynamics we build in the cross-coupling between the phase transition rate and solute diffusion current. Our formulation not only naturally incorporates the antitrapping current but also predicts the conjugated mesoscopic solute drag effect. A more general form of the antitrapping current is obtained by thin-interface analysis. Benchmark simulations on isothermal dendrite growth are carried out to show the capability of our model to quantitatively characterize the interface evolution and solute profile even with a large interface width used. Importantly, our theory also provides general insights on how to obtain the genuine dynamic coupling between nonconserved and conserved order parameters. This leads to a thermodynamically consistent generalization of the celebrated model C proposed by Hohenberg and Halperin [Rev. Mod. Phys.0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.49.435 49, 435 (1977)].
Morris, Melody K.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.
2012-01-01
Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms. PMID:23226239
Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G
2012-01-01
Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.
Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Thippeswamy, Agadi HireMath; Baig, Mirza Rizwan; Kavya, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv; Shyam, Ramakrishnan
2014-01-01
Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated. In the first set, extravasation of EB dye, TNF-α, IL-6, and rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was determined. In the second set, severity of score, RAC, and histopathology were evaluated. Results. The elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and extravasations of EB dye were decreased with the Pilex treatment. The cytoarchitecture of rectoanal portion of the animals treated with Pilex was near to normal. Conclusion. The improved experimental model of hemorrhoid is useful in quantifying the inflammatory exudates and extent of inflammation. In this improved experimental model Pilex showed antihemorrhoidal activity, which further validates its clinical usage. PMID:25006493
Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L.
1995-09-01
The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.
Efficient formulation of scale separation for multi-scale modeling of interfacial flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, J.; Hu, X. Y.; Adams, N. A.
2016-03-01
We propose an efficient formulation of the scale-separation approach which has been developed by Han et al. [10] for multi-scale sharp interface modeling of multi-phase flows based on the level-set technique. Instead of shifting the entire level-set field twice as in the original method, the improved method identifies the non-resolved interface structures from two auxiliary level-sets close to the interface. Non-resolved structures are separated from the interface by a localized re-distancing method, which increases the computational efficiency considerably compared to the original global reinitialization procedure. Several tests for two-phase flow problems, involving simple and complex interface structures, are carried out to show that the present method maintains sharper interface structures than the original method, and achieves effective scale-separation.
Mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of dielectric solvation models.
Corcelli, S A; Kress, J D; Pratt, L R; Tawa, G J
1996-01-01
This paper describes a mixed direct-iterative method for boundary integral formulations of dielectric solvation models. We give an example for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is nontrivial and for which Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare but reproducible cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the iteration matrix. This establishes that the nonconvergence is due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations for the matrix elements for accidentally close boundary element pairs on different spheres. This difficulty is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those pairs performing an 'in-line' Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. This difficulty are not expected and have not been observed when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of these methods to deprotonation of monosilicic acid in water.
Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R
2015-01-01
A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.
Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E.; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R.
2015-01-01
A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice – orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota. PMID:25807417
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danner, Travis W.
Developing technology systems requires all manner of investment---engineering talent, prototypes, test facilities, and more. Even for simple design problems the investment can be substantial; for complex technology systems, the development costs can be staggering. The profitability of a corporation in a technology-driven industry is crucially dependent on maximizing the effectiveness of research and development investment. Decision-makers charged with allocation of this investment are forced to choose between the further evolution of existing technologies and the pursuit of revolutionary technologies. At risk on the one hand is excessive investment in an evolutionary technology which has only limited availability for further improvement. On the other hand, the pursuit of a revolutionary technology may mean abandoning momentum and the potential for substantial evolutionary improvement resulting from the years of accumulated knowledge. The informed answer to this question, evolutionary or revolutionary, requires knowledge of the expected rate of improvement and the potential a technology offers for further improvement. This research is dedicated to formulating the assessment and forecasting tools necessary to acquire this knowledge. The same physical laws and principles that enable the development and improvement of specific technologies also limit the ultimate capability of those technologies. Researchers have long used this concept as the foundation for modeling technological advancement through extrapolation by analogy to biological growth models. These models are employed to depict technology development as it asymptotically approaches limits established by the fundamental principles on which the technological approach is based. This has proven an effective and accurate approach to modeling and forecasting simple single-attribute technologies. With increased system complexity and the introduction of multiple system objectives, however, the usefulness of this
Patil, Sushant; Suryavanshi, Shital; Pathak, Sulabha; Sharma, Shobhona; Patravale, Vandana
2013-10-15
The present investigation aims at formulating lipid based drug delivery system of β-Artemether and Lumefantrine and comparative pharmacological evaluation with innovator formulation. Commercial modified oil and indigenous natural fatty acids comprised the oily phase in developing lipidic formulation of β-Artemether and Lumefantrine. The developed system was characterized for mean globule size, stability by freeze thaw cycles, and birefringence. Developed formulation and innovator formulation were compared for their in vivo anti-malarial activity at different dose levels in male Swiss mice, infected with lethal ANKA strain of Plasmodium berghei. The percent parasitemia, activity against time and animal survival period were examined. On fourth day of antimalarial studies, at normal and ½ dose levels, formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia while control showed 33.92±6.00% parasitemia. At 1/10 dose level, developed and innovator formulations revealed zero percent parasitemia upto 11th day, however, three mice from innovator formulation demonstrated recrudescence after 12th day. Both the formulations at normal dose and ½ dose levels showed 100% activity and survival whereas at 1/10 dose level, innovator formulation showed, 62.5% survival. The developed lipidic system of β-Artemether and Lumefantrine exhibited excellent antimalarial activity with 100% survival.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karani, H.; Huber, C.
2014-12-01
Modeling heat transfer in porous media has numerous industrial and biological applications. Natural porous structures which can be found in many geological and biological systems are complex and generally heterogeneous over a wide range of length scales. The ability of multicomponent media to transfer heat at the continuum scale depends directly on the transport of heat through interfaces between the different constituents. Therefore constraining heat and also mass balance at a macroscopic level depends on the development of quantitative models that account for the processes occurring at smaller scales. Consequently, one needs to deal with several temporal and spatial scales which makes modeling of transport phenomena a complicated task. In the present study, we first investigate thermal transport in natural heterogeneous structures at the discrete scale. We introduce a new and simple lattice Boltzmann formulation which handles conjugate thermal boundary conditions at interfaces between two phases/components. Verification of the present interface treatment on benchmark problems confirms the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed approach. The model's implementation is independent of the interface geometry and provides a powerful method to model thermal transport in heterogeneous media with random microstructures. Because we are ultimately interested in developing macroscale (homogenized) conservation laws for heterogeneous media, we introduce a macroscopic thermal model based on variable-order (VO) time and space derivatives. The proposed thermal model maps the heterogeneities in temporal and spatial scales into the order of the fractional derivative, which allows us to steer away from a classical diffusion equation for complex heterogeneous media. We then verify the VO thermal model for benchmark problems and discuss the possible links between values of VO derivatives in the new conservation equation and microstructure through spatial correlation functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni
2010-09-01
We develop a model to describe ash aggregates in a volcanic plume. The model is based on a solution of the classical Smoluchowski equation, obtained by introducing a similarity variable and a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in an aggregate. The considered collision frequency function accounts for different mechanisms of aggregation, such as Brownian motion, ambient fluid shear, and differential sedimentation. Although model formulation is general, here only sticking efficiency related to the presence of water is considered. However, the different binding effect of liquid water and ice is discerned. The proposed approach represents a first compromise between the full description of the aggregation process and the need to decrease the computational time necessary for solving the full Smoluchowski equation. We also perform a parametric study on the main model parameters and estimate coagulation kernels and timescales of the aggregation process under simplified conditions of interest in volcanology. Further analyses and applications to real eruptions are presented in the companion paper by Folch et al.
A Method for Formulizing Disaster Evacuation Demand Curves Based on SI Model
Song, Yulei; Yan, Xuedong
2016-01-01
The prediction of evacuation demand curves is a crucial step in the disaster evacuation plan making, which directly affects the performance of the disaster evacuation. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing individual evacuation decision making (whether and when to leave) and summarize them into four kinds: individual characteristics, social influence, geographic location, and warning degree. In the view of social contagion of decision making, a method based on Susceptible-Infective (SI) model is proposed to formulize the disaster evacuation demand curves to address both social influence and other factors’ effects. The disaster event of the “Tianjin Explosions” is used as a case study to illustrate the modeling results influenced by the four factors and perform the sensitivity analyses of the key parameters of the model. Some interesting phenomena are found and discussed, which is meaningful for authorities to make specific evacuation plans. For example, due to the lower social influence in isolated communities, extra actions might be taken to accelerate evacuation process in those communities. PMID:27735875
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert
1989-01-01
In the design and analysis of robust control systems for uncertain plants, the technique of formulating what is termed an M-delta model has become widely accepted and applied in the robust control literature. The M represents the transfer function matrix M(s) of the nominal system, and delta represents an uncertainty matrix acting on M(s). The uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as structured uncertainty from parameter variations or multiple unstructured uncertainties from unmodeled dynamics and other neglected phenomena. In general, delta is a block diagonal matrix, and for real parameter variations the diagonal elements are real. As stated in the literature, this structure can always be formed for any linear interconnection of inputs, outputs, transfer functions, parameter variations, and perturbations. However, very little of the literature addresses methods for obtaining this structure, and none of this literature addresses a general methodology for obtaining a minimal M-delta model for a wide class of uncertainty. Since have a delta matrix of minimum order would improve the efficiency of structured singular value (or multivariable stability margin) computations, a method of obtaining a minimal M-delta model would be useful. A generalized method of obtaining a minimal M-delta structure for systems with real parameter variations is given.
Salloum, Maher; Knio, Omar M.
2010-06-15
A transient multidimensional reduced model is constructed for the simulation of reaction fronts in Ni/Al multilayers. The formulation is based on the generalization of earlier methodologies developed for quasi-1D axial and normal propagation, specifically by adapting the reduced formalism for atomic mixing and heat release. This approach enables us to focus on resolving the thermal front structure, whose evolution is governed by thermal diffusion and heat release. A mixed integration scheme is used for this purpose, combining an extended-stability, Runge-Kutta-Chebychev (RKC) integration of the diffusion term with exact treatment of the chemical source term. Thus, a detailed description of atomic mixing within individual layers is avoided, which enables transient modeling of the reduced equations of motion in multiple dimensions. Two-dimensional simulations are first conducted of front propagation in composites combining two bilayer periods. Results are compared with the experimental measurements of Knepper et al., which reveal that the reaction velocity can depend significantly on layering frequency. The comparison indicates that, using a concentration-dependent conductivity model, the transient 2D computations can reasonably reproduce the experimental behavior. Additional tests are performed based on 3D computations of surface initiated reactions. Comparison of computed predictions with laser ignition measurements indicates that the computations provide reasonable estimates of ignition thresholds. A detailed discussion is finally provided of potential generalizations and associated hurdles. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, José Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.
2006-10-01
This paper investigates strategies to alleviate the effects of droughts on the profitability and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. These strategies include conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater resources, and engineered improvements such as lining of irrigation canals and addition of regional pumping well capacity. A spatially distributed simulation-optimization model was developed for an irrigated system consisting of multiple surface water reservoirs and an alluvial aquifer. The simulation model consists of an agronomic component and simulators describing the hydrologic system. The physical models account for storage and flow through the reservoirs, routing through the irrigation canals, and regional groundwater flow. The agronomic model describes crop productivity as a function of irrigation quantity and salinity, and determines agricultural profit. A profit maximization problem was formulated and solved using large-scale constrained gradient-based optimization. The model was applied to a real-world conjunctive surface water/groundwater management problem in the Yaqui Valley, an irrigated agricultural region in Sonora, Mexico. The model reproduces recorded reductions in agricultural production during a historical drought. These reductions were caused by a decline in surface water availability and limited installed pumping capacity. Results indicate that the impact of the historical 8-year drought could have been significantly reduced without affecting profit in wet years by better managing surface water and groundwater resources. Namely, groundwater could have been more heavily relied upon and surface water allocation capped at a sustainable level as an operating rule. Lining the irrigation canals would have resulted in water savings of 30% of historical reservoir releases during wet years, which could have been used in subsequent drier years to increase agricultural production. The benefits of a greater reliance on groundwater pumping
Formulation of non-reflecting boundary conditions in numerical models of the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Sajal Kumar
To eliminate/minimize spurious reflections of small-scale gravity-inertia waves at the material-surface upper boundary of a numerical model of the atmosphere, an energy-absorbing sponge layer is formulated. The sponge layer is designed for forced internal gravity-inertia waves in a resting isothermal atmosphere on an f-plane. The sponge layer is introduced immediately below the material-surface upper boundary. The sponge terms appear as linear damping of the vorticity, divergence, and temperature perturbations inside the sponge layer. The damping coefficient (L) is same for all sponge terms. For small-scale gravity-inertia waves that are most effective in propagating vertical wave energy upwards, two approximate forms of L, namely L(sub 1) and L(sub 2) are derived, neither of which explicitly depend on the sign of frequency and equivalent depth, and as such either can be readily implemented into a time-dependent model. The sponge layer with the coefficient L(sub 1) is designed for a spectral model. The sponge layer with the coefficient L(sub 2), on the other hand, is designed for a finite-difference. The sponge layers in linear time-dependent models were implemented and tested. A lateral sponge layer is designed for linear one-dimensional shallow-water gravity waves. The damping terms inside the sponge layer can selectively damp the characteristic variable advected back (or reflected) into the model domain from the lateral boundary. The lateral sponge layer was implemented in a linear time-dependent model.
McCarthy, Carol A; Faisal, Waleed; O'Shea, Joseph P; Murphy, Colm; Ahern, Robert J; Ryan, Katie B; Griffin, Brendan T; Crean, Abina M
2017-01-27
Drug release from mesoporous silica systems has been widely investigated in vitro using USP Type II (paddle) dissolution apparatus. However, it is not clear if the observed enhanced in vitro dissolution can forecast drug bioavailability in vivo. In this study, the ability of different in vitro dissolution models to predict in vivo oral bioavailability in a pig model was examined. The fenofibrate-loaded mesoporous silica formulation was compared directly to a commercial reference product, Lipantil Supra®. Three in vitro dissolution methods were considered; USP Type II (paddle) apparatus, USP Type IV (flow-through cell) apparatus and a USP IV Transfer model (incorporating a SGF to FaSSIF-V2 media transfer). In silico modelling, using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling and simulation software package (Gastroplus™), to generate in vitro/in vivo relationships, was also investigated. The study demonstrates that the in vitro dissolution performance of a mesoporous silica formulation varies depending on the dissolution apparatus utilised and experimental design. The findings show that the USP IV transfer model was the best predictor of in vivo bioavailability. The USP Type II (paddle) apparatus was not effective at forecasting in vivo behaviour. This observation is likely due to hydrodynamic differences between the two apparatus and the ability of the transfer model to better simulate gastrointestinal transit. The transfer model is advantageous in forecasting in vivo behaviour for formulations which promote drug supersaturation and as a result are prone to precipitation to a more energetically favourable, less soluble form. The USP IV transfer model could prove useful in future mesoporous silica formulation development. In silico modelling has the potential to assist in this process. However, further investigation is required to overcome the limitations of the model for solubility enhancing formulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connelly, L. C.
1977-01-01
The test plan and test procedures to be used in the verification and validation of the software being implemented in the mission planning processor working model program are documented. The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. An overview of the working model is presented. Execution of the test plan will comprehensively exercise the working model software. An overview of the test plan, including a testing schedule, is presented along with the test plan for the unit, module, and system levels. The criteria used to validate the working model results for each consumables subsystem is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connelly, L. C.
1977-01-01
The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. The approach to be used in developing a working model of the mission planning processor is documented. The approach includes top-down design, structured programming techniques, and application of NASA approved software development standards. This development approach: (1) promotes cost effective software development, (2) enhances the quality and reliability of the working model, (3) encourages the sharing of the working model through a standard approach, and (4) promotes portability of the working model to other computer systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.
2013-07-01
The generalized Fermi breakup model, recently demonstrated to be formally equivalent to the statistical multifragmentation model, if the contribution of excited states is included in the state densities of the former, is implemented. Because this treatment requires application of the statistical multifragmentation model repeatedly on hot fragments until they have decayed to their ground states, it becomes extremely computationally demanding, making its application to the systems of interest extremely difficult. Based on exact recursion formulas previously developed by Chase and Mekjian to calculate statistical weights very efficiently, we present an implementation which is efficient enough to allow it to be applied to large systems at high excitation energies. Comparison with the gemini++ sequential decay code and the Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation model shows that the predictions obtained with our treatment are fairly similar to those obtained with these more traditional models.
A Regional Scale Coupled Atmosphere-Ecosystem Model: Formulation and Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvigy, D.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Albani, M.; Avissar, R.; Walko, R. L.
2004-12-01
The formulation of self-consistent and computationally efficient atmosphere-ecosystem models requires the bridging of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Disturbance events such wind-throw, fire and land-use change give rise to significant sub-grid scale heterogeneity in ecosystem structure and function at a variety scales ranging down to the the size of an individual canopy tree, far below the resolution of both climate and numerical weather prediction models. Moreover, over decadal timescales, the spatial distribution of this heterogeneity is dynamic due to the successional dynamics that follow disturbance events within ecosystems. To address this problem, we have developed the Ecosystem Demography Land Surface Model (ED-LSM), an integrated biosphere model that incorporates plant community dynamics, soil carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry and land surface biophysics. The fast timescale fluxes of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere are captured using the leaf photosynthesis and soil decomposition modules of Ecosystem Demography (ED) model coupled to a multi-leaf layer, multi-soil layer implementation of the LEAF-2 biophysical scheme. Long term changes in the biophsyical, ecological and biogeochemical structure of the ecosystem are captured using the ED model's system of size- and age-structured partial differential equations that track the changes in the vertical and horizontal heterogeneity of above and below ground ecosystem structure that result from ecosystem responses to the atmosphere that play out over years, decades and centuries. The model can be run both off-line and coupled to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which simulates both atmospheric dynamics and tracer transport of carbon dioxide. We have carried out coupled simulations of the model in temperate, tropical and boreal regions. Comparison of our results with observations from eddy-flux towers and meteorological stations highlights the models
a New, Regional-Scale Coupled Atmosphere-Ecosystem Model: Formulation and Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moorcroft, P. R.; Medvigy, D. M.; Avissar, R.; Walko, R. L.
2004-05-01
The formulation of self-consistent and computationally efficient atmosphere-ecosystem models requires the bridging of a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Disturbance events such wind-throw, fire and land-use change give rise to significant sub-grid scale heterogeneity in ecosystem structure and function at a variety scales ranging down to the the size of an individual canopy tree, far below the resolution of both climate and numerical weather prediction models. Moreover, over decadal timescales, the spatial distribution of this heterogeneity is dynamic due to the successional dynamics that follow disturbance events within ecosystems. To address this problem, we have developed the Ecosystem Demography Land Surface Model (ED-LSM), an integrated biosphere model that incorporates plant community dynamics, soil carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry and land surface biophysics. The fast timescale fluxes of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere are captured using the leaf photosynthesis and soil decomposition modules of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model coupled to a multi-leaf layer, multi-soil layer implementation of the LEAF-2 biophysical scheme. Long term changes in the biophysical, ecological and biogeochemical structure of the ecosystem are captured using the ED model's system of size- and age-structured partial differential equations that track the changes in the vertical and horizontal heterogeneity of above and below ground ecosystem structure that result from ecosystem responses to the atmosphere that play out over years, decades and centuries. The model can be run both off-line and coupled to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which simulates both atmospheric dynamics and tracer transport of carbon dioxide. We have carried out coupled simulations of the model in temperate, tropical and boreal regions. Comparison of our results with observations from eddy-flux towers and meteorological stations highlights the
Improved Stability of a Model IgG3 by DoE-Based Evaluation of Buffer Formulations
Chavez, Brittany K.; Agarabi, Cyrus D.; Read, Erik K.; Boyne II, Michael T.; Khan, Mansoor A.; Brorson, Kurt A.
2016-01-01
Formulating appropriate storage conditions for biopharmaceutical proteins is essential for ensuring their stability and thereby their purity, potency, and safety over their shelf-life. Using a model murine IgG3 produced in a bioreactor system, multiple formulation compositions were systematically explored in a DoE design to optimize the stability of a challenging antibody formulation worst case. The stability of the antibody in each buffer formulation was assessed by UV/VIS absorbance at 280 nm and 410 nm and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) to determine overall solubility, opalescence, and aggregate formation, respectively. Upon preliminary testing, acetate was eliminated as a potential storage buffer due to significant visible precipitate formation. An additional 24 full factorial DoE was performed that combined the stabilizing effect of arginine with the buffering capacity of histidine. From this final DoE, an optimized formulation of 200 mM arginine, 50 mM histidine, and 100 mM NaCl at a pH of 6.5 was identified to substantially improve stability under long-term storage conditions and after multiple freeze/thaw cycles. Thus, our data highlights the power of DoE based formulation screening approaches even for challenging monoclonal antibody molecules. PMID:27042659
Fernández, Sonsire; Fajardo, Esther M; Mandiarote, Aleida; Año, Gemma; Padrón, Maria A; Acosta, Michel; Cabrera, Rubén A; Riverón, Luis A; Álvarez, Maydelis; Blaín, Kirenia; Fariñas, Mildrey; Cardoso, Daniel; García, Luis G; Campa, Concepción; Pérez, José L
2013-01-01
Whooping cough remains a health problem despite high vaccination coverage. It has been recommended that development of new strategies provide long-lasting immunity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of proteoliposomes (PL) extracted from Bordetella pertussis as a vaccine candidate against whooping cough. The size of the B. pertussis PL was estimated to be 96.7 ± 50.9 nm by Scanning Correlation Spectroscopy and the polydispersity index was 0.268. Western blots using monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of pertussis toxin, pertactin, and fimbriae 3. The Limulus Amebocyte Lisate (LAL) assay showed endotoxin levels lower than those reported for whole cell pertussis licensed vaccines, while the Pyrogen Test indicated 75 ng/mL/Kg. The PL showed high protection capacity in mouse challenge models. There was 89.7% survival in the intracerebral challenge and total reduction of the number of CFU in the intranasal challenge. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between mice immunized with B. pertussis PL and the Cuban DTwP vaccine, whichever challenge model used. These results encouraged us to continue the development of the B. pertussis PL as a component of a new combined vaccine formulated with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids or as a booster dose for adolescents and adults.
Su, Li; Farewell, Vernon T
2013-01-01
For semi-continuous data which are a mixture of true zeros and continuously distributed positive values, the use of two-part mixed models provides a convenient modelling framework. However, deriving population-averaged (marginal) effects from such models is not always straightforward. Su et al. presented a model that provided convenient estimation of marginal effects for the logistic component of the two-part model but the specification of marginal effects for the continuous part of the model presented in that paper was based on an incorrect formulation. We present a corrected formulation and additionally explore the use of the two-part model for inferences on the overall marginal mean, which may be of more practical relevance in our application and more generally. PMID:24201470
Formulation of Water Quality Models for Streams, Lakes and Reservoirs: Modeler’s Perspective
1989-07-01
report FROM TO July 1989 82 16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Available from National Technical Information Service , 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161...Fread, D. L. 1978. "DAMBRK: The NWS Dam-Break Flood Forecasting Model," Office of Hydrology, National Weather Service , Silver Spring, MD. Funkquist...impoundments was developed by the US Department of Agriculture/ Agricultural Research Service . 33. The CE’s vertically I-D model CE-QUAL-RI
GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics
Delworth, T.L.; Broccoli, A.J.; Rosati, A.; Stouffer, R.J.; Balaji, V.; Beesley, J.A.; Cooke, W.F.; Dixon, K.W.; Dunne, J.; Dunne, K.A.; Durachta, J.W.; Findell, K.L.; Ginoux, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Gudgel, R.; Harrison, M.J.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lu, J.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Spelman, M.J.; Stern, W.F.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.; Zeng, F.; Zhang, R.
2006-01-01
The formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled climate models developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are described. The models were designed to simulate atmospheric and oceanic climate and variability from the diurnal time scale through multicentury climate change, given our computational constraints. In particular, an important goal was to use the same model for both experimental seasonal to interannual forecasting and the study of multicentury global climate change, and this goal has been achieved. Tw o versions of the coupled model are described, called CM2.0 and CM2.1. The versions differ primarily in the dynamical core used in the atmospheric component, along with the cloud tuning and some details of the land and ocean components. For both coupled models, the resolution of the land and atmospheric components is 2?? latitude ?? 2.5?? longitude; the atmospheric model has 24 vertical levels. The ocean resolution is 1?? in latitude and longitude, with meridional resolution equatorward of 30?? becoming progressively finer, such that the meridional resolution is 1/3?? at the equator. There are 50 vertical levels in the ocean, with 22 evenly spaced levels within the top 220 m. The ocean component has poles over North America and Eurasia to avoid polar filtering. Neither coupled model employs flux adjustments. The co ntrol simulations have stable, realistic climates when integrated over multiple centuries. Both models have simulations of ENSO that are substantially improved relative to previous GFDL coupled models. The CM2.0 model has been further evaluated as an ENSO forecast model and has good skill (CM2.1 has not been evaluated as an ENSO forecast model). Generally reduced temperature and salinity biases exist in CM2.1 relative to CM2.0. These reductions are associated with 1) improved simulations of surface wind stress in CM2.1 and associated changes in oceanic gyre circulations; 2) changes in cloud tuning and
A New Model for Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Halo: Formulation and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru
A model for Galactic chemical evolution, driven by supernova-induced star formation, is formulated and used to examine the nature of the Galactic halo at early epochs. In this model, new stars are formed following each supernova event, thus their abundance pattern is determined by the combination of heavy elements ejected from the supernova itself and those elements which are already present in the interstellar gas swept up by the supernova remnant. The end result is a prediction of large scatter in the abundance ratios among low-metallicity stars, reflecting a different nucleosynthesis yield for each Type II supernova (SN II) with a different progenitor mass. Formation of new stars is terminated when supernova remnants sweep up too little gas to form shells. We show from calculations based on the above scenario that (i) the observed [Fe/H] distribution for the Galactic halo field stars can be reproduced without effectively decreasing the heavy-element yields from SNe II by some manipulation required by previous models (e.g., via mass lass from the early Galaxy, or later mixing with "pristine" hydrogen clouds), (ii) the large observed scatter in the abundante ratio [Eu/Fe] for the most metal-poor stars can also be reproduced, and (iii) the frequency distribution of stars in the [Eu/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane can be predicted. Our model suggests that the probability of identifying essentially metal-free stars (Population III) in the local halo is around one in 103-4, provided that star formation in the halo is confined to individual gas clouds with mass of 10 ^{6-7} M_⊙ and that the initial mass function of metal-free stars is not significantly different from the Salpeter mass function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bielawa, Richard L.
1988-01-01
In response to a systematic methodology assessment program directed to the aeroelastic stability of hingeless helicopter rotor blades, improved basic aeroelastic reformulations and new formulations relating to structural sweep were achieved. Correlational results are presented showing the substantially improved performance of the G400 aeroelastic analysis incorporating these new formulations. The formulations pertain partly to sundry solutions to classic problem areas, relating to dynamic inflow with vortex-ring state operation and basic blade kinematics, but mostly to improved physical modeling of elastic axis offset (structural sweep) in the presence of nonlinear structural twist. Specific issues addressed are an alternate modeling of the delta EI torsional excitation due to compound bending using a force integration approach, and the detailed kinematic representation of an elastically deflected point mass of a beam with both structural sweep and nonlinear twist.
Gholami, Amir; Mang, Andreas; Biros, George
2015-01-01
We present a numerical scheme for solving a parameter estimation problem for a model of low-grade glioma growth. Our goal is to estimate the spatial distribution of tumor concentration, as well as the magnitude of anisotropic tumor diffusion. We use a constrained optimization formulation with a reaction-diffusion model that results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In our formulation, we estimate the parameters using partially observed, noisy tumor concentration data at two different time instances, along with white matter fiber directions derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The optimization problem is solved with a Gauss-Newton reduced space algorithm. We present the formulation and outline the numerical algorithms for solving the resulting equations. We test the method using synthetic dataset and compute the reconstruction error for different noise levels and detection thresholds for monofocal and multifocal test cases. PMID:25963601
Kaderli, Sema; Viguier, Eric; Watrelot-Virieux, Dorothée; Roger, Thierry; Gurny, Robert; Scapozza, Leonardo; Möller, Michael; Boulocher, Caroline; Jordan, Olivier
2015-10-01
Viscosupplementation (VS) is a therapy for osteoarthrosis (OA) consisting of repetitive intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA). It is known to be clinically effective in relieving pain and increasing joint mobility by restoring joint homeostasis. In this study, the effects of two novel HA-based VS hydrogel formulations were assessed and challenged against a pure HA commercial formulation for the first time and this in a rabbit model of early OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). The first formulation tested was a hybrid hydrogel composed of HA and reacetylated chitosan, a biopolymer considered to be chondroprotective, assembled thanks to an ionic shielding. The second formulation consisted of a novel HA polymer grafted with antioxidant molecules (HA-4AR) aiming at decreasing OA oxidative stress and increasing HA retention time in the articulation. ACLT was performed on rabbits in order to cause structural changes comparable to traumatic osteoarthrosis. The protective effects of the different formulations were observed on the early phase of the pathology in a full randomized and blinded manner. The cartilage, synovial membrane, and subchondral bone were evaluated by complementary investigation techniques such as gross morphological scoring, scanning electron microscopy, histological scoring, and micro-computed tomography were used. In this study, ACLT was proven to successfully reproduce early OA articular characteristics found in humans. HA and HA-4AR hydrogels were found to be moderately protective for cartilage as highlighted by μCT. The HA-4AR was the only formulation able to decrease synovial membrane hypertrophy occurring in OA. Finally, the hybrid HA-reacetylated chitosan hydrogel surprisingly led to increased subchondral bone remodeling and cartilage defect formation. This study shows significant effects of two innovative HA modification strategies in an OA rabbit model, which warrant further studies toward more effective
Monforti, F; Vitali, L; Bellasio, R; Bianconi, R
2006-02-21
In this paper a new approach to photochemical modeling is investigated and a lagrangian particle model named Photochemical Lagrangian Particle Model (PLPM) is described. Lagrangian particle models are a consolidated tool to deal with the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Good results have been obtained dealing with inert pollutants. In recent years, a number of pioneering works have shown as Lagrangian models can be of great interest when dealing with photochemistry, provided that special care is given in the reconstruction of chemicals concentration in the atmosphere. Density reconstruction can be performed through the so called ''box counting'' method: an Eulerian grid for chemistry is introduced and density is computed counting particles in each box. In this way one of the main advantages of the Lagrangian approach, the grid independence, is lost. Photochemical reactions are treated in PLPM by means of the complex chemical mechanism SAPRC90 and four density reconstruction methods have been developed, based on the kernel density estimator approach, in order to obtain grid-free accurate concentrations. These methods are all fully grid-free but they differ each other in considering local or global features of the particles distribution, in treating the Cartesian directions separately or together and in being based on receptors or particles positions in space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smits, Kathleen M.; Ngo, Viet V.; Cihan, Abdullah; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Illangasekare, Tissa H.
2012-12-01
Bare soil evaporation is a key process for water exchange between the land and the atmosphere and an important component of the water balance. However, there is no agreement on the best modeling methodology to determine evaporation under different atmospheric boundary conditions. Also, there is a lack of directly measured soil evaporation data for model validation to compare these methods to establish the validity of their mathematical formulations. Thus, a need exists to systematically compare evaporation estimates using existing methods to experimental observations. The goal of this work is to test different conceptual and mathematical formulations that are used to estimate evaporation from bare soils to critically investigate various formulations and surface boundary conditions. Such a comparison required the development of a numerical model that has the ability to incorporate these boundary conditions. For this model, we modified a previously developed theory that allows nonequilibrium liquid/gas phase change with gas phase vapor diffusion to better account for dry soil conditions. Precision data under well-controlled transient heat and wind boundary conditions were generated, and results from numerical simulations were compared with experimental data. Results demonstrate that the approaches based on different boundary conditions varied in their ability to capture different stages of evaporation. All approaches have benefits and limitations, and no one approach can be deemed most appropriate for every scenario. Comparisons of different formulations of the surface boundary condition validate the need for further research on heat and vapor transport processes in soil for better modeling accuracy.
Electromagnetic modeling of REBCO high field coils by the H-formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Jing; Bai, Hongyu; Lu, Jun; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Zhou, Youhe; Weijers, Hubertus W.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we employ the anisotropic bulk approximation to successfully implement the electromagnetic modeling of superconducting coils wound with rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) tapes based on the H-formulation, in which the field-dependent critical current density and highly nonlinear E-J characteristic are considered. The total number of turns in the stacks of REBCO pancake coils is up to several thousand. We validate the anisotropic bulk model by comparing the ac loss of a small four-pancake coil between the bulk model and the original model which takes the actual thickness of the superconducting layer into account. Then, the anisotropic bulk model is used to investigate the self-field problem of the REBCO prototype coils of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory 32 {{T}} all-superconducting magnet. The field and current density distributions are obtained, and an obvious shielding effect is observed at the top and bottom of the coils. The ac losses in the first and second cycles are calculated. The former is crucial to the design of the cooling system and the latter relates to the routine consumption of the liquid helium. It is found that the ac loss in the first cycle is 2.6 times as large as that in the second cycle. We also study the ac loss dependences on some key parameters (the critical current, n-value and ramp rate of the applied current). It is found that both in the first and second cycles, the ac loss increases with decreasing critical current. Moreover, the influence of the n-value on the ac loss is negligible. In addition, the ac loss decreases logarithmically with increasing ramp rate. However, the average power loss increases linearly with increasing ramp rate. We also compare some analytical estimates with the simulation result for the ac loss of the dual prototype coils. It is found that the results of Bean’s slab model are closer to the simulation result. The presented model is a useful tool to help us understand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alessi, Roberto; Pham, Kim
2016-02-01
This paper presents a variational framework for the three-dimensional macroscopic modelling of superelastic shape memory alloys in an isothermal setting. Phase transformation is accounted through a unique second order tensorial internal variable, acting as the transformation strain. Postulating the total strain energy density as the sum of a free energy and a dissipated energy, the model depends on two material scalar functions of the norm of the transformation strain and a material scalar constant. Appropriate calibration of these material functions allows to render a wide range of constitutive behaviours including stress-softening and stress-hardening. The quasi-static evolution problem of a domain is formulated in terms of two physical principles based on the total energy of the system: a stability criterion, which selects the local minima of the total energy, and an energy balance condition, which ensures the consistency of the evolution of the total energy with respect to the external loadings. The local phase transformation laws in terms of Kuhn-Tucker relations are deduced from the first-order stability condition and the energy balance condition. The response of the model is illustrated with a numerical traction-torsion test performed on a thin-walled cylinder. Evolutions of homogeneous states are given for proportional and non-proportional loadings. Influence of the stress-hardening/softening properties on the evolution of the transformation domain is emphasized. Finally, in view of an identification process, the issue of stability of homogeneous states in a multi-dimensional setting is answered based on the study of second-order derivative of the total energy. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions of stability are provided.
Eulerian formulation of the interacting particle representation model of homogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Alejandro; Duraisamy, Karthik; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2016-10-01
The Interacting Particle Representation Model (IPRM) of homogeneous turbulence incorporates information about the morphology of turbulent structures within the confines of a one-point model. In the original formulation [Kassinos and Reynolds, Center for Turbulence Research: Annual Research Briefs, 31-51 (1996)], the IPRM was developed in a Lagrangian setting by evolving second moments of velocity conditional on a given gradient vector. In the present work, the IPRM is reformulated in an Eulerian framework, and evolution equations are developed for the marginal probability density functions (PDFs). Eulerian methods avoid the issues associated with statistical estimators used by Lagrangian approaches, such as slow convergence. A specific emphasis of this work is to use the IPRM to examine the long time evolution of homogeneous turbulence. We first describe the derivation of the marginal PDF in spherical coordinates, which reduces the number of independent variables and the cost associated with Eulerian simulations of PDF models. Next, a numerical method based on radial basis functions over a spherical domain is adapted to the IPRM. Finally, results obtained with the new Eulerian solution method are thoroughly analyzed. The sensitivity of the Eulerian simulations to parameters of the numerical scheme, such as the size of the time step and the shape parameter of the radial basis functions, is examined. A comparison between Eulerian and Lagrangian simulations is performed to discern the capabilities of each of the methods. Finally, a linear stability analysis based on the eigenvalues of the discrete differential operators is carried out for both the new Eulerian solution method and the original Lagrangian approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, J. L.; Heinrich, J. C.
1990-01-01
The calculation of pressures when the penalty-function approximation is used in finite-element solutions of laminar incompressible flows is addressed. A Poisson equation for the pressure is formulated that involves third derivatives of the velocity field. The second derivatives appearing in the weak formulation of the Poisson equation are calculated from the C0 velocity approximation using a least-squares method. The present scheme is shown to be efficient, free of spurious oscillations, and accurate. Examples of applications are given and compared with results obtained using mixed formulations.
Liposomal butamben gel formulations: toxicity assays and topical anesthesia in an animal model.
Cereda, Cintia Maria Saia; Guilherme, Viviane Aparecida; Alkschbirs, Melissa Inger; de Brito Junior, Rui Barbosa; Tofoli, Giovana Radomille; Franz-Montan, Michelle; de Araujo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida
2017-03-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and the in vivo analgesic effect and local toxicity of the local anesthetic butamben (BTB) encapsulated in conventional or elastic liposomes incorporated in gel formulations. The results showed that both gel formulations of liposomal BTB reduced the cytotoxicity (p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test) and increased the topical analgesic effect (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test) of butamben, compared to plain BTB gel. The gel formulations presented good rheological properties, and stability assays detected no differences in physicochemical stability up to 30 d after preparation. Moreover, histological assessment revealed no morphological changes in rat skin after application of any of the gel formulations tested.
Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong
2011-02-01
The success of the model-based infrared reflectrometry (MBIR) technique relies heavily on accurate modeling and fast calculation of the infrared metrology process, which continues to be a challenge, especially for three-dimensional (3D) trench structures. In this paper, we present a simplified formulation for effective medium approximation (EMA), determined by a fitting-based method for the modeling of 3D trench structures. Intensive investigations have been performed with an emphasis on the generality of the fitting-determined (FD)-EMA formulation in terms of trench depth, trench pitch, and incidence angle so that its application is not limited to a particular configuration. Simulations conducted on a taper trench structure have further verified the proposed FD-EMA and demonstrated that the MBIR metrology with the FD-EMA-based model achieves an accuracy one order higher than that of the conventional zeroth-order EMA-based model.
Application of a mixing-ratios based formulation to model mixing-driven dissolution experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guadagnini, Alberto; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Saaltink, Maarten W.; Bussini, Michele; Berkowitz, Brian
2009-05-01
We address the question of how one can combine theoretical and numerical modeling approaches with limited measurements from laboratory flow cell experiments to realistically quantify salient features of complex mixing-driven multicomponent reactive transport problems in porous media. Flow cells are commonly used to examine processes affecting reactive transport through porous media, under controlled conditions. An advantage of flow cells is their suitability for relatively fast and reliable experiments, although measuring spatial distributions of a state variable within the cell is often difficult. In general, fluid is sampled only at the flow cell outlet, and concentration measurements are usually interpreted in terms of integrated reaction rates. In reactive transport problems, however, the spatial distribution of the reaction rates within the cell might be more important than the bulk integrated value. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical modeling of complex reactive transport problems [De Simoni M, Carrera J, Sanchez-Vila X, Guadagnini A. A procedure for the solution of multicomponent reactive transport problems. Water Resour Res 2005;41:W11410. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004056, De Simoni M, Sanchez-Vila X, Carrera J, Saaltink MW. A mixing ratios-based formulation for multicomponent reactive transport. Water Resour Res 2007;43:W07419. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005256] result in a methodology conducive to a simple exact expression for the space-time distribution of reaction rates in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions in chemical equilibrium. The key points of the methodology are that a general reactive transport problem, involving a relatively high number of chemical species, can be formulated in terms of a set of decoupled partial differential equations, and the amount of reactants evolving into products depends on the rate at which solutions mix. The main objective of the current study is to show how this methodology can be used in conjunction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altmeyer, Michaela; Guterding, Daniel; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Maier, Thomas A.; Valentí, Roser; Scalapino, Douglas J.
2016-12-01
In the framework of a multiorbital Hubbard model description of superconductivity, a matrix formulation of the superconducting pairing interaction that has been widely used is designed to treat spin, charge, and orbital fluctuations within a random phase approximation (RPA). In terms of Feynman diagrams, this takes into account particle-hole ladder and bubble contributions as expected. It turns out, however, that this matrix formulation also generates additional terms which have the diagrammatic structure of vertex corrections. Here we examine these terms and discuss the relationship between the matrix-RPA superconducting pairing interaction and the Feynman diagrams that it sums.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia
2017-02-01
An efficient three dimensional (3D) finite element method numerical model is proposed for superconducting coated conductors. The model is based on the T-A formulation and can be used to tackle 3D computational challenges for superconductors with high aspect ratios. By assuming a sheet approximation for the conductors, the model can speed up the computational process. The model has been validated by established analytical solutions. Two examples with complex geometries, which can hardly be simulated by the 2D model, are given. The model could be used to characterise and design large-scale applications using superconducting coated conductors, such as high field magnets and other electrical devices.
Kesisoglou, Filippos; Xia, Binfeng; Agrawal, Nancy G B
2015-11-01
In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) are predictive mathematical models describing the relationship between dissolution and plasma concentration for a given drug compound. The traditional deconvolution/convolution-based approach is the most common methodology to establish a level A IVIVC that provides point to point relationship between the in vitro dissolution and the in vivo input rate. The increasing application of absorption physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) has provided an alternative IVIVC approach. The current work established and compared two IVIVC models, via the traditional deconvolution/convolution method and via absorption PBPK modeling, for two types of modified release (MR) formulations (matrix and multi-particulate tablets) of MK-0941, a BCS III drug development candidate. Three batches with distinct release rates were studied for each formulation technology. A two-stage linear regression model was used for the deconvolution/convolution approach while optimization of the absorption scaling factors (a model parameter that relates permeability and input rate) in Gastroplus(TM) Advanced Compartmental Absorption and Transit model was used for the absorption PBPK approach. For both types of IVIVC models established, and for either the matrix or the multiparticulate formulations, the average absolute prediction errors for AUC and C max were below 10% and 15%, respectively. Both the traditional deconvolution/convolution-based and the absorption/PBPK-based level A IVIVC model adequately described the compound pharmacokinetics to guide future formulation development. This case study highlights the potential utility of absorption PBPK model to complement the traditional IVIVC approaches for MR products.
Dazel, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Becot, François-Xavier; Atalla, Noureddine
2008-04-01
This paper is devoted to the rigorous obtention of the energy balance in porous materials. The wave propagation in the porous media is described by Biot-Allard's {u,U} and {u,P} formulations. The paper derives the expressions for stored kinetic and strain energies together with dissipated energies. It is shown that, in the case of mixed formulations, these expressions do not correspond to the real and imaginary parts of the variational formulations. A quantitative convergence analysis of finite element scheme is then undertaken with the help of these indicators. It is shown that the order of convergence of these indicators for linear finite-element is one and that they are then well fitted to check the validity of finite-element models.
Mitra, Amitava; Leyes, Aquiles; Manser, Kimberly; Roadcap, Brad; Mestre, Christine; Tatosian, Daniel; Jin, Lan; Uemura, Naoto
2015-05-01
In vitro cadaver skin permeation studies are often conducted to characterize the permeation profile of compounds for dermal delivery. However, its utility could be limited in the case of topical products because of lack of reliable prediction of in vivo skin kinetics. In this paper, the use of in vivo skin biopsy data to guide topical formulation development is described. A formulation was developed by compounding MK-0873, a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, into a commercially available cream base. The cream was characterized by skin pharmacokinetic studies in minipigs, which demonstrated that MK-0873 concentrations in the epidermis and dermis were substantially higher than the IC80 for human whole blood PDE4 inhibition of ∼200 nM, suggesting that cream should provide sufficient skin exposure to assess clinical efficacy. In toxicological studies, after 1 month repeat application in minipigs minor dermal irritation and minimal systemic exposure were observed. Based on these preclinical data, the cream formulation was chosen for single rising dose clinical studies, where plasma levels of MK-0873 were mostly below the LOQ, whereas skin biopsy concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 25.1 μM. These data suggested that minipig skin biopsy model can be a valuable tool to assess performance of topical formulations and guide formulation development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinoso, J.; Paggi, M.; Linder, C.
2017-02-01
Fracture of technological thin-walled components can notably limit the performance of their corresponding engineering systems. With the aim of achieving reliable fracture predictions of thin structures, this work presents a new phase field model of brittle fracture for large deformation analysis of shells relying on a mixed enhanced assumed strain (EAS) formulation. The kinematic description of the shell body is constructed according to the solid shell concept. This enables the use of fully three-dimensional constitutive models for the material. The proposed phase field formulation integrates the use of the (EAS) method to alleviate locking pathologies, especially Poisson thickness and volumetric locking. This technique is further combined with the assumed natural strain method to efficiently derive a locking-free solid shell element. On the computational side, a fully coupled monolithic framework is consistently formulated. Specific details regarding the corresponding finite element formulation and the main aspects associated with its implementation in the general purpose packages FEAP and ABAQUS are addressed. Finally, the applicability of the current strategy is demonstrated through several numerical examples involving different loading conditions, and including linear and nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive models.
Thorvaldsen, Tom; Osnes, Harald; Sundnes, Joakim
2005-12-01
In this paper we present a mixed finite element method for modeling the passive properties of the myocardium. The passive properties are described by a non-linear, transversely isotropic, hyperelastic material model, and the myocardium is assumed to be almost incompressible. Single-field, pure displacement-based formulations are known to cause numerical difficulties when applied to incompressible or slightly compressible material cases. This paper presents an alternative approach in the form of a mixed formulation, where a separately interpolated pressure field is introduced as a primary unknown in addition to the displacement field. Moreover, a constraint term is included in the formulation to enforce (almost) incompressibility. Numerical results presented in the paper demonstrate the difficulties related to employing a pure displacement-based method, applying a set of physically relevant material parameter values for the cardiac tissue. The same problems are not experienced for the proposed mixed method. We show that the mixed formulation provides reasonable numerical results for compressible as well as nearly incompressible cases, also in situations of large fiber stretches. There is good agreement between the numerical results and the underlying analytical models.
Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin
2016-01-01
Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.
Kesisoglou, Filippos
2016-12-11
Within the last decade, Quality by Design (QbD) has been getting increased attention in its implementation in the development of pharmaceutical drug products. Understanding of the impact of formulation composition and process on clinical performance is a centerpiece of QbD. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling incorporating biorelevant dissolution and a systems parameter approach to gastrointestinal absorption has been gaining increased traction in the pharmaceutical industry as an important tool to guide early formulation development. Extension of the models to support QbD appears the next logical step. This commentary discusses the current status of use of these models in the pharmaceutical industry and the opportunities these models can offer in ensuring drug product quality moving forward, including the development of clinically relevant specifications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toyota, Kenjiro; Dastoor, Ashu P.; Ryzhkov, Andrei
2016-12-01
Turbulence controls the vertical transfer of momentum, heat and trace constituents in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the lowest 10% of this layer lies the surface boundary layer (SBL) where the vertical fluxes of transferred quantities have been successfully parameterized using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in weather forecast, climate and atmospheric chemistry models. However, there is a large degree of empiricism in the stability-correction parameterizations used to formulate eddy diffusivity and aerodynamic resistance particularly under strongly stable ambient conditions. Although the influence of uncertainties in stability-correction parameterizations on eddy diffusivity is actively studied in boundary-layer meteorological modeling, its impact on dry deposition in atmospheric chemistry modeling is not well characterized. In this study, we address this gap by providing the mathematical basis for the relationship between the formulations of vertical surface flux used in meteorological and atmospheric chemistry modeling communities, and by examining the sensitivity of the modeled dry deposition velocities in statically stable SBL to the choice of stability-correction parameterizations used in three operational and/or research environmental models (GEM/GEM-MACH, ECMWF IFS and CMAQ-MM5). Aerodynamic resistances (ra) calculated by the three sets of parameterizations are notably different from each other and are also different from those calculated by a "z-less" scaling formulation under strongly stable conditions (the bulk Richardson number > 0.2). Furthermore, we show that many atmospheric chemistry models calculate ra using formulations which are inconsistent with the derivation of micro-meteorological parameters. Finally, practical implications of the differences in stability-correction algorithms are discussed for the computations of dry deposition velocities of SO2, O3 and reactive bromine compounds for specific cases of stable SBL.
Gupta, Y K; Katyal, Jatinder; Kumar, Gajendra; Mehla, Jogender; Katiyar, C K; Sharma, Naveen; Yadav, Satpal
2009-01-01
Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of combination of herbal drugs as formulations in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into eight groups, (n = 6). Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 mice were given distilled water, group 3 was positive control and received codeine sulphate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and group 4, 5, 6, 7 received coded 1 formulations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally, while group VIII was the vehicle control. Thirty minutes later, the mice were exposed to sulphur dioxide again for 45 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts, by two independent observers, for five minutes. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough.
Lepilleur, Carole; Giovannitti-Jensen, Ann; Kyer, Carol
2013-01-01
Formulation composition has a dramatic influence on the performance of conditioning shampoos. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the performance of various cationic polymers in those systems. An experiment was conducted by varying the levels of three surfactants (sodium lauryl ether sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and cocamidopropyl betaine) in formulations containing various cationic polymers such as cationic cassia derivatives of different cationic charge densities (1.9, 2.3, and 3.0 mEq/g), cationic guar (0.98 mEq/g), and cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (1.03 mEq/g). The results show the formulation composition dramatically affects silicone and cationic polymer deposition. In particular, three parameters are of importance in determining deposition efficiency: ionic strength, surfactant (micelle) charge, and total amount of surfactant. The cationic polymer composition, molecular weight, and charge density are also important in determining which of the previous three parameters influence the performance most.
Di Remigio, Roberto; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Cornaton, Yann; Ringholm, Magnus; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Ruud, Kenneth; Frediani, Luca
2016-12-21
The study of high-order absorption properties of molecules is a field of growing importance. Quantum-chemical studies can help design chromophores with desirable characteristics. Given that most experiments are performed in solution, it is important to devise a cost-effective strategy to include solvation effects in quantum-chemical studies of these properties. We here present an open-ended formulation of self-consistent field (SCF) response theory for a molecular solute coupled to a polarizable continuum model (PCM) description of the solvent. Our formulation relies on the open-ended, density matrix-based quasienergy formulation of SCF response theory of Thorvaldsen, et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 214108] and the variational formulation of the PCM, as presented by Lipparini et al., [J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 014106]. Within the PCM approach to solvation, the mutual solute-solvent polarization is represented by means of an apparent surface charge (ASC) spread over the molecular cavity defining the solute-solvent boundary. In the variational formulation, the ASC is an independent, variational degree of freedom. This allows us to formulate response theory for molecular solutes in the fixed-cavity approximation up to arbitrary order and with arbitrary perturbation operators. For electric dipole perturbations, pole and residue analyses of the response functions naturally lead to the identification of excitation energies and transition moments. We document the implementation of this approach in the Dalton program package using a recently developed open-ended response code and the PCMSolver libraries and present results for one-, two-, three-, four- and five-photon absorption processes of three small molecules in solution.
Shahnaz, Gul; Hartl, Markus; Barthelmes, Jan; Leithner, Katharina; Sarti, Federica; Hintzen, Fabian; Rahmat, Deni; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas
2011-09-01
The aim of this study was to examine the potential of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) on the uptake of the lipophilic and poorly water soluble phenothiazines thioridazine and chlorpromazine with the isolated plasma derived chylomicron (CM) ex vivo model. The multi-component delivery systems were optimized by evaluating their ability to self-emulsify when introduced to an aqueous medium under gentle agitation. The uptake of phenothiazines by isolated plasma derived chylomicrons was investigated with short chain triglyceride (SCT) SNEDDS, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) SNEDDS, and long chain triglyceride (LCT) SNEDDS. SNEDDS were also evaluated for their stabilities, dispersibilities, percentage transmittances and by particle size analyses. For thioridazine a 5.6-fold and for chlorpromazine a 3.7-fold higher CM uptake could be observed using a LCT-SNEDDS formulation compared to the drugs without formulation. In contrast, ex vivo uptake by isolated CM was not significantly increased by SNEDDS formulations based on MCT and SCT. Compared with isolated CM, the CM sizes were increased 2.5-fold in LCT-SNEDDS, whereas in MCT-SNEDDS or SCT-SNEDDS only a small, non-significant (P<0.05) increase in CM size was observed. These results show that distinct SNEDDS formulations containing phenothiazines are efficiently uptaken by plasma derived chylomicrons ex vivo.
Ramanathan, M; Balaji, B; Justin, A
2011-04-01
Perment, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation that contains equal parts of Clitoria ternatea Linn., Withania somnifera Dun., Asparagus racemosus Linn., Bacopa monniera Linn., is used clinically as mood elevators. The aim of the present study was to explore the behavioural effects and to understand possible mode of action of Perment in stress induced depressive model. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to induce depression in rats. Open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze, social interaction and behavioural despair tests were used to assess behaviour. Using standard protocols plasma noradrenaline, serotonin, corticosterone and brain/adrenal corticosterone levels were measured to support the behavioural effects of Perment. Exposure to CUMS for 21 days caused anxiety and depression in rats, as indicated by significant decrease in locomotor activity in the open field exploratory behaviour test and increased immobility period in the behavioural despair test. Perment predominantly exhibited antidepressant action than anxiolytic activity. Further Perment increased the plasma noradrenaline and serotonin levels in stressed rats. No significant alteration in the brain corticosterone level in stressed rats was observed with Perment treatment. However the adrenal corticosterone level is decreased with Perment. It can be concluded that the Perment formulation exhibited synergistic activity, has a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity, which may be mediated through adrenergic and serotonergic system activation. Currently the formulation is clinically used as anxiolytic but the present results suggest that the formulation can also be indicated in patients affected with depression.
Ismail, Manal Fouad; ElMeshad, Aliaa Nabil; Salem, Neveen Abdel-Hameed
2013-01-01
Background To sustain the effect of rivastigmine, a hydrophilic cholinesterase inhibitor, nanobased formulations were prepared. The efficacy of the prepared rivastigmine liposomes (RLs) in comparison to rivastigmine solution (RS) was assessed in an aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced Alzheimer’s model. Methods Liposomes were prepared by lipid hydration (F1) and heating (F2) methods. Rats were treated with either RS or RLs (1 mg/kg/day) concomitantly with AlCl3 (50 mg/kg/day). Results The study showed that the F1 method produced smaller liposomes (67.51 ± 14.2 nm) than F2 (528.7 ± 15.5 nm), but both entrapped the same amount of the drug (92.1% ± 1.4%). After 6 hours, 74.2% ± 1.5% and 60.8% ± 2.3% of rivastigmine were released from F1 and F2, respectively. Both RLs and RS improved the deterioration of spatial memory induced by AlCl3, with RLs having a superior effect. Further biochemical measurements proved that RS and RLs were able to lower plasma C-reactive protein, homocysteine and asymmetric dimethy-larginine levels. RS significantly attenuated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, whereas Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity was enhanced compared to the AlCl3-treated animals; however, RLs succeeded in normalization of AChE and Na+/K+ ATPase activities. Gene-expression profile showed that cotreatment with RS to AlCl3-treated rats succeeded in exerting significant decreases in BACE1, AChE, and IL1B gene expression. Normalization of the expression of the aforementioned genes was achieved by coadministration of RLs to AlCl3-treated rats. The profound therapeutic effect of RLs over RS was evidenced by nearly preventing amyloid plaque formation, as shown in the histopathological examination of rat brain. Conclusion RLs could be a potential drug-delivery system for ameliorating Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23378761
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starc, Blaž; Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha
2017-04-01
A new numerical procedure for efficient dynamics simulations of linear-elastic systems with unilateral contacts is proposed. The method is based on the event-driven integration of a contact problem with a combination of single- and set-valued force laws together with classical model-reduction techniques. According to the contact state, the developed event-driven integration enables the formulation of reduced system matrices. Moreover, to enable the transition among different reduced spaces the formulation of the initial conditions is also presented. The method has been developed separately for each of the four most popular model-reduction techniques (Craig-Bampton, MacNeal, Rubin and dual Craig-Bampton). The applicability of the newly presented method is demonstrated on a simple clamped-beam structure with a unilateral contact, which is excited with a harmonic force at the free end.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Markus, Keith A.
2008-01-01
One can distinguish statistical models used in causal modeling from the causal interpretations that align them with substantive hypotheses. Causal modeling typically assumes an efficient causal interpretation of the statistical model. Causal modeling can also make use of mereological causal interpretations in which the state of the parts…
Watanalumlerd, Prapoch; Christensen, J Mark; Ayres, James W
2007-01-01
Effects of gastrointestinal transit on plasma concentrations of drugs from mixed immediate-release and enteric-coated pellet formulation were simulated with models developed by including gastric emptying time and lag time of emptying. Models were evaluated by comparing simulated plasma concentrations of amphetamine from Monte Carlo simulations to available published data of a commercial mixed pellet formulation (Adderall XR). Results show that the plasma profile from the mixed pellet formulation does not mimic that from two immediate-release doses administered at different times. Instead, the plasma profile from the mixed pellets of amphetamine is similar to a typical sustained-release formulation. The pharmacokinetic models presented herein describe plasma concentrations of amphetamine from mixed pellet formulation quite well. The models and assumptions are general and can be applied to other drugs in similar mixed pellet dosage forms.
Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin
2016-01-01
Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure. PMID:27464832
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Feifei; Song, Chao; Shi, Pengfei; Zhu, Jin
2016-07-01
Innovation in hypotheses is a key transformative driver for scientific development. The conventional centralized hypothesis formulation approach, where a dominant hypothesis is typically derived from a primary phenomenon, can, inevitably, impose restriction on the range of conceivable experiments and legitimate hypotheses, and ultimately impede understanding of the system of interest. We report herein the proposal of a decentralized approach for the formulation of hypotheses, through initial preconception-free phenomenon accumulation and subsequent reticular logical reasoning processes. The two-step approach can provide an unbiased, panoramic view of the system and as such should enable the generation of a set of more coherent and therefore plausible hypotheses. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the utility of this open-ended approach, a hierarchical model has been developed for a prion self-assembled system, allowing insight into hitherto elusive static and dynamic features associated with this intriguing structure.
Gonçalves, Vanessa S S; Matias, Ana A; Poejo, Joana; Serra, Ana T; Duarte, Catarina M M
2016-12-30
During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In order to avoid animal experiments or the use of excised tissues, in vitro cell models, such as RPMI 2650 cells, are being preferred during recent years. Nevertheless, the deposition of solid formulations into nasal cell layers with further transepithelial transport rate of drugs has been poorly studied or reported. Thus, the purpose of this work is to further investigate RPMI 2650 cell line as an effective alternative to animal tissues for solid drug-loaded formulations cytotoxicity and drug permeation studies in order to become an option as a tool for drug discovery. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the extent to which the administration of drugs in particulate forms would differ in relation to the permeability of the same compounds applied as solutions. RPMI 2650 cells were cultured in submersed or at air-liquid interface conditions and characterized regarding transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and production of mucus. Pure ketoprofen (used as model compound) and five formulations loaded with same drug, namely solid lipid particles (Gelucire 43/01™), structured lipid particles (Gelucire 43/01™:Glyceryl monooleate) and aerogel microparticles (Alginate, Alginate:Pectin, Alginate:Carrageenan), were evaluated with RPMI 2650 model in terms of cytotoxicity and permeability of drug (applied as solution, dispersion or powder+buffer). RPMI 2650 cells were capable to grow in monolayer and multilayer, showing the same permeability as excised human nasal mucosa for sodium fluorescein (paracellular marker), with analogous TEER values and production of mucus, as referred by other authors. None of the powders showed cytotoxicity when applied to RPMI 2650 cells. Regarding permeation of drug through cell layers, not only the form of application of powders but also their
Shao, Qun; Rowe, Raymond C; York, Peter
2006-08-01
This study compares the performance of neurofuzzy logic and neural networks using two software packages (INForm and FormRules) in generating predictive models for a published database for an immediate release tablet formulation. Both approaches were successful in developing good predictive models for tablet tensile strength and drug dissolution profiles. While neural networks demonstrated a slightly superior capability in predicting unseen data, neurofuzzy logic had the added advantage of generating rule sets representing the cause-effect relationships contained in the experimental data.
Volumetric formulation for a class of kinetic models with energy conservation.
Sbragaglia, M; Sugiyama, K
2010-10-01
We analyze a volumetric formulation of lattice Boltzmann for compressible thermal fluid flows. The velocity set is chosen with the desired accuracy, based on the Gauss-Hermite quadrature procedure, and tested against controlled problems in bounded and unbounded fluids. The method allows the simulation of thermohydrodyamical problems without the need to preserve the exact space-filling nature of the velocity set, but still ensuring the exact conservation laws for density, momentum, and energy. Issues related to boundary condition problems and improvements based on grid refinement are also investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maples, A. L.; Poirier, D. R.
1980-01-01
The physical and numerical formulation of a model for the horizontal solidification of a binary alloy is described. It can be applied in an ingot. The major purpose of the model is to calculate macrosegregation in a casting ingot which results from flow of interdendritic liquid during solidification. The flow, driven by solidification contractions and by gravity acting on density gradients in the interdendritic liquid, was modeled as flow through a porous medium. The symbols used are defined. The physical formulation of the problem leading to a set of equations which can be used to obtain: (1) the pressure field; (2) the velocity field: (3) mass flow and (4) solute flow in the solid plus liquid zone during solidification is presented. With these established, the model calculates macrosegregation after solidification is complete. The numerical techniques used to obtain solution on a computational grid are presented. Results, evaluation of the results, and recommendations for future development of the model are given. The macrosegregation and flow field predictions for tin-lead, aluminum-copper, and tin-bismuth alloys are included as well as comparisons of some of the predictions with published predictions or with empirical data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Li, Jianhui; Endo, Masashi; Xiong, Bin
2017-02-01
We solve the 3D controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) problem using the edge-based finite element method. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh. We adopt the total field formulation for the quasi-static variant of Maxwell's equation and the computation cost to calculate the primary field can be saved. We adopt a new boundary condition which approximate the total field on the boundary by the primary field corresponding to the layered earth approximation of the complicated conductivity model. The primary field on the modeling boundary is calculated using fast Hankel transform. By using this new type of boundary condition, the computation cost can be reduced significantly and the modeling accuracy can be improved. We consider that the conductivity can be anisotropic. We solve the finite element system of equations using a parallelized multifrontal solver which works efficiently for multiple source and large scale electromagnetic modeling.
Ciurlizza, Claudia; Fernández, Francisco; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Lázaro, Raquel; Parra, Alexander; Clares, Beatriz
2014-10-01
Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) is a second-generation histamine H1 antagonist, effective for the treatment of a wide range of allergic diseases. It has been utilized for managing the symptoms of chronic urticaria and atopic skin conditions. Thus, two novel semisolid formulations, nanoemulsion (NE) and hydrogel (HG) were developed to study their potential utility as vehicles including cetirizine (CTZ) and evaluate the potential use as topical H1-antihistamines agents. The physicochemical and stability properties of both vehicles were tested. Drug release kinetics and human skin permeation studies were performed using Franz cells. The antihistaminic activity was assayed in New Zealand rabbits and compared with two commercial first generation antihistamines. Both formulations were stable and provided a sustained drug release. Amounts of CTZ remaining in the skin were higher for HG, showing the maximum biological effect at 30 min, similar to topical first generation H1-antihistamines commercially available. These results suggest that CTZ-HG could be a promising system for the treatment of topical allergy bringing rapid antihistaminic relief.
Beringer, Paul; Aminimanizani, Amir; Synold, Timothy; Scott, Christy
2002-04-01
High-dose ibuprofen therapy has demonstrated to slow deterioration in pulmonary function in children with cystic fibrosis with mild lung disease. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been recommended to maintain peak concentrations within the range of 50 to 100 mg/L to ensure efficacy. Current methods for dosage individualization are based on dose proportionality using visual inspection of the peak concentration; however, because of interpatient variability in the absorption of the various formulations this method may result in incorrect assessments of the peak concentration achieved. Maximum a posteriori Bayesian analysis (MAP-B) has proven to be a useful and precise method of individualizing the dose of aminoglycosides but requires a description of the structural model. In this study we performed parametric population modeling analysis on plasma concentrations of ibuprofen after single doses of 20 to 30-mg/kg tablet or suspension in children with cystic fibrosis. Patients evaluated in this study were part of a single dose pharmacokinetic study that has been published previously. A one-compartment model with first order absorption and a lag time best described the data. The pharmacokinetic parameters differed significantly depending on the formulation administered. D-optimal sampling times for the suspension and tablet formulations are 0, 0.25 to 0.5, 1, and 3 to 4 hours and 0, 0.25 to 0.5, 1 to 1.5, and 5 hours respectively. Use of MAP-B analysis performed with the 4 d-optimal sampling strategy resulted in accurate and precise estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters when compared with maximum likelihood analysis using the complete plasma concentrations data set. Further studies are needed to evaluate the performance of these models and the impact on patient outcomes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein
2017-02-01
In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda Fuentes, Johann; Kuznik, Frédéric; Johannes, Kévyn; Virgone, Joseph
2014-01-01
This article presents a new model to simulate melting with natural convection of a phase change material. For the phase change problem, the enthalpy formulation is used. Energy equation is solved by a finite difference method, whereas the fluid flow is solved by the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method. The model is first verified and validated using the data from the literature. Then, the model is applied to a tall brick filled with a fatty acid eutectic mixture and the results are presented. The main results are (1) the spatial convergence rate is of second order, (2) the new model is validated against data from the literature and (3) the natural convection plays an important role in the melting process of the fatty acid mixture considered in our work.
Sisini, Francesco; Zanca, Federica; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Taibi, Angelo; Cardarelli, Paolo; Bosmans, Hilde
2012-09-15
Purpose: Image quality indices based upon model observers are promising alternatives to laborious human readings of contrast-detail images. This is especially appealing in digital mammography as limiting values for contrast thresholds determine, according to some international protocols, the acceptability of these systems in the radiological practice. The objective of the present study was to compare the signal to noise ratios (SNR) obtained with two nonprewhitening matched filter model observer approaches, one in the spatial domain and the other in the frequency domain, and with both of them worked out for disks as present in the CDMAM phantom. Methods: The analysis was performed using images acquired with the Siemens Novation and Inspiration digital mammography systems. The spatial domain formulation uses a series of high dose CDMAM images as the signal and a routine exposure of two flood images to calculate the covariance matrix. The frequency domain approach uses the mathematical description of a disk and modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) calculated from images. Results: For both systems most of the SNR values calculated in the frequency domain were in very good agreement with the SNR values calculated in the spatial domain. Both the formulations in the frequency domain and in the spatial domain show a linear relationship between SNR and the diameter of the CDMAM discs. Conclusions: The results suggest that both formulations of the model observer lead to very similar figures of merit. This is a step forward in the adoption of figures of merit based on NPS and MTF for the acceptance testing of mammography systems.
A formulation to compute mass-consistent models of hydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Núñez, M. A.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J. E.
2012-04-01
Standard interpolation methods of measured data of an incompressible fluid yield a non-solenoidal field v 0. A formulation to estimate a solenoidal field from v 0, is proposed. Variational calculus reduces the problem to the solution of an elliptic equation for a Lagrange multiplier. Examples illustrate how boundary conditions improve the mass-balance of velocity fields obtained in meteorology with similar approaches. The elliptic equation is separable in meteorological problems over a complex orography. This allows the use of fast-Poisson solvers. It is shown how the flow-rate can be used to define a low-pass filter which improves the results given by the Fast Fourier Algorithm.
Gleadall, Andrew; Pan, Jingzhe; Ding, Lifeng; Kruft, Marc-Anton; Curcó, David
2015-11-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to analyse materials at the atomic scale. However, MD has high computational demands, which may inhibit its use for simulations of structures involving large numbers of atoms such as amorphous polymer structures. An atomic-scale finite element method (AFEM) is presented in this study with significantly lower computational demands than MD. Due to the reduced computational demands, AFEM is suitable for the analysis of Young's modulus of amorphous polymer structures. This is of particular interest when studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers, which is the topic of an accompanying paper. AFEM is derived from the inter-atomic potential energy functions of an MD force field. The nonlinear MD functions were adapted to enable static linear analysis. Finite element formulations were derived to represent interatomic potential energy functions between two, three and four atoms. Validation of the AFEM was conducted through its application to atomic structures for crystalline and amorphous poly(lactide).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y. T.
1998-01-01
A Jacobian formulation of the pressure gradient force for use in models with topography following coordinates is proposed. It can be used in conjunction with any vertical coordinate system and is easily implemented.
Kesisoglou, Filippos; Balakrishnan, Anand; Manser, Kimberly
2016-02-01
Given the complexity of controlled release (CR) formulations, selecting the right preclinical tools is important to enable decision making on the in vivo performance of these formulations during development. In recent years, with the advancements of absorption/physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, such computational approaches play an increasing role in guiding formulation development. Development of PBPK models for CR formulations requires additional information compared with immediate release (IR) products. Perhaps the most important aspect is the need to simulate absorption in the lower intestine. Relatively few publications have investigated the use of PBPK models for compounds with region-dependent absorption. In this manuscript, we use gaboxadol as a model compound with region-dependent absorption. We first explored gaboxadol regional absorption in dogs to develop a PBPK model for absorption in the large intestine. Two matrix-based CR formulations were subsequently developed and tested in minipigs and demonstrated distinctly different pharmacokinetic profiles from the IR formulation. A minipig absorption PBPK model successfully predicted the observed plasma concentration data, with the predictions based on the in vitro dissolution being within the observed experimental variability. Finally, we demonstrate the development of an in vitro-in vivo correlation for the preclinical data using the same PBPK model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayata, S.-D.; Lévy, M.; Aumont, O.; Sciandra, A.; Sainte-Marie, J.; Tagliabue, A.; Bernard, O.
2013-09-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the consequences of accounting for variable Chl:C (chlorophyll:carbon) and C:N (carbon:nitrogen) ratios in the formulation of phytoplankton growth in biogeochemical models. We compare the qualitative behavior of a suite of phytoplankton growth formulations with increasing complexity: 1) a Redfield formulation (constant C:N ratio) without photo-acclimation (constant Chl:C ratio), 2) a Redfield formulation with diagnostic chlorophyll (variable and empirical Chl:C ratio), 3) a quota formulation (variable C:N ratio) with diagnostic chlorophyll, and 4) a quota formulation with prognostic chlorophyll (dynamic variable). These phytoplankton growth formulations are embedded in a simple marine ecosystem model in a 1D framework at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series (BATS) station. The model parameters are tuned using a stochastic assimilation method (micro-genetic algorithm) and skill assessment techniques are used to compare results. The lowest misfits with observations are obtained when photo-acclimation is taken into account (variable Chl:C ratio) and with non-Redfield stoichiometry (variable C:N ratio), both under spring and summer conditions. This indicates that the most flexible models (i.e., with variable ratios) are necessary to reproduce observations. As seen previously, photo-acclimation is essential in reproducing the observed deep chlorophyll maximum and subsurface production present during summer. Although Redfield and quota formulations of C:N ratios can equally reproduce chlorophyll data the higher primary production that arises from the quota model is in better agreement with observations. Under the oligotrophic conditions that typify the BATS site no clear difference was detected between quota formulations with diagnostic or prognostic chlorophyll.
The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fowler, T. R.; Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.
1977-01-01
The development of a remote sensing model and its efficiency in determining parameters of hydrologic models are reviewed. Procedures for extracting hydrologic data from LANDSAT imagery, and the visual analysis of composite imagery are presented. A hydrologic planning model is developed and applied to determine seasonal variations in watershed conditions. The transfer of this technology to a user community and contract arrangements are discussed.
The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.
1976-01-01
A hydrologic planning model is developed based on remotely sensed inputs. Data from LANDSAT 1 are used to supply the model's quantitative parameters and coefficients. The use of LANDSAT data as information input to all categories of hydrologic models requiring quantitative surface parameters for their effects functioning is also investigated.
Evaluation of a photosyntheses-based canopy resistance formulation in the Noah Land-surface model
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Accurately representing complex land-surface processes balancing complexity and realism remains one challenge that the weather modelling community is facing nowadays. In this study, a photosynthesis-based Gas-exchange Evapotranspiration Model (GEM) is integrated into the Noah land-surface model repl...
David, M B; Zvirin, Y; Zimmels, Y
1999-06-01
A nonisothermal microscale model of the three-phase, solid-liquid-gas, contact zone is formulated in the context of rewetting phenomena. The model incorporates hydrodynamics, heat transfer, interfacial phenomena, and intermolecular long range forces, in a two-dimensional proximal region of the order of 1000 A in width and 100 A in thickness. The model comprises scaled mass, momentum, and energy balances, and their corresponding scaled boundary conditions. The small contact angles which are characteristic of rewetting situations facilitate the use of the lubrication approximation, and the dynamics of the liquid and gas phases is decoupled by applying the one-sided simplification. The microscale hydrodynamic model reflects the strong effect of the solid-liquid interactions on the film profile, and the attendant flow and thermal fields. Thinner films having smaller contact angles involve stronger solid-liquid attraction forces, and consequently they exhibit higher rewetting temperatures and lower evaporation and vapor recoil effects. Thermocapillary and evaporation and conduction effects are expressed by appropriate dimensionless numbers. A set of such numbers is defined in the context of the differential equations of the microscale model. This model covers the hydrodynamic aspect of rewetting phenomena, which are also controlled by thermodynamic and macroscale constraints. This calls for interfacing and appropriate combination between the microscale hydrodynamic model, thermodynamics, and other macroscale rewetting models, for the determination of rewetting temperatures and quench velocities of liquids on hot solid surfaces. This is addressed elsewhere, in subsequent papers that follow this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaynikov, S.; Porta, G.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.
2012-04-01
We focus on a theoretical analysis of nonreactive solute transport in porous media through the volume averaging technique. Darcy-scale transport models based on continuum formulations typically include large scale dispersive processes which are embedded in a pore-scale advection diffusion equation through a Fickian analogy. This formulation has been extensively questioned in the literature due to its inability to depict observed solute breakthrough curves in diverse settings, ranging from the laboratory to the field scales. The heterogeneity of the pore-scale velocity field is one of the key sources of uncertainties giving rise to anomalous (non-Fickian) dispersion in macro-scale porous systems. Some of the models which are employed to interpret observed non-Fickian solute behavior make use of a continuum formulation of the porous system which assumes a two-region description and includes a bimodal velocity distribution. A first class of these models comprises the so-called ''mobile-immobile'' conceptualization, where convective and dispersive transport mechanisms are considered to dominate within a high velocity region (mobile zone), while convective effects are neglected in a low velocity region (immobile zone). The mass exchange between these two regions is assumed to be controlled by a diffusive process and is macroscopically described by a first-order kinetic. An extension of these ideas is the two equation ''mobile-mobile'' model, where both transport mechanisms are taken into account in each region and a first-order mass exchange between regions is employed. Here, we provide an analytical derivation of two region "mobile-mobile" meso-scale models through a rigorous upscaling of the pore-scale advection diffusion equation. Among the available upscaling methodologies, we employ the Volume Averaging technique. In this approach, the heterogeneous porous medium is supposed to be pseudo-periodic, and can be represented through a (spatially) periodic unit cell
Brvar, Nina; Mateović-Rojnik, Tatjana; Grabnar, Iztok
2014-10-01
This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for tramadol that combines different input rates with disposition characteristics. Data used for the analysis were pooled from two phase I bioavailability studies with immediate (IR) and prolonged release (PR) formulations in healthy volunteers. Tramadol plasma concentration-time data were described by an inverse Gaussian function to model the complete input process linked to a two-compartment disposition model with first-order elimination. Although polymorphic CYP2D6 appears to be a major enzyme involved in the metabolism of tramadol, application of a mixture model to test the assumption of two and three subpopulations did not reveal any improvement of the model. The final model estimated parameters with reasonable precision and was able to estimate the interindividual variability of all parameters except for the relative bioavailability of PR vs. IR formulation. Validity of the model was further tested using the nonparametric bootstrap approach. Finally, the model was applied to assess absorption kinetics of tramadol and predict steady-state pharmacokinetics following administration of both types of formulations. For both formulations, the final model yielded a stable estimate of the absorption time profiles. Steady-state simulation supports switching of patients from IR to PR formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, K. Ulrich; Frind, Emil O.; Blowes, David W.
