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Sample records for mdea methyldiethanolamine piperazine

  1. Equilibrium solubilities of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S in diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.S.; Equren, P.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The ability to predict equilibrium phase behavior in systems containing CO/sub 2/ and/or H/sub 2/S in alkanolamine solutions such as diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) is of vital importance for proper design and operation of acid gases treating systems. Literature data for the solubilities of CO/sub 2/ and/or H/sub 2/S in DEA and MDEA systems have been compiled and evaluated. Experimental measurements have also been made to confirm literature data and to expand the data base. A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) model similar to the one developed by Kent and Eisenberg has been developed to correlate the data. The model gives the most accurate predictions when compared to other VLE models available for predicting equilibrium acid gas partial pressures over DEA and MDEA solutions.

  2. Heat capacity of aqueous monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, and N-methyldiethanolamine-based blends with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, R.H.; Dingman, J.C.; Cronin, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    New data are reported on the heat capacity of CO{sub 2}-loaded, aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and aqueous MDEA-based blends with MEA and DEA. The work reported here was motivated by the need to quantify the effect of acid gas loading on the important physical properties of gas-sweetening solvents.

  3. Diffusivity of nitrous oxide in N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine + water

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Russell, J.W.; Tamimi, A.; Sandall, O.C.

    1995-05-01

    The tertiary amine N-methyldiethanolamine and the secondary amine diethanolamine are commonly used in the gas-treating industry as chemical solvents for the removal of acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. The diffusion coefficients for nitrous oxide in aqueous solutions consisting of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) were measured over the temperature range 293--353 K for a total amine concentration of 50 mass % and for the mass ratio of DEA to MDEA varying from 0.0441 to 0.588. The experimental diffusion coefficients were found to be relatively insensitive to the mass ratio of amines.

  4. Viscosity of aqueous solutions of n-methyldiethanolamine and of diethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, T.T.; Maham, Y.; Hepler, L.G.; Mather, A.E. )

    1994-04-01

    Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), and bis[2-(hydroxyamino)ethyl] ether (DGA) are good solvents for the removal of acid gases such as CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S from the gas streams of many processes in the natural gas, petroleum, ammonia synthesis, and some chemical industries. The viscosity of aqueous solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and of diethanolamine (DEA) have been measured at five temperatures in the range 25--80 C throughout the whole concentration range. The viscosity has been correlated as a function of composition for use in industrial calculations.

  5. Diffusivity of nitrous oxide in aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine from 293 to 368 K

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, A.; Rinker, E.B.; Sandall, O.C. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The diffusion coefficients for nitrous oxide in aqueous solutions of diethanolamine (DEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined using a wetted-sphere absorber over the temperature range 293--368 K. The ranges of amine concentrations covered in the experiments were 10--30 mass % for DEA and 10--50 mass % for MDEA. The diffusion coefficients indicated a linear dependence on amine concentration, but the temperature dependence was nonlinear. It was found that the diffusivity of N[sub 2]O in aqueous DEA is always less than that in aqueous MDEA under equivalent conditions of amine concentration and temperature.

  6. Degradation of MDEA in aqueous solution in the thermally activated persulfate system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Tao; Yue, Dong; Wang, Bing; Ren, Hong-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) degradation in thermally activated PS system was evaluated. Effects of the PS concentration, pH, activation temperature and reaction time on MDEA degradation were investigated. Simultaneity, the thermodynamic analysis and degradation process were also performed. Several findings were made in this study including the following: the degradation rates of MDEA in thermally activated PS systems were higher than other systems. MDEA could be readily degraded at 40°C with a PS concentration of 25.2 mM, the process of MDEA degradation was accelerated by higher PS dose and reaction temperature, and MDEA degradation and PS consumption followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the activation process followed an endothermic path of the positive value of [Formula: see text] and spontaneous with the negative value of [Formula: see text], high temperature was favorable to the degradation of MDEA with the apparent activation energy of 87.11 KJ/mol. Combined FT-IR with GC-MS analysis techniques, MDEA could be oxidative degraded after the C-N bond broken to small molecules of organic acids, alcohols or nitro compounds until oxidized to CO2 and H2O. In conclusion, the thermally activated PS process is a promising option for degrading MDEA effluent liquor.

  7. Series of isostructural planar lanthanide complexes [Ln(III)4(mu3-OH)2(mdeaH)2(piv)8] with single molecule magnet behavior for the Dy4 analogue.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Lan, Yanhua; Kostakis, George E; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2010-09-06

    A series of five isostructural tetranuclear lanthanide complexes of formula [Ln(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mdeaH)(2)(piv)(8)], (mdeaH(2) = N-methyldiethanolamine; piv = pivalate; Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), and Tm (5)) have been synthesized and characterized. These clusters have a planar "butterfly" Ln(4) core. Magnetically, the Ln(III) ions are weakly coupled in all cases; the Dy(4) compound 2 shows Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) behavior.

  8. Diffusion coefficients significant in modeling the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine and of hydrogen sulfide into aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.E.; Marshall, T.L.; Rowley, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Absorption rates of gaseous CO{sub 2} into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) and of gaseous H{sub 2}S into aqueous MDEA were measured in a quiescent, inverted-tube diffusiometer by monitoring the rate of pressure drop. A numerical model for absorption, diffusion, and reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S in blends of MDEA, DEA, and water was developed. The model was used to regress diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for the case of CO{sub 2} absorption and of bisulfide ion for the case of H{sub 2}S absorption from measured absorption rates. CO{sub 2} absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bicarbonate, carbamate, and MDEAH{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 50 mass % total amine at DEA:MDEA mole ratios of 1:20, 1:4, 1L3, and 2:3. H{sub 2}S absorption rates and diffusion coefficients of bisulfide ion were obtained at 298.2 K and 318.2 K in aqueous solutions containing 20, 35, and 50 mass % MDEA.

  9. Kinetics of CO{sub 2} desorption from highly concentrated and CO{sub 2}-loaded methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions in the range 312--383 K

    SciTech Connect

    Cadours, R.; Bouallou, C.; Gaunand, A.; Richon, D.

    1997-12-01

    Absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions is the dominant industrial process for acid gases removal, in particular CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S, from natural gas. Kinetics of CO{sub 2} desorption from CO{sub 2}-loaded methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solutions were measured in the following conditions: 312--383 K, 25--50 wt% MDEA aqueous solutions, CO{sub 2} loadings from 5 to 85%. A thermoregulated constant interfacial area reaction cell was operated by measuring the pressure over the solution. Producing a very slight depression in the cell, the time-dependent equilibrium pressure recovery is accurately recorded during batch desorption. Kinetics are in agreement with a fast reaction regime of desorption according to the film theory. For CO{sub 2} loadings below 0.50 mol of gas/mol of amine, desorption rates are well predicted by using the kinetic constant and orders determined from absorption experiments for the reaction between CO{sub 2} and MDEA. Some discrepancies were pointed out for loadings above 0.50 mol of gas/mol of amine.

  10. Simultaneous absorption of CO2 and H2S into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Mandald, Bishnupada; Bandyopadhyay, Shyamalendu S

    2006-10-01

    Removal of CO2 from gaseous streams by absorption with chemical reaction in the liquid phase is usually employed in industry as a method to retain atmospheric CO2 to combat the greenhouse effect. A broad spectrum of alkanolamines and, more recently, their mixtures are being employed for the removal of acid gases such as CO2, H2S, and COS from natural and industrial gas streams. In this research, simultaneous absorption of CO2 and H2S into aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and diethanolamine is studied theoretically and experimentally. The effect of contact time, temperature, and amine concentration on the rate of absorption and the selectivity were studied by absorption experiments in a wetted wall column at atmospheric pressure and constant feed gas ratio. The diffusion-reaction processes for CO2 and H2S mass transfer in blended amines are modeled according to Higbie's penetration theory with the assumption that all reactions are reversible. A rigorous parametric sensitivity test is done to quantify the effects of possible errors in the pertinent model parameters on the prediction accuracy of the absorption rates and enhancement factors. Model results based on the kinetics-equilibrium-mass transfer coupled model developed in this work are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results of rates of absorption of CO2 and H2S into (MDEA + DEA + H2O).

  11. Modeling CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S solubility in MDEA and DEA: Design implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, G.T.; Posey, M.

    1996-12-31

    The solubility of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamines affects solution capacity and the required circulation rate for acid gas absorption. These thermodynamics also determine the relationship of steam rate and the lean loading of the solution which in turn sets the leak of acid gas from the top of the absorber. Finally, the mechanisms of mass transfer and the role of kinetics, especially in stripping, depend on the vapor/liquid equilibria. Published measurements of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S solubility in methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) are not in general agreement, especially at low loading of acid gas. The available sets of solubility data have been regressed with the AspenPlus electrolyte/NRTL model. All of the parameters and constants that make up this model have been carefully evaluated. Independent thermodynamic data such as freezing point and heat of mixing have been included in the regression to strengthen the estimates of model parameters. The parameters for each set of solubility data have been evaluated in an attempt to determine which set is correct. Each evaluated model has been used to calculate the acid gas capacity and minimum stripping steam rate for several industrial cases of acid gas absorption/stripping.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  13. 21 CFR 556.513 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.513 Piperazine. A tolerance of 0.1 part per million piperazine base is... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine. 556.513 Section 556.513 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS,...

  14. 21 CFR 556.513 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.513 Piperazine. A tolerance of 0.1 part per million piperazine base is... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine. 556.513 Section 556.513 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS,...

  15. The Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA).

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Spitzer, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology and toxicology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA, "eve"). MDEA is a ring-substituted amphetamine (RSA) like MDMA, its well known N-methyl analog. Both have become very popular substances of abuse in the techno- and house-music scene. They can evoke psychomotor stimulation, mild alterations of perception, sensations of closeness and a positive emotional state as well as sympathomimetic physical effects. At present, the name "ecstasy" is no longer used only for MDMA, but for the whole group of RSAs (MDA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB) as they are chemically and pharmacologically nearly identical; moreover, many ecstasy pills contain mixtures of the RSAs. Hence, for a selective review on MDEA, it is crucial to strictly differentiate between: 1) street and chemical names, and 2) studies with or without chemically defined substances. In order to present MDEA-specific information, the pharmacodynamics and kinetics are described on the basis of MDEA challenge studies in animals and humans. In the toxicology section, we present a collection of case reports on fatalities where MDEA was toxicologically confirmed. On the question of serotonergic neurotoxicity and possible long-term consequences, however, MDEA-specific information is available from animal studies only. The neurotoxic potential of MDEA in humans is difficult to estimate, as ecstasy users do not consume pure substances. For future research, challenge studies in animals using dosing regimens adapted to human consumption patterns are needed. Such challenge studies should directly compare individual RSAs. They will represent the most viable and fruitful approach to the resolution of the highly controversial issues of serotonergic neurotoxicity and its functional consequences.

  16. Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, M.L.; Hagan, K.M.; Bullin, J.A.; Michalik, C.J.

    1996-08-12

    Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulation of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.

  17. Piperazine compounds as drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Arbo, M D; Bastos, M L; Carmo, H F

    2012-05-01

    Synthetic drugs are among the most commonly abused drugs in the world. This abuse is widespread among young people, especially in the dance club and rave scenes. Over the last several years, piperazine derived drugs have appeared, mainly available via the internet, and sold as ecstasy pills or under the names of "Frenzy", "Bliss", "Charge", "Herbal ecstasy", "A2", "Legal X" and "Legal E". Although in the market piperazine designer drugs have the reputation of being safe, several experimental and epidemiological studies indicate risks for humans. Piperazine designer drugs can be divided into two classes, the benzylpiperazines such as N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and its methylenedioxy analogue 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), and the phenylpiperazines such as 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP). Toxicokinetic properties, including metabolic pathways, actions and effects in animals and humans, with some hypothesis of mechanism of action, and analytical approaches for the identification of these drugs are summarized in this review.

  18. Piperazine-based nucleic acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Jurgen; Silks, Louis A.; Michalczyk, Ryszard

    2005-01-11

    A novel nucleoside analog is disclosed which comprises a piperazine ring in the place of the ring ribose or deoxyribose sugar. Monomers utilizing a broad variety of nucleobases are disclosed, as well as oligomers comprising the monomers disclosed herein linked by a variety of linkages, including amide, phosphonamide, and sulfonamide linkages. A method of synthesizing the nucleoside analogs is also disclosed.

  19. Continuous absorption of CO2 in packed column using MDEA solution for biomethane preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindaryani, A.; Budhijanto, W.; Ningrum, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the energy consumption in Indonesia is increasing. Raising of energy consumption force Indonesia to find other energy resources. Biogas is one of the renewable energy, which was developed in anticipation to the fossil energy reduction. Reducing the content of impurities in biogas may reduce the corrosion impact and increase the combustion efficiency. The biomethane can be utilised as fuel for generator in small and medium scale industries (IKM). Continuous CO2 absorption in packed column using MDEA solution as absorbent is studied for biomethane preparation. CO2 absorption experiments was performed continuously in the packed absorption column with a diameter of 6 cm and 75 cm length. Gas is sparged from the bottom of the column while the liquid is pumped through the top of the column. The concentration of CO2 at exit gas is analysed by GC and recorded as a function of time. The flowrate of the inlet gas was varied at 1 LPM; 1.5 LPM; and 1.8 LPM. Variation of MDEA solution concentration used was 20% and 35.31%. Mathematical model for unsteady state CO2 absorption in packed column was developed. The reaction rate constant (k) and mass transfer coefficient KGa were determined by fitting the outlet CO2 concentration data as a function of time to the model solution with smallest Sum of Square of Errors (SSE). The experimental data shows that absorption of 1 LPM gas flow rate with 0,15 LPM MDEA solution flow rate may reduce 40 % CO2 to be 17 % CO2 in outlet gas. The steady state process reaches at 10 minutes. Increasing gas flow rates shows the higher overall mass transfer coefficient. The reaction rate constant is not affected by gas flow rate variation.

  20. An experimental investigation into the atmospheric degradation of piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Stephen; Angove, Dennys; Azzi, Merched; Tibbett, Anne; Campbell, Ian; Patterson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric degradation of piperazine was investigated using an indoor smog chamber. Experiments were carried out in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone or nitric acid. Piperazine reacted rapidly under all evaluated conditions: irradiated in the presence of NOx and with ozone and nitric acid in the dark. Gas phase products from the oxidation of piperazine were identified by infrared spectroscopy, DNPH cartridges followed by HPLC analysis, and by sampling chamber gas through Tenax sorbent material followed by analysis using thermal desorption GC-ITMS (gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry). Eight compounds were positively identified, with a further nine compounds tentatively identified using GC-MS based on molecular weight and mass spectra. Ammonia formation was observed from piperazine oxidation, and its formation was from the subsequent reactions of photooxidation products of piperazine rather than directly from the reaction of piperazine. The nitrosamine and nitramine expected from piperazine, N-nitrosopiperazine, and N-nitropiperazine, were both identified and confirmed using 15NO, with a tentative maximum yield of nitrosamine of less than 5% observed. Aerosol yields, relative to total piperazine reacted not including that which absorbed to the walls, were considerably high but were not able to be quantified absolutely due to unusual behaviour of the scanning mobility particle sizer instrument to aerosol containing amines. The reaction of piperazine with gas phase nitric acid gave rise to immediate formation of aerosol.

  1. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 3.98 grams of piperazine base. (2) The drug is a soluble powder... and piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 5.0 grams of piperazine base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501... 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension... § 520.1802a Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 7.5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. The piperazine-carbon disulfide...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension... § 520.1802a Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 7.5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. The piperazine-carbon disulfide...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension... § 520.1802a Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 7.5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. The piperazine-carbon disulfide...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension... § 520.1802a Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 7.5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. The piperazine-carbon disulfide...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension... § 520.1802a Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce of suspension contains 7.5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. The piperazine-carbon disulfide...

  12. Contribution of artifacts to N-methylated piperazine cyanide adduct formation in vitro from N-alkyl piperazine analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minli; Resuello, Christina M; Guo, Jian; Powell, Mark E; Elmore, Charles S; Hu, Jun; Vishwanathan, Karthick

    2013-05-01

    In the liver microsome cyanide (CN)-trapping assays, piperazine-containing compounds formed significant N-methyl piperazine CN adducts. Two pathways for the N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation were proposed: 1) The α-carbon in the N-methyl piperazine is oxidized to form a reactive iminium ion that can react with cyanide ion; 2) N-dealkylation occurs followed by condensation with formaldehyde and dehydration to produce N-methylenepiperazine iminium ion, which then reacts with cyanide ion to form the N-methyl CN adduct. The CN adduct from the second pathway was believed to be an artifact or metabonate. In the present study, a group of 4'-N-alkyl piperazines and 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl-labeled piperazines were used to determine which pathway was predominant. Following microsomal incubations in the presence of cyanide ions, a significant percentage of 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl group in the CN adduct was replaced by an unlabeled natural methyl group, suggesting that the second pathway was predominant. For 4'-N-alkyl piperazine, the level of 4'-N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation was limited by the extent of prior 4'-N-dealkylation. In a separate study, when 4'-NH-piperaziens were incubated with potassium cyanide and [¹³C]-labeled formaldehyde, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN-adduct was formed without NADPH or liver microsome suggesting a direct Mannich reaction is involved. However, when [¹³C]-labeled methanol or potassium carbonate was used as the one-carbon donor, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN adduct was not detected without liver microsome or NADPH present. The biologic and toxicological implications of bioactivation via the second pathway necessitate further investigation because these one-carbon donors for the formation of reactive iminium ions could be endogenous and readily available in vivo.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. 520....1802b Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses. (a) Specifications. Each bolus contains 20 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex. (b) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  3. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  4. Cytotoxic activities of some benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gurdal, Enise Ece; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Yarim, Mine

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activities of ten benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives were reported. In vitro cytotoxic activities of compounds were screened against hepatocellular (HUH-7), breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HCT-116) cancer cell lines by sulphorhodamine B assay. Based on the GI50 values of the compounds, most of the benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives are active against HUH-7, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Compound 1d is highly cytotoxic against all tested cancer cell lines. Further investigation of compound 1d by Hoechst Staining and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting Analysis (FACS) revealed that this compound causes apoptosis by cell cycle arrest at subG1 phase.

  5. De Novo Assembly of Highly Substituted Morpholines and Piperazines

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The morpholine and piperazine with their remarkable physical and biochemical properties are popular heterocycles in organic and medicinal chemistry used in rational property design. However, in the majority of cases these rings are added to an existing molecule in a building block approach thus limiting their substitution pattern and diversity. Here we introduce a versatile de novo synthesis of the morpholine and piperazine rings using multicomponent reaction chemistry. The large scale amenable building blocks can be further substituted at up to four positions, making this a very versatile scaffold synthesis strategy. Our methods thus fulfill the increasing demand for novel building block design and nontraditional scaffolds which previously were not accessible PMID:28102692

  6. Piperazine oxadiazole inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Matthew P; Siegmund, Aaron; Allen, John G; Shu, Hong; Fotsch, Christopher; Bartberger, Michael D; Kim, Ki-Won; Komorowski, Renee; Graham, Melissa; Busby, James; Wang, Minghan; Meyer, James; Xu, Yang; Salyers, Kevin; Fielden, Mark; Véniant, Murielle M; Gu, Wei

    2013-12-27

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a target of interest for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Starting from a biphenyloxadiazole screening hit, a series of piperazine oxadiazole ACC inhibitors was developed. Initial pharmacokinetic liabilities of the piperazine oxadiazoles were overcome by blocking predicted sites of metabolism, resulting in compounds with suitable properties for further in vivo studies. Compound 26 was shown to inhibit malonyl-CoA production in an in vivo pharmacodynamic assay and was advanced to a long-term efficacy study. Prolonged dosing with compound 26 resulted in impaired glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL6 mice, an unexpected finding.

  7. Theoretical study of differential enthalpy of absorption of CO2 with MEA and MDEA as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayuri; da Silva, Eirik F; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F

    2013-08-15

    Temperature dependent correlations for enthalpy of deprotonation, carbamate formation, and heat of absorption of the overall reaction between aqueous MEA and MDEA and gaseous CO2 are calculated on the basis of computational chemistry based ln K values input to the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Temperature dependency of reaction equilibrium constants for deprotonation and carbamate formation reactions is calculated with the SM8T continuum solvation model coupled with density functional theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Calculated reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of individual reactions and overall heat of absorption are compared against experimental data in the temperature range 273.15-373 K. Temperature dependent correlations for different reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of reactions are given. These correlated results can be used in thermodynamic models such as UNIQUAC and NRTL for better understanding of post-combustion CO2 capture solvent chemistry.

  8. Ecstasy (MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MBDB) consumption, seizures, related offences, prices, dosage levels and deaths in the UK (1994-2003).

    PubMed

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Corkery, John; Deluca, Paolo; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Ghodse, A Hamid

    2006-05-01

    In the last decade, a global trend of escalating ecstasy (MDMA, MDA, MDEA, MBDB) use was observed. Mentions on medical death certificates, last year's ecstasy use, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and dosage levels figures were used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures (1994-2003) were taken from the UK General Mortality Registers, from the Home Office Statistical Bulletins, from the British Crime Survey and from those reported to both the National Crime Intelligence and Forensic Science Services. A total of 394 ecstasy deaths mentions were here identified from the UK; in 42% of cases ecstasy was the sole drug mentioned. Overall, number of fatalities showed a year-per-year increase and positively correlated with: prevalence of last year's use (p < 0.01); number of offenders (p < 0.01) and number of seizures (p < 0.01) but negatively correlated with ecstasy price (p < 0.05). Price negatively correlated with: prevalence of last year's use (p < 0.001) and number of seizures (p < 0.01); but positively correlated with average MDMA dosage per tablet (p < 0.01). MDA, MDEA and MBDB accounted for a significant proportion of tablets only up to 1997, but not afterwards. Increasing production with a concomitant decrease in ecstasy price may have facilitated an increase in consumption levels and this, in turn, may have determined an increase in number of ecstasy deaths mentions. Only medical death certificates and not coroners' reports at the end of their inquests were here analysed; no data were available in respect of other drugs use and toxicology results.