2002-09-01
A generalized formulation for kinetically controlled reactions has been developed and incorporated into a multicomponent reactive transport model to facilitate the investigation of a large variety of problems involving inorganic and organic chemicals in variably saturated media. The general kinetic formulation includes intra-aqueous and dissolution-precipitation reactions in addition to geochemical equilibrium expressions for hydrolysis, aqueous complexation, oxidation-reduction, ion exchange, surface complexation, and gas dissolution-exsolution reactions. The generalized approach allows consideration of fractional order terms with respect to any dissolved species in terms of species activities or in terms of total concentrations, which facilitates the incorporation of a variety of experimentally derived rate expressions. Monod and inhibition terms can be used to describe microbially mediated reactions or to limit the reaction progress of inorganic reactions. Dissolution-precipitation reactions can be described as surface-controlled or transport-controlled reactions. The formulation also facilitates the consideration of any number of parallel reaction pathways, and reactions can be treated as irreversible or reversible processes. Two groundwater contamination scenarios, both set in variably saturated media but with significantly different geochemical reaction networks, are investigated and demonstrate the advantage of the generalized approach. The first problem focuses on a hypothetical case study of the natural attenuation of organic contaminants undergoing dissolution, volatilization, and biodegradation in an unconfined aquifer overlaid by unsaturated sediments. The second problem addresses the generation of acid mine drainage in the unsaturated zone of a tailings impoundment at the Nickel Rim Mine Site near Sudbury, Ontario, and subsequent reactive transport in the saturated portion of the tailings.
Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Fossgaard, Eirik; Ruud, Kenneth
2006-10-21
We present a parallel implementation of the integral equation formalism of the polarizable continuum model for Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations of energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response functions. The contributions to the free energy of the solute due to the polarizable continuum have been implemented using a master-slave approach with load balancing to ensure good scalability also on parallel machines with a slow interconnect. We demonstrate the good scaling behavior of the code through calculations of Hartree-Fock energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response function for a modest-sized sample molecule. We also explore the behavior of the parallelization of the integral equation formulation of the polarizable continuum model code when used in conjunction with a recent scheme for the storage of two-electron integrals in the memory of the different slaves in order to achieve superlinear scaling in the parallel calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Fossgaard, Eirik; Ruud, Kenneth
2006-10-01
We present a parallel implementation of the integral equation formalism of the polarizable continuum model for Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations of energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response functions. The contributions to the free energy of the solute due to the polarizable continuum have been implemented using a master-slave approach with load balancing to ensure good scalability also on parallel machines with a slow interconnect. We demonstrate the good scaling behavior of the code through calculations of Hartree-Fock energies and linear, quadratic, and cubic response function for a modest-sized sample molecule. We also explore the behavior of the parallelization of the integral equation formulation of the polarizable continuum model code when used in conjunction with a recent scheme for the storage of two-electron integrals in the memory of the different slaves in order to achieve superlinear scaling in the parallel calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadjiconstantinou, N. G.; Al-Mohssen, H. A.
2005-06-01
We investigate the time evolution of an impulsive start problem for arbitrary Knudsen numbers (Kn) using a linearized kinetic formulation. The early-time behaviour is described by a solution of the collisionless Boltzmann equation. The same solution can be used to describe the late-time behaviour for Kn ≫ 1. The late-time behaviour for Kn < 0.5 is captured by a newly proposed second-order slip model with no adjustable parameters. All theoretical results are verified by direct Monte Carlo solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. A measure of the timescale to steady state, normalized by the momentum diffusion timescale, shows that the timescale to steady state is significantly extended by ballistic transport, even at low Knudsen numbers where the latter is only important close to the system walls. This effect is captured for Kn < 0.5 by the slip model which predicts the equivalent effective domain size increase (slip length).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teoh, Lay Eng; Khoo, Hooi Ling
2013-09-01
This study deals with two major aspects of airlines, i.e. supply and demand management. The aspect of supply focuses on the mathematical formulation of an optimal fleet management model to maximize operational profit of the airlines while the aspect of demand focuses on the incorporation of mode choice modeling as parts of the developed model. The proposed methodology is outlined in two-stage, i.e. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is first adopted to capture mode choice modeling in order to quantify the probability of probable phenomena (for aircraft acquisition/leasing decision). Then, an optimization model is developed as a probabilistic dynamic programming model to determine the optimal number and types of aircraft to be acquired and/or leased in order to meet stochastic demand during the planning horizon. The findings of an illustrative case study show that the proposed methodology is viable. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of mode choice modeling could affect the operational profit and fleet management decision of the airlines at varying degrees.
Plan, formulate, and discuss a NASTRAN finite element model of the AH-64A helicopter airframe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christ, Richard A.; Ferg, Douglas A.; Kilroy, Kevin A.; Toossi, Mostafa; Weisenburger, Richard K.
1990-01-01
A discussion of modeling plan objectives, followed by a description of the AH-64A aircraft including all general features, major components, and primary and structure definitions are presented. Following the aircraft description, a discussion of the modeling guidelines and model checkout procedure are provided. The NASTRAN finite element analysis is set up to be suitable to predict both static internal loads and vibrations. Finally, the results, schedule, and planned versus actual manhours for this work are presented.
Application of remote sensing to hydrology. [for the formulation of watershed behavior models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ambaruch, R.; Simmons, J. W.
1973-01-01
Streamflow forecasting and hydrologic modelling are considered in a feasibility assessment of using the data produced by remote observation from space and/or aircraft to reduce the time and expense normally involved in achieving the ability to predict the hydrological behavior of an ungaged watershed. Existing watershed models are described, and both stochastic and parametric techniques are discussed towards the selection of a suitable simulation model. Technical progress and applications are reported and recommendations are made for additional research.
Painter, Scott L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Atchley, Adam L.; ...
2016-08-11
The need to understand potential climate impacts and feedbacks in Arctic regions has prompted recent interest in modeling of permafrost dynamics in a warming climate. A new fine-scale integrated surface/subsurface thermal hydrology modeling capability is described and demonstrated in proof-of-concept simulations. The new modeling capability combines a surface energy balance model with recently developed three-dimensional subsurface thermal hydrology models and new models for nonisothermal surface water flows and snow distribution in the microtopography. Surface water flows are modeled using the diffusion wave equation extended to include energy transport and phase change of ponded water. Variation of snow depth in themore » microtopography, physically the result of wind scour, is also modeled heuristically with a diffusion wave equation. The multiple surface and subsurface processes are implemented by leveraging highly parallel community software. Fully integrated thermal hydrology simulations on the tilted open book catchment, an important test case for integrated surface/subsurface flow modeling, are presented. Fine-scale 100-year projections of the integrated permafrost thermal hydrological system on an ice wedge polygon at Barrow Alaska in a warming climate are also presented. Finally, these simulations demonstrate the feasibility of microtopography-resolving, process-rich simulations as a tool to help understand possible future evolution of the carbon-rich Arctic tundra in a warming climate.« less
Painter, Scott L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Atchley, Adam L.; Berndt, Markus; Garimella, Rao; Moulton, J. David; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Wilson, Cathy J.
2016-08-11
The need to understand potential climate impacts and feedbacks in Arctic regions has prompted recent interest in modeling of permafrost dynamics in a warming climate. A new fine-scale integrated surface/subsurface thermal hydrology modeling capability is described and demonstrated in proof-of-concept simulations. The new modeling capability combines a surface energy balance model with recently developed three-dimensional subsurface thermal hydrology models and new models for nonisothermal surface water flows and snow distribution in the microtopography. Surface water flows are modeled using the diffusion wave equation extended to include energy transport and phase change of ponded water. Variation of snow depth in the microtopography, physically the result of wind scour, is also modeled heuristically with a diffusion wave equation. The multiple surface and subsurface processes are implemented by leveraging highly parallel community software. Fully integrated thermal hydrology simulations on the tilted open book catchment, an important test case for integrated surface/subsurface flow modeling, are presented. Fine-scale 100-year projections of the integrated permafrost thermal hydrological system on an ice wedge polygon at Barrow Alaska in a warming climate are also presented. Finally, these simulations demonstrate the feasibility of microtopography-resolving, process-rich simulations as a tool to help understand possible future evolution of the carbon-rich Arctic tundra in a warming climate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Painter, Scott L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Atchley, Adam L.; Berndt, Markus; Garimella, Rao; Moulton, J. David; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Wilson, Cathy J.
2016-08-01
The need to understand potential climate impacts and feedbacks in Arctic regions has prompted recent interest in modeling of permafrost dynamics in a warming climate. A new fine-scale integrated surface/subsurface thermal hydrology modeling capability is described and demonstrated in proof-of-concept simulations. The new modeling capability combines a surface energy balance model with recently developed three-dimensional subsurface thermal hydrology models and new models for nonisothermal surface water flows and snow distribution in the microtopography. Surface water flows are modeled using the diffusion wave equation extended to include energy transport and phase change of ponded water. Variation of snow depth in the microtopography, physically the result of wind scour, is modeled phenomenologically with a diffusion wave equation. The multiple surface and subsurface processes are implemented by leveraging highly parallel community software. Fully integrated thermal hydrology simulations on the tilted open book catchment, an important test case for integrated surface/subsurface flow modeling, are presented. Fine-scale 100 year projections of the integrated permafrost thermal hydrological system on an ice wedge polygon at Barrow Alaska in a warming climate are also presented. These simulations demonstrate the feasibility of microtopography-resolving, process-rich simulations as a tool to help understand possible future evolution of the carbon-rich Arctic tundra in a warming climate.
Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C
2014-07-07
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems.
The application of remote sensing to the development and formulation of hydrologic planning models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.
1975-01-01
Regional hydrologic planning models built upon remote sensing capabilities and suited for ungaged watersheds are developed. The effectiveness of such models is determined along with which parameters impact most the minimization of errors associated with the prediction of peak flow events (floods). Emphasis is placed on peak flood prediction because of its significance to users for the purpose of planning, sizing, and designing waterworks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villacañas de Castro, Luis S.
2016-01-01
This article aims to apply Stenhouse's process model of curriculum to foreign language (FL) education, a model which is characterized by enacting "principles of procedure" which are specific to the discipline which the school subject belongs to. Rather than to replace or dissolve current approaches to FL teaching and curriculum…
Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C
2013-08-01
A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum.
Classical and Quantum Formulations of S1xS2 and S3 Gowdy Models Coupled with Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez Vergel, Daniel
2009-10-01
We explore the features of gravity in its quantum regime in a mathematically rigorous way by carrying out the classical and quantum formulations of some two-Killing symmetry reductions of general relativity which admit an exact Fock/Schrödinger quantization. Concretely, we analyze in depth the linearly polarized 3-handle (S1xS2) and 3-sphere (S3) Gowdy cosmological models coupled to massless scalar fields. Within the classical formulation, this study requires a careful application of modern differential geometry techniques and the Dirac-Bergmann theory of constrained systems. Regarding the quantization process, we analyze the construction of both Fock and Schrödinger representations, the unitarity of the time evolution, and the existence of semiclassical states for these systems by making use of the algebraic formalism of quantum theory and the theory of unitary implementation of symplectic transformations. Several appendices give additional information on the results attained in the main body of the thesis, going deeply into the relevant mathematical aspects of the text.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonge, Andrew L.; Ramesh, K. T.
2016-01-01
Within this two part series we develop a new material model for ceramic protection materials to provide an interface between microstructural parameters and bulk continuum behavior to provide guidance for materials design activities. Part I of this series focuses on the model formulation that captures the strength variability and strain rate sensitivity of brittle materials and presents a statistical approach to assigning the local flaw distribution within a specimen. The material model incorporates a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state, micromechanics based damage growth, granular flow and dilatation of the highly damaged material, and pore compaction for the porosity introduced by granular flow. To provide initial qualitative validation and illustrate the usefulness of the model, we use the model to investigate Edge on Impact experiments (Strassburger, 2004) on Aluminum Oxynitride (AlON), and discuss the interactions of multiple mechanisms during such an impact event. Part II of this series is focused on additional qualitative validation and using the model to suggest material design directions for boron carbide.
Quasispecies dynamics on a network of interacting genotypes and idiotypes: formulation of the model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbosa, Valmir C.; Donangelo, Raul; Souza, Sergio R.
2015-01-01
A quasispecies is the stationary state of a set of interrelated genotypes that evolve according to the usual principles of selection and mutation. Quasispecies studies have for the most part concentrated on the possibility of errors during genotype replication and their role in promoting either the survival or the demise of the quasispecies. In a previous work, we introduced a network model of quasispecies dynamics, based on a single probability parameter (p) and capable of addressing several plausibility issues of previous models. Here we extend that model by pairing its network with another one aimed at modeling the dynamics of the immune system when confronted with the quasispecies. The new network is based on the idiotypic-network model of immunity and, together with the previous one, constitutes a network model of interacting genotypes and idiotypes. The resulting model requires further parameters and as a consequence leads to a vast phase space. We have focused on a particular niche in which it is possible to observe the trade-offs involved in the quasispecies' survival or destruction. Within this niche, we give simulation results that highlight some key preconditions for quasispecies survival. These include a minimum initial abundance of genotypes relative to that of the idiotypes and a minimum value of p. The latter, in particular, is to be contrasted with the stand-alone quasispecies network of our previous work, in which arbitrarily low values of p constitute a guarantee of quasispecies survival.
Ong, Jimmy Boon Som; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Chen, Mark I-Cheng
2012-01-01
The “classical model” for sexually transmitted infections treats partnerships as instantaneous events summarized by partner change rates, while individual-based and pair models explicitly account for time within partnerships and gaps between partnerships. We compared predictions from the classical and pair models over a range of partnership and gap combinations. While the former predicted similar or marginally higher prevalence at the shortest partnership lengths, the latter predicted self-sustaining transmission for gonorrhoea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) over much broader partnership and gap combinations. Predictions on the critical level of condom use (Cc) required to prevent transmission also differed substantially when using the same parameters. When calibrated to give the same disease prevalence as the pair model by adjusting the infectious duration for GC and CT, and by adjusting transmission probabilities for HIV, the classical model then predicted much higher Cc values for GC and CT, while Cc predictions for HIV were fairly close. In conclusion, the two approaches give different predictions over potentially important combinations of partnership and gap lengths. Assuming that it is more correct to explicitly model partnerships and gaps, then pair or individual-based models may be needed for GC and CT since model calibration does not resolve the differences. PMID:22761828
Benson, Charles T.; Critser, John K.
2014-01-01
Optimization of cryopreservation protocols for cells and tissues requires accurate models of heat and mass transport. Model selection often depends on the configuration of the tissue. Here, a mathematical and conceptual model of water and solute transport for whole hamster pancreatic islets has been developed and experimentally validated incorporating fundamental biophysical data from previous studies on individual hamster islet cells while retaining whole-islet structural information. It describes coupled transport of water and solutes through the islet by three methods: intracellularly, intercellularly, and in combination. In particular we use domain decomposition techniques to couple a transmembrane flux model with an interstitial mass transfer model. The only significant undetermined variable is the cellular surface area which is in contact with the intercellularly transported solutes, Ais. The model was validated and Ais determined using a 3 × 3 factorial experimental design blocked for experimental day. Whole islet physical experiments were compared with model predictions at three temperatures, three perfusing solutions, and three islet size groups. A mean of 4.4 islets were compared at each of the 27 experimental conditions and found to correlate with a coefficient of determination of 0.87 ± 0.06 (mean ± S.D.). Only the treatment variable of perfusing solution was found to be significant (p < 0.05). We have devised a model that retains much of the intrinsic geometric configuration of the system, and thus fewer laboratory experiments are needed to determine model parameters and thus to develop new optimized cryopreservation protocols. Additionally, extensions to ovarian follicles and other concentric tissue structures may be made. PMID:24950195
Formulation and validation of high-order linearized models of helicopter flight mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.
1990-01-01
A high-order linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics is extracted from a nonlinear time domain simulation. The model has 29 states that describe the fuselage rigid body degrees of freedom, the flap and lag dynamics in a nonrotating coordinate system, the inflow dynamics, the delayed entry of the horizontal tail into the main rotor wake, and, approximately, the blade torsion dynamics. The nonlinear simulation is obtained by extensively modifying the GENHEL computer program. The results indicate that the agreement between the linearized and the nonlinear model is good for small perturbations, and deteriorates for large amplitude maneuvers.
Conceptual models for aquatic and terrestrial exposures. Graphic representation of predicted relationships between the ecological entities, both listed (threatened and endangered) and non-listed species, and the stressors to which they may be exposed.
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has recently been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury in three distinct forms; elemental mercury gas, reactive gaseous mercury, and particulate mercury. Emis...
Formulation of Subgrid Variability and Boundary-Layer Cloud Cover in Large-Scale Models
2007-11-02
models. Mon. Wea. Rev., Ill, 536-549. Pan, H.-L., 1990: A simple parameterization scheme of evapotranspiration over land for the NMC medium-range...AHMAD, ahmad@ouvaxa.ucls.ohiou.edu L. N. SASTRY (Ahmad student), ramkumar@sys2.ped.pto.ford.com Evapotranspiration and local climate modification in...regions (eastern Oregon/Washington) using full OSU- PL model. Ä-6 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune411 008 INDIA Surendra S. PARASNIS
Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael
2013-12-01
Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemarie, Florian; Debreu, Laurent; Madec, Gurvan
2015-04-01
Except for vertical diffusion (and possibly the external mode and bottom drag), oceanic models usually rely on explicit time-stepping algorithms subject to Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability criteria. Implicit methods could be unconditionally stable, but an algebraic system must be solved at each time step and other considerations such as accuracy and efficiency are less straightforward to achieve. Depending on the target application, the process limiting the maximum allowed time-step is generally different. In this study, we introduce offline diagnostics to predict stability limits associated with internal gravity waves, advection, diffusion, and rotation. This suite of diagnostics is applied to a set of global, regional and coastal numerical simulations with several horizontal/vertical resolutions and different numerical models. We show that, for resolutions finer that 1/2°, models with an eulerian vertical coordinate are generally constrained by vertical advection in a few hot spots and that numerics must be extremely robust to changes in Courant number. Based on those results, we review the stability and accuracy of existing numerical kernels in vogue in primitive equations oceanic models with a focus on advective processes and the dynamics of internal waves. We emphasize the additional value of studying the numerical kernel of oceanic models in the light of coupled space-time approaches instead of studying the time schemes independently from spatial discretizations. From this study, we suggest some guidelines for the development of temporal schemes in future generation multi-purpose oceanic models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemarié, F.; Debreu, L.; Madec, G.; Demange, J.; Molines, J. M.; Honnorat, M.
2015-08-01
Except for vertical diffusion (and possibly the external mode and bottom drag), oceanic models usually rely on explicit time-stepping algorithms subject to Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability criteria. Implicit methods could be unconditionally stable, but an algebraic system must be solved at each time step and other considerations such as accuracy and efficiency are less straightforward to achieve. Depending on the target application, the process limiting the maximum allowed time-step is generally different. In this paper, we introduce offline diagnostics to predict stability limits associated with internal gravity waves, advection, diffusion, and rotation. This suite of diagnostics is applied to a set of global, regional and coastal numerical simulations with several horizontal/vertical resolutions and different numerical models. We show that, for resolutions finer that 1/2°, models with an Eulerian vertical coordinate are generally constrained by vertical advection in a few hot spots and that numerics must be extremely robust to changes in Courant number. Based on those results, we review the stability and accuracy of existing numerical kernels in vogue in primitive equations oceanic models with a focus on advective processes and the dynamics of internal waves. We emphasize the additional value of studying the numerical kernel of oceanic models in the light of coupled space-time approaches instead of studying the time schemes independently from spatial discretizations. From this study, we suggest some guidelines for the development of temporal schemes in future generation multi-purpose oceanic models.
Implementation of a friction model in an Eulerian viscoplastic formulation for steady flow
Dawson, P.R.; Boyce, D.E.
1996-04-01
The goal of this project was to implement the routines necessary to use the friction model of Wilson and Korzekwa into the finite element analysis program {ital hickory}, in the case of an Eulerian reference frame. {ital hickory} is a deformation simulation code based on finite element modeling of viscoplastic deformation When using {ital hickory}, time-dependent problems are modeled from a Lagrangian reference frame; while steady-state problems are modeled from an Eulerian reference frame. The friction model had been implemented in earlier versions of {ital hickory}, for use with a Lagrangian reference frame. Additional modifications were required, however, to extend this capability to the case of an Eulerian reference frame. That is the subject of this report. The necessary modifications were related to the time integration of the friction state variables. The application of an Eulerian reference frame to study a steady-state flow requires that each specified boundary segment be a streamline of the flow. As such, an initial value for each state variable must be given at the first point of the streamline, and subsequent values must be determined by previous values by integration along the streamline. Additional routines were added to {ital hickory} to implement the streamline integration along the boundary. A plane strain rolling problem was used both to test the implementation and as a source of comparison among friction models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang; Vu-Quoc, Loc
2007-07-01
We present in this paper the displacement-driven version of a tangential force-displacement (TFD) model that accounts for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, L. Lesburg, X. Zhang. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 196(1) (2004) 298-326], is consistent with the elasto-plastic frictional normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, X. Zhang. An elasto-plastic contact force-displacement model in the normal direction: displacement-driven version, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) 4013-4044]. Both the NFD model and the present TFD model are based on the concept of additive decomposition of the radius of contact area into an elastic part and a plastic part. The effect of permanent indentation after impact is represented by a correction to the radius of curvature. The effect of material softening due to plastic flow is represented by a correction to the elastic moduli. The proposed TFD model is accurate, and is validated against nonlinear finite element analyses involving plastic flows in both the loading and unloading conditions. The proposed consistent displacement-driven, elasto-plastic NFD and TFD models are designed for implementation in computer codes using the discrete-element method (DEM) for granular-flow simulations. The model is shown to be accurate and is validated against nonlinear elasto-plastic finite-element analysis.
Maraqa, Munjed A; Zhao, Xianda; Lee, Jae-ug; Allan, Fathi; Voice, Thomas C
2011-07-01
Sorption of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dipropyl phthalate (DPP) to two soil materials that vary in organic matter content was investigated using miscible displacement experiments under saturated flow conditions. Generated breakthrough curves (BTCs) were inversely simulated using linear, equilibrium sorption (LE), nonlinear, equilibrium sorption (NL), linear, first-order nonequilibrium sorption (LFO), linear, radial diffusion (LRD), and nonlinear, first-order nonequilibrium sorption (NFO) models. The Akaike information criterion was utilized to determine the preferred model. The LE model could not adequately describe phthalate ester (PE) BTCs in higher organic matter soil or for more hydrophobic PEs. The LFO and LRD models adequately described the BTCs but a slight improvement in curve-fitting was gained in some cases when the NFO model was used. However, none of the models could properly describe the desorptive tail of DPP for the high organic matter soil. Transport of DPP through this soil was adequately predicted when degradation or sorption hysteresis was considered. Using the optimized parameter values along with values reported by others it was shown that the organic carbon distribution coefficient (K(oc)) of PEs correlates well with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)). Also, a strong relationship was found between the first-order sorption rate coefficient normalized to injection pulse size and compound residence time. A similar trend of timescale dependence was found for the rate parameter in the radial diffusion model. Results also revealed that the fraction of instantaneous sorption sites is dependent on K(ow) and appears to decrease with the increase in the sorption rate parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ding; Qu, Shou-Li; Ding, Ping-Bo; Zhao, Qun
2017-03-01
The presence of bedding-parallel fractures at any scale in a rock will considerably add to its compliance and elastic anisotropy. Those properties will be more significantly affected when there is a relatively high degree of connectivity between the fractures and the corresponding interconnected pores. This contribution uses linear poroelasticity to reveal the characteristics of the full frequency-dependent compliance of an infinitely extended fracture model assuming the periodicity of the fractured structures. The fracture compliance tensor is complex-valued due to the wave-induced fluid flow between fractures and pores. The interaction between the adjacent fractures is considered under fluid mass conservation throughout the whole pore space. The quantitative effects of fracture (volume) density (the ratio between fracture thickness and spacing) and host rock porosity are analyzed by the diffusion equation for a relatively low-frequency band. The model in this paper is equivalent to the classical dry linear slip model when the bulk modulus of fluid in the fractures tends to zero. For the liquid-filled case, the model becomes the anisotropic Gassmann's model and sealed saturated linear slip model at the low-frequency and high-frequency limits, respectively. Using the dynamic compliance definition, we can effectively distinguish the saturating fluids in the fractures with the same order magnitude of bulk modulus (e.g., water and oil) using the compliance ratio method. Additionally, the modified dynamic model can be simplified as acceptable empirical formulas if the strain on the fractures induced by the incoming waves is small enough.
Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Vesely, Ivan
2005-11-01
Most soft tissues possess an oriented architecture of collagen fiber bundles, conferring both anisotropy and nonlinearity to their elastic behavior. Transverse isotropy has often been assumed for a subset of these tissues that have a single macroscopically-identifiable preferred fiber direction. Micro-structural studies, however, suggest that, in some tissues, collagen fibers are approximately normally distributed about a mean preferred fiber direction. Structural constitutive equations that account for this dispersion of fibers have been shown to capture the mechanical complexity of these tissues quite well. Such descriptions, however, are computationally cumbersome for two-dimensional (2D) fiber distributions, let alone for fully three-dimensional (3D) fiber populations. In this paper, we develop a new constitutive law for such tissues, based on a novel invariant theory for dispersed transverse isotropy. The invariant theory is based on a novel closed-form ''splay invariant'' that can easily handle 3D fiber populations, and that only requires a single parameter in the 2D case. The model is polyconvex and fits biaxial data for aortic valve tissue as accurately as the standard structural model. Modification of the fiber stress-strain law requires no re-formulation of the constitutive tangent matrix, making the model flexible for different types of soft tissues. Most importantly, the model is computationally expedient in a finite-element analysis, demonstrated by modeling a bioprosthetic heart valve.
Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M
2014-11-01
The characteristic highly nonlinear, time-dependent, and often inelastic material response of soft biological tissues can be expressed in a set of elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations. The specific elastic-viscoplastic model for soft tissues proposed by Rubin and Bodner (2002) is generalized with respect to the constitutive equations for the scalar quantity of the rate of inelasticity and the hardening parameter in order to represent a general framework for elastic-viscoplastic models. A strongly objective integration scheme and a new mixed finite element formulation were developed based on the introduction of the relative deformation gradient-the deformation mapping between the last converged and current configurations. The numerical implementation of both the generalized framework and the specific Rubin and Bodner model is presented. As an example of a challenging application of the new model equations, the mechanical response of facial skin tissue is characterized through an experimental campaign based on the suction method. The measurement data are used for the identification of a suitable set of model parameters that well represents the experimentally observed tissue behavior. Two different measurement protocols were defined to address specific tissue properties with respect to the instantaneous tissue response, inelasticity, and tissue recovery.
Fine-tuning of DDES and IDDES formulations to the k-ω shear stress transport model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gritskevich, M. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Menter, F. R.
2013-06-01
Modifications are proposed of two recently developed hybrid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) strategies, Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES), and DDES with Improved wall-modeling capability (IDDES). The modifications are aimed at fine-tuning of these approaches to the k-ω SST (shear stress transport) background RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) model. The first one includes recalibrated empirical constants in the shielding function of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) based DDES which are shown to be suboptimal (not providing a needed level of elimination of the Model Stress Depletion (MSD)) for the SST-based DDES model. For the SST-IDDES variant, in addition to that, a simplification of the original SA-based formulation is proposed, which does not cause any visible degradation of the model performance. Both modifications are extensively tested on a range of attached and separated flows (developed channel, backward-facing step, periodic hills, wall-mounted hump, and hydrofoil with trailing edge separation).
Formulation of an experimental substructure model using a Craig-Bampton based transmission simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kammer, Daniel C.; Allen, Mathew S.; Mayes, Randy L.
2015-12-01
Experimental-analytical substructuring is attractive when there is motivation to replace one or more system subcomponents with an experimental model. This experimentally derived substructure can then be coupled to finite element models of the rest of the structure to predict the system response. The transmission simulator method couples a fixture to the component of interest during a vibration test in order to improve the experimental model for the component. The transmission simulator is then subtracted from the tested system to produce the experimental component. The method reduces ill-conditioning by imposing a least squares fit of constraints between substructure modal coordinates to connect substructures, instead of directly connecting physical interface degrees of freedom. This paper presents an alternative means of deriving the experimental substructure model, in which a Craig-Bampton representation of the transmission simulator is created and subtracted from the experimental measurements. The corresponding modal basis of the transmission simulator is described by the fixed-interface modes, rather than free modes that were used in the original approach. These modes do a better job of representing the shape of the transmission simulator as it responds within the experimental system, leading to more accurate results using fewer modes. The new approach is demonstrated using a simple finite element model based example with a redundant interface.
A model for real-time quantitative rainfall forecasting using remote sensing. 1. Formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
French, Mark N.; Krajewski, Witold F.
1994-04-01
A physically based rainfall forecasting model for real-time hydrologic applications is developed with emphasis on utilization of remote sensing observations. Temporal and spatial scales of interest are lead times of the order of hours and areas of the order of 10 km2. The dynamic model is derived from conservation of mass in a cloud column as defined by the continuity equations for air, liquid water, water vapor, and cloud water. Conservation of momentum is modeled using a semi-Lagrangian frame of reference. The model state is vertically integrated liquid water content in a column of the atmosphere. Additionally, laws of thermodynamics, adiabatic air parcel theory, and cloud microphysics are applied to derive a basic parameterization of the governing equations of model dynamics. The parameterization is in terms of hydrometeorologic observables including radar reflectivity, satellite-infrared brightness temperature, and ground-level air temperature, dew point temperature, and pressure. Implementation and application is described by French et al. (this issue) and involves incorporation of uncertainty analysis and a two-dimensional spatial domain, where the dynamics of the continuous space-time rainfall process are discretized onto a rectangular grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Shu; Forsyth, Peter A.
2001-04-01
Selecting the proper primary variables is a critical step in efficiently modeling the highly nonlinear problem of multiphase subsurface flow in a heterogeneous porous-fractured media. Current simulation and ground modeling techniques consist of (1) spatial discretization of mass and/or heat conservation equations using finite difference or finite element methods; (2) fully implicit time discretization; (3) solving the nonlinear, discrete algebraic equations using a Newton iterative scheme. Previous modeling efforts indicate that the choice of primary variables for a Newton iteration not only impacts computational performance of a numerical code, but may also determine the feasibility of a numerical modeling study in many field applications. This paper presents an analysis and general recommendations for selecting primary variables in simulating multiphase, subsurface flow for one-active phase (Richards' equation), two-phase (gas and liquid) and three-phase (gas, water and nonaqueous phase liquid or NAPL) conditions. In many cases, a dynamic variable switching or variable substitution scheme may have to be used in order to achieve optimal numerical performance and robustness. The selection of primary variables depends in general on the sensitivity of the system of equations to the variables selected at given phase and flow conditions. We will present a series of numerical tests and large-scale field simulation examples, including modeling one (active)-phase, two-phase and three-phase flow problems in multi-dimensional, porous-fractured subsurface systems.
Wu, Y S; Forsyth, P A
2001-04-01
Selecting the proper primary variables is a critical step in efficiently modeling the highly nonlinear problem of multiphase subsurface flow in a heterogeneous porous-fractured media. Current simulation and ground modeling techniques consist of (1) spatial discretization of mass and/or heat conservation equations using finite difference or finite element methods; (2) fully implicit time discretization; (3) solving the nonlinear, discrete algebraic equations using a Newton iterative scheme. Previous modeling efforts indicate that the choice of primary variables for a Newton iteration not only impacts computational performance of a numerical code, but may also determine the feasibility of a numerical modeling study in many field applications. This paper presents an analysis and general recommendations for selecting primary variables in simulating multiphase, subsurface flow for one-active phase (Richards' equation), two-phase (gas and liquid) and three-phase (gas, water and nonaqueous phase liquid or NAPL) conditions. In many cases, a dynamic variable switching or variable substitution scheme may have to be used in order to achieve optimal numerical performance and robustness. The selection of primary variables depends in general on the sensitivity of the system of equations to the variables selected at given phase and flow conditions. We will present a series of numerical tests and large-scale field simulation examples, including modeling one (active)-phase, two-phase and three-phase flow problems in multi-dimensional, porous-fractured subsurface systems.
Formulation of an experimental substructure model using a Craig-Bampton based transmission simulator
Kammer, Daniel C.; Allen, Matthew S.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-09-26
An experimental–analytical substructuring is attractive when there is motivation to replace one or more system subcomponents with an experimental model. This experimentally derived substructure can then be coupled to finite element models of the rest of the structure to predict the system response. The transmission simulator method couples a fixture to the component of interest during a vibration test in order to improve the experimental model for the component. The transmission simulator is then subtracted from the tested system to produce the experimental component. This method reduces ill-conditioning by imposing a least squares fit of constraints between substructure modal coordinates to connect substructures, instead of directly connecting physical interface degrees of freedom. This paper presents an alternative means of deriving the experimental substructure model, in which a Craig–Bampton representation of the transmission simulator is created and subtracted from the experimental measurements. The corresponding modal basis of the transmission simulator is described by the fixed-interface modes, rather than free modes that were used in the original approach. Moreover, these modes do a better job of representing the shape of the transmission simulator as it responds within the experimental system, leading to more accurate results using fewer modes. The new approach is demonstrated using a simple finite element model based example with a redundant interface.
Formulation of an experimental substructure model using a Craig-Bampton based transmission simulator
Kammer, Daniel C.; Allen, Matthew S.; Mayes, Randall L.
2015-09-26
An experimental–analytical substructuring is attractive when there is motivation to replace one or more system subcomponents with an experimental model. This experimentally derived substructure can then be coupled to finite element models of the rest of the structure to predict the system response. The transmission simulator method couples a fixture to the component of interest during a vibration test in order to improve the experimental model for the component. The transmission simulator is then subtracted from the tested system to produce the experimental component. This method reduces ill-conditioning by imposing a least squares fit of constraints between substructure modal coordinatesmore » to connect substructures, instead of directly connecting physical interface degrees of freedom. This paper presents an alternative means of deriving the experimental substructure model, in which a Craig–Bampton representation of the transmission simulator is created and subtracted from the experimental measurements. The corresponding modal basis of the transmission simulator is described by the fixed-interface modes, rather than free modes that were used in the original approach. Moreover, these modes do a better job of representing the shape of the transmission simulator as it responds within the experimental system, leading to more accurate results using fewer modes. The new approach is demonstrated using a simple finite element model based example with a redundant interface.« less
Biopsychosocial Formulation: Recognizing Educational Shortcomings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClain, Tina; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James A.
2004-01-01
Objective: Since Engel introduced the biopsychosocial model, it has been extensively examined. The authors expect psychiatrists to formulate cases using the biopsychosocial model. However, resident psychiatrists' ability to generate formulations using this model has received little attention. Methods: The authors evaluated resident biopsychosocial…
The formulation and performance of a perturbative correction to the perfect quadruples model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkhill, John A.; Azar, Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin
2011-04-01
A recently published alternative hierarchy of coupled-cluster approximations is reformulated as a perturbative correction. A single variant, a model for the total electronic energy based on the perfect quadruples model, is explored in detail. The computational scaling of the method developed is the same as canonical second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (fifth order in the number of molecular orbitals), but its accuracy competes with the high-accuracy, high-cost standard CCSD(T), even when the latter is allowed to break spin-symmetry. The variation presented can be implemented without explicit calculation and storage of the most expensive energy contributions, thereby improving the range of systems which can be treated. The performance and scaling of the method are demonstrated with calculations on the water, fluorine, and oxirane molecules, and compared to the parent model.
Formulation, Implementation and Validation of a Two-Fluid model in a Fuel Cell CFD Code
Jain, Kunal; Cole, J. Vernon; Kumar, Sanjiv; Gidwani, Ashok; Vaidya, N.
2008-12-01
Water management is one of the main challenges in PEM Fuel Cells. While water is essential for membrane electrical conductivity, excess liquid water leads to flooding of catalyst layers. Despite the fact that accurate prediction of two-phase transport is key for optimal water management, understanding of the two-phase transport in fuel cells is relatively poor. Wang et. al. have studied the two-phase transport in the channel and diffusion layer separately using a multiphase mixture model. The model fails to accurately predict saturation values for high humidity inlet streams. Nguyen et. al. developed a two-dimensional, two-phase, isothermal, isobaric, steady state model of the catalyst and gas diffusion layers. The model neglects any liquid in the channel. Djilali et. al. developed a three-dimensional two-phase multicomponent model. The model is an improvement over previous models, but neglects drag between the liquid and the gas phases in the channel. In this work, we present a comprehensive two-fluid model relevant to fuel cells. Models for two-phase transport through Channel, Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and Channel-GDL interface, are discussed. In the channel, the gas and liquid pressures are assumed to be same. The surface tension effects in the channel are incorporated using the continuum surface force (CSF) model. The force at the surface is expressed as a volumetric body force and added as a source to the momentum equation. In the GDL, the gas and liquid are assumed to be at different pressures. The difference in the pressures (capillary pressure) is calculated using an empirical correlations. At the Channel-GDL interface, the wall adhesion affects need to be taken into account. SIMPLE-type methods recast the continuity equation into a pressure-correction equation, the solution of which then provides corrections for velocities and pressures. However, in the two-fluid model, the presence of two phasic continuity equations gives more freedom and more
Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki
2012-01-01
We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.
A lateral boundary formulation for multi-level prediction models. [numerical weather forecasting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davies, H. C.