  9. 4-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-ium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Richard; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric; Dayananda, Alaloor S.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Narayana, Badiadka

    2011-01-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 4-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-ium 2,4,6-tri­nitro­phenolate}, C17H19F2N2 +·C6H2N3O7 −, is the picrate salt of a piperazine-supported amine bearing a benzhydryl substituent on one of its N atoms. During co-crystallisation, protonation took place on the N atom of the secondary amine functionality. The non-aromatic six-membered heterocycle adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as C—H⋯O contacts connect the components into a three-dimensional network. PMID:22064439

  10. The interaction of DNA with piperazine derivatives of benzoimidazophthalazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinnikova, D. N.; Moroshkina, E. B.; Travkina, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of DNA molecule with new synthetic compounds, piperazine derivatives of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]phthalazine, was investigated by the spectral, hydrodynamic and optical methods. The thermodynamic parameters of the interaction and the stoichiometry of the complexes were determined by spectrophotometric titration. A mode of binding and structure of the complexes were determined by analyzing the changes in the intrinsic viscosity and the optical anisotropy of the macromolecule upon complexation. It is shown that an increase in the intrinsic viscosity and the optical anisotropy with a small content of the ligand in the complex is caused by the increase in the thermodynamic rigidity of macromolecules upon the formation of the complex. Increase of the contour length of the macromolecule in the complex does not occur, that indicates nonintercalative mode of binding the piperazine derivatives of benzoimidazophthalazine with DNA.

  11. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-12-01

    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p < 0.05; FDR adjusted). In the up-regulated genes, GO groups of cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present

  12. Synthesis and characterization of the novel phosphonates- and phosphonothioate-piperazine as flame retardants for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (PDP) and O,O,O',O'-tetramethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonothioate (PDSP) were synthesized in one simple step and their structures were confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis (EA). Print cloth, twil...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  15. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  16. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  17. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  18. Reactions of CO2 with aqueous piperazine solutions: formation and decomposition of mono- and dicarbamic acids/carbamates of piperazine at 25.0 °C.

    PubMed

    Conway, William; Fernandes, Debra; Beyad, Yaser; Burns, Robert; Lawrance, Geoffrey; Puxty, Graeme; Maeder, Marcel

    2013-02-07

    Piperazine (PZ) is widely recognized as a promising solvent for postcombustion capture (PCC) of carbon dioxide (CO(2)). In view of the highly conflicting data describing the kinetic reactions of CO(2)(aq) in piperazine solutions, the present study focuses on the identification of the chemical mechanism, specifically the kinetic pathways for CO(2)(aq) in piperazine solutions that form the mono- and dicarbamates, using the analysis of stopped-flow spectrophotometric kinetic measurements and (1)H NMR spectroscopic data at 25.0 °C. The complete set of rate and equilibrium constants for the kinetic pathways, including estimations for the protonation constants of the suite of piperazine carbamates/carbamic acids, is reported here using an extended kinetic model which incorporates all possible reactions for CO(2)(aq) in piperazine solutions. From the kinetic data determined in the present study, the reaction of CO(2)(aq) with free PZ was found to be the dominant reactive pathway. The superior reactivity of piperazine is confirmed in the kinetic rate constant determined for the formation of piperazine monocarbamic acid (k(7) = 2.43(3) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), which is within the wide range of published values, making it one of the faster reacting amines. The corresponding equilibrium constant for the formation of the monocarbamic acid, K(7), markedly exceeds that of other monoamines. Kinetic and equilibrium constants for the remaining pathways indicate a minor contribution to the overall kinetics at high pH; however, these pathways may become more significant at higher CO(2) loadings and lower pH values where the concentrations of the reactive species are correspondingly higher.

  19. Opportunities and challenges for direct C–H functionalization of piperazines

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhishi; Gettys, Kristen E

    2016-01-01

    Summary Piperazine ranks within the top three most utilized N-heterocyclic moieties in FDA-approved small-molecule pharmaceuticals. Herein we summarize the current synthetic methods available to perform C–H functionalization on piperazines in order to lend structural diversity to this privileged drug scaffold. Multiple approaches such as those involving α-lithiation trapping, transition-metal-catalyzed α-C–H functionalizations, and photoredox catalysis are discussed. We also highlight the difficulties experienced when successful methods for α-C–H functionalization of acyclic amines and saturated mono-nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (such as piperidines and pyrrolidines) were applied to piperazine substrates. PMID:27340462

  20. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 054628 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1... for administration by stomach tube, it shall be labeled: “Federal law restricts this drug to use by...

  1. Characterization of inward-rectifier K+ channel inhibition by antiarrhythmic piperazine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Zhe

    2004-12-14

    Strong inward-rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels play a significant role in shaping the cardiac action potential: they help produce its long plateau and accelerate its rate of repolarization. Consequently, genetic deletion of the gene encoding the strongly rectifying K(+) channel IRK1 (Kir2.1) prolongs the cardiac action potential in mice. In principle, broadening the action potential lengthens the refractory period, which may in turn be antiarrhythmogenic. Interestingly, previous studies showed that piperazine, an inexpensive and safe anthelmintic, both inhibits IRK1 channels and is antiarrhythmic in some animal preparations. This potential pharmacological benefit motivated us to further characterize the energetic, kinetic, and molecular properties of IRK1 inhibition by piperazine. We show how its blocking characteristics, in particular, its shallow voltage dependence, allow piperazine to be effective even in the presence of high-affinity polyamine blockers. We also examine the channel selectivity of piperazine and its molecular determinants.

  2. GC-MS and GC-IRD analysis of ring and side chain regioisomers of ethoxyphenethylamines related to the controlled substances MDEA, MDMMA and MBDB.

    PubMed

    Al-Hossaini, Abdullah M; Awad, Tamer; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2010-07-15

    Three regioisomeric 3, 4-methylenedioxyphenethylamines having the same molecular weight and major mass spectral fragments of equal mass have been reported as drugs of abuse in recent years. These compounds are 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDMMA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB). Ring substituted ethoxy phenethylamines having the same side chain are compounds with an isobaric relationship to these controlled drug substances, all have molecular weight of 207 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 72 and 135/136. The three methylenedioxyphenethylamines were resolved from the ethoxyphenethylamines by capillary gas chromatography using an Rxi-50 stationary phase. The trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoropropionyl and heptafluorobutryl derivatives of the secondary amines were evaluated in GC-MS studies. The mass spectra for these derivatives were significantly individualized and the resulting unique fragment ions allowed for specific side chain identification. The perfluoroacyl derivatives showed reasonable resolution on a non-polar stationary phase such as Rtx-1. GC-IRD studies provided structure-IR spectra relationships used for the discrimination of the three target drugs (MDEA, MDMMA and MBDB) from the other nine ring substituted ethoxyphenethylamine regioisomers.

  3. Anticonvulsant effects of benzhydryl piperazines on maximal electroshock seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Novack, G D; Stark, L G; Peterson, S L

    1979-03-01

    The anticonvulsant effects of four benzhydryl piperazines, SC-13504 (ropizine, an anticonvulsant), hydroxyzine (HDX, an anxiolytic), chlorcyclizine (CCZ, an antihistaminic) and buclizine (BUC, an antihistaminic), were investigated utilizing a modified maximal electroshock seizure test in rats. In addition to detecting the presence or absence of tonic hindlimb extension, the modified method quantified various phases of the seizure. All four benzhydryl piperazines exhibited anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock seizure, but SC-13504 was similar in efficacy to phenobarbital and phenytoin, and much more effective than HDX, CCZ or BUC. Additionally, SC-13504 possessed a therapeutic index much greater than any of the compounds tested. The duration of action of the benzhydryl piperazines, in hours was: SC-13504, 0.5 to 8; HDX, 0.5 to 2; CCZ, 0.5 to 16; and BUC, 2 to 8. Buc and CCZ are postulated to be converted to active anticonvulsant metabolites.

  4. 1-Benzhydryl-4-(4-chloro­phenyl­sulfonyl)piperazine

    PubMed Central

    Girisha, H. R.; Naveen, S.; Vinaya, K.; Sridhar, M. A.; Shashidhara Prasad, J.; Rangappa, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C23H23ClN2O2S, was synthesized by the nucleophilic substitution of 1-benzhydrylpiperazine with 4-chloro­phenyl­sulfonyl chloride. The piperazine ring is in a chair conformation. The geometry around the S atom is that of a distorted tetra­hedron. There is a large range of bond angles around the piperazine N atoms. The dihedral angle between the least-squares plane (p1) defined by the four coplanar C atoms of the piperazine ring and the benzene ring is 81.6 (1)°. The dihedral angles between p1 and the phenyl rings are 76.2 (1) and 72.9 (2)°. The two phenyl rings make a dihedral angle of 65.9 (1)°. Intramolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present. PMID:21201390

  5. Effects of Sodium Thiosulfate and Sodium Sulfide on the Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in an MDEA-Based CO2 Capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emori, W.; Jiang, S. L.; Duan, D. L.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of carbon steel has been tested in the presence of sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfide in an MDEA-based CO2 capture system using electrochemical methods, weight loss measurements and surface analysis. The results of electrochemical measurements revealed that both thiosulfate and sulfide showed corrosion resistance properties to carbon steel corrosion. The corrosion resistance for the system with thiosulfate increased with concentration, while the system with sulfide yielded better corrosion resistance to carbon steel at lower concentrations as increase in sulfide concentration decreased the corrosion resistance. The corrosion inhibition behaviors for both systems at 0.05 M salt concentrations were confirmed by weight loss measurement, and the solution with sodium sulfide exhibited a better inhibition with time.

  6. Effects of Sodium Thiosulfate and Sodium Sulfide on the Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in an MDEA-Based CO2 Capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emori, W.; Jiang, S. L.; Duan, D. L.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of carbon steel has been tested in the presence of sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfide in an MDEA-based CO2 capture system using electrochemical methods, weight loss measurements and surface analysis. The results of electrochemical measurements revealed that both thiosulfate and sulfide showed corrosion resistance properties to carbon steel corrosion. The corrosion resistance for the system with thiosulfate increased with concentration, while the system with sulfide yielded better corrosion resistance to carbon steel at lower concentrations as increase in sulfide concentration decreased the corrosion resistance. The corrosion inhibition behaviors for both systems at 0.05 M salt concentrations were confirmed by weight loss measurement, and the solution with sodium sulfide exhibited a better inhibition with time.

  7. MDMA-like behavioral effects of N-substituted piperazines in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yarosh, H.L.; Katz, E.B.; Coop, A.; Fantegrossi, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the subjective effects of N-substituted piperazines, but these drugs show potential for abuse in humans, and have often been associated with MDMA (“ecstasy”) in this regard. The aim of the present studies was to test the capacity of N-substituted piperazines to induce a head-twitch response, alter locomotor activity, and induce MDMA-like discriminative stimulus effects in mice. Various doses of l-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-methoxybenzyl) piperazine (m-MeO-BZP) or meta-chlorophenyl piperazine (m-CPP) were administered to mice to determine effects on these behavioral endpoints. BZP, but not its meta-methoxyl analogue, increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner; the phenylpiperazines and m-MeO-BZP only decreased locomotor activity. TFMPP was the only compound active in the head twitch assay, eliciting a moderate head twitch response which was comparable to that previously observed with the MDMA enantiomers. BZP, TFMPP and m-CPP fully substituted in S(+)-MDMA-trained animals, but did not elicit significant drug lever responding in mice trained to discriminate R(−)-MDMA. m-MeO-BZP partially substituted for both training drugs. The present results suggest that BZP has stimulant-like effects, and that TFMPP has hallucinogen-like effects. Their structural analogues, however, do not share these behavioral profiles. Further studies into the relationships between the N-substituted piperazines and MDMA are warranted. PMID:17651790

  8. Discovery of novel leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitors based on piperidine and piperazine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sandanayaka, Vincent; Mamat, Bjorn; Bhagat, Nikhil; Bedell, Louis; Halldorsdottir, Gudrun; Sigthorsdottir, Heida; Andrésson, Thorkell; Kiselyov, Alex; Gurney, Mark; Singh, Jasbir

    2010-05-01

    Novel piperidine and piperazine derivatives have been designed and tested as inhibitors of LTA(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H). Most potent compounds showed good potency in both enzymatic and functional human whole blood assay. Crystallography studies further confirmed observed structure-activity relationship and LTA(4)H binding mode for analogs from the piperidine series.

  9. Thermal decomposition reactions of cotton fabric treated with piperazine-phosphonates derivatives as a flame retardant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a great scientific interest in exploring the great potential of the piperazine-phosphonates in flame retardant (FR) application on cotton fabric by investigating the thermal decomposition of cotton fabric treated with them. This research tries to understand the mode of action of the t...

  10. The influences of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives on flame retardancy and thermal behaviors of cotton cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to create the environmentally-friendly flame retardants (FRs) for cotton cellulose, two phosphoramidates derivatives, tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (PDP) and diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (PAP), have been developed. Both were synthesized in high yield and ...

  11. The mechanism of action of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives in cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperazine-phosphonates additives are known to be very effective flame retardants on different polymeric systems, especially cotton cellulose. In order to understand their mechanism of action, we carried out the investigation of their thermal behavior on cotton fabric by, first, employing the attenu...

  12. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9800 - Poly(substituted triazinyl) piperazine (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9800 Poly(substituted triazinyl) piperazine (generic name). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  14. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  15. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  16. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  17. Synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of some benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gurdal, Enise Ece; Buclulgan, Ebru; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Yarim, Mine

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activities of ten benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives were reported. In vitro cytotoxic activities of compounds were screened against hepatocellular (HUH-7), breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HCT-116) cancer cell lines by sulphorhodamine B assay. Based on the GI50 values of the compounds, most of the benzothiazole-piperazine derivatives are active against HUH-7, MCF-7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Aroyl substituted compounds 1h and 1j were found to be the most active derivatives. In addition, further investigation of compounds 1h and 1j by Hoechst staining and FACS revealed that these compounds cause apoptosis by cell cycle arrest at subG1 phase.

  18. Integration of enabling methods for the automated flow preparation of piperazine-2-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Richard J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the use of a new open-source software package and a Raspberry Pi(®) computer for the simultaneous control of multiple flow chemistry devices and its application to a machine-assisted, multi-step flow preparation of pyrazine-2-carboxamide - a component of Rifater(®), used in the treatment of tuberculosis - and its reduced derivative piperazine-2-carboxamide.

  19. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  20. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient.

  1. Temperature- and pH-responsive nanoparticles of biocompatible polyurethanes for doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anning; Gao, Hui; Sun, Yanfang; Sun, Yu-long; Yang, Ying-Wei; Wu, Guolin; Wang, Yinong; Fan, Yunge; Ma, Jianbiao

    2013-01-30

    A series of temperature- and pH-responsive polyurethanes based on hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) were synthesized by a coupling reaction with bis-1,4-(hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N-butyldiethanolamine (BDEA), respectively. The chemical structure, molecular weight, thermal property and crystallization properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The resulting polyurethanes were then used to prepare nanoparticles either by direct dispersion method or dialysis method. Their pH and temperature responsibilities were evaluated by optical transmittance and size measurement in aqueous media. Interestingly, HDI-based and MDI-based polyurethanes exhibited different pH and temperature responsive properties. Nanoparticles based on HDI-HEP and HDI-MDEA were temperature-responsive, while MDI-based biomaterials were not. All of them showed pH-sensitive behavior. The possible responsive mechanism was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the polyurethanes was evaluated using methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay in vitro. It was shown that the HDI-based polyurethanes were non-toxic, and could be applied to doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulation. The experimental results indicated that DOX could be efficiently encapsulated into polyurethane nanoparticles and uptaken by Huh-7 cells. The loaded DOX molecules could be released from the drug-loaded polyurethane nanoparticles upon pH and temperature changes, responsively.

  2. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  3. A modular lead-oriented synthesis of diverse piperazine, 1,4-diazepane and 1,5-diazocane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas; Maclellan, Paul; Burslem, George M; Simpson, Iain; Grant, J Andrew; Warriner, Stuart; Sridharan, Visuvanathar; Nelson, Adam

    2014-04-28

    Piperazines are found widely in commercially-available compounds and bioactive molecules (including many drugs). However, in the vast majority of these molecules, the piperazine ring is isolated (i.e. not fused to another ring) and is not substituted on any of its carbon atoms. A modular synthetic approach is described in which combinations of cyclic sulfamidate and hydroxy sulfonamide building blocks may be converted into piperazines and related 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-diazocane scaffolds. By variation of the combinations of building blocks used, it was possible to vary the ring size, substitution and configuration of the resulting heterocyclic scaffolds. The approach was exemplified in the synthesis of a range of heterocyclic scaffolds that, on decoration, would target lead-like chemical space. It was demonstrated that lead-like small molecules based on these scaffolds would likely complement those found in large compound collections.

  4. Ozonation of piperidine, piperazine and morpholine: Kinetics, stoichiometry, product formation and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tekle-Röttering, Agnes; Jewell, Kevin S; Reisz, Erika; Lutze, Holger V; Ternes, Thomas A; Schmidt, Winfried; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-01-01

    Piperidine, piperazine and morpholine as archetypes for secondary heterocyclic amines, a structural unit that is often present in pharmaceuticals (e.g., ritalin, cetirizine, timolol, ciprofloxacin) were investigated in their reaction with ozone. In principle the investigated compounds can be degraded with ozone in a reasonable time, based on their high reaction rate constants with respect to ozone (1.9 × 10(4)-2.4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). However, transformation is insufficient (13-16%), most likely due to a chain reaction, which decomposes ozone. This conclusion is based on OH scavenging experiments, leading to increased compound transformation (18-27%). The investigated target compounds are similar in their kinetic and stoichiometric characteristics. However, the mechanistic considerations based on product formation indicate various reaction pathways. Piperidine reacts with ozone via a nonradical addition reaction to N-hydroxypiperidine (yield: 92% with and 94% without scavenging, with respect to compound transformation). However, piperazine degradation with ozone does not lead to N-hydroxypiperazine. In the morpholine/ozone reaction, N-hydroxymorpholine was identified. Additional oxidation pathways in all cases involved the formation of OH with high yields. One important pathway of piperazine and morpholine by ozonation could be the formation of C-centered radicals after ozone or OH radical attack. Subsequently, O2 addition forms unstable peroxyl radicals, which in one pathway loose superoxide radicals by generating a carbon-centered cation. Subsequent hydrolysis of the carbon-centered cation leads to formaldehyde, whereby ozonation of the N-hydroxy products can proceed in the same way and in addition give rise to hydroxylamine. A second pathway of the short-lived peroxyl radicals could be a dimerization to form short-lived tetraoxides, which cleave by forming hydrogen peroxide. All three products have been found.

  5. Reactions between Grignard reagents and heterocyclic N-oxides: stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Hans; Olsson, Roger; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-21

    In this perspective we discuss the recent developments of stereoselective synthesis of substituted pyridines, piperidines, and piperazines from cheap and commercially readily available starting materials. Pyridine N-oxides and pyrazine N-oxides are reacted with alkyl, aryl, alkynyl and vinyl Grignard reagents to give a diverse set of heterocycles in high yields. Optically active substituted piperazines are obtained by an asymmetric reaction from pyrazine N-oxides using sparteine as chiral ligand. In addition, a stereoselective synthesis of dienal-oximes from the reaction between pyridine N-oxides and Grignard reagents is presented, which results in a useful intermediate for the synthesis of a diverse set of compounds.

  6. Bis(piperazine-1,4-diium) hexa-chlorido-bismuthate(III) chloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jia; Sun, Lei; Le, Wen-Jun

    2011-12-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, (C(4)H(12)N(2))(2)[BiCl(6)]Cl·H(2)O, consists of piperazinediium cations, [BiCl(6)](3-) anions, Cl(-) anions and uncoordinated water mol-ecules. The Bi(III) cation is coordinated by six Cl(-) anions in a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, extensive inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds occur.

  7. Bis(piperazine-1,4-diium) hexa­chlorido­bismuthate(III) chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jia; Sun, Lei; Le, Wen-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, (C4H12N2)2[BiCl6]Cl·H2O, consists of piperazinediium cations, [BiCl6]3− anions, Cl− anions and uncoordinated water mol­ecules. The BiIII cation is coordinated by six Cl− anions in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, extensive inter­molecular N—H⋯Cl, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds occur. PMID:22199505

  8. Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Ring-Opening of Oxabenzonorbornadienes with N-Substituted Piperazine Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Luo, Renshi; Yang, Dingqiao

    2015-11-27

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening of oxabenzonorbornadienes with N-substituted piperazines was described. The reaction afforded the corresponding ring-opening products in high yields and moderate enantioselectivities in the presence of 2.5 mol % [Ir(COD)Cl]₂ and 5.0 mol % (S)-p-Tol-BINAP. The effects of various chiral bidentate ligands, catalyst loading, solvent, and temperature on the yield and enantioselectivity were also investigated. A plausible mechanism was proposed to account for the formation of the corresponding trans-ring opened products based on the X-ray structure of product 2i.

  9. Chiral separation and quantification of R/S-amphetamine, R/S-methamphetamine, R/S-MDA, R/S-MDMA, and R/S-MDEA in whole blood by GC-EI-MS.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Louise Bang; Olsen, Kristine Høje; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2006-10-02

    The enantioselective composition of the amphetamines is of interest, as the enantiomers show differences in their pharmacological effects and several methods for chiral separation of amphetamines have been described. Only a few methods have used whole blood as matrix and none of these separates both classic amphetamines (amphetamine and methamphetamine) and designer amphetamines (MDA, MDMA and MDEA). The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop a method for enantioselective analysis of AM, MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA in whole blood. The amphetamines were extracted from 0.5 g of whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction. After derivatization with R-MTPCl, the resulting diastereomers were separated by GC on a HP-5MS column and detected by SIM-MS. R-MTPCl was used as derivatization reagent because of the stability of this reagent and good separation of these analytes. Through the method, development time and temperature of the derivatization were optimized, and by admixture of 0.02% triethylamine it became possible to detect the amphetamines in adequately low concentrations as more analytes were derivatized. The method was validated and it was linear from 0.004 to 3 microg/g per enantiomer. The accuracy was within 91-115%, while the repeatability and reproducibility were < or =15% R.S.D. A method suitable for enantioselective separation and analysis of the amphetamines has been achieved, and the method was applied to analysis of whole blood samples originating from traffic and criminal cases and post mortem cases.