1976-01-01
A method is proposed for treating the lateral boundaries of a limited-area weather prediction model. The method involves the relaxation of the interior flow in the vicinity of the boundary to the external fully prescribed flow. Analytical and numerical results obtained with a linearized multilevel model confirm the effectiveness of this computationally effective method. The method is shown to give an adequate representation of outgoing gravity waves with and without an ambient shear flow and to allow the substantially undistorted transmission of geostrophically balanced flow out of the interior of the limited domain.
1986-03-01
Under Rough Ice," Proceedings of the 1981 Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C.,3 pp. 203-208. DiPietro, N.D. and R.G. Cox...Models," Proceedings of the 1983 Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C., pp. 313-322. Huang, J.C. and Monastero, F.C...1982). "Review of the State-of-the-Art of Oil Spill Simulation Models," Final Report submitted to the American Petroleum Institute . Hunter, J.R., (1980
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dukeshire, Andrea
To efficiently model the effect of the airwave in the controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) method has historically been a problem of major interest. The methods proposed in this thesis provide a new method of simulating CSEM interactions in the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) by using the total-field scattered-field (TFSF) formulation. TFSF provides an inherent separation of the total and scattered fields, which allows the proposed method to decompose the CSEM domain into separate simulation runs. By simulating the problem in stages, the process of extracting the response of the scatterer is streamlined. If the increased efficiency options within the proposed method are utilized, the efficiency of single forward simulations can be improved. This method shows potential for computational cost savings, especially in typical CSEM data analysis and reconstruction situations where numerous iterations of various scatterers are required.
Shea, Munyi; Yang, Lawrence H.; Leong, Frederick T. L.
2011-01-01
Culture shapes the nature, experience, and expression of psychopathology and help-seeking behavior across ethnically diverse groups. Although the study of psychopathology among Asian Americans has advanced, clinicians remain in need of culturally appropriate tools for the assessment and diagnosis of severe mental disorders including psychotic symptoms among Asian Americans. In this article, we present a brief overview of two culturally relevant conceptual tools: a) the Cultural Formulation Model, and b) the Multicultural Case Conceptualization approach. We use a case scenario to illustrate the integration of these two approaches in providing culturally responsive clinical conceptualization, assessment and treatment of a Korean American immigrant suffering from prominent psychiatric symptoms. We intend this discussion to engender further empirical work to advance our knowledge of the manifestation and experience of severe mental illness including psychotic disorders among Asian Americans, and contribute to culturally competent prevention and intervention of chronic and persistent mental illness within this group. PMID:21603157
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namba, Masanobu; Nishino, Ryohei
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of neighboring blade rows on the unsteady aerodynamic response of oscillating cascade blades on the basis of a genuine three-dimensional model. To this end, mathematical formulations based on the lifting surface theory are developed for a pair of contra-rotating annular cascades of oscillating blades. The mechanism of frequency scattering of blade loadings and mode scattering of acoustic waves resulting from interaction between the blade rows in relative rotational motions is mathematically explained. Simultaneous integral equations for all frequency components of blade loadings are derived from the flow tangency condition on the blade surfaces of both blade rows. The validity of the computation codes is verified.
Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël
2010-04-01
A new animal model of travelers' diarrhea has been developed by infecting rats orally with a strain of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in order to assess the efficacy of three probiotic formulations for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Five groups of six rats were given daily (by oral gavage) either a placebo (negative and positive control groups), the suspension of bacterial probiotics called FF1, the yeast probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii, or a combination of both, called Protecflor(TM). After 14 days of treatment, all groups except the negative control one were infected by oral administration of E. coli. Body temperature, body weight, food and water consumption, stools consistency, behavior, and cytokines secretion were disturbed following E. coli infection. Probiotics-treated groups generally displayed less-pronounced symptoms, the combination of probiotics Protecflor(TM) being the most effective.
Evaluation of a Photosynthesis-Based Canopy Resistance Formulation in the Noah Land-Surface Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Anil; Chen, Fei; Niyogi, Dev; Alfieri, Joseph G.; Ek, Michael; Mitchell, Kenneth
2011-02-01
Accurately representing complex land-surface processes balancing complexity and realism remains one challenge that the weather modelling community is facing nowadays. In this study, a photosynthesis-based Gas-exchange Evapotranspiration Model (GEM) is integrated into the Noah land-surface model replacing the traditional Jarvis scheme for estimating the canopy resistance and transpiration. Using 18-month simulations from the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS), the impact of the photosynthesis-based approach on the simulated canopy resistance, surface heat fluxes, soil moisture, and soil temperature over different vegetation types is evaluated using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site, Oklahoma Mesonet, 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002), and three Ameriflux sites. Incorporation of GEM into Noah improves the surface energy fluxes as well as the associated diurnal cycle of soil moisture and soil temperature during both wet and dry periods. An analysis of midday, average canopy resistance shows similar day-to-day trends in the model fields as seen in observed patterns. Bias and standard deviation analyses for soil temperature and surface fluxes show that GEM responds somewhat better than the Jarvis scheme, mainly because the Jarvis approach relies on a parametrised minimum canopy resistance and meteorological variables such as air temperature and incident radiation. The analyses suggest that adding a photosynthesis-based transpiration scheme such as GEM improves the ability of the land-data assimilation system to simulate evaporation and transpiration under a range of soil and vegetation conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L., Jr.; Fowler, T. R.
1977-01-01
Methods for the reduction of remotely sensed data and its application in hydrologic land use assessment, surface water inventory, and soil property studies are presented. LANDSAT data is used to provide quantitative parameters and coefficients to construct watershed transfer functions for a hydrologic planning model aimed at estimating peak outflow from rainfall inputs.
The impact of a boundary layer height formulation on the GEOS-5 model climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath-Spangler, E. L.
2016-04-01
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes are important for the estimation of surface-atmosphere exchanges that impact global climate. One way of characterizing the strength of these processes is the PBL depth. In the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model, the PBL depth is also used in calculating the turbulent length scale, which, in turn, is used in estimating the turbulence and vertical mixing within the model. Therefore, changing the PBL depth definition directly affects the model climate. This study evaluates the climatological model response of two long-term simulations using different PBL depth definitions. The first definition is based on a bulk Richardson number; the second uses a combination of the same bulk Richardson number definition over land plus a definition based on the turbulent eddy diffusion coefficient over water. The two simulations produce different spatiotemporal patterns of temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed related to the differences in turbulence. The largest differences, as expected, are present over water. Due to differences in atmospheric stability, the relationship between the two PBL depth estimates differ among the majority of the oceans and off the west coasts of continents, affecting the climatic response. Due to its optimization of the climatic response while maintaining a realistic diurnal cycle of PBL depth, the mixed PBL depth configuration is preferred.
Badkar, Aniket; Yohannes, Paulos; Banga, Ajay
2006-02-17
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using T(ZERO) modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) as a novel technique to characterize protein solutions using lysozyme as a model protein and IgG as a model monoclonal antibody. MDSC involves the application of modulated heating program, along with the standard heating program that enables the separation of overlapping thermal transitions. Although characterization of unfolding transitions for protein solutions requires the application of high sensitive DSC, separation of overlapping transitions like aggregation and other exothermic events may be possible only by use of MDSC. A newer T(ZERO) calibrated MDSC model from TA instruments that has improved sensitivity than previous models was used. MDSC analysis showed total, reversing and non-reversing heat flow signals. Total heat flow signals showed a combination of melting endotherms and overlapping exothermic events. Under the operating conditions used, the melting endotherms were seen in reversing heat flow signal while the exothermic events were seen in non-reversing heat flow signal. This enabled the separation of overlapping thermal transitions, improved data analysis and decreased baseline noise. MDSC was used here for characterization of lysozyme solutions, but its feasibility for characterizing therapeutic protein solutions needs further assessment.
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em
2014-11-21
We present a bottom-up coarse-graining procedure to construct mesoscopic force fields directly from microscopic dynamics. By grouping many bonded atoms in the molecular dynamics (MD) system into a single cluster, we compute both the conservative and non-conservative interactions between neighboring clusters. In particular, we perform MD simulations of polymer melts to provide microscopic trajectories for evaluating coarse-grained (CG) interactions. Subsequently, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is considered as the effective dynamics resulting from the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) projection of the underlying atomistic dynamics. The forces between finite-size clusters have, in general, both radial and transverse components and hence we employ four different DPD models to account differently for such interactions. Quantitative comparisons between these DPD models indicate that the DPD models with MZ-guided force fields yield much better static and dynamics properties, which are consistent with the underlying MD system, compared to standard DPD with empirical formulae. When the rotational motion of the particle is properly taken into account, the entire velocity autocorrelation function of the MD system as well as the pair correlation function can be accurately reproduced by the MD-informed DPD model. Since this coarse-graining procedure is performed on an unconstrained MD system, our framework is general and can be used in other soft matter systems in which the clusters can be faithfully defined as CG particles.
Formulation, General Features and Global Calibration of a Bioenergetically-Constrained Fishery Model
Bianchi, Daniele; Galbraith, Eric D.
2017-01-01
Human exploitation of marine resources is profoundly altering marine ecosystems, while climate change is expected to further impact commercially-harvested fish and other species. Although the global fishery is a highly complex system with many unpredictable aspects, the bioenergetic limits on fish production and the response of fishing effort to profit are both relatively tractable, and are sure to play important roles. Here we describe a generalized, coupled biological-economic model of the global marine fishery that represents both of these aspects in a unified framework, the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model. BOATS predicts fish production according to size spectra as a function of net primary production and temperature, and dynamically determines harvest spectra from the biomass density and interactive, prognostic fishing effort. Within this framework, the equilibrium fish biomass is determined by the economic forcings of catchability, ex-vessel price and cost per unit effort, while the peak harvest depends on the ecosystem parameters. Comparison of a large ensemble of idealized simulations with observational databases, focusing on historical biomass and peak harvests, allows us to narrow the range of several uncertain ecosystem parameters, rule out most parameter combinations, and select an optimal ensemble of model variants. Compared to the prior distributions, model variants with lower values of the mortality rate, trophic efficiency, and allometric constant agree better with observations. For most acceptable parameter combinations, natural mortality rates are more strongly affected by temperature than growth rates, suggesting different sensitivities of these processes to climate change. These results highlight the utility of adopting large-scale, aggregated data constraints to reduce model parameter uncertainties and to better predict the response of fisheries to human behaviour and climate change. PMID:28103280
Ganju, Neil Kamal; Sherwood, Christopher R.
2010-01-01
A variety of algorithms are available for parameterizing the hydrodynamic bottom roughness associated with grain size, saltation, bedforms, and wave–current interaction in coastal ocean models. These parameterizations give rise to spatially and temporally variable bottom-drag coefficients that ostensibly provide better representations of physical processes than uniform and constant coefficients. However, few studies have been performed to determine whether improved representation of these variable bottom roughness components translates into measurable improvements in model skill. We test the hypothesis that improved representation of variable bottom roughness improves performance with respect to near-bed circulation, bottom stresses, or turbulence dissipation. The inner shelf south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of sorted grain-size features which exhibit sharp alongshore variations in grain size and ripple geometry over gentle bathymetric relief; this area provides a suitable testing ground for roughness parameterizations. We first establish the skill of a nested regional model for currents, waves, stresses, and turbulent quantities using a uniform and constant roughness; we then gauge model skill with various parameterization of roughness, which account for the influence of the wave-boundary layer, grain size, saltation, and rippled bedforms. We find that commonly used representations of ripple-induced roughness, when combined with a wave–current interaction routine, do not significantly improve skill for circulation, and significantly decrease skill with respect to stresses and turbulence dissipation. Ripple orientation with respect to dominant currents and ripple shape may be responsible for complicating a straightforward estimate of the roughness contribution from ripples. In addition, sediment-induced stratification may be responsible for lower stresses than predicted by the wave–current interaction model.
Kish-Catalone, Tina; Pal, Ranajit; Parrish, John; Rose, Nicholas; Hocker, Lindsey; Hudacik, Lauren; Reitz, Marvin; Gallo, Robert; Devico, Anthony
2007-01-01
A potential strategy to combat the worldwide AIDS epidemic is to develop a vaginal microbicide that prevents the sexual transmission of HIV-1. One approach for preventing vaginal HIV transmission is to block the viral coreceptor CCR5 with naturally occurring chemokine ligands. In this study, we used a cynomolgus macaque model to evaluate whether a variant of the CCR5 ligand RANTES (-2 RANTES), tested alone or in a nonphospholipid liposome carrier (Novasomes 7474), blocks vaginal challenge with a CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(162P3)). When tested in vitro, the synthetic chemokine potently inhibited SHIV(162P3) infection of cynomolgus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Colposcopic examinations of treated animals and histological examination of cervicovaginal biopsies showed minimal signs of tissue inflammation following vaginal application of Novasomes 7474, -2 RANTES formulated in Novasomes 7474, or -2 RANTES alone. Following vaginal challenge with SHIV(162P3), complete protection was observed in four of six animals treated vaginally with -2 RANTES (0.13 mM) formulated in Novasomes 7474. However, the same proportion of animals was protected by treatment with Novasomes 7474 carrier alone. Two of five animals treated with 0.5 mM -2 RANTES in PBS were protected from infection. Further, all animals were infected when treated with lower chemokine concentrations. These findings indicate that natural CCR5 ligands may have limited efficacy in stringent nonhuman primate models for vaginal infection. In comparison, liposomal agents such as Novasomes 7474 provide comparatively robust protection against vaginal transmission.
Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun
2016-07-01
In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation.
Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro
2014-01-01
ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.
Csiszar, Susan A; Gandhi, Nilima; Alexy, Radka; Benny, Donald T; Struger, John; Marvin, Chris; Diamond, Miriam L
2011-07-01
A model formulation based on "aquivalence", as defined in terms of activity is presented to estimate the multimedia fate of ionizing chemicals. The aquivalence approach is analogous to fugacity but aquivalence is applicable to neutral and ionizing compounds, and has been applied previously to speciating chemicals, notably metals. The new aquivalence-based mass-balance model treats ionizing organic compounds that exist as interconverting neutral and ionic species which are subject to fate processes at differing rates. The model is illustrated by application to four ionizing pharmaceuticals in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. At the system pH of 7.9-8.5, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen are expected to be almost entirely ionic and triclosan split between ionic and neutral forms. Measured seasonal surface water concentrations, which were 2-10 times lower in the late summer and fall than during spring, were used to solve for unknown values of chemical half-life in the water column due to degradation (photo- and bio-) of the ionizing and neutral forms and secondarily, ionic sorption coefficients of the ionizing forms. Model estimates of half-lives in the habour's water ranged from 11 to 77, 11 to 147 and 10 to 37 for ionic ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and naproxen, respectively; and 4-22 days and 2-9 days for ionic and neutral triclosan, respectively, with the shortest half-lives in spring and the longest in summer.
A Riemann-Hilbert formulation for the finite temperature Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Andrea; Cornagliotto, Martina; Mattelliano, Massimo; Tateo, Roberto
2015-06-01
Inspired by recent results in the context of AdS/CFT integrability, we reconsider the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations describing the 1D fermionic Hubbard model at finite temperature. We prove that the infinite set of TBA equations are equivalent to a simple nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem for a finite number of unknown functions. The latter can be transformed into a set of three coupled nonlinear integral equations defined over a finite support, which can be easily solved numerically. We discuss the emergence of an exact Bethe Ansatz and the link between the TBA approach and the results by Jüttner, Klümper and Suzuki based on the Quantum Transfer Matrix method. We also comment on the analytic continuation mechanism leading to excited states and on the mirror equations describing the finite-size Hubbard model with twisted boundary conditions.
Moving Towards Integrated Policy Formulation and Evaluation: The Green Economy Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassi, Andrea M.
2015-12-01
The mainstreaming of concepts related to the Green Economy, an action-oriented approach to reach sustainable development, has increased demands for integrated models that can shed light on the complex relations existing across social, economic and environmental indicators. A gap exists, whereby our thinking is rapidly evolving, but the tools available are still in the vast majority of cases sectorial, leading to planning processes taking place in silos. To avoid the emergence of side effects, and anticipate future threats and opportunities, a more systemic approach is needed. The Green Economy Model (GEM) was created taking into account four main capitals and their interconnections: physical capital, human capital, social capital and natural capital. The application of GEM in 10 countries has shown its capability to coherently represent reality and generate results that can more effectively inform decision making.
Modak, J P; Bapat, A R
1994-04-01
A manually driven brick-making machine has recently been developed without the benefit of any design data. The machine consists of three main units: a pedal-driven flywheel motor; the transmission between the flywheel shaft and the input shaft of the process machine; and the process unit, consisting of auger, cone and die. The machine was essentially developed on the basis of general mechanical design experience and intuition. In spite of this, it proved to be functional and economically viable. However, it was felt essential to develop it scientifically. This paper reports on the full development of the pedal-driven flywheel motor. As this is a human-machine system it is highly unlikely that a logic-based model can be established. Therefore an experimental method is adopted to evolve a generalized experimental model, which is further optimized to satisfy several objective functions.
Simulation of Oil Slick Transport in Great Lakes Connecting Channels. Theory and Model Formulation
1990-02-01
spilled under rough ice. In Proceedings of the 1981 Oil Spill Conference. American Petroleum Institute , Washington, D.C., p. 203-208. DePietro, N.D. and... American Petroleum Institute , Envi- ronmental Protection Agency and U.S. Coast Guard. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Insti- tute, p. 463-467. 27...Monastero (1982) Review of the state-of-the-art of oil spill simulation models. Final Report submitted to the American Petroleum Institute . Hunter, J.R
2009-01-01
School, Monterey, CA 93943, USA † Ecuaciones Diferenciales y Análisis Numérico, Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Matemáticas, C/ Tarfia s/n, 41012...identify below. One final note about the results below: while we show results for very specific resolutions (in this case, the flow is well- resolved ...we have also analyzed under- resolved simulations and the comparisons that we now report are representative of differences of the five models in both
Charlton, S T; Davis, S S; Illum, L
2007-06-29
The effect of bioadhesive formulations on the direct transport of an angiotensin antagonist drug ((14)C-GR138950) from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system was evaluated in a rat model. Three different bioadhesive polymer formulations (3% pectin LM-5, 1.0% pectin LM-12 and 0.5% chitosan G210) containing the drug were administered nasally to rats by inserting a dosing cannula 7mm into the nasal cavity after which the plasma and brain tissue levels were measured. It was found that the polymer formulations provided significantly higher plasma levels and significantly lower brain tissue levels of drug than a control, in the form of a simple drug solution. Changing the depth of insertion of the cannula from 7 to 15mm, in order to reach the olfactory region in the nasal cavity significantly decreased plasma levels and significantly increased brain tissue levels of drug for the two formulations studied (1.0% pectin LM-12 and a simple drug solution). There was no significant difference between the drug availability for the bioadhesive formulation and the control in the brain when the longer cannula was used for administration. It is suggested that the conventional rat model is not suitable for evaluation of the effects of bioadhesive formulations in nose-to-brain delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maupin, Valerie; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Schweitzer, Johannes; Gibbons, Steven J.
2016-04-01
We recently advocated using the reflectivity method, also known as the wavenumber integration method or fast-field program, to model atmospheric infrasound propagation at regional distances. The advantage of the reflectivity method is its ability to model the full wavefield, including diffractive effects with head waves and shadow zone arrivals, in a broad frequency range but still at a relatively low computational cost. Attenuation can easily be included, giving the possibility to analyse relative amplitudes and frequency content of the different arrivals. It has clear advantages compared with ray theory in terms of predicting phases considering the particular frequent occurrence of shadow zone arrivals in infrasound observations. Its main limitation, at least in the traditional form of the method, lies in the fact that it can only handle range-independent models. We presented earlier some reflectivity method simulations of an observed accidental explosion in Norway. Wind intensity and direction are non-negligible parameters for infrasound propagation and these are appropriately taken into account in most infrasound ray-tracing codes. On the other hand, in the previous reflectivity simulations wind was taken into account only through the effective sound speed approximation where the horizontal projection of the wind field is added to the adiabatic sound speed profiles. This approximation is appropriate for dominantly horizontal propagation but can give incorrect arrival times and shadow zone locations for waves which have a significant portion of their propagation path at more vertical incidence, like thermospheric arrivals. We present here how we have modified the original reflectivity algorithm in order to take the wind into account in a more correct fashion, and how this improvement influences the synthetics.
2015-04-24
the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. INTRODUCTION An accurate modeling of the complex tire geometry and the...coordinate system o-12 with respect to the material frame o-xy UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. #26428 7...fiber coordinate system as 1111 1122 1122 2222 1212 0 0 0 0 p C C C C C C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirkpatrick, J. C.
1976-01-01
A tabulation of selected altitude-correlated values of pressure, density, speed of sound, and coefficient of viscosity for each of six models of the atmosphere is presented in block data format. Interpolation for the desired atmospheric parameters is performed by using cubic spline functions. The recursive relations necessary to compute the cubic spline function coefficients are derived and implemented in subroutine form. Three companion subprograms, which form the preprocessor and processor, are also presented. These subprograms, together with the data element, compose the spline fit atmosphere package. Detailed FLOWGM flow charts and FORTRAN listings of the atmosphere package are presented in the appendix.
2014-02-01
pore water. Consequently, the ground must be free of any snowpack for rainfall impact to occur. The model calculates whether the daily mean air...EL TR-14-2 13 where, bmlt = melt factor (mm H2O/day-oC) snocov = fraction of area covered by snow (0 to 1.0) isnow T = snowpack ...é ù+ê ú = ê ú ê ú ê úë û 2 (14) The temperature of the snowpack can be estimated from ( )T T l T lsnow snow sno av snoi i = - + ´ - 1 1 (15
On the formulation of a minimal uncertainty model for robust control with structured uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert
1991-01-01
In the design and analysis of robust control systems for uncertain plants, representing the system transfer matrix in the form of what has come to be termed an M-delta model has become widely accepted and applied in the robust control literature. The M represents a transfer function matrix M(s) of the nominal closed loop system, and the delta represents an uncertainty matrix acting on M(s). The nominal closed loop system M(s) results from closing the feedback control system, K(s), around a nominal plant interconnection structure P(s). The uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as structured uncertainty from parameter variations or multiple unsaturated uncertainties from unmodeled dynamics and other neglected phenomena. In general, delta is a block diagonal matrix, but for real parameter variations delta is a diagonal matrix of real elements. Conceptually, the M-delta structure can always be formed for any linear interconnection of inputs, outputs, transfer functions, parameter variations, and perturbations. However, very little of the currently available literature addresses computational methods for obtaining this structure, and none of this literature addresses a general methodology for obtaining a minimal M-delta model for a wide class of uncertainty, where the term minimal refers to the dimension of the delta matrix. Since having a minimally dimensioned delta matrix would improve the efficiency of structured singular value (or multivariable stability margin) computations, a method of obtaining a minimal M-delta would be useful. Hence, a method of obtaining the interconnection system P(s) is required. A generalized procedure for obtaining a minimal P-delta structure for systems with real parameter variations is presented. Using this model, the minimal M-delta model can then be easily obtained by closing the feedback loop. The procedure involves representing the system in a cascade-form state-space realization, determining the minimal uncertainty matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wind, G.; DaSilva, A. M.; Norris, P. M.; Platnick, S.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating synthetic sensor radiances from variable output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint, the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probability density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The simulated sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies.We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products). We focus on clouds because they are very important to model development and improvement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, P. P.
2012-01-01
Key to translating soil moisture memory into subseasonal precipitation and air temperature forecast skill is a realistic treatment of evaporation in the forecast system used - in particular, a realistic treatment of how evaporation responds to variations in soil moisture. The inherent soil moisture-evaporation relationships used in today's land surface models (LSMs), however, arguably reflect little more than guesswork given the lack of evaporation and soil moisture data at the spatial scales represented by regional and global models. Here we present a new approach for evaluating this critical aspect of LSMs. Seasonally averaged precipitation is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged soil moisture, and seasonally-averaged air temperature is used as a proxy for seasonally-averaged evaporation (e.g., more evaporative cooling leads to cooler temperatures) the relationship between historical precipitation and temperature measurements accordingly mimics in certain important ways nature's relationship between soil moisture and evaporation. Additional information on the relationship is gleaned from joint analysis of precipitation and streamflow measurements. An experimental framework that utilizes these ideas to guide the development of an improved soil moisture-evaporation relationship is described and demonstrated.
García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto
2007-01-01
Experiments in articular cartilage have shown highly nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations, nonlinear tension-compression response as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix and the collagen fibers. A biphasic viscohyperelastic fibril-reinforced model is proposed here, which is able to describe the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the fibrillar and nonfibrillar components of the solid phase, the nonlinear tension-compression response and the nonlinear stress-strain curves under tension and compression. A viscohyperelastic constitutive equation was used for the matrix and the fibers encompassing, respectively, a hyperelastic function used previously for the matrix and a hyperelastic law used before to represent biological connective tissues. This model, implemented in an updated Lagrangian finite element code, displayed good ability to follow experimental stress-strain equilibrium curves under tension and compression for human humeral cartilage. In addition, curve fitting of experimental reaction force and lateral displacement unconfined compression curves showed that the inclusion of viscous effects in the matrix allows the description of experimental data with material properties for the fibers consistent with experimental tensile tests, suggesting that intrinsic viscous effects in the matrix of articular cartilage plays an important role in the mechanical response of the tissue.
CFD modeling of turbulent flows around the SSME main injector assembly using porosity formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Ruf, Joseph H.
1992-07-01
Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and liquid oxygen (LOX) flow distributions through the LOX posts have great effect on the combustion phenomenon inside the main combustion chamber. An advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis will help to provide more accurate and efficient characterization of this type of flow field. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity is employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. A validated non-isotropic porosity model is developed and incorporated into an existing Navier-Stokes flow solver (FDNS). Volume and surface porosity parameters, which are based on the configurations of local LOX post clustering, are introduced into the governing equations.
Cordaro, M; Impellizzeri, D; Bruschetta, G; Siracusa, R; Crupi, R; Di Paola, R; Esposito, E; Cuzzocrea, S
2016-01-05
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a complication in patients after administration of iodinated contrast media. Several risk factors contribute to the development and progression of CIN, including hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Animal models of CIN by surgical intervention to reproduce its clinical and pathology has been developed, and thus, therapeutic methods tested. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a member of the fatty acid ethanolamine family with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed streptozotocin-induced diabetes model and in an another set of experiment a surgical remotion of the kidney with the aim of evaluating effect of ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um(®)) on contrast induced renal disfunction and glomerular morphology alteration. In a first step of our study, we demonstrated that PEA-um(®) significantly reduced CIN-mediated glomerular dysfunction, modulates Na(+) and K(+) levels in plasma and decreased urine and plasma NGAL levels and α-GST urine levels. Moreover, in a second set of experiment we investigated how PEA-um(®) reduced creatinine and BUN plasma levels after nephrectomy, ameliorate renal and medullary blood flow and re-established renal parenchymal after CIN induction as well as after nephrectomy. Take together our results demonstrated that PEA-um(®) are able to preventing CIN in diabetic rats and alteration of biochemical parameters after nephrectomy.
Effect of gasoline formulation on the formation of photosmog: a box model study.
Geiger, Herald; Becker, Karl H; Wiesen, Peter
2003-04-01
Based on exhaust gas analyses from the combustion of five different types of gasoline in a passenger car operated on a chassis dynamometer, box model simulations of the irradiation of exhaust/NOx/air mixtures using an established chemical mechanism for a standardized photosmog scenario were performed. The fuel matrix used covered wide fractional ranges for paraffinic, olefinic, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Two fuels also contained methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). The different O3 profiles calculated for each run were compared and interpreted. The O3 levels obtained were strongly influenced by the exhaust gas concentrations of aromatic and olefinic hydrocarbons. The higher exhaust content of these compounds caused higher O3 production in the smog system investigated. The conclusion of the present study is that the composition of gasoline cannot be taken directly for the estimation of the emissions' O3 creation potential from its combustion. Variation of the dilution in the different calculations showed evidence for an additional influence of transport effects. Accordingly, further detailed exhaust gas analyses followed by more complex modeling studies are necessary for a proper characterization of the relationship between fuel blend and gasoline combustion products.
CFD modeling of turbulent flows around the SSME main injector assembly using porosity formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Ruf, Joseph H.
1992-01-01
Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and liquid oxygen (LOX) flow distributions through the LOX posts have great effect on the combustion phenomenon inside the main combustion chamber. An advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis will help to provide more accurate and efficient characterization of this type of flow field. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity is employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. A validated non-isotropic porosity model is developed and incorporated into an existing Navier-Stokes flow solver (FDNS). Volume and surface porosity parameters, which are based on the configurations of local LOX post clustering, are introduced into the governing equations.
Formulation of an Integrated Model for Freshwater Resources Policy Evaluation in Jordan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Sigel, K.; Tilmant, A.; Lachaut, T.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Padula, S.; Mustafa, D.
2014-12-01
Jordan is one of the four water poorest countries in the world. It is a highly vulnerable arid region whose freshwater system is at a tipping point due to the confluence of severely limited water supplies, rapid population growth, refugee influxes, climate change and variability, internal and transboundary competition for shared freshwater resources, and institutional impediments. Our team is engaged in an interdisciplinary effort aimed at developing a new approach to evaluate policies that enhance sustainability of freshwater resource systems. Our work adopts a multi-agent modeling framework that incorporates institutional complexity to evaluate policy instruments for improving water security in Jordan. We are developing this model using a modular approach, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena (e.g., groundwater-surface water flow, reservoir storage, network routing, salt balance, and crop yield) with human modules that represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules adopt a multi-agent simulation approach, defining agents as autonomous decision-makers at the government, administrative, organizational, and user levels. Our goal is to construct a suite of policy intervention scenarios that will form the basis for analysis of freshwater sustainability. This work has benefitted from a strong working relationship with leaders of the water sector in Jordan. Our approach and the merit of the policy interventions should have significant transfer value to other water-stressed regions.
Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.
1997-06-01
The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.
CFD modeling of turbulent flows around the SSME main injector assembly using porosity formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Farmer, Richard C.
1992-01-01
Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and LOX flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. Two-dimensional numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows, both through tube banks and round the shielded posts, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficients as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts: LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.
Moisture Outgassing Rates from TATB-Formulations: Experiments and Kinetic Model Development
Glascoe, E A; Dinh, L N; Small IV, W
2009-07-29
diffusion through pressed parts, or the effects of wet vs. dry machining, or the influence of the synthesis methods in the amount of water present. There are a few different models that have been developed to predict the rate of water release from LX-17 or PBX-9502. These models are, to some extent, limited by the limitations of the experiments. Because all these experiments looked at water release over a relatively short period of time and left the samples relatively undamaged, they serve as a lower bound. In this work, we perform experiments and develop models that can serve as an upper bound on the rate and amount of water that can be released. Our experimental approach is to use temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and monitor the rate and amount of water release as a function of temperature. We analyzed our experimental data using two different kinetic analysis methods (isoconversional analysis and nth-order Arrhenius kinetic fits) and used the results to make predictions. The suitability of these kinetic analysis methods as well as the applicability of these experiments to long term aging (e.g. years) issues are discussed. Using the kinetics from our experiments, we predict the water release at temperature and timescales relevant to the existing literature. Based on our analysis and comparison with older data, the kinetic model(s) developed in this work serve as a relatively accurate (i.e. order of magnitude) method for predicting the water release under a variety of thermal histories.
Laffont, Celine M; Gomeni, Roberto; Zheng, Bo; Heidbreder, Christian; Fudala, Paul J; Nasser, Azmi F
2015-01-01
RBP-7000 is a long-acting formulation of risperidone designed for once-monthly subcutaneous injection for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective was to estimate clinically effective doses of RBP-7000 based on model simulations and on the comparison with other long-acting injectable antipsychotics. A population pharmacokinetic model of RBP-7000 was developed in 90 clinically stable schizophrenic patients having received single/repeated doses of 60, 90, or 120 mg. Model simulations were conducted to compare active moiety plasma exposure after repeated RBP-7000 administrations to the published data of long-acting risperidone injection (Risperdal® Consta®) at 25 and 50 mg, and of paliperidone palmitate (Invega® Sustenna®) at 50 and 100 mg equivalent paliperidone. Predictions of dopamine D2 receptor occupancy were derived from the simulated active moiety concentrations. Simulations showed similar active moiety plasma exposure at steady-state for 90 mg of RBP-7000 and 25 mg of long-acting risperidone. In comparison to risperidone, RBP-7000 reached effective concentrations immediately after the first administration. RBP-7000 at the doses of 60 and 90 mg provided similar active moiety plasma concentrations at steady-state compared to 50 and 100 mg equivalent paliperidone, respectively. These findings provide guidance for dose selection in Phase III clinical trials and suggest potential benefits for RBP-7000 over competitors.
Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Han, Sifei; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Chalmers, David K
2017-03-06
Lipid-based drug formulations can greatly enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Following the oral administration of formulations containing tri- or diglycerides, the digestive processes occurring within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hydrolyze the glycerides to mixtures of free fatty acids and monoglycerides that are, in turn, solubilized by bile. The behavior of drugs within the resulting colloidal mixtures is currently not well characterized. This work presents matched in vitro experimental and molecular dynamics (MD) theoretical models of the GI microenvironment containing a digested triglyceride-based (Type I) drug formulation. Both the experimental and theoretical models consist of molecular species representing bile (glycodeoxycholic acid), digested triglyceride (1:2 glyceryl-1-monooleate and oleic acid), and water. We have characterized the phase behavior of the physical system using nephelometry, dynamic light scattering, and polarizing light microscopy and compared these measurements to phase behavior observed in multiple MD simulations. Using this model microenvironment, we have investigated the dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drug danazol experimentally using LC-MS and theoretically by MD simulation. The results show how the formulation lipids alter the environment of the GI tract and improve the solubility of danazol. The MD simulations successfully reproduce the experimental results showing the utility of MD in modeling the fate of drugs after digestion of lipid-based formulations within the intestinal lumen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiani, Keivan
2011-10-01
The potential applications of nanoplates in energy storage, chemical and biological sensors, solar cells, field emission, and transporting of nanocars have been attracted the attentions of the nanotechnology community to them during recent years. Herein, the later application of nanoplates from nonlocal elastodynamic point of view is of interest. To this end, dynamic response of a nanoplate subjected to a moving nanoparticle is examined within the context of nonlocal continuum theory of Eringen. The fully simply supported nanoplate is modeled based on the nonlocal Kirchhoff, Mindlin, and higher-order plate theories. The non-dimensional equations of motion of the nonlocal plate models are established. The effects of moving nanoparticle's weight and existing friction between the surfaces of the moving nanoparticle and nanoplate on the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the nanoplate are incorporated into the formulations of the proposed models. The eigen function expansion and the Laplace transform methods are employed for discretization of the governing equations in the spatial and the time domains, respectively. The analytical expressions of the dynamic deformation field associated with each nonlocal plate theory are obtained when the moving nanoparticle traverses the nanoplate on an arbitrary straight path (an opened path) as well as an ellipse path (a closed path). The dynamic in-plane forces and moments of each nonlocal plate model are also derived. Furthermore, the critical velocity and the critical angular velocity of the moving nanoparticle for the proposed models are expressed analytically for the aforementioned paths. Part II of this work consists in a comprehensive parametric study where the effects of influential parameters on dynamic response of the proposed nonlocal plate models are scrutinized in some detail.
Smith, Kyle K. G.; Poulsen, Jens Aage Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.
2015-06-28
We develop two classes of quasi-classical dynamics that are shown to conserve the initial quantum ensemble when used in combination with the Feynman-Kleinert approximation of the density operator. These dynamics are used to improve the Feynman-Kleinert implementation of the classical Wigner approximation for the evaluation of quantum time correlation functions known as Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral. As shown, both classes of dynamics are able to recover the exact classical and high temperature limits of the quantum time correlation function, while a subset is able to recover the exact harmonic limit. A comparison of the approximate quantum time correlation functions obtained from both classes of dynamics is made with the exact results for the challenging model problems of the quartic and double-well potentials. It is found that these dynamics provide a great improvement over the classical Wigner approximation, in which purely classical dynamics are used. In a special case, our first method becomes identical to centroid molecular dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riviere, Jim E.; Scoglio, Caterina; Sahneh, Faryad D.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.
2013-01-01
The field of nanomaterial pharmacokinetics is in its infancy, with major advances largely restricted by a lack of biologically relevant metrics, fundamental differences between particles and small molecules of organic chemicals and drugs relative to biological processes involved in disposition, a scarcity of sufficiently rich and characterized in vivo data and a lack of computational approaches to integrating nanomaterial properties to biological endpoints. A central concept that links nanomaterial properties to biological disposition, in addition to their colloidal properties, is the tendency to form a biocorona which modulates biological interactions including cellular uptake and biodistribution. Pharmacokinetic models must take this crucial process into consideration to accurately predict in vivo disposition, especially when extrapolating from laboratory animals to humans since allometric principles may not be applicable. The dynamics of corona formation, which modulates biological interactions including cellular uptake and biodistribution, is thereby a crucial process involved in the rate and extent of biodisposition. The challenge will be to develop a quantitative metric that characterizes a nanoparticle's surface adsorption forces that are important for predicting biocorona dynamics. These types of integrative quantitative approaches discussed in this paper for the dynamics of corona formation must be developed before realistic engineered nanomaterial risk assessment can be accomplished.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James
2014-03-01
Because many useful electronic properties such as ferroelectricity arise solely due to the lack of inversion in a material's crystal structure, predictive microscopic models describing how to deterministically remove this symmetry operation can allow for the rapid identification and design of new polar compounds. By understanding how structural distortions influence the connectivity between oxygen polyhedra in solid state oxides, we elucidate a series of geometric design rules necessary to develop polar materials. We then apply these criteria to the family of ABO3 perovskite oxides by systematically investigating how distortions of the corner-connected BO6 polyhedral network influence the A-site environments, resulting in a detailed description of the octahedral rotation patterns and A- and B-site cation ordering arrangements capable of producing centrosymmetric, polar, and enantiomorphic structures. Using this as a guide, we then show how such a method allows for the targeted design of new non-centrosymmetric oxides. We conclude by using these rules in combination with density functional theory calculations to predict a series of rhombohedral (A,A')B2O6 perovskites displaying electric polarizations in their ground state.
Smith, Kyle K G; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J
2015-06-28
We develop two classes of quasi-classical dynamics that are shown to conserve the initial quantum ensemble when used in combination with the Feynman-Kleinert approximation of the density operator. These dynamics are used to improve the Feynman-Kleinert implementation of the classical Wigner approximation for the evaluation of quantum time correlation functions known as Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral. As shown, both classes of dynamics are able to recover the exact classical and high temperature limits of the quantum time correlation function, while a subset is able to recover the exact harmonic limit. A comparison of the approximate quantum time correlation functions obtained from both classes of dynamics is made with the exact results for the challenging model problems of the quartic and double-well potentials. It is found that these dynamics provide a great improvement over the classical Wigner approximation, in which purely classical dynamics are used. In a special case, our first method becomes identical to centroid molecular dynamics.
Zhou, Ye; Schilling, Oleg; Ghosh, Sanjoy
2002-08-01
The spectral eddy and backscatter viscosity and the spectral eddy and backscatter resistivity for incompressible, three-dimensional, isotropic, nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are constructed using the eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian statistical closure model developed by Pouquet, Frisch, and Léorat [J. Fluid Mech. 77, 321 (1976)] in terms of primitive variables. The approach used is an extension of the methodology developed by Leslie and Quarini [J. Fluid Mech. 91, 65 (1979)] for fluid turbulence to MHD turbulence. The eddy and backscatter viscosities and the eddy and backscatter resistivities are calculated numerically for assumed kinetic and magnetic energy spectra, E(v)(k) and E(B)(k), with a production subrange and a k(-5/3) inertial subrange for the two cases r(A)=1 and r(A)=1 / 2, where r(A)=E(v)(k)/E(B)(k) is the Alfvén ratio. It is shown that the effects of the unresolved subgrid scales on the resolved-scale velocity and magnetic field consist of an eddy damping and backscatter. The eddy viscosity and resistivity, and the backscatter viscosity and resistivity (the correlation function of the stochastic velocity and magnetic backscatter force) are shown to have a dependence on k/k(c), where k(c) is the cutoff wave number, which is very similar to the dependence calculated in the pure (i.e., nonmagnetic) Navier-Stokes turbulence case. The eddy viscosity and resistivity, and the backscatter viscosity and resistivity numerically calculated here can be used to develop improved subgrid-scale parametrizations for spectral large-eddy simulations of homogenous MHD turbulence.
Stricker, C.; Fernando, R. L.; Elston, R. C.
1995-01-01
This paper presents an extension of the finite polygenic mixed model of FERNANDO et al. (1994) to linkage analysis. The finite polygenic mixed model, extended for linkage analysis, leads to a likelihood that can be calculated using efficient algorithms developed for oligogenic models. For comparison, linkage analysis of 5 simulated 4021-member pedigrees was performed using the usual mixed model of inheritance, approximated by HASSTEDT (1982), and the finite polygenic mixed model extended for linkage analysis presented here. Maximum likelihood estimates of the finite polygenic mixed model could be inferred to be closer to the simulated values in these pedigrees. PMID:8601502
Forney-Stevens, Kelly M; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J
2016-02-01
In small amounts, the low molecular weight excipients-sorbitol and glycerol-have been shown to stabilize lyophilized sucrose-based protein formulations. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of amino acids as low molecular weight excipients to similarly enhance stability. Model proteins, recombinant human serum albumin and α-chymotrypsin, were formulated with sucrose in combination with one of 15 amino acid additives. Each formulation was lyophilized at 1:1:0.3 (w/w) protein-sucrose-amino acid. Percent total soluble aggregate was measured by size-exclusion chromatography before and after storage at 50 °C for 2 months. Classical thought might suggest that the addition of the amino acids to the sucrose-protein formulations would be destabilizing because of a decrease in the system's glass transition temperature. However, significant improvement in storage stability was observed for almost all formulations at the ratio of amino acid used. Weak correlations were found between the extent of stabilization and both amino acid molar volume and side-chain charge. The addition of amino acids at a modest level generally improves storage stability, often by more than a 50% increase, for lyophilized sucrose-based protein formulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivosheina, Marina; Kobenko, Sergey; Tuch, Elena; Kozlova, Maria
2016-11-01
This paper investigates elastic and plastic waves in HCP single crystals through the numerical simulation of strain processes in anisotropic materials based on a zinc single crystal. Velocity profiles for compression waves in the back surfaces of single-crystal zinc plates with impact loading oriented in 0001 and 10 1 ¯0 are presented in this work as a part of results obtained in numerical simulations. The mathematical model implemented in this study reflects the following characteristics of the mechanical properties inherent in anisotropic (transtropic) materials: varying degree of anisotropy of elastic and plastic properties, which includes reverse anisotropy, dependence of distribution of all types of waves on the velocity orientation, and the anisotropy of compressibility. Another feature of elastic and plastic waves in HCP single crystals is that the shock wave does not split into an elastic precursor and "plastic" compression shock wave, which is inherent in zinc single crystals with loading oriented in 0001. The study compares numerical results obtained in a three-dimensional formulation with the results of velocity profiles from the back surfaces of target plates obtained in real experiments. These results demonstrate that the mathematical model is capable of describing the properties of the above-mentioned anisotropic (transtropic) materials.
Jain, Meenu; Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Alsulami, Meshal; Shankar, Adarsh; Achyut, Bhagelu R; Angara, Kartik; Rashid, Mohammad H; Iskander, Asm; Borin, Thaiz F; Wenbo, Zhi; Ara, Roxan; Ali, Meser M; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Chwang, Wilson B; Guo, Austin; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Arbab, Ali S
2017-01-31
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a hypervascular primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. HET0016 is a selective CYP450 inhibitor, which has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Therefore, to explore novel treatments, we have generated an improved intravenous (IV) formulation of HET0016 with HPßCD and tested in animal models of human and syngeneic GBM. Administration of a single IV dose resulted in 7-fold higher levels of HET0016 in plasma and 3.6-fold higher levels in tumor at 60 min than that in IP route. IV treatment with HPßCD-HET0016 decreased tumor growth, and altered vascular kinetics in early and late treatment groups (p < 0.05). Similar growth inhibition was observed in syngeneic GL261 GBM (p < 0.05). Survival studies using patient derived xenografts of GBM811, showed prolonged survival to 26 weeks in animals treated with focal radiation, in combination with HET0016 and TMZ (p < 0.05). We observed reduced expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67), decreased neovascularization (laminin and αSMA), in addition to inflammation and angiogenesis markers in the treatment group (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that HPßCD-HET0016 is effective in inhibiting tumor growth through decreasing proliferation, and neovascularization. Furthermore, HPßCD-HET0016 significantly prolonged survival in PDX GBM811 model.
Jain, Meenu; Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H.; Alsulami, Meshal; Shankar, Adarsh; Achyut, Bhagelu R.; Angara, Kartik; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Iskander, Asm; Borin, Thaiz F.; Wenbo, Zhi; Ara, Roxan; Ali, Meser M.; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Chwang, Wilson B.; Guo, Austin; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Arbab, Ali S.
2017-01-01
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a hypervascular primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. HET0016 is a selective CYP450 inhibitor, which has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Therefore, to explore novel treatments, we have generated an improved intravenous (IV) formulation of HET0016 with HPßCD and tested in animal models of human and syngeneic GBM. Administration of a single IV dose resulted in 7-fold higher levels of HET0016 in plasma and 3.6-fold higher levels in tumor at 60 min than that in IP route. IV treatment with HPßCD-HET0016 decreased tumor growth, and altered vascular kinetics in early and late treatment groups (p < 0.05). Similar growth inhibition was observed in syngeneic GL261 GBM (p < 0.05). Survival studies using patient derived xenografts of GBM811, showed prolonged survival to 26 weeks in animals treated with focal radiation, in combination with HET0016 and TMZ (p < 0.05). We observed reduced expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67), decreased neovascularization (laminin and αSMA), in addition to inflammation and angiogenesis markers in the treatment group (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that HPßCD-HET0016 is effective in inhibiting tumor growth through decreasing proliferation, and neovascularization. Furthermore, HPßCD-HET0016 significantly prolonged survival in PDX GBM811 model. PMID:28139732
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabel, R.; Lang, P. F.; Smith, L. A.; Reed, D. A.
1989-01-01
Boeing Helicopter, together with other United States helicopter manufacturers, participated in a finite element applications program to emplace in the United States a superior capability to utilize finite element analysis models in support of helicopter airframe design. The activities relating to planning and creating a finite element vibrations model of the Boeing Model 36-0 composite airframe are summarized, along with the subsequent analytical correlation with ground shake test data.
MacQuarrie, K T; Sudicky, E A
2001-01-01
One of the most common methods to dispose of domestic wastewater involves the release of septic effluent from drains located in the unsaturated zone. Nitrogen from such systems is currently of concern because of nitrate contamination of drinking water supplies and eutrophication of coastal waters. The objectives of this study are to develop and assess the performance of a mechanistic flow and reactive transport model which couples the most relevant physical, geochemical and biochemical processes involved in wastewater plume evolution in sandy aquifers. The numerical model solves for variably saturated groundwater flow and reactive transport of multiple carbon- and nitrogen-containing species in a three-dimensional porous medium. The reactive transport equations are solved using the Strang splitting method which is shown to be accurate for Monod and first- and second-order kinetic reactions, and two to four times more efficient than sequential iterative splitting. The reaction system is formulated as a fully kinetic chemistry problem, which allows for the use of several special-purpose ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers. For reaction systems containing both fast and slow kinetic reactions, such as the combined nitrogen-carbon system, it is found that a specialized stiff explicit solver fails to obtain a solution. An implicit solver is more robust and its computational performance is improved by scaling of the fastest reaction rates. The model is used to simulate wastewater migration in a 1-m-long unsaturated column and the results show significant oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the generation of nitrate by nitrification, and a slight decrease in pH.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.
1978-01-01
A mathematical model package for thermal pollution analyses and prediction is presented. These models, intended as user's manuals, are three dimensional and time dependent using the primitive equation approach. Although they have sufficient generality for application at sites with diverse topographical features; they also present specific instructions regarding data preparation for program execution and sample problems. The mathematical formulation of these models is presented including assumptions, approximations, governing equations, boundary and initial conditions, numerical method of solution, and same results.
Bornmann, C; Graeser, R; Esser, N; Ziroli, V; Jantscheff, P; Keck, T; Unger, C; Hopt, U T; Adam, U; Schaechtele, C; Massing, U; von Dobschuetz, E
2008-03-01
Despite its rapid enzymatic inactivation and therefore limited activity in vivo, Gemcitabine is the standard drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. To protect the drug, and achieve passive tumor targeting, we developed a liposomal formulation of Gemcitabine, GemLip (Ø: 36 nm: 47% entrapment). Its anti-tumoral activity was tested on MIA PaCa-2 cells growing orthotopically in nude mice. Bioluminescence measurement mediated by the stable integration of the luciferase gene was employed to randomize the mice, and monitor tumor growth. GemLip (4 and 8 mg/kg), Gemcitabine (240 mg/kg), and empty liposomes (equivalent to 8 mg/kg GemLip) were injected intravenously once weekly for 5 weeks. GemLip (8 mg/kg) stopped tumor growth, as measured via in vivo bioluminescence, reducing the primary tumor size by 68% (SD +/- 8%; p < 0.02), whereas Gemcitabine hardly affected tumor size (-7%; +/- 1.5%). In 80% of animals, luciferase activity in the liver indicated the presence of metastases. All treatments, including the empty liposomes, reduced the metastatic burden. Thus, GemLip shows promising antitumoral activity in this model. Surprisingly, empty liposomes attenuate the spread of metastases similar to Gemcitabine and GemLip. Further, luciferase marked tumor cells are a powerful tool to observe tumor growth in vivo, and to detect and quantify metastases.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The two source energy balance (TSEB) model calculates the energy balance of the soil–canopy–atmosphere continuum, where turbulent fluxes are based on the Priestley–Taylor equation. The TSEB was revised recently using the Penman–Monteith equation to replace the Priestley–Taylor formulation, thus bett...
Mouton, J W; te Dorsthorst, D T A; Meis, J F G M; Verweij, P E
2009-12-01
New lipid-associated formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) have been developed in order to reduce toxicity and enhance the efficacy of AmB by allowing administration of higher doses of the drug. We determined the in vivo dose-response relationships of 1 day and 7 day treatment of AmB, Ambisome (AmBi) and Abelcet (ABLC) in a non-neutropenic murine model of invasive aspergillosis by using survival as an endpoint. Female CD-1 mice were infected intravenously 48 h prior to start therapy with Aspergillus fumigatus (1 x 10(7) conidia/mouse). Groups of 10 mice were treated iv for 1 day or 7 days with increasing 2-fold doses of AmB, ABLC and AmBi up to a maximum of 20 mg/kg/day. Mortality was determined twice daily until day 15. Results were analyzed using product-moment survival analysis and by determining the dose response relationships on day 15. Survival at day 15 of mice with 7 day AmBi or ABLC treatment was significantly better than that of controls or AmB. The ED50s of AmBi and ABLC were 0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.127) mg/kg and 0.21 (0.06-0.66) mg/kg respectively. In addition, the maximum effect was higher for AmBi than ABLC, 90% survival versus 68%, respectively. Most of the effects of treatment with AmBi were reached after 1 day of treatment, indicating that the first dose given is most important in predicting survival. This study shows that AmBi and ABLC were significantly more efficacious than AmB in a non-neutropenic murine model of invasive aspergillosis, and that the effect observed was primarily dependent on the first dose administered.
2011-01-01
Background The prevalence and risk of cardiovascular disease increase after menopause in correlation with the progression of abnormality in the serum lipid profile and the deprivation of estrogen. Erxian decoction (EXD), a Chinese medicinal formulation for treating menopausal syndrome, stimulates ovarian estrogen biosynthesis. This study investigates whether EXD improves the serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model. Methods Twenty-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EXD and its constituent fractions. Premarin was administered for comparison. After eight weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. The hepatic protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density-lipoprotein receptor were assessed with Western blot. Results The serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in the EXD-treated group than in the constituent fractions of EXD or premarin groups. However, the serum levels of triglyceride and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were not significantly different from the control groups. Results from Western blot suggest that EXD significantly down-regulated the protein level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and up-regulated low-density-lipoprotein receptor. Conclusion EXD improves serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model through the suppression of the serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, possibly through the down-regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA and up-regulation of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor. PMID:22047073
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, V. A.; Moore, R. J.
A practical methodology for distributed rainfall-runoff modelling using grid square weather radar data is developed for use in real-time flood forecasting. The model, called the Grid Model, is configured so as to share the same grid as used by the weather radar, thereby exploiting the distributed rainfall estimates to the full. Each grid square in the catchment is conceptualised as a storage which receives water as precipitation and generates water by overflow and drainage. This water is routed across the catchment using isochrone pathways. These are derived from a digital terrain model assuming two fixed velocities of travel for land and river pathways which are regarded as model parameters to be optimised. Translation of water between isochrones is achieved using a discrete kinematic routing procedure, parameterised through a single dimensionless wave speed parameter, which advects the water and incorporates diffusion effects through the discrete space-time formulation. The basic model routes overflow and drainage separately through a parallel system of kinematic routing reaches, characterised by different wave speeds but using the same isochrone-based space discretisation; these represent fast and slow pathways to the basin outlet, respectively. A variant allows the slow pathway to have separate isochrones calculated using Darcy velocities controlled by the hydraulic gradient as estimated by the local gradient of the terrain. Runoff production within a grid square is controlled by its absorption capacity which is parameterised through a simple linkage function to the mean gradient in the square, as calculated from digital terrain data. This allows absorption capacity to be specified differently for every grid square in the catchment through the use of only two regional parameters and a DTM measurement of mean gradient for each square. An extension of this basic idea to consider the distribution of gradient within the square leads analytically to a Pareto
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo
2000-01-01
In this study, a 1-D steady-state microphysical model which describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable gridpoints of "parent" 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65 to 85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (approx. 0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially-melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well-exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the Precipitation Radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase in proportion to the particle meltwater fraction, leading to a "bright-band" of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the "seeding" ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles
Lepilleur, Carole; Mullay, John; Kyer, Carol; McCalister, Pam; Clifford, Ted
2011-01-01
Formulation composition has a dramatic influence on coacervate formation in conditioning shampoo. The purpose of this study is to correlate the amount of coacervate formation of novel cationic cassia polymers to the corresponding conditioning profiles on European brown hair using silicone deposition, cationic polymer deposition and sensory evaluation. A design of experiments was conducted by varying the levels of three surfactants (sodium lauryl ether sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and cocamidopropyl betaine) in formulations containing cationic cassia polymers of different cationic charge density (1.7 and 3.0m Eq/g). The results show formulation composition dramatically affects physical properties, coacervation, silicone deposition, cationic polymer deposition and hair sensory attributes. Particularly, three parameters are of importance in determining silicone deposition: polymer charge, surfactant (micelle) charge and total amount of surfactant (micelle aspect ratio). Both sensory panel testing and silicone deposition results can be predicted with a high confidence level using statistical models that incorporate these parameters.
Martinez, Marilyn; Mistry, Bipin; Lukacova, Viera; Polli, Jim; Hoag, Stephen; Dowling, Thomas; Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat
2016-07-01
This study explored the utility of mechanistic absorption models to describe the in vivo performance of a low solubility/low permeability compound in normal healthy subjects. Sixteen healthy human volunteers received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by HPLC. In vitro ciprofloxacin release from the oral tablets was tested under a variety of conditions. A mechanistic model was used to explore in vivo dissolution and intestinal absorption. Although dissolution rate influenced the location of drug release, absorption challenges appeared to be associated with permeability limitations in the lower small intestine and colon. The apparent relationship between drug solubilization within the upper small intestinal and formulation overall bioavailability suggested the presence of an intestinal absorption window in many individuals. Failure to absorb drug within this window appeared to be linked with the likelihood of in vivo drug precipitation. Challenges encountered during this modeling exercise included large intersubject variability in product in vivo dissolution and the apparent limitations in ciprofloxacin absorption. Although transporter activity was not included as a model parameter, this evaluation demonstrated how identifying the location of drug absorption across several formulations provided an opportunity to identify factors to consider when formulating similar low solubility/low permeability compounds. The use of mechanistic models was invaluable for our understanding of in vivo product performance and for the assessment of individual profiles rather than means. The latter was essential for understanding the potential challenges that may be encountered when introducing a formulation into a patient population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jokulsdottir, Tinna; Archer, David
2016-04-01
We present a new mechanistic model, stochastic, Lagrangian aggregate model of sinking particles (SLAMS) for the biological pump in the ocean, which tracks the evolution of individual particles as they aggregate, disaggregate, sink, and are altered by chemical and biological processes. SLAMS considers the impacts of ballasting by mineral phases, binding of aggregates by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), zooplankton grazing and the fractal geometry (porosity) of the aggregates. Parameterizations for age-dependent organic carbon (orgC) degradation kinetics, and disaggregation driven by zooplankton grazing and TEP degradation, are motivated by observed particle fluxes and size spectra throughout the water column. The model is able to explain observed variations in orgC export efficiency and rain ratio from the euphotic zone and to the sea floor as driven by sea surface temperature and the primary production rate and seasonality of primary production. The model provides a new mechanistic framework with which to predict future changes on the flux attenuation of orgC in response to climate change forcing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wever, Nander; Würzer, Sebastian; Fierz, Charles; Lehning, Michael
2016-04-01
For physics based snow cover models, simulating the formation of dense ice layers inside the snowpack has been a long time challenge. In spite of their small vertical extend, the presence of ice lenses inside the snowpack can have a profound impact on vapor, heat and liquid water flow. These effects may ultimately influence processes on larger scales when, for example, looking at hydrological processes or wet snow avalanche formation. Also microwave emission signals from the snowpack are strongly influenced by the presence of ice layers. Recent laboratory experiments and modelling techniques of liquid water flow in snow have advanced the understanding of liquid water flow in snow, in particular the formation of preferential flow paths. We present a modelling approach in the one-dimensional, multi-layer snow cover model SNOWPACK for preferential flow that is based on a dual-domain approach (i.e., separation into a matrix flow and a preferential flow domain) and solving Richards equation for both. In recently published laboratory experiments, water ponding inside the snowpack has been identified to initiate preferential flow. Those studies also quantified the part of the snowpack involved in preferential flow as a function of grain size. By combining these concepts with an empirical function to determine refreezing of preferential flow water inside the snowpack, we are able to simulate preferential water flow in the model. We found that preferential flow paths arriving at a layer transition in the snowpack may lead to ponding conditions. Subsequent refreezing then may form dense ice layers (>700 kg/m3). We compare the simulations to 14 years of biweekly snow profiles made at the Weissfluhjoch study plot at 2540m altitude in the Eastern Swiss Alps. We show that we are able to reproduce several ice lenses that were observed in the field, whereas some profiles remain challenging to simulate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritzer, Elmar; Müller, Ellen; Martin, Yannick; Kleeschulte, Rainer
2015-05-01
Today the global market poses great challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, diversity of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to offer today. In addition, the product series have shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaption, polymers are increasingly able to displace traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals from various fields of application. Polymers can only be used to substitute other materials, however, if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process permits a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, making it possible to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. The entire process sequence is supported by software from Bayer Technology called Product Design Workbench (PDWB), which provides assistance in all the individual steps from data management, via analysis and model compilation, right through to the optimization of the formulation and the design of experiments. The software is based on artificial neural networks and can model the formulation-property correlations and thus enable different formulations to be optimized. In the study presented, the workflow and the modelling with the software are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Blom, Jason D.; Thompson, David C.
2010-06-01
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03-0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01-0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT
2012-08-01
otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the Department of...the Army (DoA). The opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoA...higher pressure at the rear end of the track. Reece (1965) improved Bekker’s model by making the parameters dimensionless. This single equation
Desai, Bhavna N.; Maharjan, Radha H.; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P.
2012-01-01
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovulatory infertility and hyperandrogenism, is associated with metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Almost 70% PCOS women have abnormal serum lipid levels (dyslipidemia) and 50% of these women are obese. Several classes of pharmacological agents have been used to manage dyslipidemia. However, studies have shown adverse effects associated with these drugs. In the light of alternate therapy, many medicinal herbs have been reported to show hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic potential. Aloe barbadensis Mill. or Aloe vera is reported as one such herb. This study was to evaluate the lipid correcting effect of Aloe vera gel (AVG) in a PCOS rat model. Materials and Methods: PCOS was induced in Charles Foster female rats by oral administration of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole (0.5 mg/kg body weight, 21 days). All rats were hyperglycemic and 90% rats also showed elevated plasma triglycerides, elevated LDL cholesterol levels, and lowered plasma HDL cholesterol levels indicative of a dyslipidemic profile. PCOS positive rats with an aberrant lipid profile were selected for treatment. An AVG formulation (1 ml (10 mg)/day, 30 days) was administered orally. Results and Conclusion: AVG treated PCOS rats exhibited significant reduction in plasma triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL cholesterol. The gel treatment also caused reversion of abnormal estrous cyclicity, glucose intolerance, and lipid metabolizing enzyme activities, bringing them to normal. In conclusion, AVG has phyto components with anti-hyperlipidemic effects and it has shown efficacy in management of not only PCOS but also the associated metabolic complication : dyslipidemia. PMID:22518083
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shyh-Chin; Trenberth, Kevin E.
1988-02-01
A planetary wave model has been developed in which the orographic forcing at the lower boundary arising from the kinematically induced vertical motion is due to the total flow impinging on the mountains rather than just the zonal mean basic state component of the flow over the mountains used in previous models. Consequently, the effects of the vertical motions produced by the eddies at the lower boundary are included and are found to be as large, if not larger, than the zonal mean component. The model remains linear mathematically, but all the planetary waves become coupled through the lower boundary condition (LBC) and the model wave equations have to be solved for simultaneously. A contrast is drawn between the wave-coupled solutions and the solutions using the traditional lower boundary formulation in which the planetary waves are decoupled.The model is symmetric about the equator and uses the linear balance set of equations on the sphere, with full spherical geometry and spherical harmonic function representation, truncated to include four zonal modes and up to mode 15 in the meridional direction. There are 11 levels in the vertical with the highest computational level at 5 mb. The model is linearized about a realistic observed January zonal-mean basic state and forced by the Northern Hemisphere orography and a wintertime calculated diabatic heating. In this paper, diabatic heating effects are not included and only the impact of the new LBC is examined in detail.The wave-coupled LBC has significant impact on the forced planetary waves and consequently on the Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The most noticeable responses of the planetary waves at the boundary when the wave-coupled LBC is used are in the vicinity of the Himalayas. The boundary eddies set up perturbation easterlies that locally offset the imposed zonal mean westerlies by forcing the flow to go around the mountains. Thus the wave-coupled LBC allows the total flow at the lower boundary to circumvent the
Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef
2013-07-01
Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchez, M. J.; Gens, A.; Jarecki, Z.; Olivella, S.
2012-12-01
This work presents a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) formulation developed to handle multiphysic problems in porous media with two dominant void levels. The proposed framework assumes the presence of two porous media linked through a mass transfer term between them. In many cases, the use of a double porosity formulation is more realistic because it is possible to take explicitly into account the different physical phenomena that take place in each void level, and also their mutual interactions. The formulation is especially suitable for cases in which the material exhibits a strong coupling between the mechanical and the hydraulic problem in both media. The problem is approached using a multi-phase, multi-species formulation that expresses mathematically the main coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in terms of: balance equations, constitutive equations and equilibrium restrictions. In its more general form, the proposed approach allows the consideration of multiphase flow in the two pore levels coupled with the mechanical problem. The formulation presented is quite open and general, and able to incorporate different constitutive laws for each basic structural level considered; for the mechanical, hydraulic and thermal problems. The double structure formulation has been implemented in the finite element program CODE_BRIGHT and it has been used to analyze a variety of engineering problems associated with the design of radioactive waste disposal in deep geological media and petroleum engineering problems. This work presents two case studies; one is related to oil production in a heterogeneous reservoir, and the other case focuses on the analysis of a repository for nuclear waste in a clayed formation. Both cases show the potential of the proposed formation to tackle coupled multiphysics problems in porous media.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lydon, Thomas J.; Fox, Peter A.; Sofia, Sabatino
1993-01-01
We have updated a previous attempt to incorporate within a solar model a treatment of convection based upon numerical simulations of convection rather than mixing-length theory (MLT). We have modified our formulation of convection for a better treatment of the kinetic energy flux. Our solar model has been updated to include a complete range of OPAL opacities, the Debye-Hueckel correction to the equation of state, helium diffusion due to gravitational settling, and atmospheres by Kurucz. We construct a series of models using both MLT and our revised formulation of convection and the compared results to measurements of the solar radius, the solar luminosity, and the depth of the solar convection zone as inferred from helioseismology. We find X(solar) = 0.702 +/- 0.005, Y(solar) = 0.278 +/- 0.005, and Z(solar) = 0.0193 +/- 0.0005.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.
2015-08-01
Season- and stability-dependent turbulence intensity ( σ u / u *, σ v / u *, σ w / u *) relationships are derived from experimental turbulence measurements following surface layer scaling and local stability at the tropical coastal site Kalpakkam, India for atmospheric dispersion parameterization. Turbulence wind components ( u', v', w') measured with fast response UltraSonic Anemometers during an intense observation campaign for wind field modeling called Round Robin Exercise are used to formulate the flux-profile relationships using surface layer similarity theory and Fast Fourier Transform technique. The new relationships (modified Hanna scheme) are incorporated in a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF and tested by conducting simulations for a field tracer dispersion experiment at Kalpakkam. Plume dispersion analysis of a ground level hypothetical release indicated that the new turbulent intensity formulations provide slightly higher diffusivity across the plume relative to the original Hanna scheme. The new formulations for σ u , σ v , σ w are found to give better agreement with observed turbulent intensities during both stable and unstable conditions under various seasonal meteorological conditions. The simulated concentrations using the two methods are compared with those obtained from a classical Gaussian model and the observed SF6 concentration. It has been found that the new relationships provide comparatively higher diffusion across the plume relative to the model default Hanna scheme and provide downwind concentration results in better agreement with observations.
2011-01-01
Background A warm and humid climate triggers several water-associated diseases such as malaria. Climate- or weather-driven malaria models, therefore, allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics. The Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) is a mathematical-biological model of malaria parasite dynamics using daily temperature and precipitation data. In this study, the parameter settings of the LMM are refined and a new mathematical formulation of key processes related to the growth and size of the vector population are developed. Methods One of the most comprehensive studies to date in terms of gathering entomological and parasitological information from the literature was undertaken for the development of a new version of an existing malaria model. The knowledge was needed to allow the justification of new settings of various model parameters and motivated changes of the mathematical formulation of the LMM. Results The first part of the present study developed an improved set of parameter settings and mathematical formulation of the LMM. Important modules of the original LMM version were enhanced in order to achieve a higher biological and physical accuracy. The oviposition as well as the survival of immature mosquitoes were adjusted to field conditions via the application of a fuzzy distribution model. Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito) transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach. Conclusions Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive literature survey was carried out
Lee, Chen-Ming; Luner, Paul E; Locke, Karen; Briggs, Katherine
2017-02-23
The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well controlled duodenum pH, five formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated. Excellent correlations were obtained between dog AUC and ASD AUC of five formulations evaluated with SIF (r(2) = 0.987) and FaSSIF (r(2) = 0.989) as the duodenum dissolution medium, indicating that the approach of infusing NaOH into duodenum compartment to maintain duodenum pH of an ASD worked properly in simulating gastric pH-reduced dog. Raman spectroscopy was used to study drug dissolution kinetics associated with different solubilization principles and the results suggested that the solubilization principles performed as designed. Spectroscopic results also identified that the compound formed a gel during dissolution and HPMC maintained the drug gelled state to avoid further solid form conversion. The implication of the compound physical gelation to drug dissolution kinetics and in vivo exposure are discussed.
Keizer, Ron J; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Sprengers, Paul F W; Levi, M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R
2012-02-01
A novel formulation of C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, a plasma product used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE), was studied in a clinical trial for similarity in pharmacokinetics (PK) compared with the reference product. Direct trial data were limited given the availability of patients, and therefore a modeling approach was used to study similarity. Type I error of the study was evaluated using simulations based on retrospective data. A population PK modeling analysis was performed on data from the trial. Analysis of variance was carried out on results of a noncompartmental PK analysis (NCA) of the clinical data. Simulations showed that type I error was inflated to 62% (P < .05) when bioequivalence criteria (confidence intervals within 80%-125%) were adhered to strictly. In the clinical trial, 13 HAE patients were evaluable. The population PK analysis showed no significant differences in PK parameters, whereas confidence intervals for all parameters were within 80% to 125%. The relative differences in area under the curve, incremental recovery, and mean residence time estimated using NCA were all close to 1. The novel formulation showed similar PK characteristics to the original formulation. The model-based approach showed that strict criteria for PK comparison could not be applied in this analysis.
Foster, David J. R.; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David
2015-01-01
Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:26149987
Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Foster, David J R; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David; Upton, Richard N
2015-09-01
Itraconazole is an orally active antifungal agent that has complex and highly variable absorption kinetics that is highly affected by food. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for itraconazole and the active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole, in particular, quantifying the effects of food and formulation on oral absorption. Plasma pharmacokinetic data were collected from seven phase I crossover trials comparing the SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox formulations of itraconazole. First, a model of single-dose itraconazole data was developed, which was then extended to the multidose data. Covariate effects on itraconazole were then examined before extending the model to describe hydroxyitraconazole. The final itraconazole model was a 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 4-transit compartments. Multidose kinetics was described by total effective daily dose- and time-dependent changes in clearance and bioavailability. Hydroxyitraconazole was best described by a 1-compartment model with mixed first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination for the single-dose data and a time-dependent clearance for the multidose data. The relative bioavailability of SUBA-itraconazole compared to that of Sporanox was 173% and was 21% less variable between subjects. Food resulted in a 27% reduction in bioavailability and 58% reduction in the transit absorption rate constant compared to that with the fasted state, irrespective of the formulation. This analysis presents the most extensive population pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole in the literature performed in healthy subjects. The presented model can be used for simulating food effects on itraconazole exposure and for performing prestudy power analysis and sample size estimation, which are important aspects of clinical trial design of bioequivalence studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rougé, Charles; Tilmant, Amaury
2015-04-01
Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is an optimization algorithm well-suited for the study of large-scale water resources systems comprising reservoirs - and hydropower plants - as well as irrigation nodes. It generates intertemporal allocation policies that balance the present and future marginal value of water while taking into account hydrological uncertainty. It is scalable, in the sense that the time and memory required for computation do not grow exponentially with the number of state variables. Still, this scalability relies on the sampling of a few relevant trajectories for the system, and the approximation of the future value of water through cuts -i.e., hyperplanes - at points along these trajectories. Therefore, the accuracy of this approximation arguably decreases as the number of state variables increases, and it is important not to have more than necessary. In previous formulations, SDDP had three types of state variables, namely storage in each reservoir, inflow at each node and water accumulated during the irrigation season for each crop at each node. We present a simplified formulation for irrigation that does not require using the latter type of state variable. It also requires only two decision variables for each irrigation site, where the previous formulation had four per crop - and there may be several crops at the same site. This reduction in decision variables effectively reduces computation time, since SDDP decomposes the stochastic, multiperiodic, non-linear maximization problem into a series of linear ones. The proposed formulation, while computationally simpler, is mathematically equivalent to the previous one, and therefore the model gives the same results. A corollary of this formulation is that marginal utility of water at an irrigation site is effectively related to consumption at that site, through a piecewise linear function representing the net benefits from irrigation. Last but not least, the proposed formulation can be
2009-01-01
validated on a collection of classical two-dimensional test cases, including density driven flows and mountain wave simulations. The performance analysis...solution algorithm. The resulting numerical formulation is then validated on a collection of classical two-dimensional test cases, including density...Multiplying the two equations (4.4) by test functions χh Vh4 and Rh Vh8, respectively, integrating over K Th and replacing the exact solution
Subhasree, N.; Kamella, Ananthkumar; Kaliappan, Ilango; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad
2015-01-01
Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing hydroalcoholic extracts of four plants namely Salacia oblonga, Salacia roxbhurgii, Garcinia indica and Lagerstroemia parviflora in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by administering oral doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced with a single low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg) i.p. Diabetic rats were treated with formulation (200 and 400 mg/kg) and metformin 250 mg/kg. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with ACCU CHEK glucometer. Lipid profile and gluconeogenic enzymes were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after oral administration of the PHF for 28 days. Histopathological changes in diabetic rat organs (pancreas, liver, and kidney) were also observed after PHF treatment. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with PHF and metformin decreased plasma glucose and lipid profile levels. Blood glucose level showed significant reduction after 28 days of treatment with formulation at 200 and 400 mg/kg and in metformin. Formulation treated rats showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. Histological examination of various organ tissues of normal control, diabetic control, and drug-treated rats revealed significant results. Treatment with PHF reverses the most blood and tissue changes toward the normal level. Conclusion: These findings suggested the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of the PHF and thus help in preventing future complications of diabetes. PMID:26600639
Chuong, Monica C; Palugan, Luca; Su, Tiffany M; Busano, Claudelle; Lee, Ronald; Di Pretoro, Giustino; Shah, Anee
2010-12-01
Vitamin B(3) is made up of niacin (nicotinic acid) and its amide, niacinamide. Both have equivalent vitamin activity, but only niacin (not niacinamide) is effective in lowering elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Administration of an extended-release (ER) oral tablet would frequently encounter food. If hydrogel is used to formulate the matrix of a biopharmaceutical classification system I drug (high solubility and high permeability), the dosage form absorbs water and swells.. The softened outer layer may be slashed off by food present in the stomach, thus, exposing the core tablet more readily for water absorption and speeding up drug release from its original designed rate. This project aimed to formulate niacin CR pellets made of hydrophobic inert matrix. After niacin was melted with excipients and cooled, the mass was extruded and spheronized into pellets. Size distribution and flowability were determined before pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule. The USP dissolution study revealed that a candidate formulation of 250 mg in strength released similar amount of niacin as its commercial reference, niacin controlled-release 500 mg tablet, in 6 h (223.9 ± 23.8 mg, n = 4 versus 259.4 ± 2.6 mg, n = 3). The differential scanning calorimetry study of the pellets in capsules stored in 40°C for 4 weeks, and the content assay of capsules in 40°C up to 6 months suggested that niacin was stable within the innovative formulation. In vitro release from this innovative ER capsules stored at 40°C up to 4 weeks were also investigated.
Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason; Poulson, William; Deegan, Paul; Lomneth, Carol; Sandip, Anjali; Kamenskiy, Alexey
2016-11-21
Open and endovascular treatments for peripheral arterial disease are notorious for high failure rates. Severe mechanical deformations experienced by the femoropopliteal artery (FPA) during limb flexion and interactions between the artery and repair materials play important roles and may contribute to poor clinical outcomes. Computational modeling can help optimize FPA repair, but these simulations heavily depend on the choice of constitutive model describing the arterial behavior. In this study finite element model of the FPA in the standing (straight) and gardening (acutely bent) postures was built using computed tomography data, longitudinal pre-stretch and biaxially determined mechanical properties. Springs and dashpots were used to represent surrounding tissue forces associated with limb flexion-induced deformations. These forces were then used with age-specific longitudinal pre-stretch and mechanical properties to obtain deformed FPA configurations for seven age groups. Four commonly used invariant-based constitutive models were compared to determine the accuracy of capturing deformations and stresses in each age group. The four-fiber FPA model most accurately portrayed arterial behavior in all ages, but in subjects younger than 40 years, the performance of all constitutive formulations was similar. In older subjects, Demiray (Delfino) and classic two-fiber Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden formulations were better than the Neo-Hookean model for predicting deformations due to limb flexion, but both significantly overestimated principal stresses compared to the FPA or Neo-Hookean models.
Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.
Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav
2012-11-10
Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.