  10. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous mixtures of alkanolamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dawodu, O.F.; Meisen, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The solubility of CO[sub 2] in water + N-methyldiethanolamine + monoethanolamine (MDEA + MEA) and water + N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine (MDEA + DEA) are reported at two compositions of 3.4 M MDEA + 0.8 M MEA or DEA and 2.1 M MDEA + 2.1 M MEA or DEA at temperatures from 70 to 180 C and CO[sub 2] partial pressures from 100 to 3,850 kPa. The solubility of CO[sub 2] in the blends decreased with an increase in temperature but increased with an increase in CO[sub 2] partial pressure. At low partial pressures of CO[sub 2] and the same total amine concentration, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings were in the order MDEA + MEA > MDEA + DEA > MDEA. However, at high CO[sub 2] partial pressures, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings in the MDEA solutions were higher than those of the MDEA + MEA and MDEA + DEA blends of equal molar strengths due to the stoichiometric loading limitations of MEA and DEA. The nonadditivity of the equilibrium loadings for single amine systems highlights the need for independent measurements on amine blends.

  11. Kinetics of N-nitrosopiperazine formation from nitrite and piperazine in CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark J; Fine, Nathan A; Rochelle, Gary T

    2013-04-02

    Piperazine (PZ) is an efficient amine for carbon capture systems, but it can form N-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ), a carcinogen, from nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in flue gas from coal or natural gas combustion. The reaction of nitrite with PZ was studied in 0.1 to 5 mol/dm(3) PZ with 0.001 to 0.8 mol CO2/mol PZ at 50 to 135 °C. The reaction forming MNPZ is first order in nitrite, piperazine carbamate species, and hydronium ion. The activation energy is 84 ± 2 kJ/mol with a rate constant of 8.5 × 10(3) ± 1.4 × 10(3) dm(6) mol(-2) s(-1) at 100 °C. The proposed mechanism involves protonation of the carbamate species, nucleophilic attack of the carbamic acid, and formation of bicarbonate and MNPZ. These kinetics and mechanism will be useful in identifying inhibitors and other strategies to reduce nitrosamine accumulation in CO2 capture by scrubbing with PZ or other amines.

  12. A comparative study of the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid and piperazine on the lobster muscle fibre and the frog spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Constanti, A; Nistri, A

    1976-01-01

    1 The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and piperazine were compared on two in vitro preparations, the lobster muscle fibre and the frog spinal cord. 2 Both GABA and piperazine increased the membrane conductance of single lobster muscle fibres without changing the membrane potential; sigmoidal log dose-conductance curves for these agents were obtained and a similar model expressed the receptor interaction of both substances. 3 The actions of GABA and piperazine on lobster muscle were antagonized by picrotoxin and were Cl-dependent. 4 In the frog spinal cord GABA depolarized the dorsal roots presumably by mimicking the activity of the transmitter depolarizing the primary afferents; sigmoidal log dose-response curves for GABA were obtained. 5 On the dorsal roots piperazine produced either depolarizations or biphasic responses; these were mainly indirect effects as was shown by experiments in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). 6 The effects of GABA on the dorsal root (in TTX-treated cords) were antagonized by picrotoxin whereas those of piperazine were more resistant to this alkaloid. The GABA-induced responses appeared to be largely Na+-dependent while both Na+ and Cl- seemed to mediate the effects of piperazine. 7 It is proposed that piperazine has GABA-agonist activity on lobster muscle but little GABA-like activity on the frog spinal cord. PMID:1086111

  13. Effects of linker elongation in a series of N-(2-benzofuranylmethyl)-N'-(methoxyphenylalkyl)piperazine σ₁ receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Iman A; Banister, Samuel D; Akladios, Fady N; Chua, Sook Wern; Kassiou, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In our continued exploration of disubstituted piperazine derivatives as sigma (σ) receptor ligands with central nervous system (CNS) activity, a series of N-(2-benzofuranylmethyl)-N'-(methoxyphenylalkyl)piperazines (16-21 and 26-31) were synthesized, anticipating that these ligands would better suit the structural requirements of the current σ(1) pharmacophore. Affinities of these ligands for σ(1) and σ(2) receptors were investigated by means of radioligand binding assays, with the identification of N-(2-benzofuranylmethyl)-N'-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]piperazine (29, K(i)=3.1 nM, σ(2)/σ(1)=45) as a selective σ(1) ligand. The σ(1) affinities and subtype selectivities of piperazines 16-21 and 26-31 were generally comparable to the corresponding benzylic analogs. Additionally, the affinities of 16-21 and 26-31 for the 5-HT(2B) receptor were much lower than the relatively nonselective methoxybenzylic analogs 2-4, indicating that elongation of the alkyl tether generally improved selectivity for σ(1) receptors.

  14. Excretion of N-mononitrosopiperazine after low level exposure to piperazine in air: effects of dietary nitrate and ascorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Bellander, T.; Osterdahl, B.G.; Hagmar, L.

    1988-04-01

    The secondary amine piperazine may be nitrosated in vivo, following oral intake or occupational exposure by inhalation. The suspected carcinogen N-mononitrosopiperazine could be formed in the human stomach, and in part excreted in the urine. In this study, 0.4 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine, determined by gas chromatography-Thermal Energy Analysis, was observed in the urine in one of four volunteers, at an experimental exposure by inhalation of 0.3 mg piperazine/m3. The intake of spinach and beetroot caused an increased nitrosation of piperazine, and up to 1.7 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine was excreted in the urine in the four individuals. This excretion indicates that about 5% of the absorbed piperazine dose was converted to N-mononitrosopiperazine. With the same nitrate-rich diet, but with the addition of citrus fruits and fresh vegetables, the highest excretion was 0.6 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine. The excretion was significantly correlated with the ratio between the maximum level of nitrite in saliva and the ascorbate level in plasma. There was also a significant interindividual variation. N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine was not found in any sample of urine.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a disubstituted piperazine derivative with T-type channel blocking action and analgesic properties

    PubMed Central

    Pudukulatham, Zubaidha; Zhang, Fang-Xiong; Gadotti, Vinicius M; M’Dahoma, Said; Swami, Prabhuling; Tamboli, Yasinalli

    2016-01-01

    Background T-type calcium channels are important contributors to signaling in the primary afferent pain pathway and are thus important targets for the development of analgesics. It has been previously reported that certain piperazine-based compounds such as flunarizine are able to inhibit T-type calcium channels. Thus, we hypothesized that novel piperazine compounds could potentially act as analgesics. Results Here, we have created a series of 14 compound derivatives around a diphenyl methyl-piperazine core pharmacophore. Testing their effects on transiently expressed Cav3.2 calcium channels revealed one derivative (3-((4-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-oxide, compound 10e) as a potent blocker. 10e mediate tonic block of these channels with an IC50 of around 4 micromolar. 10e also blocked Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 channels, but only weakly affected high-voltage-activated Cav1.2 and Cav2.2 channels. Intrathecal delivery of 10e mediated relief from formalin and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced inflammatory pain that was ablated by genetic knockout of Cav3.2 channels. Conclusions Altogether, our data identify a novel T-type calcium channel blocker with tight structure activity relationship (SAR) and relevant in vivo efficacy in inflammatory pain conditions. PMID:27053601

  16. DNA interactions of new cytotoxic tetrafunctional dinuclear platinum complex trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)].

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Christofis, Petros; Slámová, Martina; Kostrhunová, Hana; Nováková, Olga; Najajreh, Yousef; Gibson, Dan; Kaspárková, Jana

    2007-06-15

    A new tetrafunctional dinuclear platinum complex trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] with sterically rigid linking group was designed, synthesized and characterized. In this novel molecule, the DNA-binding features of two classes of the platinum compounds with proven antitumor activity are combined, namely trans oriented bifunctional mononuclear platinum complexes with a heterocyclic ligand and polynuclear platinum complexes. DNA-binding mode of this new complex was analyzed by various methods of molecular biology and biophysics. The complex coordinates DNA in a unique way and interstrand and intrastrand cross-links are the predominant lesions formed in DNA in cell-free media and in absence of proteins. An intriguing aspect of trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] is that, using a semi-rigid linker, interstrand cross-linking is diminished relative to other dinuclear platinum complexes with flexible linking groups and lesions that span several base pairs, such as tri- and tetrafunctional adducts, become unlikely. In addition, in contrast to the inability of trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] to cross-link two DNA duplexes, the results of the present work convincingly demonstrate that this dinuclear platinum complex forms specific DNA lesions which can efficiently cross-link proteins to DNA. The results substantiate the view that trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] or its analogues could be used as a tool for studies of DNA properties and their interactions or as a potential antitumor agent. The latter view is also corroborated by the observation that trans,trans-[{PtCl2(NH3)}2(piperazine)] is a more effective cytotoxic agent than cisplatin against human tumor ovarian cell lines.

  17. Synthesis, dynamic NMR characterization and XRD studies of novel N,N’-substituted piperazines for bioorthogonal labeling

    PubMed Central

    Pretze, Marc; Gott, Matthew; Köckerling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Novel, functionalized piperazine derivatives were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by 1H/13C/19F NMR, MS, elemental analysis and lipophilicity. All piperazine compounds occur as conformers resulting from the partial amide double bond. Furthermore, a second conformational shape was observed for all nitro derivatives due to the limited change of the piperazine chair conformation. Therefore, two coalescence points were determined and their resulting activation energy barriers were calculated using 1H NMR. To support this result, single crystals of 1-(4-nitrobenzoyl)piperazine (3a, monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 24.587(2), b = 7.0726(6), c = 14.171(1) Å, β = 119.257(8)°, V = 2149.9(4) Å3, Z = 4, D obs = 1.454 g/cm3) and the alkyne derivative 4-(but-3-yn-1-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperazine (4b, monoclinic, space group P21/n, a = 10.5982(2), b = 8.4705(1), c = 14.8929(3) Å, β = 97.430(1)°, V = 1325.74(4) Å3, Z = 4, D obs = 1.304 g/cm3) were obtained from a saturated ethyl acetate solution. The rotational conformation of these compounds was also verified by XRD. As proof of concept for future labeling purposes, both nitropiperazines were reacted with [18F]F–. To test the applicability of these compounds as possible 18F-building blocks, two biomolecules were modified and chosen for conjugation either using the Huisgen-click reaction or the traceless Staudinger ligation. PMID:28144316

  18. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, July-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Tamimi, A.; Davis, R.A.; Oelschlager, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the work is to investigate the simultaneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed thus far models have been developed for single gas (either H2S or CO2) absorption into a single amine solution (MDEA or DEA). Density and viscosity measurements have been made for aqueous MDEA, DEA and MDEA/DEA mixtures over the temperature range 20 to 100 C and for concentrations up to 50 weight %.

  19. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, January-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of the work is to investigate the simultaneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed thus far, density, viscosity, gas diffusivity, gas solubility, surface tension, and amine solution vapor pressure have been measured for aqueous MDEA, DEA, and MDEA/DEA mixtures over the temperature range 20 to 100 deg. C and for concentrations up to 50 weight %. A mathematical model, based on the penetration theory, for the simultaneous absorption (desorption) of CO2 and H2S into (from) aqueous solutions of MDEA and DEA has been developed.

  20. Copper(I) cyanide networks: synthesis, structure, and luminescence behavior. Part 2. Piperazine ligands and hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mi Jung; Murray, Courtney A; Tronic, Tristan A; deKrafft, Kathryn E; Ley, Amanda N; deButts, Jordan C; Pike, Robert D; Lu, Haiyan; Patterson, Howard H

    2008-08-04

    A variety of photoluminescent, and in some cases thermochromic, metal-organic networks of CuCN were self-assembled in aqueous reactions with amine ligands: (CuCN) 2(Pip) ( 1a), (CuCN) 20(Pip) 7 ( 1b), (CuCN) 7(MePip) 2 ( 2), (CuCN) 2(Me 2Pip) ( 3a), (CuCN) 4(Me 2Pip) ( 3b), (CuCN) 7(EtPip) 2 ( 4), (CuCN) 4(Et 2Pip) ( 5), (CuCN) 3(BzPip) 2 ( 6a), (CuCN) 5(BzPip) 2 ( 6b), (CuCN) 7(BzPip) 2 ( 6c), (CuCN) 4(BzPip) ( 6d), (CuCN) 2(Bz 2Pip) ( 7), (CuCN)(Ph 2CHPip) ( 8a), (CuCN) 2(Ph 2CHPip) ( 8b), (CuCN) 3(HMTA) 2 ( 9a), (CuCN) 5(HMTA) 2 ( 9b), and (CuCN) 5(HMTA) ( 9c) (Pip = piperazine, MePip = N-methylpiperazine, Me 2Pip = N, N'-dimethylpiperazine, EtPip = N-ethylpiperazine, Et 2Pip = N, N'-diethylpiperazine, BzPip = N-benzylpiperazine, Bz 2Pip = N, N'-dibenzylpiperazine, Ph 2CHPip = N-(diphenylmethyl)piperazine, and HMTA = hexamethylenetetramine). New X-ray structures are reported for 1b, 2, 3b, 4, 5, 6a, 6d, 7, 8b, 9b, and 9c. An important structural theme is the formation of (6,3) (CuCN) 2(piperazine) sheets with or without threading of independent CuCN chains. Strong luminescence at ambient temperature is observed for all but complexes 6 and 7. All luminescent compounds show a broad emission band in the blue region at about 450 nm attributable to metal-to-ligand charge transfer behavior based on the large Stokes shift between excitation and emission maxima. 3, 8, and 9 are thermochromic due to an additional lower energy emission band, which is absent at 77 K.

  1. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Javier; Moyer, Crystal L; Whitby, Landon R; Boger, Dale L; Nemerow, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    The number of disseminated adenovirus (Ad) infections continues to increase mostly due to the growing use of immunosuppressive treatments. Recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, mainly in pediatric units, exhibit a high morbidity and mortality due to these infections. Unfortunately, there are no Ad-specific antiviral drugs currently approved for medical use. To address this situation, we used high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic small molecule libraries to identify compounds that restrict Ad infection. Among the more than 25,000 compounds screened, we identified a hit compound that significantly inhibited Ad infection. The compound (15D8) is a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative that showed substantial antiviral activity with little or no cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Compound 15D8 selectively inhibits Ad DNA replication in the nucleus, providing a potential candidate for the development of a new class of antiviral compounds to treat Ad infections.

  2. Inhibition of adenovirus replication by a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Cespedes, Javier; Moyer, Crystal L.; Whitby, Landon R.; Boger, Dale L.; Nemerow, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The number of disseminated adenovirus (Ad) infections continues to increase mostly due to the growing use of immunosuppressive treatments. Recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, mainly in pediatric units, exhibit a high morbidity and mortality due to these infections. Unfortunately, there are no Ad-specific antiviral drugs currently approved for medical use. To address this situation, we used high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic small molecule libraries to identify compounds that restrict Ad infection. Among the more than 25,000 compounds screened, we identified a hit compound that significantly inhibited Ad infection. The compound (15D8) is a trisubstituted piperazin-2-one derivative that showed substantial antiviral activity with little or no cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations. Compound 15D8 selectively inhibits Ad DNA replication in the nucleus, providing a potential candidate for the development of a new class of antiviral compounds to treat Ad infections. PMID:24907427

  3. Design, synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of novel pleuromutilin derivatives possessing piperazine linker.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mei-Ling; Zeng, Jie; Fang, Xi; Luo, Jian; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Ya-Hong; Tang, You-Zhi

    2017-02-15

    A series of pleuromutilin derivatives bearing piperazine ring have been reported. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the synthetic derivatives against MRSA (ATCC 43300), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC35667) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were evaluated by the broth dilution method. Most of the synthesized derivatives displayed potent activities. Compounds 11c, 12a and 12c were found to be the most active antibacterial derivatives against MRSA (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.015 μg/mL). The binding of compounds 11c, 12a and 12c to the 50s ribosome were investigated by molecular modeling. Compound 11c possessed lower binding free energy compared with compounds 12a and 12c. Compound 11c was further evaluated in MRSA systemic infection model and displayed superior in vivo efficacy to that of tiamulin.

  4. Solubility of carbon dioxide in an aqueous blend of diethanolamine and piperazine

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, M.K.

    2009-09-15

    The solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of diethanolamine (DEA) and piperazine (PZ), from mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, was measured for temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressures ranging from (303.14 to 353.14) K and (10.133 to 20.265) kPa, respectively. Measurements were made by a saturation method using a laboratory scale bubble column. The results of CO{sub 2} solubility in liquid are expressed as {alpha}(CO{sub 2}) (mol CO{sub 2}/mol amine) for all experimental runs. A solubility model is developed to correlate and predict the solubility data of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of DEA and PZ. There is all acceptable degree of agreement between the experimental data of the present study and predictions of the solubility model with an average absolute deviation of less than 4.5%.

  5. First-principles assessment of CO2 capture mechanisms in aqueous piperazine solution.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Haley M; Paek, Eunsu; Hwang, Gyeong S

    2016-09-14

    Piperazine (PZ) and its blends have emerged as attractive solvents for CO2 capture, but the underlying reaction mechanisms still remain uncertain. Our study particularly focuses on assessing the relative roles of PZCOO(-) and PZH(+) produced from the PZ + CO2 reaction. PZCOO(-) is found to directly react with CO2 forming COO(-)PZCOO(-), whereas PZH(+) will not. However, COO(-)PZCOO(-) appears very unlikely to be produced in thermodynamic equilibrium with monocarbamates, suggesting that its existence would predominantly originate from the surface reaction that likely occurs. We also find production of H(+)PZCOO(-) to be more probable with increasing CO2 loading, due partly to the thermodynamic favorability of the PZH(+) + PZCOO(-) → H(+)PZCOO(-) + PZ reaction; the facile PZ liberation may contribute to its relatively high CO2 absorption rate. This study highlights an accurate description of surface reaction and the solvent composition effect is critical in thermodynamic and kinetic models for predicting the CO2 capture processes.

  6. Efficacy of fenbendazole and piperazine against developing stages of toxocara and toxascaris in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M A; Jacobs, D E; Hutchinson, M J; Abbott, E M

    1993-05-08

    In a series of controlled trials involving 59 naturally infected greyhounds, fenbendazole at a dose rate of 50 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days reduced the overall numbers of third and fourth stage Toxocara canis by 94.0 per cent and third stage, fourth stage and immature adult stages of Toxascaris leonina by 92.4 per cent. In contrast, piperazine at 100 mg/kg had little or no useful effect against the larval stages of T canis and T leonina and variable efficacy against immature adult T leonina. Fenbendazole was also 100 per cent effective against immature Trichuris vulpis. In a separate controlled experiment, puppies in three litters exposed to reinfection with T canis were treated with fenbendazole at two weeks old and again only after their mean faecal egg counts exceeded 200 epg. Between one and three doses were required to suppress the output of eggs during the puppies' first 12 weeks of life.

  7. LC-MS/MS screening method for designer amphetamines, tryptamines, and piperazines in serum.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2010-04-01

    Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, derivatives of well-known designer drugs as well as new psychoactive compounds have been sold on the illicit drug market and have led to intoxications and fatalities. The LC-MS/MS screening method presented covers 31 new designer drugs as well as cathinone, methcathinone, phencyclidine, and ketamine which were included to complete the screening spectrum. All but the last two are modified molecular structures of amphetamine, tryptamine, or piperazine. Among the amphetamine derivatives are cathinone, methcathinone, 3,4-DMA, 2,5-DMA, DOB, DOET, DOM, ethylamphetamine, MDDMA, 4-MTA, PMA, PMMA, 3,4,5-TMA, TMA-6 and members of the 2C group: 2C-B, 2C-D, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, and 2C-T-7. AMT, DPT, DiPT, MiPT, DMT, and 5MeO-DMT are contained in the tryptamine group, BZP, MDBP, TFMPP, mCPP, and MeOPP in the piperazine group. Using an Applied Biosystems LC-MS/MS API 365 TurboIonSpray it is possible to identify all 35 substances. After addition of internal standards and mixed-mode solid-phase extraction the analytes are separated using a Synergi Polar RP column and gradient elution with 1 mM ammonium formate and methanol/0.1% formic acid as mobile phases A and B. Data acquisition is performed in MRM mode with positive electro spray ionization. The assay is selective for all tested substances. Limits of detection were determined by analyzing S/N-ratios and are between 1.0 and 5.0 ng/mL. Matrix effects lie between 65% and 118%, extraction efficiencies range from 72% to 90%.

  8. Piperazine as counter ion for insulin-enhancing anions [VO2(dipic-OH)]-: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Graiff, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The new complex [H2Pipz][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·2H2O (1), where H2dipic-OH = 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and Pipz = piperazine, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal system is triclinic with space group Pī. In this compound, piperazine is diprotonated and acts as counter ion.

  9. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of some 1-aryl/aralkyl piperazine derivatives with xanthine moiety at N4

    PubMed Central

    Andonova, Lily; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Georgieva, Maya; Zlatkov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Piperazine nucleus is one of the most important heterocyclic systems exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities. Thus, in the current study six new aryl/aralkyl substituted piperazine derivatives, containing methylxanthine moiety were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR and 1H NMR analysis. All compounds were in vitro screened for their activity as antioxidants using DPPH (2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo thiazine-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) methods. The antioxidant activity of the studied compounds against lipid peroxidation was also measured. The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by compound 3c. It is obvious that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the structure is essential for the antioxidant properties and should be taken into consideration in further design of structures with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:26019603

  10. Vibrational spectra, normal coordinate treatment and simulation of the vibrational spectra of piperazine glyoxime and its Co(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özpozan, T.; Küçükusta, D.; Büyükmumcu, Z.