Magnusson, Mats O; Samtani, Mahesh N; Plan, Elodie L; Jonsson, E Niclas; Rossenu, Stefaan; Vermeulen, An; Russu, Alberto
2017-04-01
Paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M), a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, was recently approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients who have already been treated with paliperidone palmitate 1-month formulation (PP1M) for ≥4 months. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic rationale for the approved dosing regimens for PP3M, dosing windows, management of missed doses and treatment discontinuation, switching to other formulations, and dosing in special populations. Approved PP3M dosing regimens are based on the comparisons of simulations with predefined dosing regimens using paliperidone palmitate and oral paliperidone extended release (ER) population pharmacokinetic models (one-compartment model with two saturable absorption processes for PP3M; one-compartment model with parallel zero- and first-order absorption for PP1M; two-compartment model with sequential zero- and first-order absorption for ER) versus clinical trial data. Covariates were obtained by resampling subject covariates from the pharmacokinetics database for PP1M and PP3M. Simulation scenarios with varying doses and covariate values were generated. The population median and 90% prediction interval of the simulated concentration-time profiles were plotted for simulation outcomes evaluation. Simulations described in this paper provide (a) simulated plasma exposures for switching from PP1M to PP3M, (b) support for a once-every-3-months injection cycle, (c) information on dosing windows and managing missed doses of PP3M, (d) important guidance on PP3M dosing in special patient populations, and (e) key PP3M pharmacokinetic exposure metrics based on the population pharmacokinetic PP3M model. Population pharmacokinetics provided practical guidance to establish dosing regimens for PP3M.
Ghrayeb, Shadi Z.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Ouisloumen, Mohamed; Ivanov, Kostadin N.
2014-01-01
A multi-group formulation for the exact neutron elastic scattering kernel is developed. It incorporates the neutron up-scattering effects, stemming from lattice atoms thermal motion and accounts for it within the resulting effective nuclear cross-section data. The effects pertain essentially to resonant scattering off of heavy nuclei. The formulation, implemented into a standalone code, produces effective nuclear scattering data that are then supplied directly into the DRAGON lattice physics code where the effects on Doppler Reactivity and neutron flux are demonstrated. The correct accounting for the crystal lattice effects influences the estimated values for the probability of neutron absorption and scattering, which in turn affect the estimation of core reactivity and burnup characteristics. The results show an increase in values of Doppler temperature feedback coefficients up to -10% for UOX and MOX LWR fuels compared to the corresponding values derived using the traditional asymptotic elastic scattering kernel. This paper also summarizes the results done on this topic to date.
Walters, Russel M; Gandolfi, Lisa; Mack, M Catherine; Fevola, Michael; Martin, Katharine; Hamilton, Mathew T; Hilberer, Allison; Barnes, Nicole; Wilt, Nathan; Nash, Jennifer R; Raabe, Hans A; Costin, Gertrude-Emilia
2016-12-01
The personal care industry is focused on developing safe, more efficacious, and increasingly milder products, that are routinely undergoing preclinical and clinical testing before becoming available for consumer use on skin. In vitro systems based on skin reconstructed equivalents are now established for the preclinical assessment of product irritation potential and as alternative testing methods to the classic Draize rabbit skin irritation test. We have used the 3-D EpiDerm™ model system to evaluate tissue viability and primary cytokine interleukin-1α release as a way to evaluate the potential dermal irritation of 224 non-ionic, amphoteric and/or anionic surfactant-containing formulations, or individual raw materials. As part of our testing programme, two representative benchmark materials with known clinical skin irritation potential were qualified through repeated testing, for use as references for the skin irritation evaluation of formulations containing new surfactant ingredients. We have established a correlation between the in vitro screening approach and clinical testing, and are continually expanding our database to enhance this correlation. This testing programme integrates the efforts of global manufacturers of personal care products that focus on the development of increasingly milder formulations to be applied to the skin, without the use of animal testing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. H.
1978-01-01
A 3-D finite element program capable of simulating the dynamic behavior in the vicinity of the impact point, together with predicting the dynamic response in the remaining part of the structural component subjected to high velocity impact is discussed. The finite algorithm is formulated in a general moving coordinate system. In the vicinity of the impact point contained by a moving failure front, the relative velocity of the coordinate system will approach the material particle velocity. The dynamic behavior inside the region is described by Eulerian formulation based on a hydroelasto-viscoplastic model. The failure front which can be regarded as the boundary of the impact zone is described by a transition layer. The layer changes the representation from the Eulerian mode to the Lagrangian mode outside the failure front by varying the relative velocity of the coordinate system to zero. The dynamic response in the remaining part of the structure described by the Lagrangian formulation is treated using advanced structural analysis. An interfacing algorithm for coupling CELFE with NASTRAN is constructed to provide computational capabilities for large structures.
Smith, Maree T; Wyse, Bruce D; Edwards, Stephen R; El-Tamimy, Mahmoud; Gaetano, Giacinto; Gavin, Paul
2015-07-01
This study was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy and systemic exposure of oxycodone administered topically in a novel tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM) gel formulation, to the inflamed hindpaws in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Unilateral hindpaw inflammation was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Mechanical hyperalgesia and hindpaw inflammation were assessed by measuring paw pressure thresholds and hindpaw volume, respectively, just prior to i.pl. FCA and again 5-6 days later. The analgesic effects of oxycodone administered topically (1 mg in TPM gel) or by i.pl. injection (50 μg), were assessed. Systemic oxycodone exposure was assessed over an 8-h postdosing interval following topical application. Skin permeation of oxycodone from the gel formulation was assessed in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Oxycodone administered topically or by i.pl. injection produced significant (p < 0.05) analgesia in the inflamed hindpaws. Systemic oxycodone exposure was insignificant after topical dosing. The in vitro cumulative skin permeation of oxycodone was linearly related to the amount applied. Topical TPM/oxycodone gel formulations have the potential to alleviate moderate to severe inflammatory pain conditions with minimal systemic exposure, thereby avoiding central nervous system (CNS)-mediated adverse effects associated with oral administration of opioid analgesics.
Dey, Debendranath; Chaskar, Sunetra; Athavale, Nitin; Chitre, Deepa
2014-10-01
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic crippling disease, where protein-based tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors show significant relief, but with potentially fatal side effects. A need for a safe, oral, cost-effective small molecule or phyto-pharmaceutical is warranted. BV-9238 is an Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing specialized standardized extracts of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa. The anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 were evaluated for inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated, RAW 264.7, mouse macrophage cell line. BV-9238 reduced TNF-α and NO production, without any cytotoxic effects. Subsequently, the formulation was tested in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and carrageenan-induced paw edema (CPE) rat animal models. AIA was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally in the paw, and BV-9238 and controls were administered orally for 21 days. Arthritic scores in AIA study and inflamed paw volume in CPE study were significantly reduced upon treatment with BV-9238. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of BV-9238 are due to its inhibition of TNF-α, and NO, and this formulation shows promise as an alternate therapy for inflammatory disorders where TNF-α and NO play important roles.
Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T
2010-05-01
A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures.
Elkomy, Mohammed H; El Menshawe, Shahira F; Eid, Hussein M; Ali, Ahmed M A
2017-04-01
This study investigates potentials of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)-based gel for transdermal delivery of tenoxicam (TNX) and describes a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for predicting concentration-time profile in skin. A 2(3) factorial design was adopted to study the effect of formulation factors on SLN properties and determine the optimal formulation. SLN-gel tolerability was investigated using rabbit skin irritation test. Its anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. A published Hill model for in vitro inhibition of COX-2 enzyme was fitted to edema inhibition data. Concentration in skin was represented as a linear spline function and coefficients were estimated using non-linear regression. Uncertainty in predicted concentrations was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The optimized SLN was spherical vesicles (58.1 ± 3.1 nm) with adequate entrapment efficiency (69.6 ± 2.6%). The SLN-gel formulation was well-tolerated. It increased TNX activity and skin level by 40 ± 13.5, and 227 ± 116%, respectively. Average Cmax and AUC0-24 predicted by the model were 2- and 3.6-folds higher than the corresponding values computed using in vitro permeability data. SLN-gel is a safe and efficient carrier for TNX across skin in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. PK-PD modeling is a promising approach for indirect quantitation of skin deposition from PD activity data.
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Chibbaro, Sergio; Pope, Stephen B.
2014-11-15
In this paper, we establish a set of criteria which are applied to discuss various formulations under which Lagrangian stochastic models can be found. These models are used for the simulation of fluid particles in single-phase turbulence as well as for the fluid seen by discrete particles in dispersed turbulent two-phase flows. The purpose of the present work is to provide guidelines, useful for experts and non-experts alike, which are shown to be helpful to clarify issues related to the form of Lagrangian stochastic models. A central issue is to put forward reliable requirements which must be met by Lagrangian stochastic models and a new element brought by the present analysis is to address the single- and two-phase flow situations from a unified point of view. For that purpose, we consider first the single-phase flow case and check whether models are fully consistent with the structure of the Reynolds-stress models. In the two-phase flow situation, coming up with clear-cut criteria is more difficult and the present choice is to require that the single-phase situation be well-retrieved in the fluid-limit case, elementary predictive abilities be respected and that some simple statistical features of homogeneous fluid turbulence be correctly reproduced. This analysis does not address the question of the relative predictive capacities of different models but concentrates on their formulation since advantages and disadvantages of different formulations are not always clear. Indeed, hidden in the changes from one structure to another are some possible pitfalls which can lead to flaws in the construction of practical models and to physically unsound numerical calculations. A first interest of the present approach is illustrated by considering some models proposed in the literature and by showing that these criteria help to assess whether these Lagrangian stochastic models can be regarded as acceptable descriptions. A second interest is to indicate how future
Ahmad, Ajaz; Mondal, Sujan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Alkharfy, Khalid M
2016-03-07
The objective of the present study is to develop a liposomal formulation for delivering anticancer drug to breast cancer stem-cell-like cells, ANV-1, and evaluate its pharmacokinetics in an animal model. The anticancer drug ESC8 was used in dexamethasone (Dex)-associated liposome (DX) to form ESC8-entrapped liposome named DXE. ANV-1 cells showed high-level expression of NRP-1. To enhance tumor regression, we additionally adapted to codeliver the NRP-1 shRNA-encoded plasmid using the established DXE liposome. In vivo efficacy of DXE-NRP-1 was carried out in mice bearing ANV-1 cells as xenograft tumors and the extent of tumor growth inhibition was evaluated by tumor-size measurement. A significant difference in tumor volume started to reveal between DXE-NRP-1 group and DXE-Control group. DXE-NRP-1 group showed ∼4 folds and ∼2.5 folds smaller tumor volume than exhibited by untreated and DXE-Control-treated groups, respectively. DXE disposition was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats following an intraperitoneal dose (3.67 mg/kg of ESC8 in DXE). The plasma concentrations of ESC8 in the DXE formulation were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental analysis. ESC8 had a half-life of 11.01 ± 0.29 h, clearance of 2.10 ± 3.63 L/kg/h, and volume of distribution of 33.42 ± 0.83 L/kg. This suggests that the DXE liposome formulation could be administered once or twice daily for therapeutic efficacy. In overall, we developed a potent liposomal formulation with favorable pharmacokinetic and tumor regressing profile that could sensitize and kill highly aggressive and drug-resistive cancer stem-cell-like cells.
Kagan, Leonid; Gershkovich, Pavel; Wasan, Kishor M; Mager, Donald E
2011-06-01
The time course of tissue distribution of amphotericin B (AmB) has not been sufficiently characterized despite its therapeutic importance and an apparent disconnect between plasma pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. The goals of this work were to develop and evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to characterize the disposition properties of AmB administered as deoxycholate formulation in healthy rats and to examine the utility of the PBPK model for interspecies scaling of AmB pharmacokinetics. AmB plasma and tissue concentration-time data, following single and multiple intravenous administration of Fungizone® to rats, from several publications were combined for construction of the model. Physiological parameters were fixed to literature values. Various structural models for single organs were evaluated, and the whole-body PBPK model included liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, gastrointestinal tract, plasma, and remainder compartments. The final model resulted in a good simultaneous description of both single and multiple dose data sets. Incorporation of three subcompartments for spleen and kidney tissues was required for capturing a prolonged half-life in these organs. The predictive performance of the final PBPK model was assessed by evaluating its utility in predicting pharmacokinetics of AmB in mice and humans. Clearance and permeability-surface area terms were scaled with body weight. The model demonstrated good predictions of plasma AmB concentration-time profiles for both species. This modeling framework represents an important basis that may be further utilized for characterization of formulation- and disease-related factors in AmB pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleidon, Axel
2016-04-01
derive the expected behavior of the Earth system and its response to change from first principles. This approach can provide a few key insights on essential components for model building that appear to be rather general. This starts with a thermodynamic formulation of processes in terms of the energy that these convert as this sets the basis for formulating fundamental limits. Interactions then play a central role in shaping these limits as well as the formulation of the system boundary. In addition to providing insights into model building, the approach can provide a baseline reference for setting up hypotheses that can supplement the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations with comprehensive Earth system models.
Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J
2013-02-01
The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Chitsomboon, Tawit; Zhu, Jiang
1994-01-01
This report documents the changes that were made to the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in the NPARC (National-PARC) code. The previous model based on the low Reynolds number model of Speziale, was replaced with the low Reynolds number k-epsilon model of Chien. The most significant difference was in the turbulent Prandtl numbers appearing in the diffusion terms of the k and epsilon transport equations. A new inflow boundary condition and stability enhancements were also implemented into the turbulence model within NPARC. The report provides the rationale for making the change to the Chien model, code modifications required, and comparisons of the performances of the new model with the previous k-epsilon model and algebraic models used most often in PARC/NPARC. The comparisons show that the Chien k-epsilon model installed here improves the capability of NPARC to calculate turbulent flows.
Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Kamiyama, Yoshiteru; Darwich, Adam S; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin
2015-01-25
Controlled release (CR) formulations are usually designed to achieve similar exposure (AUC) levels as the marketed immediate release (IR) formulation. However, the AUC is often lower following CR compared to IR formulations. There are a few exceptions when the CR formulations have shown higher AUC. This study investigated the impact of CR formulations on oral drug absorption and CYP3A4-mediated gut wall metabolism. A review of the current literature on relative bioavailability (Frel) between CR and IR formulations of CYP3A substrates was conducted. This was followed by a systematic analysis to assess the impact of the release characteristics and the drug-specific factors (including metabolism and permeability) on oral bioavailability employing a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling and simulation approach. From the literature review, only three CYP3A4 substrates showed higher Frel when formulated as CR. Several scenarios were investigated using the PBPK approach; in most of them, the oral absorption of CR formulations was lower as compared to the IR formulations. However, for highly permeable compounds that were CYP3A4 substrates the reduction in absorption was compensated by an increase in the fraction that escapes from first pass metabolism in the gut wall (FG), where the magnitude was dependent on CYP3A4 affinity. The systematic simulations of various interplays between different parameters demonstrated that BCS class 1 highly-cleared CYP3A4 substrates can display up to 220% higher relative bioavailability when formulated as CR compared to IR, in agreement with the observed data collected from the literature. The results and methodology of this study can be employed during the formulation development process in order to optimize drug absorption, especially for CYP3A4 substrates.
Martelet, Léa; Lacouture, Sonia; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Beauchamp, Guy; Surprenant, Charles; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela
2017-01-01
An in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) culture was developed as a model for evaluating immune polarization induced by adjuvants when administered with immunogens that may become vaccine candidates if appropriately formulated. The swine pathogen Streptococcus suis was chosen as a prototype to evaluate proposed S. suis vaccine candidates in combination with the adjuvants Poly I:C, Quil A ®, Alhydrogel ®, TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ®. The toll-like receptor ligand Poly I:C and the saponin Quil A ® polarized swine DC cytokines towards a type 1 phenotype, with preferential production of IL-12 and TNF-α. The water-in-oil adjuvants TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ® favoured a type 2 profile as suggested by a marked IL-6 release. In contrast, Alhydrogel ® induced a type 1/type 2 mixed cytokine profile. The antigen type differently modified the magnitude of the adjuvant effect, but overall polarization was preserved. This is the first comparative report on swine DC immune activation by different adjuvants. Although further swine immunization studies would be required to better characterize the induced responses, the herein proposed in vitro model is a promising approach that helps assessing behaviour of the vaccine formulation rapidly at the pre-screening stage and will certainly reduce numbers of animals used while advancing vaccinology science. PMID:28327531
Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben J
2016-11-07
The tendency for poorly water-soluble weakly basic drugs to precipitate in a noncrystalline form during the in vitro digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) was linked to an ionic interaction between drug and fatty acid molecules produced upon lipid digestion. Cinnarizine was chosen as a model weakly basic drug and was dissolved in a medium-chain (MC) LBF, which was subject to in vitro lipolysis experiments at various pH levels above and below the reported pKa value of cinnarizine (7.47). The solid-state form of the precipitated drug was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and crossed polarized light microscopy (CPLM). In addition, the phase distribution of cinnarizine upon lipolysis was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cinnarizine precipitated in a noncrystalline form during lipolysis experiments at pH 6.5, pH 5.5, and pH 4.0 but precipitated in a crystalline form at pH 8.0 according to XRD measurements on the pellets. Differences were also observed in the FTIR spectra of the pellet phases at pH 8.0 and pH 6.5, with the absorption bands in the C-N stretch region of the IR spectra supporting a shift from the starting free base crystalline material to the hydrochloride salt, thus supporting the case that ionic interactions between weak bases and fatty acid molecules during digestion are responsible for producing amorphous-salts upon precipitation. The conclusion has wide implications for understanding past in vitro and in vivo data for lipid-based formulations of basic drugs, as well as future formulation design and optimization.
Olson, Jon A.; Adler-Moore, Jill P.; Schwartz, Julie; Jensen, Gerard M.; Proffitt, Richard T.
2006-01-01
Invasive aspergillosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed (IS) patients, is often treated with amphotericin B lipid formulations. In the present study, liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) and amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) were compared in treatment of murine pulmonary aspergillosis. Uninfected, IS mice were treated for 4 days with 1, 4, 8, or 12 mg L-AMB or ABLC/kg of body weight, and their lungs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentrations. IS mice intranasally challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus were treated with 12, 15, or 20 mg/kg L-AMB or ABLC and monitored for survival, fungal burden (CFU), and tissue drug concentration. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and kidney histopathology were determined for uninfected and infected mice given 15 or 20 mg/kg L-AMB or ABLC. The results showed that both drugs had therapeutic levels of drug (>3.0 μg/g) in the lungs of uninfected or infected mice, and 24 h after the last dose, ABLC levels were significantly higher than L-AMB levels (P < 0.02). L-AMB and ABLC at 12 mg/kg both produced 57% survival, but only L-AMB at 15 or 20 mg/kg further increased survival to 80 to 90%, with BUN levels and kidney morphology similar to those of controls. Survival at 15 or 20 mg/kg ABLC was not significantly different than that of controls, and BUN levels were significantly elevated, with tubular alterations in uninfected animals and acute necrosis in kidney tubules of infected animals. In conclusion, although both drugs were effective in prolonging survival at 12 mg/kg, the reduced nephrotoxicity of L-AMB increased its therapeutic index, allowing for its safe and effective use at 15 or 20 mg/kg. PMID:16723574
Mazzotti, M.; Bartoli, I.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.
2013-09-01
Highlights: •Dispersive properties of viscoelastic waveguides and cavities are computed using a regularized 2.5D BEM. •Linear viscoelasticity is introduced at the constitutive level by means of frequency dependent complex moduli. •A contour integral algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. •The Sommerfeld radiation condition is used to select the permissible Riemann sheets. •Attenuation of surface waves in cavities approaches the attenuation of Rayleigh waves. -- Abstract: A regularized 2.5D boundary element method (BEM) is proposed to predict the dispersion properties of damped stress guided waves in waveguides and cavities of arbitrary cross-section. The wave attenuation, induced by material damping, is introduced using linear viscoelastic constitutive relations and described in a spatial manner by the imaginary component of the axial wavenumber. The discretized dispersive wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is solved obtaining complex axial wavenumbers for a fixed frequency using a contour integral algorithm. Due to the singular characteristics and the multivalued feature of the wave equation, the requirement of holomorphicity inside the contour region over the complex wavenumber plane is fulfilled by the introduction of the Sommerfeld branch cuts and by the choice of the permissible Riemann sheets. A post processing analysis is developed for the extraction of the energy velocity of propagative guided waves. The reliability of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained for a rail and a bar with square cross-section with those obtained from a 2.5D Finite Element formulation also known in literature as Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method. Next, to show the potential of the proposed numerical framework, dispersion properties are predicted for surface waves propagating along cylindrical cavities of arbitrary cross-section. It is demonstrated that the attenuation of surface waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcastro, Christine M.
1998-01-01
Robust control system analysis and design is based on an uncertainty description, called a linear fractional transformation (LFT), which separates the uncertain (or varying) part of the system from the nominal system. These models are also useful in the design of gain-scheduled control systems based on Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) methods. Low-order LFT models are difficult to form for problems involving nonlinear parameter variations. This paper presents a numerical computational method for constructing and LFT model for a given LPV model. The method is developed for multivariate polynomial problems, and uses simple matrix computations to obtain an exact low-order LFT representation of the given LPV system without the use of model reduction. Although the method is developed for multivariate polynomial problems, multivariate rational problems can also be solved using this method by reformulating the rational problem into a polynomial form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Robin; Carrassi, Alberto; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Volpi, Danila
2014-05-01
Full Field (FFI) and Anomaly Initialisation (AI) are two schemes used to initialise seasonal-to-decadal (s2d) prediction. FFI initialises the model on the best estimate of the actual climate state and minimises the initial error. However, due to inevitable model deficiencies, the trajectories drift away from the observations towards the model's own attractor, inducing a bias in the forecast. AI has been devised to tackle the impact of drift through the addition of this bias onto the observations, in the hope of gaining an initial state closer to the model attractor. Its goal is to forecast climate anomalies. The large variety of experimental setups, global coupled models, and observational networks adopted world-wide have led to varying results with regards to the relative performance of AI and FFI. Our research is firstly motivated in a comparison of these two initialisation approaches under varying circumstances of observational errors, observational distributions, and model errors. We also propose and compare two advanced schemes for s2d prediction. Least Square Initialisation (LSI) intends to propagate observational information of partially initialized systems to the whole model domain, based on standard practices in data assimilation and using the covariance of the model anomalies. Exploring the Parameters Uncertainty (EPU) is an online drift correction technique applied during the forecast run after initialisation. It is designed to estimate, and subtract, the bias in the forecast related to parametric error. Experiments are carried out using an idealized coupled dynamics in order to facilitate better control and robust statistical inference. Results show that an improvement of FFI will necessitate refinements in the observations, whereas improvements in AI are subject to model advances. A successful approximation of the model attractor using AI is guaranteed only when the differences between model and nature probability distribution functions (PDFs) are
Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Zambrano-Arjona, Miguel A.
2010-02-15
Dual-phase lagging model is one of the most promising approaches to generalize the Fourier heat conduction equation, and it can be reduced in the appropriate limits to the hyperbolic Cattaneo-Vernotte and to the parabolic equations. In this paper it is shown that the Hamilton-Jacobi and quantum theory formulations that have been developed to study the thermal-wave propagation in the Fourier framework can be extended to include the more general approach based on dual-phase lagging. It is shown that the problem of solving the heat conduction equation can be treated as a thermal harmonic oscillator. In the classical approach a formulation in canonical variables is presented. This formalism is used to introduce a quantum mechanical approach from which the expectation values of observables such as the temperature and heat flux are obtained. These formalisms permit to use a methodology that could provide a deeper insight into the phenomena of heat transport at different time scales in media with inhomogeneous thermophysical properties.
Gonçalves, Larissa Martins; Kobayakawa, Talita Guedes; Zanette, Dino; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea
2009-03-01
The rates of oximolysis of p-nitrophenyl diphenyl phosphate (PNPDPP) by Acetophenoxime; 10-phenyl-10-hydroxyiminodecanoic acid; 4-(9-carboxynonanyl)-1-(9-carboxy-1-hydroyiminononanyl) benzene; 1-dodecyl-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium chloride (IV) and N-methylpyridinium-2-aldoxime chloride were determined in micelles of N-hexadecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium propanesulfonate and dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles. The effects of CTAC micelles and DODAC vesicles on the rates of oxymolysis of O,O-Diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (paraoxon) by oxime IV were also determined. Analysis of micellar and vesicular effects on oximolysis of PNPDPP, using pseudophase or pseudophase with explicit consideration of ion exchange models, required the determination of the aggregate's effects on the pK(a) of oximes and on the rates of PNPDPP hydrolysis. All aggregates increased the rate of oximolysis of PNPDPP and the results were analyzed quantitatively. In particular, DODAC vesicles catalyzed the reaction and increased the rate of oximolysis of PNPDPP by IV several million fold at pH's compatible with pharmaceutical formulations. The rate increase produced by DODAC vesicles on the rate of oximolysis paraoxon by IV demonstrates the pharmaceutical potential of this system, since the substrate is used as an agricultural defensive agent and the surfactant is extensively employed in cosmetic formulations.
Gharti, KP; Thapa, P; Budhathoki, U; Bhargava, A
2012-01-01
The present study was carried out with an objective of preparation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug. The floating tablets were based on effervescent approach using sodium bicarbonate a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by dry granulation method. The effect of polymers concentration and viscosity grades of HPMC on drug release profile was evaluated. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were also investigated. The result of in vitro dissolution study showed that the drug release profile could be sustained by increasing the concentration of HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303. The formulation containing HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 at the concentration of 13.88% showed 91.2% drug release at the end of 24 hours. Changing the viscosity grade of HPMC from K15MCR to K100MCR had no significant effect on drug release profile. Sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid in combination showed no significant effect on drug release profile. The formulations containing sodium bicarbonate 20 mg per tablet showed desired buoyancy (floating lag time of about 2 minutes and total floating time of >24 hours). The present study shows that polymers like HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 in combination with sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent can be used to develop sustained release floating tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride. PMID:23493037
Ferrante, L; Bompadre, S; Leone, L; Montanari, M P
2005-06-01
Time-kill curves have frequently been employed to study the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. The relevance of pharmacodynamic modeling to these investigations has been emphasized in many studies of bactericidal kinetics. Stochastic models are needed that take into account the randomness of the mechanisms of both bacterial growth and bacteria-drug interactions. However, most of the models currently used to describe antibiotic activity against microorganisms are deterministic. In this paper we examine a stochastic differential equation representing a stochastic version of a pharmacodynamic model of bacterial growth undergoing random fluctuations, and derive its solution, mean value and covariance structure. An explicit likelihood function is obtained both when the process is observed continuously over a period of time and when data is sampled at time points, as is the custom in these experimental conditions. Some asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators for the model parameters are discussed. The model is applied to analyze in vitro time-kill data and to estimate model parameters; the probability of the bacterial population size dropping below some critical threshold is also evaluated. Finally, the relationship between bacterial extinction probability and the pharmacodynamic parameters estimated is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.
1991-11-01
In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi
2017-02-01
A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation–coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jong-Won; Harris, Charles E.
1990-01-01
A mathematical model based on the Euler-Bermoulli beam theory is proposed for predicting the effective Young's moduli of piecewise isotropic composite laminates with local ply curvatures in the main load-carrying layers. Strains in corrugated layers, in-phase layers, and out-of-phase layers are predicted for various geometries and material configurations by assuming matrix layers as elastic foundations of different spring constants. The effective Young's moduli measured from corrugated aluminum specimens and aluminum/epoxy specimens with in-phase and out-of-phase wavy patterns coincide very well with the model predictions. Moire fringe analysis of an in-phase specimen and an out-of-phase specimen are also presented, confirming the main assumption of the model related to the elastic constraint due to the matrix layers. The present model is also compared with the experimental results and other models, including the microbuckling models, published in the literature. The results of the present study show that even a very small-scale local ply curvature produces a noticeable effect on the mechanical constitutive behavior of a laminated composite.
Psychiatrists' use of formulation
Hughes, Patricia M.
2016-01-01
Both psychologists and psychiatrists are trained to write formulations of their patients' illnesses, with some differences in how they do this. Psychologists focus on psychological understanding, while psychiatrists' formulation brings together aetiology, functioning and a management plan. Mohtashemi et al's study records how some psychiatrists understand formulation and its usefulness. Time pressure was an important barrier to making a full formulation, and some believed the medical role of the psychiatrist was a priority. The study illustrates some of the challenges facing psychiatrists working in the NHS in terms of maintaining high clinical standards and a holistic approach to patient care. PMID:27512593
[Lipid formulations of amphotericin].
Botero, Martha C; Puentes-Herrera, Marcela; Cortés, Jorge A
2014-10-01
Amphotericin B deoxycholate use has increased during the past years in parallel with the increase in the number of immunosuppressed patients suffering invasive fungal infections. This drug is associated with a high rate of side effects, especially renal toxicity. Lipid formulations (liposomal, lipid complex, colloidal suspension and the Indian liposomal formulation) have been developed, which share the same antifungal spectrum but differ in efficacy and toxicity. A review of amphotericin lipid formulations is presented, focusing on differences in efficacy and, especially renal toxicity. The main problem for use of these formulations in Latin America is their highcost.
Heyder, Rodrigo S; Zhong, Qian; Bazito, Reinaldo C; da Rocha, Sandro R P
2017-03-30
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of generation and surface PEGylation of degradable polyester-based dendrimers nanocarriers on their interactions with an in vitro model of the pulmonary epithelium as well as to assess the ability to formulate such carriers in propellant-based, portable oral-inhalation devices to determine their potential for local and systemic delivery of drugs to and through the lungs. Hydroxyl (-OH) terminated polyester dendrimers of generation 3 and 4 (G3, and G4) were synthesized using a divergent approach. G4 was surface-modified with PEG (1,000Da). All dendrimers and their building blocks were determined to be highly compatible with the model pulmonary epithelium, with toxicity profiles much more favorable than non-degradable polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM). The transport of the species from the apical to basolateral side across polarized Calu-3 monolayers showed to be generation and surface-chemistry (PEGylation) dependent. The extent of the transport is modulated by their interaction with the polarized epithelium and their transient opening of the tight junctions. G3 was the one most efficiently internalized by the epithelium, and had a small impact on the integrity of the monolayer. On the other hand, the PEGylated G4 was the one least internalized by the polarized epithelium, and at the same time had a more pronounced transient impact on the cellular junctions, resulting in more efficient transport across the cell monolayer. PEGylation of the dendrimer surface played other roles as well. PEGylation modulated the degradation profile of the dendrimer, slowing the process in a step-wise fashion - first the PEG layer is shed and then the dendrimer starts degrading. PEGylation also helped increase the solvation of the nanocarriers by the hydrofluoroalkane propellant used in pressurized metered-dose inhalers, resulting in formulations with excellent dispersibility and aerosol quality (deep lung deposition of 88
Wang, Tsuo-Feng; Kasting, Gerald B; Nitsche, Johannes M
2006-03-01
A two-dimensional microscopic transport model of the stratum corneum (SC) incorporating corneocytes of varying hydration and permeability embedded in an anisotropic lipid matrix is presented. Results are expressed in terms of a dimensionless permeability (P(SC/w)(comp), which is a function of two dimensionless parameters, R and sigma. R is a ratio of transbilayer to lateral molecular flows within a lipid bilayer and sigma is the ratio of (lateral) permeability in the lipid phase, D(lip)K(lip/w), to that in the corneocyte phase, D(cor)K(cor/w.) The shape of the dimensionless permeability surface is also governed by the arrangement of the SC lipids, where Model 1 represents the extreme in which lipid-phase transport can occur with no transbilayer transport, whereas Model 2 entails maximum transbilayer transport. Model calculations are exemplified by characterizing the skin permeability of four representative permeants: water, ethanol, nicotinamide, and testosterone. A comparison with experimental steady state permeability and partition data supports that the transport properties of the SC lipids are highly anisotropic, with lateral diffusivities several orders of magnitude higher than the equivalent diffusivity calculated from transbilayer hopping. Nevertheless, the calculations suggest that corneocyte-phase transport plays a major role for all four permeants. These results confirm our previous calculations on water permeability and present a marked contrast to the commonly stated doctrine that the SC transport pathway is primarily intercellular.
Haidvogel, D.B.; Arango, H.; Budgell, W.P.; Cornuelle, B.D.; Curchitser, E.; Di, Lorenzo E.; Fennel, K.; Geyer, W.R.; Hermann, A.J.; Lanerolle, L.; Levin, J.; McWilliams, J.C.; Miller, A.J.; Moore, A.M.; Powell, T.M.; Shchepetkin, A.F.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Warner, J.C.; Wilkin, J.
2008-01-01
Systematic improvements in algorithmic design of regional ocean circulation models have led to significant enhancement in simulation ability across a wide range of space/time scales and marine system types. As an example, we briefly review the Regional Ocean Modeling System, a member of a general class of three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical models. Noteworthy characteristics of the ROMS computational kernel include: consistent temporal averaging of the barotropic mode to guarantee both exact conservation and constancy preservation properties for tracers; redefined barotropic pressure-gradient terms to account for local variations in the density field; vertical interpolation performed using conservative parabolic splines; and higher-order, quasi-monotone advection algorithms. Examples of quantitative skill assessment are shown for a tidally driven estuary, an ice-covered high-latitude sea, a wind- and buoyancy-forced continental shelf, and a mid-latitude ocean basin. The combination of moderate-order spatial approximations, enhanced conservation properties, and quasi-monotone advection produces both more robust and accurate, and less diffusive, solutions than those produced in earlier terrain-following ocean models. Together with advanced methods of data assimilation and novel observing system technologies, these capabilities constitute the necessary ingredients for multi-purpose regional ocean prediction systems. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flagan, R. C.; Appleton, J. P.
1973-01-01
A stochastic model of turbulent mixing was developed for a reactor in which mixing is represented by n-body fluid particle interactions. The model was used to justify the assumption (made in previous investigations of the role of turbulent mixing on burner generated thermal nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions) that for a simple plug flow reactor, composition nonuniformities can be described by a Gaussian distribution function in the local fuel:air equivalence ratio. Recent extensions of this stochastic model to include the combined effects of turbulent mixing and secondary air entrainment on thermal generation of nitric oxide in gas turbine combustors are discussed. Finally, rate limited upper and lower bounds of the nitric oxide produced by thermal fixation of molecular nitrogen and oxidation of organically bound fuel nitrogen are estimated on the basis of the stochastic model for a plug flow burner; these are compared with experimental measurements obtained using a laboratory burner operated over a wide range of test conditions; good agreement is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent
Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.
WANG, YU-HONG; YIN, LING-TAO; YANG, HUI; LI, XIN-LIANG; WU, KAI-GE
2014-01-01
This study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering and antidepressant effects of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu formulation (ZGJTJY) in a model of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM; the UCMS-DM model). Sixty rats were randomly divided into blank control, vehicle (model plus vehicle), positive control (model plus metformin and fluoxetine), and high, medium and low dose ZGJTJY (model plus high, medium and low doses of ZGJTJY, respectively) groups. Following establishment of DM by a high-fat diet with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (38 mg/kg), the depression model was established by application of UCMS for 28 days. The behavioral scores of the rats were detected in an open field test and Morris water maze test. The levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood lipids were assayed. The total scores of the open field test and the space exploration times (SETs) in the Morris water maze test were significantly lower and the escape latency (EL) times in the Morris water maze test were significantly longer in the vehicle group compared with those in the blank control group. In addition, in the vehicle group, the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher and the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly lower compared with those in the blank control group. The high dose of ZGJTJY decreased the locomotor activity levels in the open field test, the EL times of the model on day 4, the SETs in the Morris water maze test and the HDL-C levels, and reduced the blood glucose, HbA1c, TC, TG and LDL-C levels compared with those in the model group. Thus, ZGJTJY is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of the comorbidity of depression with DM. PMID:24944635
Kang, L; Yap, C W; Lim, P F C; Chen, Y Z; Ho, P C; Chan, Y W; Wong, G P; Chan, S Y
2007-07-31
Terpenes and terpenoids have been used as enhancers in transdermal formulations for facilitating penetration of drugs into human skin. Knowledge of the correlation between the human skin penetration effect (HSPE) and the physicochemical properties of these enhancers is important for facilitating the discovery and development of more enhancers. In this work, the HSPE of 49 terpenes and terpenoids were compared by the in vitro permeability coefficients of haloperidol (HP) through excised human skin. A first-order multiple linear regression (MLR) model was constructed to link the permeability coefficient of the drug to the lipophilicity, molecular weight, boiling point, the terpene type and the functional group of each enhancer. The Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was derived from our data generated by using standardized experimental protocols, which include: HP in propylene glycol (PG) of 3 mg/ml as the donor solution containing 5% (w/v) of the respective terpene, the same composition and volume of receptor solution, similar human skin samples, in the same set of automated flow-through diffusion cells. The model provided a simple method to predict the enhancing effects of terpenes for drugs with physicochemical properties similar to HP. Our study suggested that an ideal terpene enhancer should possess at least one or combinations of the following properties: hydrophobic, in liquid form at room temperature, with an ester or aldehyde but not acid functional group, and is neither a triterpene nor tetraterpene. Possible mechanisms revealed by the QSAR model were discussed.
Chessa, S; Huatan, H; Levina, M; Mehta, R Y; Ferrizzi, D; Rajabi-Siahboomi, A R
2014-05-15
Characterisation of the effect of food on the bio-performance of modified and extended release dosage forms can be very challenging due to the need to replicate the dynamic biochemical conditions of the human gut as well as the complex physical processing modalities under fed state. Classical compendial methods are useful for testing the quality of pharmaceutical dosage forms but typically have limitations in the accurate prediction of food-effect in-vivo. Preliminary evaluation of the Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) shows that it can provide substantially more detailed mechanistic information on dosage form properties compared to conventional compendial testing. The potential effect of food on the drug release and physical properties of a hydrophilic matrix formulation containing a model drug, hydrochlorothiazide, was studied using compendial methods, bio-relevant media and the DGM (in combination with an off-line intestinal model). Whilst the compendial methods with biorelevant media provided good correlation with the dissolution rates observed using the DGM/intestinal model under simulated fasted state, the quantification of simulated fed state performance changes was much more challenging using the compendial methods. Classical compendial studies using biorelevant FeSSIF and FaSSIF media could not readily discern differences in dissolution performance under fasted and fed states; however, the DGM could detect significant changes in both physical properties as well as drug release performance under fed state processing.