    2003-12-01

    Newly synthesized Co(III) complexes of piperazine glyoxime (PGO) are examined from the vibrational spectroscopy point of view. A complete interpretation of the vibrational spectra of both the ligand and the complex has been carried out on the basis of normal coordinate analysis. A valence force field has been developed for both of the compounds. The vibrational spectra of the compounds are simulated by a visual basic program prepared to run on an MS Excel data sheet.

  11. Substituted piperazines as nootropic agents: 2- or 3-phenyl derivatives structurally related to the cognition-enhancer DM235.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Luca; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Melani, Fabrizio; Malik, Ruchi; Dei, Silvia; Floriddia, Elisa; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2015-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl- or 3-phenyl piperazines, structurally related to DM235 and DM232, two potent nootropic agents, have been prepared and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test, to assess their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia. Although the newly synthesized molecules were less potent than the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained from structure-activity relationships. A small but significant enantioselectivity has been found for the most potent compound 5a.

  12. Design, solid-phase synthesis, and evaluation of a phenyl-piperazine-triazine scaffold as α-helix mimetics.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heejo; Lee, Woo Sirl; Oh, Misook; Lee, Huisun; Lee, Ji Hoon; Im, Wonpil; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2014-12-08

    α-Helices play a critical role in mediating many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as recognition motifs. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in developing small molecules that can mimic helical peptide segments to modulate α-helix-mediated PPIs. Due to the relatively low aqueous solubility and synthetic difficulty of most current α-helix mimetic small molecules, one important goal in this area is to develop small molecules with favorable physicochemical properties and ease of synthesis. Here we designed phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics that possess improved water solubility and excellent synthetic accessibility. We developed a facile solid-phase synthetic route that allows for rapid creation of a large, diverse combinatorial library of α-helix mimetics. Further, we identified a selective inhibitor of the Mcl-1/BH3 interaction by screening a focused library of phenyl-piperazine-triazines, demonstrating that the scaffold is able to serve as functional mimetics of α-helical peptides. We believe that our phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics, along with the facile and divergent solid-phase synthetic method, have great potential as powerful tools for discovering potent inhibitors of given α-helix-mediated PPIs.

  13. Efficacy and safety of Linkus, Aminophylline diphenhydramine and acefyllin piperazine for the treatment of cough in children.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hina; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Linkus, Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine group and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine cough syrup on children having cough and sleep difficulty associated with cough. To determine the effects of Linkus polyherbal syrup (group A) and compared with other parallel allopathic groups (Group B and C) for cough on children and associated sleep quality and improvement. 360 children having cough inducted in 3 different groups randomly selected. Three parallel groups were the part of the study. The first study group was the herbal syrup Linkus, second group of children were taking a syrup of multinational pharmaceutical industry having Aminophylline plus Diphenhydramine however the third group received another famous brand having Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine. Informed assent and informed consent have taken from the study subjects and their parents. Subjects with acute cough were included in the study however the subjects with chronic cough considered to be excluded. Every group of individual in the study was informed about the investigational drugs provided. Ethnic groups, frequency of cough and diseases illness (<0.05) were determine on every group on the investigational syrup. Cough impact on child and its sleep of three different syrups (every group) were assessed on day1 and day 14(p<0.001) via a likert scale. For the evaluation of pain assessment Wong baker face scale were used and level of significance in each group (p<0.001). Significant results were observed in the Linkus Group as compared to the other parallel groups including Aminophylline plus Diphenhydramine and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine on day 14 (p<0.001). Side effects on group B and group C (Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine) were almost similar in number however Linkus syrup has minimum side effects on study duration. Polyherbal syrup Linkus shows better results in treatment of cough

  14. Design, synthesis, and AChE inhibitory activity of new benzothiazole-piperazines.

    PubMed

    Demir Özkay, Ümide; Can, Özgür Devrim; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; Acar Çevik, Ulviye; Levent, Serkan; Özkay, Yusuf; Ilgın, Sinem; Atlı, Özlem

    2016-11-15

    In the current study, 14 new benzothiazole-piperazine compounds were designed to meet the structural requirements of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors. The target compounds were synthesised in three steps. Structures of the newly synthesised compounds (7-20) were confirmed using IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and HRMS methods. The inhibitory potential of the compounds on AChE (E.C.3.1.1.7, from electric eel) was then investigated. Among the compounds, 19 and 20 showed very good activity on AChE enzyme. Kinetics studies were performed to observe the effects of the most active compounds on the substrate-enzyme relationship. Cytotoxicity studies, genotoxicity studies, and theoretical calculation of pharmacokinetics properties were also carried out. The compounds 19 and 20 were found to be nontoxic in both of the toxicity assays. A good pharmacokinetics profile was predicted for the synthesised compounds. Molecular docking studies were performed for the most active compounds, 19 and 20, and interaction modes with enzyme active sites were determined. Docking studies indicated a strong interaction between the active sites of AChE enzyme and the analysed compounds.

  15. Mechanism of action of novel piperazine containing a toxicant against human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, MS; Haerian, Batoul Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potential of a novel piperazine derivative (PCC) against human liver cancer cells. SNU-475 and 423 human liver cancer cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on liver cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 µM and 7.76 ± 0.45 µM against SNU-475 and SNU-423 respectively after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of this study suggest that PCC is a potent anti-cancer agent inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27019772

  16. Novel piperazine core compound induces death in human liver cancer cells: possible pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Nima; Muniandy, Sekaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Raja Azudin, Raja Elina

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel piperazine derivate designated as PCC against human liver cancer cells. In this context, human liver cancer cell lines, SNU-475 and 243, human monocyte/macrophage cell line, CRL-9855, and human B lymphocyte cell line, CCL-156, were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on SNU-475 and SNU-423 cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 μg/ml and 7.76 ± 0.45 μg/ml respectively, after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-ƙB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. This study suggests that PCC is a simultaneous inducer of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27072064

  17. Exploration of novel piperazine or piperidine constructed non-covalent peptidyl derivatives as proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Rangxiao; Gao, Lixin; Lv, Xiaoqing; Xi, Jianjun; Sheng, Li; Zhao, Yanmei; He, Ruoyu; Hu, Xiaobei; Shao, Yidan; Pan, Xuwang; Liu, Shourong; Huang, Weiwei; Zhou, Yubo; Li, Jia; Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-01-27

    A series of novel piperazine or piperidine-containing non-covalent peptidyl derivatives possessing a neopentyl-asparagine residue were designed, synthesized and evaluated as proteasome inhibitors. All target compounds were screened for their 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like inhibitory activities, and 15 ones displayed more potent activities than carfilzomib with IC50 values lower than 10 nM. Subsequently, the most potent 10 analogues were tested for their cytotoxic activities against two multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines RPMI-8226 and MM-1S. Based on these experiments, selected derivatives were further evaluated for their ex vivo and in vivo blood cell proteasome inhibitory activities. The most potential compound 35 (proteasome inhibition IC50: 1.2 ± 0.1 nM) with potent anti-proliferation (IC50: RPMI-8226 8.4 ± 0.8 nM; MM-1S: 6.3 ± 0.8 nM), ex vivo and in vivo activities also had a prolonged half life in plasma, which demonstrated that the enzymatic stabilities of this series of compounds have been improved by constructing a six-membered ring into the peptide skeleton. All the experiments confirmed the correctness of design concept, which made this series of compounds potential leads for exploring new anti-MM drugs.

  18. Corrosion in CO{sub 2} capture process using blended monoethanolamine and piperazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nainar, M.; Veawab, A.

    2009-10-15

    This work explores the promise of aqueous solutions of blended monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ) as a cost-effective solvent for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, from industrial flue gas streams with respect to corrosion, which is regarded as one of the, most severe operational problems in typical CO{sub 2} capture plants. Electrochemical corrosion experiments were carried out using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for corrosion measurements. The results show that the blended MEA/PZ solutions are more corrosive than the MEA solutions. The corrosion rate of carbon steel increases with concentration of PZ, total amine concentration, CO{sub 2} loading of solution, solution temperature, and the presence of heat stable salts. Among the tested heat-stable salts, formate is the most corrosive salt, followed by acetate, oxalate, and thiosulfate in the absence of oxygen (O{sub 2}), while acetate is the most corrosive salt followed by formate, oxalate, and thiosulfate in the presence of O{sub 2}.

  19. Quantitative determination of some pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives through complexation with iron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Abou-Attia, F M; Issa, Y M; Abdel-Gawad, F M; Abdel-Hamid, S M

    2003-08-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of three pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives, namely ketoconazole (KC), trimetazidine hydrochloride (TMH) and piribedil (PD). This method is based on the formation of yellow orange complexes between iron(III) chloride and the investigated drugs. The optimum reaction conditions, spectral characteristics, conditional stability constants and composition of the water soluble complexes have been established. The method permits the determination of KC, TMH and PD over a concentration range 1-15, 1-12 and 1-12 microg ml(-1), respectively. Sandell sensitivity is found to be 0.016, 0.013 and 0.013 microg cm(-2) for KC, TMH and PD, respectively. The method was sensitive, simple, reproducible and accurate within +/-1.5%. The method is applicable to the assay of the three drugs under investigation in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official methods (USP and JP).

  20. Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Spiropyrrolizidines and Piperazines through Azomethine Ylide Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Saoussen; Boudriga, Sarra; Porzio, François; Soldera, Armand; Askri, Moheddine; Knorr, Michael; Rousselin, Yoann; Kubicki, Marek M; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten

    2015-09-18

    A series of original spiropyrrolizidine derivatives has been prepared by a one-pot three-component [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of (E)-3-arylidene-1-phenyl-pyrrolidine-2,5-diones, l-proline, and the cyclic ketones 1H-indole-2,3-dione (isatin), indenoquinoxaline-11-one and acenaphthenequinone. We disclose an unprecedented isomerization of some spiroadducts leading to a new family of spirooxindolepyrrolizidines. Furthermore, these cycloadducts underwent retro-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition yielding unexpected regioisomers. Upon treatment of the dipolarophiles with in situ generated azomethine ylides from l-proline or acenaphthenequinone, formation of spiroadducts and unusual polycyclic fused piperazines through a stepwise [3 + 3] cycloaddition pathway is observed. The stereochemistry of these N-heterocycles has been confirmed by several X-ray diffraction studies. Some of these compounds exhibit extensive hydrogen bonding in the crystalline state. To enlighten the observed regio- and stereoselectivity of the [3 + 2] cycloaddition, calculations using the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level were carried out. It was found that this reaction is under kinetic control.

  1. Hierarchical clustering analysis of flexible GBR 12909 dialkyl piperazine and piperidine analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Venanzi, Carol A.