Haynes, Mark; Verweij, Sacha A. M.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Carson, Paul L.
2014-01-01
A self-contained source characterization method for commercial ultrasound probes in transmission acoustic inverse scattering is derived and experimentally tested. The method is based on modified scattered field volume integral equations that are linked to the source-scattering transducer model. The source-scattering parameters are estimated via pair-wise transducer measurements and the nonlinear inversion of an acoustic propagation model that is derived. This combination creates a formal link between the transducer characterization and the inverse scattering algorithm. The method is tested with two commercial ultrasound probes in a transmission geometry including provisions for estimating the probe locations and aligning a robotic rotator. The transducer characterization results show that the nonlinear inversion fit the measured data well. The transducer calibration and inverse scattering algorithm are tested on simple targets. Initial images show that the recovered contrasts are physically consistent with expected values. PMID:24569251
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viparelli, E.; Hernandez Moreira, R. R.; Blom, A.
2015-12-01
A perusal of the literature on bedload transport revealed that, notwithstanding the large number of studies on bedform morphology performed in the past decades, the upper plane bed regime has not been thoroughly investigated and the distinction between the upper plane bed and sheet flow transport regimes is still poorly defined. Previous experimental work demonstrated that the upper plane bed regime is characterized by long wavelength and small amplitude bedforms that migrate downstream. These bedforms, however, were not observed in experiments on sheet flow transport suggesting that the upper plane bed and the sheet flow are two different regimes. We thus designed and performed experiments in a sediment feed flume in the hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of South Carolina at Columbia to study the transition from upper plane bed to sheet flow regime. Periodic measurements of water surface and bed elevation, bedform geometry and thicknesses of the bedload layer were performed by eyes, and with cameras, movies and a system of six ultrasonic probes that record the variations of bed elevation at a point over time. We used the time series of bed elevations to determine the probability functions of bed elevation. These probability functions are implemented in a continuous model of river morphodynamics, i.e. a model that does not use the active layer approximation to describe the sediment fluxes between the bedload and the deposit and that should thus be able to capture the details of the vertical and streamwise variation of the deposit grain size distribution. This model is validated against the experimental results for the case of uniform material. We then use the validated model in the attempt to study if and how the spatial distribution of grain sizes in the deposit changes from upper plane bed regime to sheet flow and if these results are influenced by the imposed rates of base level rise.
Hatfield, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.; Carlin, B.P.
2011-01-01
Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.
Hatfield, Laura A; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A; Carlin, Bradley P
2011-09-01
Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data.
Lee, Plato C.; Parks, Eric K.; Moran, Brian J
2003-12-31
An innovative (and yet simple) dosimetric model is proposed that provides a semi-analytical solution to the total activity-volume relationship in ultrasound-guided transperineal prostate implant. This dosimetric model is based on 4 simple assumptions. First, the prostate target volume is approximated as a sphere. Second, the urethra is presumed to transverse through the center of the prostate target volume. Third, peripheral loading is applied as the seed-loading technique. Fourth, as the major innovation of the proposed model, the radial dose function of the Iodine-125 {sup 125}I seed is forced to fit a simple power function of the distance r. Pursuant to the third assumption, the peripherally-loaded seeds also define a spherical volume defined as the loading volume w. Also pursuant to the fourth assumption, the radial dose function is expressed as 1.139*r{sup -0.474} for r = 1.5 to 2.5 cm. Thereafter, a simple analytical power-law equation, A = 1.630* w{sup 0.825}, for the relationship between the total activity A in mCi and the loading volume w in cc is derived for {sup 125}I monotherapy. Isodose plans for loading volumes corresponding to r = 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, and 2.5 cm were performed. The maximal isodose coverage volume {sub max}V100 was calculated for each case and was found to be on the average 65% larger than the loading volume w. Matching prostate target volume V to the loading volume w therefore yields a generous implant (with a margin of approximately 3.3 mm). Conversely, matching the prostate target volume V to the {sub max}V100 yields a tight implant (with 0.0 mm or no margin). Matching the prostate target volume V to a midpoint between the loading volume w and {sub max}V100 yields a moderate implant (with approximately 1- to 2-mm margin). Three individual equations are derived for each type of implants: A = 1.630* V{sup 0.825}, A = 1.288* V{sup 0.825}, or A = 1.078 V{sup 0.825} for generous, tight, or moderate implants, respectively. Patient data at the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, W. C.
1982-01-01
With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biglar, M.; Stachowicz, F.; Trzepiecinski, T.; Gromada, M.
2017-02-01
Recent experiments on polycrystalline materials show that microcrystalline materials have a strong dependency ona grain size. In this study, mechanical and electrical properties of polycrystalline materials in micro level were studied by using averaging theorems. To completely understand the size-dependency of polycrystalline materials, an integral non-local approach that can predict the stress-strain relations for these materials was presented. In microcrystalline materials, crystalline and grain-boundary were considered as two separate phases. Mechanical properties of the crystalline phase were modelled using crystalline brittle material and is composed of randomly distributed and orientated single crystal anisotropic elastic grains. For microcrystalline materials, the surface-to-volume ratio of the grain boundaries is low enough to ignore its contribution to the elastic deformation. Therefore, the grain boundary phase was not considered in microcrystalline materials and mechanical properties of the crystalline phase were modelled using appropriate integral non-local approach. Finally, the constitutive equations for polycrystalline materials were implemented into a boundary integral equation and the results and some examples are provided for piezoelectric ceramic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Hyung-Sup; Won, Joong-Sun
A recently developed line-of-sight (LOS) vector adjustment model is an effective geopositioning method for pushbroom images. A requirement for this method is that a predicted orbit be close to a true orbit. Although the method has proven very effective for SPOT 5, which has an accurate orbital control system, it was an open question whether or not the method could be effective for a satellite system with poor orbital accuracy. In this paper, a distortion error is defined and formulated as a common criterion for testing orbital requirements of a pushbroom system from the perspective of the LOS vector adjustment model. Using the distortion error, it is shown that a satellite system, even with poor locational accuracy comparable to SPOT 3-4, meets the orbital requirements as long as the maximum topographic height in the landscape is less than 4 km against the height level of the control points. A test was performed using three SPOT images and only five ground control points (GCPs). Results indicated that the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of horizontal residual errors calculated from 30 check points were less than 10 m. The achieved accuracy of three-dimensional object-point determination was 6 m in the X-dimension and 7 m in both Y- and Z-dimensions. The conclusion can be drawn that the orbital requirements of this method can accommodate most space-borne systems, and therefore the LOS vector adjustment model is effective for SPOT and comparable pushbroom imagery.
Park, Jung Woo; Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Moon, Hyong Woo; Cho, Shin Jay; Yang, Jong Hyup; Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Jin Bong; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U-Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl
2016-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of a multi-herbal formula known as WSY-1075 in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in a rat model. Materials and Methods Experimental chronic bacterial prostatitis was induced in 32 Wistar rats by instillation of a bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli, 108 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) into the prostatic urethra. After the induction of prostatitis, the rats were randomly divided into one of 4 treatment groups: control (n=8), ciprofloxacin (n=8), WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) (n=8), and WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg)+ciprofloxacin (n=8). After 4 weeks of treatment, microbiological data from prostate tissue cultures, level of prostatic pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-8), anti-oxidant effects (superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and histological findings were noted. Results The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin, and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed fewer CFUs in prostate tissue cultures than the control group. The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significantly lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 than the control group. SOD levels in the WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups were significantly higher than in the control group. Conclusions This study found that WSY-1075 had anti-microbial effects, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-oxidative effects in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model. We expect the WSY-1075 may be useful for the clinical treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. PMID:28053947
Thompson, Mitchell G.; Truong-Le, Vu; Alamneh, Yonas A.; Black, Chad C.; Anderl, Jeff; Honnold, Cary L.; Pavlicek, Rebecca L.; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Wise, Matthew C.; Hall, Eric R.; Wagar, Eric J.; Patzer, Eric
2015-01-01
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common occurrence in health care facilities with a heightened risk for immunocompromised patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae has been increasingly implicated as the bacterial agent responsible for SSTIs, and treatment can be challenging as more strains become multidrug resistant (MDR). Therefore, new treatments are needed to counter this bacterial pathogen. Gallium complexes exhibit antimicrobial activity and are currently being evaluated as potential treatment for bacterial infections. In this study, we tested a topical formulation containing gallium citrate (GaCi) for the treatment of wounds infected with K. pneumoniae. First, the MIC against K. pneumoniae ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 μg/ml GaCi. After this in vitro efficacy was established, two topical formulations with GaCi (0.1% [wt/vol] and 0.3% [wt/vol]) were tested in a murine wound model of MDR K. pneumoniae infection. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed K. pneumoniae-infected wounds appeared to close faster with GaCi treatment and were accompanied by reduced inflammation compared to those of untreated controls. Similarly, quantitative indications of infection remediation, such as reduced weight loss and wound area, suggested that treatment improved outcomes compared to those of untreated controls. Bacterial burdens were measured 1 and 3 days following inoculation, and a 0.5 to 1.5 log reduction of CFU was observed. Lastly, upon scanning electron microscopy analysis, GaCi treatment appeared to prevent biofilm formation on dressings compared to those of untreated controls. These results suggest that with more preclinical testing, a topical application of GaCi may be a promising alternative treatment strategy for K. pneumoniae SSTI. PMID:26239978
Thompson, Mitchell G; Truong-Le, Vu; Alamneh, Yonas A; Black, Chad C; Anderl, Jeff; Honnold, Cary L; Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Wise, Matthew C; Hall, Eric R; Wagar, Eric J; Patzer, Eric; Zurawski, Daniel V
2015-10-01
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common occurrence in health care facilities with a heightened risk for immunocompromised patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae has been increasingly implicated as the bacterial agent responsible for SSTIs, and treatment can be challenging as more strains become multidrug resistant (MDR). Therefore, new treatments are needed to counter this bacterial pathogen. Gallium complexes exhibit antimicrobial activity and are currently being evaluated as potential treatment for bacterial infections. In this study, we tested a topical formulation containing gallium citrate (GaCi) for the treatment of wounds infected with K. pneumoniae. First, the MIC against K. pneumoniae ranged from 0.125 to 2.0 μg/ml GaCi. After this in vitro efficacy was established, two topical formulations with GaCi (0.1% [wt/vol] and 0.3% [wt/vol]) were tested in a murine wound model of MDR K. pneumoniae infection. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed K. pneumoniae-infected wounds appeared to close faster with GaCi treatment and were accompanied by reduced inflammation compared to those of untreated controls. Similarly, quantitative indications of infection remediation, such as reduced weight loss and wound area, suggested that treatment improved outcomes compared to those of untreated controls. Bacterial burdens were measured 1 and 3 days following inoculation, and a 0.5 to 1.5 log reduction of CFU was observed. Lastly, upon scanning electron microscopy analysis, GaCi treatment appeared to prevent biofilm formation on dressings compared to those of untreated controls. These results suggest that with more preclinical testing, a topical application of GaCi may be a promising alternative treatment strategy for K. pneumoniae SSTI.
Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A
2014-07-01
The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles.
Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P
2008-01-01
The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.
Reactive decontamination formulation
Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James
2003-05-27
The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.
Formulation techniques for nanofluids.
Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David
2013-11-01
Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Bing; de Swart, Huib E.; Panadès, Carles
2016-09-01
Tidal sand ridges and long bed waves are large-scale bedforms that are observed on continental shelves. They differ in their wavelength and in their orientation with respect to the principal direction of tidal currents. Previous studies indicate that tidal sand ridges appear in areas where tidal currents are above 0.5 m s-1, while long bed waves occur in regions where the maximum tidal current velocity is slightly above the critical velocity for sand erosion and the current is elliptical. An idealized nonlinear numerical model was developed to improve the understanding of the initial formation of these bedforms. The model governs the feedbacks between tidally forced depth-averaged currents and the sandy bed on the outer shelf. The effects of different formulations of bed shear stress and sand transport, tidal ellipticity and different tidal constituents on the characteristics of these bedforms (growth rate, wavelength, orientation of the preferred bedforms) during their initial formation were examined systematically. The results show that the formulations for bed shear stress and slope-induced sand transport are not critical for the initial formation of these bedforms. For tidal sand ridges, under rectilinear tidal currents, increasing the critical bed shear stress for sand erosion decreases the growth rate and the wavelength of the preferred bedforms significantly, while the orientation angle slightly decreases. The dependence of the growth rate, wavelength and the orientation of the preferred bedforms on the tidal ellipticity is non-monotonic. A decrease in tidal frequency results in preferred bedforms with larger wavelength and smaller orientation angle, while their growth rate hardly changes. In the case of joint diurnal and semidiurnal tides, or spring-neap tides, the characteristics of the bedforms are determined by the dominant tidal constituent. For long bed waves, the number of anticyclonically/cyclonically oriented bedforms with respect to the principal
Aydogan, Ebru; Comoglu, Tansel; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Dogan, Murat; Comoglu, Selcuk; Dogan, Aysegul; Basci, Nursabah
2015-01-01
Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were
Lithography overlay controller formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bode, Christopher A.; Toprac, Anthony J.; Edwards, Richard D.; Edgar, Thomas F.
2000-08-01
Lithography overlay refers to the measurement of the alignment of successive patterns within the manufacture of semiconductor devices. Control of overlay has become of great importance in semiconductor manufacturing, as the tolerance for overlay error is continually shrinking in order to manufacture next-generation semiconductor products. Run-to-run control has become an attractive solution to many control problems within the industry, including overlay. The term run-to-run control refers to any automated procedure whereby recipe settings are updated between successive process runs in order to keep the process under control. The following discussion will present the formulation of such a controller by examining control of overlay. A brief introduction of overlay will be given, highlighting the control challenge overlay presents. A data management methodology that groups like processes together in order to improve controllability, referred to as control threads, will then be presented. Finally, a discussion of linear model predictive control will show its utility in feedback run-to-run control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daude, F.; Galon, P.
2016-01-01
Computation of compressible two-phase flows with the unsteady compressible Baer-Nunziato model in conjunction with the moving grid approach is discussed in this paper. Both HLL- and HLLC-type Finite-Volume methods are presented and implemented in the context of Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation in a multidimensional framework. The construction of suitable numerical methods is linked to proper approximations of the non-conservative terms on moving grids. The HLL discretization follows global conservation properties such as free-stream preservation and uniform pressure and velocity profiles preservation on moving grids. The HLLC solver initially proposed by Tokareva and Toro [1] for the Baer-Nunziato model is based on an approximate solution of local Riemann problems containing all the characteristic fields present in the exact solution. Both ;subsonic; and ;supersonic; configurations are considered in the construction of the present HLLC solver. In addition, an adaptive 6-wave HLLC scheme is also proposed for computational efficiency. The methods are first assessed on a variety of 1-D Riemann problems including both fixed and moving grids applications. The methods are finally tested on 2-D and 3-D applications: 2-D Riemann problems, a 2-D shock-bubble interaction and finally a 3-D fluid-structure interaction problem with a good agreement with the experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Lichtner, P. C.; Hammond, G. E.
2010-12-01
Fracture dominated flows occur in numerous subsurface geochemical processes and at many different scales in rock pore structures, micro-fractures, fracture networks and faults. Fractured porous media can be modeled as multiple interacting continua which are connected to each other through transfer terms that capture the flow of mass and energy in response to pressure, temperature and concentration gradients. However, the analysis of large-scale transient problems using the multiple interacting continuum approach presents an algorithmic and computational challenge for problems with very large numbers of degrees of freedom. A generalized dual porosity model based on the Dual Continuum Disconnected Matrix approach has been implemented within a massively parallel multiphysics-multicomponent-multiphase subsurface reactive flow and transport code PFLOTRAN. Developed as part of the Department of Energy's SciDAC-2 program, PFLOTRAN provides subsurface simulation capabilities that can scale from laptops to ultrascale supercomputers, and utilizes the PETSc framework to solve the large, sparse algebraic systems that arises in complex subsurface reactive flow and transport problems. It has been successfully applied to the solution of problems composed of more than two billions degrees of freedom, utilizing up to 131,072 processor cores on Jaguar, the Cray XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that is the world’s fastest supercomputer. Building upon the capabilities and computational efficiency of PFLOTRAN, we will present an implementation of the multiple interacting continua formulation for fractured porous media along with an application case study.
Kim, Hyun-Su; Jaffé, Peter R
2008-02-01
An experiment was conducted in a saturated sand column with three bacterial strains that have different growth characteristics on toluene, Pseudomonas putida F1 which degrades toluene only under aerobic conditions, Thauera aromatica T1 which degrades toluene only under denitrifying conditions, and Ralstonia pickettii PKO1 has a facultative nature and can perform nitrate-enhanced biodegradation of toluene under hypoxic conditions (DO <2 mg/L). Steady-state concentration profiles showed that oxygen and nitrate appeared to be utilized simultaneously, regardless of the dissolved oxygen concentration and the results from fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PKO1 maintained stable cells numbers throughout the column, even when the pore water oxygen concentration was high. Since PKO1's growth rate under aerobic condition is much lower than that of F1, except under hypoxic conditions, these observations were not anticipated. Therefore these observations require a mechanistic explanation that can account for localized low oxygen concentrations under aerobic conditions. To simulate the observed dynamics, a multispecies biofilm model was implemented. This model formulation assumes the formation of a thin biofilm that is composed of the three bacterial strains. The individual strains grow in response to the substrate and electron acceptor flux from bulk fluid into the biofilm. The model was implemented such that internal changes in bacterial composition and substrate concentration can be simulated over time and space. The model simulations from oxic to denitrifying conditions compared well to the experimental profiles of the chemical species and the bacterial strains, indicating the importance of accounting for the biological activity of individual strains in biofilms that span different redox conditions.
Rodríguez Cruz, Yamila; Strehaiano, Manon; Rodríguez Obaya, Teresita; García Rodríguez, Julío César; Maurice, Tangui
2017-01-01
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD. Mice were administered 3 times a day, 3 days in the week with Neuro-EPO (125, 250 μg/kg) intranasally, between 12 and 14 months of age. Motor responses, general activity, and memory responses were analyzed during and after treatment. The deficits in spontaneous alternation, place learning in the water-maze, and novel object recognition observed in APPSwe mice were alleviated by the low dose of Neuro-EPO. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, trophic factor levels, and a synaptic marker were analyzed in the hippocampus or cortex of the animals. The increases in lipid peroxidation or in GFAP and Iba-1 contents in APPSwe mice were significantly reduced after Neuro-EPO. Activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways was analyzed. The increases in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, TNFα, or Fas ligand levels observed in APPSwe mice were reduced by Neuro-EPO. Finally, immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses of Aβ1-42 levels in the APPSwe mouse cortex and hippocampus showed a marked reduction in Aβ deposits and in soluble and insoluble Aβ1-42 forms. This study therefore confirmed the neuroprotective activity of EPO, particularly for an intranasally deliverable formulation, devoid of erythropoietic side effects, in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Neuro-EPO alleviated memory alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis induction, and amyloid load in 14-month-old APPSwe mice.
2013-01-01
Objective An oral lipid based formulation that exhibits tropical stability (iCo-010) was developed to enhance the absorption of orally administered amphotericin B (AmB). iCo-010 has previously shown high efficacy in an acute model of systemic candidiasis in rats, directing the focus of this study to be its efficacy in a chronic model of systemic candidiasis in mice. Methods Mice were infected with 0.6 to 1×108 CFUs of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 strain by tail vein injection and were left for three days to develop the infection after which time treatment was initiated. The infected animals were assigned to the following treatment groups: no treatment (control) or iCo-010 at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered by oral gavage once daily (QD) for 5 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 7 days after the last dose and the concentration of AmB and the fungal burden were assessed within the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and brain. Results Although the infection was relatively low (~ 60–100 CFUs/ 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the liver, lungs and heart, the infection level was very high (70 000 CFUs / 1 ml tissue homogenate) in the kidney tissues for the control group. The highest concentrations of AmB were recovered in the kidneys and the spleen. The fungal burden in the tissues was lowered by 69-96% in the treatment groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion Oral iCo-010 is an effective treatment of systemic candidiasis in the mouse model. PMID:24164705
Ishida, Toshikazu
2005-01-01
In the Japanese post WWII urban planning and design field, concerns for formal features regarding the sequential street-front visual image in new high-density urban spaces have been a rather subordinated subject. Famous New Town schemes such as Tsukuba Science City (1963), or Minato Mirai 21 (1965) for instance, are typical inland and reclaimed land examples that summarize the validity and limitations of functional zoning systems applied to these artificial urban developments for the last half century. In those examples, the interaction between space mobility and land use has not been explored sufficiently in order to create attractive street-front images, yet such interaction is essential to the way the cityscape and its character are perceived by the eye. However, current insight regarding the sustainable New Town paradigm has brought a renewed perspective regarding design policy of the pedestrian precinct. This study investigates the formal features of the sequential street-front image of Dutch late-medieval town examples which could help re-formulate the existing design policies regarding the quality of pedestrian space especially in the artificial reclaimed land design field. The purpose is to find out how the principles of those old high-density artificial environmental design models generate such effective interaction between mobility and land usage, creating an enriched aesthetic visual image of street-front space as a result.
Verreault, M; Strutt, D; Masin, D; Anantha, M; Waterhouse, D; Yapp, D T; Bally, M B
2012-02-28
Given compelling evidences supporting the therapeutic potential of irinotecan (IRN) for patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the present study evaluated the activity of Irinophore C™ (IrC™), a lipid-based nanopharmaceutical formulation of IRN, in GBM. The levels of IRN and SN-38 were determined in plasma and brain after a single intravenous dose of IRN or IrC™ in tumor-free mice. Treatment with IrC™ significantly increased the plasma AUC(0-24h) of the active (lactone) forms of IRN and SN-38 when compared to free drug (760 and 30-fold increase, respectively). Levels of IRN and SN-38 in brain tissue were also increased significantly (compared to IRN treatment) following IrC™ administration. A tolerability study revealed that IrC™ is better tolerated than IRN. The efficacy of IrC™ and IRN was assessed in an orthotopic model of GBM. The therapeutic efficacy of IrC™ given at 25mg/kg weekly was comparable to the efficacy achieved using twice the dose of IRN. At the maximum tolerated dose, IrC™ (100mg/kg) increased the survival time of tumor-bearing mice of 83% compared to untreated animals. Ki67 immunostaining analysis of IrC™-treated tumors revealed a transient increase in cell proliferation after treatment. The results justify further studies evaluating the use of IrC™ for treating GBM.
Botes, Marelize; van Reenen, Carol A; Dicks, Leon M T
2008-12-10
Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 produce bacteriocins with activity against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both strains survived intestinal conditions simulated in a gastro-intestinal model (GIM) with infant milk formulations as substrate and prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA. The strains are inhibited by the antibiotics amoxicillin, cefadroxil, roxithromycin and doxycycline, anti-inflammatory medicaments containing meloxicam, ibuprofen and sodium diklofenak, and analgesics containing paracetamol, codeine phosphate and promethazine. Strain 423 is sensitive to vancomycin and does not contain genes encoding gelatinase, cell aggregation substance (AS), adhesion to collagen (Ace), enterococcus surface protein (Esp), Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen (EfaAfs), cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III). Genes encoding AS, cytolysin and non-cytolysin (beta-hemolysin III) were amplified from the genome of strain ST4SA. Survival of strains ST4SA and 423 improved when used as combined cultures in the GIM and compared well with the survival of commercially available probiotics subjected to the same conditions.
Cherif, Mahamoud Sama; Shuaibu, Mohammed Nasir; Kodama, Yukinobu; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Yui, Katsuyuki; Tien, Nguyen Huy; Karbwang, Juntra; Hirayama, Kenji
2014-04-07
We have previously reported the new formulation of polyethylimine (PEI) with gamma polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) nanoparticle (NP) to have provided Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein-1 (PyMSP-1) plasmid DNA vaccine with enhanced protective cellular and humoral immunity in the lethal mouse malaria model. PyGPI8p-transamidase-related protein (PyTAM) was selected as a possible candidate vaccine antigen by using DNA vaccination screening from 29 GPI anchor and signal sequence motif positive genes picked up using web-based bioinformatics tools; though the observed protection was not complete. Here, we observed augmented protective effect of PyTAM DNA vaccine by using PEI and γ-PGA complex as delivery system. NP-coated PyTAM plasmid DNA immunized mice showed a significant survival rate from lethal P. yoelii challenge infection compared with naked PyTAM plasmid or with NP-coated empty plasmid DNA group. Antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2b subclass antibody levels, proportion of CD4 and CD8T cells producing IFN-γ in the splenocytes and IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α levels in the sera and in the supernatants from ex vivo splenocytes culture were all enhanced by the NP-coated PyTAM DNA vaccine. These data indicates that NP augments PyTAM protective immune response, and this enhancement was associated with increased DC activation and concomitant IL-12 production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battistel, O. A.; Pimenta, T. H.; Dallabona, G.
2016-10-01
In the present work we consider the phenomenological consequences of a predictive formulation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at the one loop level of perturbative calculations. The investigation reported here can be considered as an extension of previously made ones on the same issue. In the study made in this work we have included vector and tensor couplings, simultaneously, as well as S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking terms. As a consequence of the last ingredient mentioned, there are different masses in the model amplitudes. In spite of this, within the context of the adopted procedure, we verify that it is possible to eliminate unphysical dependencies on the arbitrary choices for the routing of internal lines momenta as well as Ward identities violating contributions and scale ambiguous terms, from the corresponding one loop amplitudes, through the simple and universal Consistency Relations. The total content of divergence of the amplitudes is reduced to only two basic divergent objects. They are related to two inputs of the model in a way that, due to their scale properties, an unique arbitrariness remains. However, due to the critical condition found in the mechanism which generates the constituent quark mass, within our approach, this arbitrariness is also removed turning the model predictive in the sense that its phenomenological consequences is not dependent in possible choices made in intermediary steps of the calculations, as occurs in usual treatments. In this scenario, we investigate the most typical static properties of the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons at low-energy. Special attention is given to the consequences of the S U (2 ) isospin symmetry breaking for the phenomenological predictions. The implications of the tensor couplings for the model observables, which can be considered an original contribution of the present work, at the level of the content and not only in the form, is analyzed in a detailed way. The found
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romanou, A.; Gregg, Watson W.; Romanski, J.; Kelley, M.; Bleck, R.; Healy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.
2013-01-01
Results from twin control simulations of the preindustrial CO2 gas exchange (natural flux of CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere are presented here using the NASA-GISS climate model, in which the same atmospheric component (modelE2) is coupled to two different ocean models, the Russell ocean model and HYCOM. Both incarnations of the GISS climate model are also coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (NOBM) which estimates prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2. Model intercomparison is carried out at equilibrium conditions and model differences are contrasted with biases from present day climatologies. Although the models agree on the spatial patterns of the air-sea flux of CO2, they disagree on the strength of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sinks mainly because of kinematic (winds) and chemistry (pCO2) differences rather than thermodynamic (SST) ones. Biology/chemistry dissimilarities in the models stem from the different parameterizations of advective and diffusive processes, such as overturning, mixing and horizontal tracer advection and to a lesser degree from parameterizations of biogeochemical processes such as gravitational settling and sinking. The global meridional overturning circulation illustrates much of the different behavior of the biological pump in the two models, together with differences in mixed layer depth which are responsible for different SST, DIC and nutrient distributions in the two models and consequently different atmospheric feedbacks (in the wind, net heat and freshwater fluxes into the ocean).
Formulations and nebulizer performance.
O'Riordan, Thomas G
2002-11-01
To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.
Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian C; Badhan, Raj K; Mohammed, Afzal R
2017-01-01
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among men and women worldwide. In CVD, hypertension and dyslipidemia commonly coexist and are managed through coadministration of amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The case for fixed-dose combination (FDC) oral dosage forms and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) technology to enhance outcomes and compliance is strong. This work follows the development and characterization of single and FDC ODTs containing amlodipine and atorvastatin, followed by bioequivalence comparison between these single and FDC formulations, using in vitro dissolution and Caco-2 apparent permeability (Papp) and in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. ODTs containing amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg) either alone or in combination rapidly disintegrated (<30 s) while displaying a radial crushing strength in excess of 100 N and friability ≤1%. In vitro dissolution test was performed in fasted and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dissolution profiles for single and FDC ODTs were compared using US FDA recommended difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factor testing for bioequivalence. In all cases, there was no difference in active pharmaceutical ingredient dissolution between single or FDC ODTs, with the exception of amlodipine in FeSSIF. Pharmacokinetic clinical trial simulations were conducted using Simcyp (Version 14), incorporating Papp and dissolution data. Simulated clinical trials in healthy volunteers showed no difference in bioavailability based on pharmacokinetic parameters between single and combination doses with either active pharmaceutical ingredient. An increase in Cmax and AUC for atorvastatin in fed subjects was attributed to extended transit along the gut lumen and reduced atorvastatin metabolism due to lower CYP3A4 expression at more distal small intestine absorption sites. The results demonstrated
Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian C; Badhan, Raj K; Mohammed, Afzal R
2017-01-01
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among men and women worldwide. In CVD, hypertension and dyslipidemia commonly coexist and are managed through coadministration of amlodipine and atorvastatin, respectively. The case for fixed-dose combination (FDC) oral dosage forms and orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) technology to enhance outcomes and compliance is strong. This work follows the development and characterization of single and FDC ODTs containing amlodipine and atorvastatin, followed by bioequivalence comparison between these single and FDC formulations, using in vitro dissolution and Caco-2 apparent permeability (Papp) and in silico physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. ODTs containing amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (10 mg) either alone or in combination rapidly disintegrated (<30 s) while displaying a radial crushing strength in excess of 100 N and friability ≤1%. In vitro dissolution test was performed in fasted and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dissolution profiles for single and FDC ODTs were compared using US FDA recommended difference (f1) and similarity (f2) factor testing for bioequivalence. In all cases, there was no difference in active pharmaceutical ingredient dissolution between single or FDC ODTs, with the exception of amlodipine in FeSSIF. Pharmacokinetic clinical trial simulations were conducted using Simcyp (Version 14), incorporating Papp and dissolution data. Simulated clinical trials in healthy volunteers showed no difference in bioavailability based on pharmacokinetic parameters between single and combination doses with either active pharmaceutical ingredient. An increase in Cmax and AUC for atorvastatin in fed subjects was attributed to extended transit along the gut lumen and reduced atorvastatin metabolism due to lower CYP3A4 expression at more distal small intestine absorption sites. The results demonstrated
Karkossa, Frank; Krueger, Antonia; Urbaniak, Jana; Klein, Sandra
2017-02-01
Predictive in vitro test methods addressing the parameters relevant to drug release in the pediatric gastrointestinal tract could be an appropriate means for reducing the number of in vivo studies in children. However, dissolution models addressing the particular features of pediatric gastrointestinal physiology and typical pediatric dosing scenarios have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to combine the knowledge on common vehicle types and properties and current information on pediatric gastrointestinal physiology to design a dissolution model that enables a biorelevant simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions in young children. The novel dissolution setup consists of a miniaturized dissolution system allowing the use of small fluid volumes, physiological bicarbonate-based test media, and a proper pH control during the experiment using a pHysio-stat® device. Following design and assembly of the novel in vitro setup, a set of experiments screening in vitro drug release from a valproate-extended release formulation under typical dosing conditions in infants was performed. In vitro drug release profiles indicated a controlled drug release of the test product over 12 h and were in good agreement with information given in the Summary of Product Characteristics and the Patient Information Leaflet, as well as with results from an in vivo food effect study performed with the same product and reported in the literature. The new dissolution setup thus represents a promising in vitro screening tool in the development of pediatric dosage forms and may help to reduce the number of pharmacokinetic studies in children.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frances, F.; Orozco, I.
2010-12-01
0.86. The temporal and spatial validation using five periods must be considered in both rivers excellent for discharges (NSEs higher than 0.76) and good for snow distribution (daily spatial coverage errors ranging from -10 to 27%). In conclusion, this work demonstrates: 1.- The viability of automatic calibration of distributed models, with the corresponding personal time saving and maximum exploitation of the available information. 2.- The good performance of the degree-day snowmelt formulation even at hourly time discretization, in spite of its simplicity.
Wang, Wei
2015-01-01
It is well recognized that protein product development is far more challenging than that for small-molecule drugs. The major challenges include inherent sensitivity to different types of stresses during the drug product manufacturing process, high rate of physical and chemical degradation during long-term storage, and enhanced aggregation and/or viscosity at high protein concentrations. In the past decade, many novel formulation concepts and technologies have been or are being developed to address these product development challenges for proteins. These concepts and technologies include use of uncommon/combination of formulation stabilizers, conjugation or fusion with potential stabilizers, site-specific mutagenesis, and preparation of nontraditional types of dosage forms—semiaqueous solutions, nonfreeze-dried solid formulations, suspensions, and other emerging concepts. No one technology appears to be mature, ideal, and/or adequate to address all the challenges. These gaps will likely remain in the foreseeable future and need significant efforts for ultimate resolution. PMID:25858529
Sunscreen product formulation.
Tanner, Paul R
2006-01-01
On the surface, sunscreen products are pretty simple. They consist of a delivery vehicle containing one or more sunscreen active ingredients. When applied to the skin, these sunscreen actives intercept solar ultraviolet (UV) rays before they can damage the underlying skin. However, while conceptually simple, a detailed analysis reveals that sunscreen formulations are quite complex, requiring careful selection of sunscreen active and vehicle components to control multiple performance and in-use parameters.Thus, to enable a better understanding and appreciation of sunscreen products, the typical steps in formulating a sunscreen product are described. Throughout this process, the key is to apply scientific principles together with a bit of formulation art to holistically create the best sunscreen product that meets the design targets--a sunscreen product that people will use regularly and properly.
Granulated decontamination formulations
Tucker, Mark D.
2007-10-02
A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.
Lubrication in tablet formulations.
Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant
2010-05-01
Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.
Peterson, S.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Serne, R.J.; Gee, G.W.
1983-08-01
An equilibrium thermodynamic conceptual model consisting of minerals and solid phases was developed to represent a soil column. A computer program was used as a tool to solve the system of mathematical equations imposed by the conceptual chemical model. The combined conceptual model and computer program were used to predict aqueous phase compositions of effluent solutions from permeability cells packed with geologic materials and percolated with uranium mill tailings solutions. Initial calculations of ion speciation and mineral solubility and our understanding of the chemical processes occurring in the modeled system were used to select solid phases for inclusion in the conceptual model. The modeling predictions were compared to the analytically determined column effluent concentrations. Hypotheses were formed, based on modeling predictions and laboratory evaluations, as to the probable mechanisms controlling the migration of selected contaminants. An assemblage of minerals and other solid phases could be used to predict the concentrations of several of the macro constituents (e.g., Ca, SO/sub 4/, Al, Fe, and Mn) but could not be used to predict trace element concentrations. These modeling conclusions are applicable to situations where uranium mill tailings solutions of low pH and high total dissolved solids encounter either clay liners or natural geologic materials that contain inherent acid neutralizing capacities. 116 references, 22 figures, 6 tables.
Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2016-09-01
In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamanca, Francisco; Krpo, Andrea; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain
2009-05-01
The generation of heat in buildings, and the way this heat is exchanged with the exterior, plays an important role in urban climate. To analyze the impact on urban climate of a change in the urban structure, it is necessary to build and use a model capable of accounting for all the urban heat fluxes. In this contribution, a new building energy model (BEM) is developed and implemented in an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for mesoscale models. The new model accounts for: the diffusion of heat through walls, roofs, and floors; natural ventilation; the radiation exchanged between indoor surfaces; the generation of heat due to occupants and equipments; and the consumption of energy due to air conditioning systems. The behavior of BEM is compared to other models used in the thermal analysis of buildings (CBS-MASS, BLAST, and TARP) and with another box-building model. Eventually, a sensitivity analysis of different parameters, as well as a study of the impact of BEM on the UCP is carried out. The validations indicate that BEM provides good estimates of the physical behavior of buildings and it is a step towards a modeling tool that can be an important support to urban planners.
Fetoni, Anna Rita; Piacentini, Roberto; Fiorita, Antonella; Paludetti, Gaetano; Troiani, Diana
2009-02-27
The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) and anti-oxidants and free-radicals scavengers have been shown to attenuate the damage. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) or ubiquinone has a bioenergetic role as a component of the mithocondrial respiratory chain, it inhibits mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inducing ATP production and it is involved in ROS removal and prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. However the therapeutic application of CoQ(10) is limited by the lack of solubility and poor bio- availability, therefore it is a challenge to improve its water solubility in order to ameliorate the efficacy in tissues and fluids. This study was conducted in a model of acoustic trauma in the guinea pig where the effectiveness of CoQ(10) was compared with a soluble formulation of CoQ(10) (multicomposite CoQ(10) Terclatrate, Q-ter) given intraperitoneally 1 h before and once daily for 3 days after pure tone noise exposure (6 kHz for 1 h at 120 dB SPL). Functional and morphological studies were carried out by measuring auditory brainstem responses, scanning electron microscopy for hair cell loss count, active caspase 3 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP labelling assay in order to identify initial signs of apoptosis. Treatments decreased active caspase 3 expression and the number of apoptotic cells, but animals injected with Q-ter showed a greater degree of activity in preventing apoptosis and thus in improving hearing. These data confirm that solubility of Coenzyme Q(10) improves the ability of CoQ(10) in preventing oxidative injuries that result from mitochondrial dysfunction.
Kahouli, Imen; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Westfall, Susan; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A; Prakash, Satya
2017-03-01
Probiotics have been shown to have beneficial properties in attenuating the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, functional evidence to support such effects for some probiotic bacteria are relatively unknown. Here, we document a significant antioxidant, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 and Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 on CRC cells, particularly when used in combination (La-Lf). Furthermore, a superior synergistic activity on the inhibition of tumor growth and modulation of cell proliferation and epithelial markers in the Apc (Min/+) CRC mouse model was explored, based on the expression levels of Ki-67, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) proteins. The anti-cancer activity of La-Lf co-culture was significantly enhanced in vitro with significant reduced proliferation (38.8 ± 6.9 %, P = 0.009) and increased apoptosis (413 RUL, P < 0.001) towards cancer cells, as well as significant protection of normal colon cell growth from toxic treatment (18.6 ± 9.8 %, P = 0.001). La-Lf formulation (10(10)cfu/animal/day) altered aspects of intestinal tumorigenesis by significantly reducing intestinal tumor multiplicity (1.7-fold, P = 0.016) and downregulating cellular proliferation markers, including β-catenin (P = 0.041) and Ki-67 (P = 0.008). In conclusion, La-Lf showed greater protection against intestinal tumorigenesis supporting a potential use as a biotherapeutic for the prevention of CRC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Yong; Moorthi, S.; Bates, J. Ray; Suarez, Max J.
1994-01-01
High order horizontal diffusion of the form K Delta(exp 2m) is widely used in spectral models as a means of preventing energy accumulation at the shortest resolved scales. In the spectral context, an implicit formation of such diffusion is trivial to implement. The present note describes an efficient method of implementing implicit high order diffusion in global finite difference models. The method expresses the high order diffusion equation as a sequence of equations involving Delta(exp 2). The solution is obtained by combining fast Fourier transforms in longitude with a finite difference solver for the second order ordinary differential equation in latitude. The implicit diffusion routine is suitable for use in any finite difference global model that uses a regular latitude/longitude grid. The absence of a restriction on the timestep makes it particularly suitable for use in semi-Lagrangian models. The scale selectivity of the high order diffusion gives it an advantage over the uncentering method that has been used to control computational noise in two-time-level semi-Lagrangian models.
Linte, Cristian A; Camp, Jon J; Holmes, David R; Rettmann, Maryam E; Packer, Douglas L; Robb, Richard A
2013-01-01
In the context of image-guided left atrial fibrillation therapy, relatively very little work has been done to consider the changes that occur in the tissue during ablation in order to monitor therapy delivery. Here we describe a technique to predict the lesion progression and monitor the radio-frequency energy delivery via a thermal ablation model that uses heat transfer principles to estimate the tissue temperature distribution and resulting lesion. A preliminary evaluation of the model was conducted in ex vivo skeletal beef muscle tissue while emulating a clinically relevant tissue ablation protocol. The predicted temperature distribution within the tissue was assessed against that measured directly using fiberoptic temperature probes and showed agreement within 5°C between the model-predicted and experimentally measured tissue temperatures at prescribed locations. We believe this technique is capable of providing reasonably accurate representations of the tissue response to radio-frequency energy delivery.
Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C
2015-07-01
Although it is increasingly recognized that biotic ligand models (BLMs) are valuable in the risk assessment of metals in aquatic systems, the use of 2 differently structured and parameterized BLMs (1 in the United States and another in the European Union) to obtain bioavailability-based chronic water quality criteria for copper is worthy of further investigation. In the present study, the authors evaluated the predictive capacity of these 2 BLMs for a large dataset of chronic copper toxicity data with 2 Daphnia magna clones, termed K6 and ARO. One BLM performed best with clone K6 data, whereas the other performed best with clone ARO data. In addition, there was an important difference between the 2 BLMs in how they predicted the bioavailability of copper as a function of pH. These modeling results suggested that the effect of pH on chronic copper toxicity is different between the 2 clones considered, which was confirmed with additional chronic toxicity experiments. Finally, because fundamental differences in model structure between the 2 BLMs made it impossible to create an average BLM, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of the 3 gBAMs developed, the authors recommend the use of model gBAM-C(uni), which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentration (expressed as free Cu(2+) ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for sodium, calcium, and magnesium. This model can be considered a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of copper as a function of water chemistry (for a variety of Daphnia magna clones), even beyond the robustness of the current BLMs used in regulatory applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang
2001-07-01
In this study, a 1D steady-state microphysical model that describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable grid points of `parent' 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed-phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65-85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the precipitation radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase with particle meltwater fraction, leading to a `bright band' of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the `seeding' ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting-layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting-layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles that do not contain mixed
Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization
Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X2), and soybean oil (X3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hajoon; Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Fiechter, Jerome
2016-10-01
A quadratic formulation for an incremental lognormal 4-dimensional variational assimilation method (incremental L4DVar) is introduced for assimilation of biogeochemical observations into a 3-dimensional ocean circulation model. L4DVar assumes that errors in the model state are lognormally rather than Gaussian distributed, and implicitly ensures that state estimates are positive definite, making this approach attractive for biogeochemical variables. The method is made practical for a realistic implementation having a large state vector through linear assumptions that render the cost function quadratic and allow application of existing minimization techniques. A simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model is coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and configured for the California Current System. Quadratic incremental L4DVar is evaluated in a twin model framework in which biological fields only are in error and compared to G4DVar which assumes Gaussian distributed errors. Five-day assimilation cycles are used and statistics from four years of model integration analyzed. The quadratic incremental L4DVar results in smaller root-mean-squared errors and better statistical agreement with reference states than G4DVar while maintaining a positive state vector. The additional computational cost and implementation effort are trivial compared to the G4DVar system, making quadratic incremental L4DVar a practical and beneficial option for realistic biogeochemical state estimation in the ocean.
Davis, Stephen C; Mertz, Patricia M
2008-10-01
Control of wound infections, especially those associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is necessary for the wound healing process. Selection of topical agents should be based not only on their ability to eliminate pathogenic bacteria, but also on whether they may be detrimental to tissue repair. Two randomized, controlled in vivo studies using different porcine models were conducted to evaluate the effect of a topical oak bark ointment (treatment) on 1) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in partial-thickness wounds, and 2) healing of second-degree burn wounds. Silver sulfadiazine, oak bark ointment vehicle control (polyethylene glycol), and no treatment (untreated wounds) were used as controls in both studies. In the first study, 108 partial-thickness wounds in three animals were inoculated with a methicillin-resistant S. aureus suspension (average 6.96+/-0.4 log CFU/mL) and covered for 24 hours with a polyurethane film. After polyurethane film removal, treatments were applied twice daily and nine wounds per day (three per animal) from each treatment group were cultured after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization was lowest in the active treatment group at all three assessment times and after 72 hours ranged from (5.01+/-1.1 CFU/mL) in the treatment to (6.20+/-0.8 CFU/mL) in the vehicle control treated wounds. In the second study, treatments were applied twice daily to second-degree burn wounds (n = 720) on eight animals. Daily epithelialization assessment (n = five wounds) was performed on day 7 through 10 after wounding. At every assessment time, the proportion of wounds healed was higher in the treatment than in the control treatment groups - days 8, 9, and 10 (active versus vehicle and untreated), P <0.01; days 9 and 10 (vehicle versus untreated), P <0.001. The oak bark formulation studied reduces methicillin-resistant S aureus contamination and facilitates healing in vivo. Research to ascertain the
Potential formulation of sleep dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, A. J. K.; Robinson, P. A.
2009-02-01
A physiologically based model of the mechanisms that control the human sleep-wake cycle is formulated in terms of an equivalent nonconservative mechanical potential. The potential is analytically simplified and reduced to a quartic two-well potential, matching the bifurcation structure of the original model. This yields a dynamics-based model that is analytically simpler and has fewer parameters than the original model, allowing easier fitting to experimental data. This model is first demonstrated to semiquantitatively match the dynamics of the physiologically based model from which it is derived, and is then fitted directly to a set of experimentally derived criteria. These criteria place rigorous constraints on the parameter values, and within these constraints the model is shown to reproduce normal sleep-wake dynamics and recovery from sleep deprivation. Furthermore, this approach enables insights into the dynamics by direct analogies to phenomena in well studied mechanical systems. These include the relation between friction in the mechanical system and the timecourse of neurotransmitter action, and the possible relation between stochastic resonance and napping behavior. The model derived here also serves as a platform for future investigations of sleep-wake phenomena from a dynamical perspective.
Martinez, M N; Mistry, B; Lukacova, V; Lentz, K A; Polli, J E; Hoag, S W; Dowling, T; Kona, R; Fahmy, R M
2017-03-06
This study explored the in vivo performance of three oral ciprofloxacin formulations (oral solution, fast, or slow dissolving tablets) in beagle dogs. The in vivo absorption and dissolution behaviors, estimated with in silico mechanistic models, were compared to the results previously published in human volunteers. Six normal healthy male beagle dogs (five to completion) received three oral formulations and an intravenous infusion in a randomized crossover design. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were estimated by tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mechanistic absorption model was used to predict the in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics of the oral formulations. Canine ciprofloxacin absorption was constrained to the duodenum/jejunum. This absorption window was far narrower than that seen in humans. Furthermore, while substantial within-individual variability in drug absorption was seen in human subjects, a greater magnitude of variability was observed in dogs. For three sets of data, a lag time in gastric emptying was necessary to improve the accuracy of model-generated in vivo blood level profile predictions. In addition to species-associated dissimilarities in drug solubilization due to human versus canine differences in gastrointestinal fluid compositions, the far more rapid intestinal transit time and potential segmental differences in drug absorption needed to be considered during human-canine extrapolation of oral drug and drug product performance. Through the use of mechanistic models, the data generated in the human and canine studies contributed insights into some aspects of the interspecies differences to be considered when extrapolating oral bioavailability/formulation effect data between dogs and humans.
Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...
Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi
2014-01-01
Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187
Stability of Sulforaphane for Topical Formulation
Franklin, Stephen J.; Dickinson, Sally E.; Karlage, Kelly L.; Bowden, G Tim.; Myrdal, Paul B.
2013-01-01
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound that has been investigated as a chemopreventive agent. SFN has been shown to inhibit the activator-protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and may be effective for inhibition of ultraviolet (UV) induced skin carcinogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the stability of SFN as a function of pH, temperature and in various solvents and formulations. SFN was determined to undergo apparent first order degradation kinetics for the conditions explored. It was observed that SFN undergoes base catalyzed degradation. Buffer species and solvent type impacts stability as well. SFN was found to be very sensitive to temperature with degradation rate changing by a factor of nearly 3.1 for every 10°C change in temperature (at pH 4.0). SFN completely degraded after 30 days in a conventional pharmaceutical cream formulation. Improved stability was observed in organic formulation components. Stability studies were conducted on two non-aqueous topical formulations, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) ointment base and an organic oleaginous base. Topically applied SFN in the PEG base formulation significantly reduced AP-1 activation after UV stimulation in the skin of a transgenic mouse model, indicating that SFN in this formulation retains efficacy in vivo. PMID:23611476
Toxicity of agrochemical formulations.
Carmichael, Neil G
2005-01-01
Most agrochemicals have physicochemical properties that make it impractical to apply them directly to crops and other targets. It is necessary to provide a concentrate of the active ingredient, to which formulation agents have been added to allow dilution with water for spraying. These ingredients perform several functions, including emulsifying, solubilizing, antifoaming, and the like. The properties of these materials are not intended to include pesticidal activity. However, some of these materials may have intrinsic toxicologic properties that should be taken into account in an overall evaluation of the safety of the product. In agriculture, exposure to these materials is sporadic and seasonal. The testing of the complete formulation is based on the evaluation of this risk, and it is concentrated on the evaluation of the short-term exposure to the concentrated product. Many of these substances are rather banal and are generally regarded as safe. Exceptions to this rule do exist, particularly concerning solvents; in such cases a fuller data package is necessary to perform risk assessment.
Ferreira, Diêgo dos Santos; Faria, Samilla Dornelas; Lopes, Sávia Caldeira de Araújo; Teixeira, Cláudia Salviano; Malachias, Angelo; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Oliveira, Bruno Luis de Jesus Pinto; Guimarães, Alexander Ramos; Caravan, Peter; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Alves, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina
2016-01-01
Background Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the treatment of bone tumors remains a major challenge. A possible underlying hypothesis, limitation, and unmet need may be the inability of therapeutics to penetrate into dense bone mineral, which can lead to poor efficacy and high toxicity, due to drug uptake in healthy organs. The development of nanostructured formulations with high affinity for bone could be an interesting approach to overcome these challenges. Purpose To develop a liposomal formulation with high affinity for hydroxyapatite and the ability to release doxorubicin (DOX) in an acidic environment for future application as a tool for treatment of bone metastases. Materials and methods Liposomes were prepared by thin-film lipid hydration, followed by extrusion and the sulfate gradient-encapsulation method. Liposomes were characterized by average diameter, ζ-potential, encapsulation percentage, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Release studies in buffer (pH 7.4 or 5), plasma, and serum, as well as hydroxyapatite-affinity in vitro analysis were performed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay against the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and biodistribution was assessed in bone metastasis-bearing animals. Results Liposomes presented suitable diameter (~170 nm), DOX encapsulation (~2 mg/mL), controlled release, and good plasma and serum stability. The existence of interactions between DOX and the lipid bilayer was proved through differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. DOX release was faster when the pH was in the range of a tumor than at physiological pH. The bone-targeted formulation showed a strong affinity for hydroxyapatite. The encapsulation of DOX did not interfere in its intrinsic cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Biodistribution studies demonstrated high affinity of this formulation for tumors and reduction of uptake in the heart. Conclusion These results suggest that bone-targeted p
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik
2015-12-01
The motion of microstructural interfaces is important in modeling twinning and structural phase transformations. Continuum models fall into two classes: sharp-interface models, where interfaces are singular surfaces; and regularized-interface models, such as phase-field models, where interfaces are smeared out. The former are challenging for numerical solutions because the interfaces need to be explicitly tracked, but have the advantage that the kinetics of existing interfaces and the nucleation of new interfaces can be transparently and precisely prescribed. In contrast, phase-field models do not require explicit tracking of interfaces, thereby enabling relatively simple numerical calculations, but the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. This prevents straightforward calibration of phase-field models to experiment and/or molecular simulations, and breaks the multiscale hierarchy of passing information from atomic to continuum. Consequently, phase-field models cannot be confidently used in dynamic settings. This shortcoming of existing phase-field models motivates our work. We present the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients are a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation - through the source term of the conservation law - and kinetics - through a distinct interfacial velocity field. A formal limit of the kinetic driving force recovers the classical continuum sharp-interface driving force, providing confidence in both the re-parametrized energy and the evolution statement. We present some 1D calculations characterizing the formulation; in a
Kuu, Wei Y; Doty, Mark J; Nisipeanu, Eugen; Rebbeck, Christine L; Cho, Yong K; Smit, Mark H
2014-09-01
Gap freezing (GF) is a new concept that was developed to reduce the primary drying time using an alternative freezing process. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the gap-tray heat transfer coefficient, Kgtr , and to investigate the effect of gap lyophilization on cycle reduction of a mannitol-trehalose-NaCl (MTN) formulation. The values of Kgtr were measured using the product temperature profiles in three different configurations: (1) shelf freezing followed by shelf drying (denoted as SF-SD), (2) GF followed by SD (denoted as GF-SD), and (3) GF followed by gap drying (denoted as GF-GD). For the lyophilization cycle using shelf drying (SF-SD), 80% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial, versus 20% via radiation from the top shelf. For the lyophilization cycle using gap drying (GF-GD), only 37% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial versus 63% via radiation from the top shelf. Furthermore, GF in conjunction with annealing significantly reduces the dry layer resistance of the MTN formulation, which is the opposite of what was observed with a conventional freezing cycle.
Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics.
Arter, Wayne
2013-01-04
Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.
Boson formulation of fermion field theories
Ha, Y.K.
1984-04-15
The nonperturbative connection between a canonical Fermi field and a canonical Bose field in two dimensions is developed and its validity verified according to the tenets of quantum field theory. We advocate the point of view that a boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. Many features of the massless theory, such as dynamical mass generation with asymptotic-freedom behavior, hidden chiral symmetry, and connections with models of apparently different internal symmetries, are readily transparent through such fermion-boson metamorphosis.
Colina-Márquez, José; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca
2015-07-22
Endocrine disruptors in water are contaminants of emerging concern due to the potential risks they pose to the environment and to the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a solar photocatalytic treatment process in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) was used to remove commercial estradiol formulations (17-β estradiol and nomegestrol acetate) from water. Photolysis alone degraded up to 50% of estradiol and removed 11% of the total organic carbon (TOC). In contrast, solar photocatalysis degraded up to 57% of estrogens and the TOC removal was 31%, with 0.6 g/L of catalyst load (TiO2 Aeroxide P-25) and 213.6 ppm of TOC as initial concentration of the commercial estradiols formulation. The adsorption of estrogens over the catalyst was insignificant and was modeled by the Langmuir isotherm. The TOC removal via photocatalysis in the photoreactor was modeled considering the reactor fluid-dynamics, the radiation field, the estrogens mass balance, and a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law, that was expressed in terms of the rate of photon adsorption. The optimum removal of the estrogens and TOC was achieved at a catalyst concentration of 0.4 g/L in 29 mm diameter tubular CPC reactors which approached the optimum catalyst concentration and optical thickness determined from the modeling of the absorption of solar radiation in the CPC, by the six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM).
Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation
Ebbinghaus, B.
1999-02-01
A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.
Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP
Martz, H. E.
2014-09-19
The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.
Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing
Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard
2013-06-13
The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.
Maurice, Tangui; Mustafa, Muhammad-Hariri; Desrumaux, Catherine; Keller, Emeline; Naert, Gaëlle; de la C García-Barceló, María; Rodríguez Cruz, Yamila; Garcia Rodríguez, Julío César
2013-11-01
Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes neurogenesis and neuroprotection. We here compared the protection induced by two EPO formulations in a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD): rHu-EPO and a low sialic form, Neuro-EPO. We used the intracerebroventricular administration of aggregated Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ peptide, a non-transgenic AD model. rHu-EPO was tested at 125-500 µg/kg intraperitoneally and Neuro-EPO at 62-250 µg/kg intranasally (IN). Behavioural procedures included spontaneous alternation, passive avoidance, water-maze and object recognition, to address spatial and non-spatial, short- and long-term memories. Biochemical markers of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ toxicity in the mouse hippocampus were examined and cell loss in the CA1 layer was determined. rHu-EPO and Neuro-EPO led to a significant prevention of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced learning deficits. Both EPO formulations prevented the induction of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus, showing an antioxidant activity. rHu-EPO (250 µg/kg) or Neuro-EPO (125 µg/kg) prevented the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced increase in Bax level, TNFα and IL-1β production and decrease in Akt activation. A significant prevention of the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced cell loss in CA1 was also observed. EPO is neuroprotective in the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ AD model, confirming its potential as an endogenous neuroprotection system that could be boosted for therapeutic efficacy. We here identified a new IN formulation of EPO showing high neuroprotective activity. Considering its efficacy, ease and safety, IN Neuro-EPO is a new promising therapeutic agent in AD.
Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Elangovan, Namasivayam; Hari, Natarajan
2014-07-01
At present, the majority of established treatments for breast cancer are based on clinical manifestations, some fundamental of molecular and cellular biology of cancer. In recent times, the therapy is moving towards personalized medicines. Nevertheless, both the methodologies have own demerits. In the present study, we proposed a novel idea of targeted therapy with twin pharmacological potential by a peptide pACC1. The peptide was formulated with chitosan and evaluated with DMBA induced mammary carcinoma. Results suggest that the peptide holds great control on tumor cell multiplication, fatty acid synthesis and lactate levels. In addition, peptide also brings normal metabolic signs in glycolytic and glycogenic pathways. Histological studies confirm the dual pharmacological actions. Further, it is also proven that the peptide controls membrane receptor levels of HER2 and EGFR. In conclusion, that the peptide pACC1 could be employed as greater therapeutic adjuvant with currently established drugs without considering the stage of the cancer.
Ray, Balmiki; Bisht, Savita; Maitra, Amarnath; Maitra, Anirban; Lahiri, Debomoy K
2011-01-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques within the brain parenchyma followed by synaptic loss and neuronal death. Deposited Aβ reacts with activated microglia to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochemokines, which lead to severe neuroinflammation. Curcumin is a yellow polyphenol compound found in turmeric, a widely used culinary ingredient that possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and may show efficacy as a potential therapeutic agent in several neuro-inflammatory diseases including AD. However, poor aqueous solubility and sub-optimal systemic absorption from the gastrointestinal tract may represent factors contributing to its failure in clinical trials. To increase curcumin's bioavailability, a polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated curcumin (NanoCurc™) was formulated which is completely water soluble. NanoCurc™ treatment protects neuronally differentiated human SK-N-SH cells from ROS (H2O2) mediated insults. NanoCurc™ also rescues differentiated human SK-N-SH cells, which were previously insulted with H2O2. In vivo, intraperitoneal (IP) NanoCurc™ injection at a dose of 25mg/kg twice daily in athymic mice resulted in significant curcumin levels in the brain (0.32 μg/g). Biochemical study of NanoCurc™-treated athymic mice revealed decreased levels of H2O2 as well as caspase 3 and caspase 7 activities in the brain, accompanied by increased glutathione (GSH) concentrations. Increased free to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSH) ratio in athymic mice brain versus controls also indicated a favorable redox intracellular environment. Taken together, these results suggest that NanoCurc™ represents an optimized formulation worthy of assessing the therapeutic value of curcumin in AD.
Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation
Langton, C
2005-04-22
The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended
Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohn, Jack
1980-01-01
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David
2014-01-01
In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research…
Nanoparticle formulation of ormeloxifene for pancreatic cancer
Khan, Sheema; Chauhan, Neeraj; Yallapu, Murali M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Balakrishna, Swathi; Ellis, Robert T.; Thompson, Paul A.; Balabathula, Pavan; Behrman, Stephen W.; Zafar, Nadeem; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi T.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.
2015-01-01
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer with about an 85% mortality rate; thus, an utmost need exists to discover new therapeutic modalities that would enhance therapy outcomes of this disease with minimal or no side effects. Ormeloxifene (ORM), a synthetic molecule, has exhibited potent anti-cancer effects through inhibition of important oncogenic and proliferation signaling pathways. However, the anti-cancer efficacy of ORM can be further improved by developing its nanoformulation, which will also offer tumor specific targeted delivery. Therefore, we have developed a novel ORM encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) formulation (PLGA-ORM NP). This formulation was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and drug loading efficiency, using various physico-chemical methods (TEM, FT-IR, DSC, TGA, and HPLC). Because of its facile composition, this novel formulation is compatible with antibody/aptamer conjugation to achieve tumor specific targeting. The particle size analysis of this PLGA-ORM formulation (~ 100 nm) indicates that this formulation can preferentially reach and accumulate in tumors by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Cellular uptake and internalization studies demonstrate that PLGA-ORM NPs escape lysosomal degradation, providing efficient endosomal release to cytosol. PLGA-ORM NPs showed remarkable anti-cancer potential in various pancreatic cancer cells (HPAF-II, BxPC-3, Panc-1, MiaPaca) and a BxPC-3 xenograft mice model resulting in increased animal survival. PLGA-ORM NPs suppressed pancreatic tumor growth via suppression of Akt phosphorylation and expression of MUC1, HER2, PCNA, CK19 and CD31. This study suggests that the PLGA-ORM formulation is highly efficient for the inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth and thus can be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future. PMID:25890768
Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J U; Eko, F O
2015-04-08
Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-γ, IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants.
Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J. U.; Eko, F. O.
2015-01-01
Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-γ IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants. PMID:25698486
Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides
Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo
2014-01-01
Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615
Novel formulations for antimicrobial peptides.
Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias
2014-10-09
Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.
2013-03-01
Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.
Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Peloquin, John M; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M
2014-08-22
Finite element (FE) models are advantageous in the study of intervertebral disc mechanics as the stress-strain distributions can be determined throughout the tissue and the applied loading and material properties can be controlled and modified. However, the complicated nature of the disc presents a challenge in developing an accurate and predictive disc model, which has led to limitations in FE geometry, material constitutive models and properties, and model validation. The objective of this study was to develop a new FE model of the intervertebral disc, to validate the model's nonlinear and time-dependent responses without tuning or calibration, and to evaluate the effect of changes in nucleus pulposus (NP), cartilaginous endplate (CEP), and annulus fibrosus (AF) material properties on the disc mechanical response. The new FE disc model utilized an analytically-based geometry. The model was created from the mean shape of human L4/L5 discs, measured from high-resolution 3D MR images and averaged using signed distance functions. Structural hyperelastic constitutive models were used in conjunction with biphasic-swelling theory to obtain material properties from recent tissue tests in confined compression and uniaxial tension. The FE disc model predictions fit within the experimental range (mean ± 95% confidence interval) of the disc's nonlinear response for compressive slow loading ramp, creep, and stress-relaxation simulations. Changes in NP and CEP properties affected the neutral-zone displacement but had little effect on the final stiffness during slow-ramp compression loading. These results highlight the need to validate FE models using the disc's full nonlinear response in multiple loading scenarios.
Pesticide formulations and application systems
Kaneko; Spicer
1985-01-01
This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.
Ising formulations of many NP problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Andrew
2014-02-01
We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.
Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.
Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R
1994-06-01
Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, C. M.
1976-01-01
The constraints and limitations for STS Consumables Management are studied. Variables imposing constraints on the consumables related subsystems are identified, and a method determining constraint violations with the simplified consumables model in the Mission Planning Processor is presented.
Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I
2016-05-28
The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.
Integrated Formulation of Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Park, Han; Zak, Mickail
2003-01-01
Further work on beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a method of real-time, automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical systems, has greatly expanded its capability and suitability of application. This expanded formulation, which fully integrates physical models and symbolic analysis, is described. The new formulation of BEAM expands upon previous advanced techniques for analysis of signal data, utilizing mathematical modeling of the system physics, and expert-system reasoning,
Zhang, Hefei; Xia, Binfeng; Sheng, Jennifer; Heimbach, Tycho; Lin, Tsu-Han; He, Handan; Wang, Yanfeng; Novick, Steven; Comfort, Ann
2014-04-01
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been broadly used to facilitate drug development, hereby we developed a PBPK model to systematically investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed positive food effect of compound X (cpd X) and to strategically explore the feasible approaches to mitigate the food effect. Cpd X is a weak base with pH-dependent solubility; the compound displays significant and dose-dependent food effect in humans, leading to a nonadherence of drug administration. A GastroPlus Opt logD Model was selected for pharmacokinetic simulation under both fasted and fed conditions, where the biopharmaceutic parameters (e.g., solubility and permeability) for cpd X were determined in vitro, and human pharmacokinetic disposition properties were predicted from preclinical data and then optimized with clinical pharmacokinetic data. A parameter sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of particle size on the cpd X absorption. A PBPK model was successfully developed for cpd X; its pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., C max, AUCinf, and t max) predicted at different oral doses were within ±25% of the observed mean values. The in vivo solubility (in duodenum) and mean precipitation time under fed conditions were estimated to be 7.4- and 3.4-fold higher than those under fasted conditions, respectively. The PBPK modeling analysis provided a reasonable explanation for the underlying mechanism for the observed positive food effect of the cpd X in humans. Oral absorption of the cpd X can be increased by reducing the particle size (<100 nm) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient under fasted conditions and therefore, reduce the cpd X food effect correspondingly.
MEG forward problem formulation using equivalent surface current densities.
von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Muravchik, Carlos H; Nehorai, Arye
2005-07-01
We present a formulation for the magnetoencephalography (MEG) forward problem with a layered head model. Traditionally the magnetic field is computed based on the electric potential on the interfaces between the layers. We propose to express the effect of the volumetric currents in terms of an equivalent surface current density on each interface, and obtain the magnetic field based on them. The boundary elements method is used to compute the equivalent current density and the magnetic field for a realistic head geometry. We present numerical results showing that the MEG forward problem is solved correctly with this formulation, and compare it with the performance of the traditional formulation. We conclude that the traditional formulation generally performs better, but still the new formulation is useful in certain situations.
Mixed formulation for frictionless contact problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.
1989-01-01
Simple mixed finite element models and a computational precedure are presented for the solution of frictionless contact problems. The analytical formulation is based on a form of Reissner's large rotation theory of the structure with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the internal forces (stress resultants), the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The element characteristic array are obtained by using a modified form of the two-field Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The internal forces and the Lagrange multipliers are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is used for the solution of the nonlinear algebraic equations, and the determination of the contact area and the contact pressures.
Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.
1991-12-09
The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.
Mode, Charles J; Gallop, Robert J
2008-02-01
A case has made for the use of Monte Carlo simulation methods when the incorporation of mutation and natural selection into Wright-Fisher gametic sampling models renders then intractable from the standpoint of classical mathematical analysis. The paper has been organized around five themes. Among these themes was that of scientific openness and a clear documentation of the mathematics underlying the software so that the results of any Monte Carlo simulation experiment may be duplicated by any interested investigator in a programming language of his choice. A second theme was the disclosure of the random number generator used in the experiments to provide critical insights as to whether the generated uniform random variables met the criterion of independence satisfactorily. A third theme was that of a review of recent literature in genetics on attempts to find signatures of evolutionary processes such as natural selection, among the millions of segments of DNA in the human genome, that may help guide the search for new drugs to treat diseases. A fourth theme involved formalization of Wright-Fisher processes in a simple form that expedited the writing of software to run Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Also included in this theme was the reporting of several illustrative Monte Carlo simulation experiments for the cases of two and three alleles at some autosomal locus, in which attempts were to made to apply the theory of Wright-Fisher models to gain some understanding as to how evolutionary signatures may have developed in the human genome and those of other diploid species. A fifth theme was centered on recommendations that more demographic factors, such as non-constant population size, be included in future attempts to develop computer models dealing with signatures of evolutionary process in genomes of various species. A brief review of literature on the incorporation of demographic factors into genetic evolutionary models was also included to expedite and
Jo, Hyunji; Park, Beomyoung; Oh, Mihwa; Gwak, Eunji; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan
2014-01-01
This study developed probabilistic models to determine the initiation time of growth of Pseudomonas spp. in combinations with NaNO2 and NaCl concentrations during storage at different temperatures. The combination of 8 NaCl concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%) and 9 NaNO2 concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 ppm) were prepared in a nutrient broth. The medium was placed in the wells of 96-well microtiter plates, followed by inoculation of a five-strain mixture of Pseudomonas in each well. All microtiter plates were incubated at 4, 7, 10, 12, and 15℃ for 528, 504, 504, 360 and 144 h, respectively. Growth (growth initiation; GI) or no growth was then determined by turbidity every 24 h. These growth response data were analyzed by a logistic regression to produce growth/no growth interface of Pseudomonas spp. and to calculate GI time. NaCl and NaNO2 were significantly effective (p<0.05) on inhibiting Pseudomonas spp. growth when stored at 4-12℃. The developed model showed that at lower NaCl concentration, higher NaNO2 level was required to inhibit Pseudomonas growth at 4-12℃. However, at 15℃, there was no significant effect of NaCl and NaNO2. The model overestimated GI times by 58.2±17.5 to 79.4±11%. These results indicate that the probabilistic models developed in this study should be useful in calculating the GI times of Pseudomonas spp. in combination with NaCl and NaNO2 concentrations, considering the over-prediction percentage.
Abdureyim, Sajida; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Umar, Anwar; Upur, Halmurat; Berke, Benedicte; Moore, Nicholas
2011-01-01
Ravan Napas (RN) is a traditional formula used to treat pulmonary symptoms and diseases such as coughing, breathing difficulty, and asthma in traditional Uighur medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, and immuno-modulatory activity of RN in a well-characterized animal model of allergic asthma. Rats were sensitized with intraperitoneal (ip) ovalbumin (OVA) and alum, and then challenged with OVA aerosols. The asthma model rats were treated with RN; saline- and dexamethasone- (DXM-) treated rats served as normal and model controls. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cellular differential and the concentrations of sICAM-1, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, INF-γ, and IgE in serum were measured. Lung sections underwent histological analysis. The immunohistochemistry S-P method was used to measure the expression of ICAM-1 and HO-1 in the lung. RN significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and lung tissues, decreased sICAM-1, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, and IgE in serum, and increased serum INF-γ. There was a marked suppression of ICAM-1 and HO-1 expression in the lung. Our results suggest that RN may have an anti-inflammatory and immuneregulatory effect on allergic bronchial asthma by modulating the balance between Th1/Th2 cytokines. PMID:20953388
Hatfield, Laura A.; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A.; Carlin, Bradley P.
2011-01-01
Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VáÅa, Martin; Houfek, Karel
2017-02-01
A two-dimensional model of the resonant electron-molecule collision processes with one nuclear and one electronic degree of freedom introduced by K. Houfek, T. N. Rescigno, and C. W. McCurdy [Phys. Rev. A 73, 032721 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.032721] is reformulated within the time-dependent framework and solved numerically using the finite-element method with the discrete variable representation basis, the exterior complex scaling method, and the generalized Crank-Nicolson method. On this model we illustrate how the time-dependent calculations can provide deep insight into the origin of oscillatory structures in the vibrational excitation cross sections if one evaluates the cross sections not only at sufficiently large time to obtain the final cross sections, but also at several characteristic times which are given by the evolution of the system. It is shown that all details of these structures, especially asymmetrical peaks, can be understood as quantum interference of several experimentally indistinguishable processes separated in time due to a resonant capture of the electron and the subsequent vibrational motion of the negative molecular ion. Numerical results are presented for the N2-like, NO-like, and F2-like models and compared with ones obtained within the time-independent approach and within the local complex potential approximation.
Topical buparvaquone formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Garnier, Tracy; Mäntylä, Antti; Järvinen, Tomi; Lawrence, M Jayne; Brown, Marc B; Croft, Simon L
2007-01-01
As the part of a study to develop buparvaquone (BPQ) formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the topical delivery of BPQ and one of its prodrugs from a range of formulations was evaluated. In previous studies, BPQ and its prodrugs were shown to be potent antileishmanials in-vitro, with ED50 values in the nanomolar range. 3-Phosphono-oxymethyl-buparvaquone (3-POM-BPQ) was the most potent antileishmanial and was chosen, together with the parent drug, for further investigation. The ability of the parent and prodrug formulations to cross human and murine skin was tested in-vitro using the Franz diffusion cells. Formulations intended for topical application containing either BPQ or 3-POM-BPQ were developed using excipients that were either acceptable for topical use (GRAS or FDA inactive ingredients) or currently going through the regulatory process. BPQ was shown to penetrate both human epidermal membranes and full thickness BALB/c skin from a range of formulations (gels, emulsions). Similarly, 3-POM-BPQ penetrated full-thickness BALB/c skin from several gel formulations. In-vitro binding studies showed that BPQ bound melanin in a dose-dependent manner and preferably bound to delipidized skin over untreated BALB/c skin (on a weight to weight basis). The results confirm that BPQ and its prodrug 3-POM-BPQ can penetrate the skin from several formulations, making them potentially interesting candidates for further investigation of topical formulations using in-vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Parallelized solvers for heat conduction formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joe; Kwang, Abel
1991-01-01
Based on multilevel partitioning, this paper develops a structural parallelizable solution methodology that enables a significant reduction in computational effort and memory requirements for very large scale linear and nonlinear steady and transient thermal (heat conduction) models. Due to the generality of the formulation of the scheme, both finite element and finite difference simulations can be treated. Diverse model topologies can thus be handled, including both simply and multiply connected (branched/perforated) geometries. To verify the methodology, analytical and numerical benchmark trends are verified in both sequential and parallel computer environments.
Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review
Ahsan, Syed Furqan; Khan, Marium Fatima
2016-01-01
Amlodipine (AD) is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations. PMID:27822402
Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive
Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.
2007-10-16
A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.
Schnichels, Sven; Schneider, Nele; Hohenadl, Christine; Hurst, José; Schatz, Andreas; Januschowski, Kai; Spitzer, Martin S.
2017-01-01
The efficacy of two novel artificial vitreous body substitutes (VBS) consisting of highly biocompatible thiolated cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels in comparison to silicone oil in a model of retinal detachment was investigated. Pars plana vitrectomy (23G) was performed in the right eye of 24 pigmented rabbits. Retinal detachment of two quadrants was induced by creating a small retinotomy near the vascular arcade and injecting balanced salt solution (BSS) subretinally. The retina was reattached by injecting air, which was followed by increasing the infusion pressure, and the retinal tear was treated by endolaser photocoagulation. At the end of the procedure, the eye was filled either with 5000-cs silicone oil (after fluid air exchange) or the respective hydrogel (with two different viscosities). Follow-up examination included slit lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements (IOP), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinogram (ERG) measurements. After a maximum follow-up of four weeks both eyes were removed, examined macroscopically, photographed, and prepared for histology. Of the eight rabbits that received silicone oil, seven (87.5%) developed a recurrent retinal detachment with pronounced proliferative vitreoretinopathy within the first two weeks after surgery. In contrast, in the hydrogel treated eyes, the retina stayed attached in the majority of the cases (73.3%). IOP and retinal morphology were normal as long as the retina remained re-attached. In conclusions, this model of retinal detachment, both thiolated crosslinked hyaluronate hydrogels showed superior efficacy when compared to silicone oil. These hydrogels have a promising potential as novel vitreous body substitutes. PMID:28248989
Mathematical programming formulations for satellite synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhasin, Puneet; Reilly, Charles H.
1987-01-01
The problem of satellite synthesis can be described as optimally allotting locations and sometimes frequencies and polarizations, to communication satellites so that interference from unwanted satellite signals does not exceed a specified threshold. In this report, mathematical programming models and optimization methods are used to solve satellite synthesis problems. A nonlinear programming formulation which is solved using Zoutendijk's method and a gradient search method is described. Nine mixed integer programming models are considered. Results of computer runs with these nine models and five geographically compatible scenarios are presented and evaluated. A heuristic solution procedure is also used to solve two of the models studied. Heuristic solutions to three large synthesis problems are presented. The results of our analysis show that the heuristic performs very well, both in terms of solution quality and solution time, on the two models to which it was applied. It is concluded that the heuristic procedure is the best of the methods considered for solving satellite synthesis problems.
A formulation and analysis of combat games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.
1985-01-01
Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.
On the spectral formulation of Granger causality.
Chicharro, D
2011-12-01
Spectral measures of causality are used to explore the role of different rhythms in the causal connectivity between brain regions. We study several spectral measures related to Granger causality, comprising the bivariate and conditional Geweke measures, the directed transfer function, and the partial directed coherence. We derive the formulation of dependence and causality in the spectral domain from the more general formulation in the information-theory framework. We