    2006-04-01

    Pharmacophore modeling of large, drug-like molecules, such as the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR 12909, is complicated by their flexibility. A comprehensive hierarchical clustering study of two GBR 12909 analogs was performed to identify representative conformers for input to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of closely-related analogs. Two data sets of more than 700 conformers each produced by random search conformational analysis of a piperazine and a piperidine GBR 12909 analog were studied. Several clustering studies were carried out based on different feature sets that include the important pharmacophore elements. The distance maps, the plot of the effective number of clusters versus actual number of clusters, and the novel derived clustering statistic, percentage change in the effective number of clusters, were shown to be useful in determining the appropriate clustering level. Six clusters were chosen for each analog, each representing a different region of the torsional angle space that determines the relative orientation of the pharmacophore elements. Conformers of each cluster that are representative of these regions were identified and compared for each analog. This study illustrates the utility of using hierarchical clustering for the classification of conformers of highly flexible molecules in terms of the three-dimensional spatial orientation of key pharmacophore elements.

  2. Decomposition of nitrosamines in CO2 capture by aqueous piperazine or monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Fine, Nathan A; Nielsen, Paul T; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-05-20

    Amine scrubbing is an efficient method for carbon capture and sequestration, but secondary amines present in all amine solvents can form carcinogenic nitrosamines. Decomposition kinetics for n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ), nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), and nitroso-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (NHeGly) were measured over a range of temperature, base concentration, base strength, and CO2 loading pertinent to amine scrubbing. MNPZ and NDELA decomposition is first order in the nitrosamine, half order in base concentration, and base-catalyzed with a Brønsted slope of β = 0.5. The activation energy is 94, 106, and 112 kJ/mol for MNPZ, NDELA, and NHeGly, respectively. MNPZ readily decomposes at 150 °C in 5 M piperazine, making thermal decomposition an important mechanism for MNPZ control. However, NHeGly and NDELA are too stable at 120 °C in 7 M monoethanolamine (MEA) for thermal decomposition to be important. Base treatment during reclaiming could rapidly and selectively decompose NHeGly and NDELA to mitigate nitrosamine accumulation in MEA.

  3. Novel benzothiazine-piperazine derivatives by peptide-coupling as potential anti-proliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Ramineni; Kasaboina, Suresh; Bidayat, Deepthi; Nikhil Kumar, U; Jain, Nishant; Tangeda, Saritha Jostna; Bantu, Rajashaker; Janardhan, Sridhara; Nagarapu, Lingaiah

    2017-01-15

    In an attempt to develop potential and selective anti-proliferative agents, a series of novel benzothiazine-piperazine derivatives 8a-i and 10a-g were synthesized by coupling of 2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3(4H)-one with various amines 7a-i and 9a-g in excellent yields and evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activity against four cancer cell lines, HeLa (cervical), MIAPACA (pancreatic), MDA-MB-231 (breast) and IMR32 (neuroblastoma). In vitro inhibitory activity indicated that compounds 8a, 8d, 8g, 10a, 10b, 10e, 10f were found to be good anti-proliferative agents. Among them the derivatives 8g, 10e and 10f were found to be the most active members exhibiting remarkable growth inhibitory activity. Molecular docking was undertaken to investigate the probable binding mode and key active site interactions in HDAC8 and EHMT2 proteins. The docking results are complementary to the experimental results.

  4. Quantum chemical studies on solvents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture: calculation of pKa and carbamate stability of disubstituted piperazines.

    PubMed

    Gangarapu, Satesh; Wierda, Gerben J; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

    2014-06-23

    Piperazine is a widely studied solvent for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. To investigate the possibilities of further improving this process, the electronic and steric effects of -CH(3), -CH(2)F, -CH(2)OH, -CH(2)NH(2), -COCH3 , and -CN groups of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines on the pKa and carbamate stability towards hydrolysis are investigated by quantum chemical methods. For the calculations, B3LYP, M11L, and spin-component-scaled MP2 (SCS-MP2) methods are used and coupled with the SMD solvation model. The experimental pK(a) values of piperazine, 2-methylpiperazine, and 2,5-dimethylpiperazine agree well with the calculated values. The present study indicates that substitution of -CH(3), -CH(2) NH(2), and -CH(2) OH groups on the 2- and 5-positions of piperazine has a positive impact on the CO(2) absorption capacity by reducing the carbamate stability towards hydrolysis. Furthermore, their higher boiling points, relative to piperazine itself, will lead to a reduction of volatility-related losses.

  5. Pilot plant studies of the CO{sub 2} capture performance of aqueous MEA and mixed MEA/MDEA solvents at the University of Regina CO{sub 2} capture technology development plant and the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} capture demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Idem, R.; Wilson, M.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Veawab, A.; Aroonwilas, A.; Gelowitz, D.

    2006-04-12

    Evaluations of the benefits of using a mixed MEA/MDEA solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in terms of the heat requirement for solvent regeneration, lean and rich loadings, CO{sub 2} production, and solvent stability were performed by comparing the performance of aqueous 5 kmol/m{sup 3} MEA with that of an aqueous 4:1 molar ratio MEA/MDEA blend of 5 kmol/ml total amine concentration as a function of the operating time. The tests were performed using two pilot CO{sub 2} capture plants of the International Test Centre for CO{sub 2} Capture (ITC), which provided two different sources and compositions of flue gas. The University of Regina CO{sub 2} plant (UR unit) processes flue gas from the combustion of natural gas while the Boundary Dam CO{sub 2} plant (BD unit) processes flue gas from a coal-fired electric power station. The results show that a huge heat-duty reduction can be achieved by using a mixed MEA/MDEA solution instead of a single MEA solution in an industrial environment of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. However, this benefit is dependent on whether the chemical stability of the solvent can be maintained.

  6. Selectively N-protected enantiopure 2,5-disubstituted piperazines: avoiding the pitfalls in solid-phase Fukuyama-Mitsunobu cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Lars K; Olsen, Christian A; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Franzyk, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An efficient solid-phase route to ring-substituted piperazines from O-linked resin-bound (S)-aziridine-2-methanol is described. Regioselective microwave-assisted aminolysis followed by intramolecular Fukuyama-Mitsunobu cyclization constitute the key features of the protocol. Simple piperazines and diazepanes were readily obtained without preceding N-protection of the acyclic intermediate, whereas attempts to extend this protocol to chiral 2,5-disubstituted piperazines failed. Modifications encompassing N-carbamoylation prior to ring-closure were therefore investigated. However, standard carbamoylating agents, for example, Fmoc-Cl and Alloc-Cl tended to give bis-protected by-products. Thus, novel microwave-assisted solid-phase N-protection procedures were developed for efficient introduction of Fmoc, Boc and Alloc groups. The subsequent cyclization proceeded in moderate to excellent yields depending on the bulk of the side chain and type of N-protecting group. This protocol readily provided novel cis- and trans-2,5-disubstituted piperazines displaying a variety of N-protecting group patterns after further on-resin manipulations. Also, unexpected by-products obtained during these optimization studies were identified and characterized. This includes nosylated ureas arising from an alternative cyclization pathway. Finally, post-cleavage oxidation gave access to the Fmoc/Boc-protected alpha-amino acid as well as the corresponding aldehyde. The chiral piperazines described in this work will enable construction of combinatorial libraries with a higher chemical diversity compared to those containing simple N,N'-difunctionalized piperazines, often present in drug-like compounds.

  7. Control of water molecule aggregations in copper 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate coordination polymers containing pyridyl-piperazine type ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiblawi, Sultan H.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    A series of layered divalent copper coordination polymers containing 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and long-spanning pyridyl-piperazine type ligands exhibits greatly different co-crystallized water molecule aggregations depending on the specific ligands used. Both [Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpmp)]n (1, t-14cdc = trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, 4-bpmp = bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) and {[Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpfp)(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (2, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) possess 2D (4,4) coordination polymer grids. However 1 lacks any co-crystallized water and has pinched grid apertures, while 2 manifests infinite water tapes with T6(2)4(2) classification and rectangular grid apertures. {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpmp)]·2H2O}n (3, c-14cdc = cis-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) has [Cu2(c-14cdc)]2 ribbons with paddlewheel dimeric units linked into 2D slabs by 4-bpmp tethers, along with isolated water molecule pairs. In contrast, {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpfp)]·10H2O}n (4) shows a very similar underlying coordination polymer topology but entrains unique decameric water molecule clusters. The minor product {[Cu2(c-14cdcH)2(t-1,4-cdc)(4-bpfp)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n (5) was isolated along with 4; this compound underwent some in situ cis to trans cyclohexane-dicarboxylate ligand isomerization and exhibits a ladder polymer motif.

  8. N-substituted piperazines abused by humans mimic the molecular mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or 'Ecstasy').

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H; Clark, Robert D; Budzynski, Allison G; Partilla, John S; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B

    2005-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or 'Ecstasy') is an illicit drug that stimulates the release of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) from neurons. Recent evidence reveals that drug users are ingesting piperazine analogs, like 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP, or 'A2') and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP, or 'Molly'), to mimic psychoactive effects of MDMA. In the present study, we compared the neurochemistry of MDMA, BZP, and TFMPP in rats. The effects of MDMA, BZP, and TFMPP on transporter-mediated efflux of [3H]5-HT and [3H]MPP+ (DA transporter substrate) were determined in synaptosomes. The effects of drugs on extracellular levels of 5-HT and DA were examined using in vivo microdialysis in conscious rats. MDMA evoked transporter-mediated release of [3H]5-HT and [3H]MPP+. BZP released [3H]MPP+, whereas TFMPP was a selective releaser of [3H]5-HT. MDMA (1-3 mg/kg, i.v.) increased dialysate 5-HT and DA in a dose-related fashion, with actions on 5-HT being predominant. BZP (3-10 mg/kg, i.v.) elevated dialysate DA and 5-HT, while TFMPP (3-10 mg/kg, i.v.) elevated 5-HT. Administration of BZP plus TFMPP at a 1:1 ratio (BZP/TFMPP) produced parallel increases in dialysate 5-HT and DA; a 3 mg/kg dose of BZP/TFMPP mirrored the effects of MDMA. At a 10 mg/kg dose, BZP/TFMPP increased dialysate DA more than the summed effects of each drug alone, and some rats developed seizures. Our results show that BZP/TFMPP and MDMA share the ability to evoke monoamine release, but dangerous drug-drug synergism may occur when piperazines are coadministered at high doses.

  9. Discovery of novel lead in the group of N-substituted piperazine ether derivatives with potential histamine H3 receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Kuder, Kamil J; Stachnik, Marta; Schunack, Walter; Szymańska, Ewa; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The search for novel lead from the group of various substituted N-piperazine ether derivatives was performed. Acyl- and pyridylpiperazine ethyl/propyl ethers were obtained via three different synthetic pathways. Affinity to histamine H3 receptor was established, as well as, for selected compounds, selectivity towards histamine H4R. Docking studies to the histamine H3R homology model strengthened the position of (4-(3-(4-(3-chlorobenzoyl)piperazin-1- yl)propoxy)phenyl)(cyclopropyl)methanone (compound 26) as a novel lead for further studies on histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist.

  10. Study of sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) from basic hydrolysis of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela, José; Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Cao-Milán, Roberto; Herrera, José A.; Díaz, Jesús A.; Farías, Mario H.; Mikosch, Hans; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2015-08-01

    Sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) were obtained after the interaction of a gold substrate with an alkaline solution of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt. Characterization of the sulfur modified gold surface was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. XPS signals indicated the presence of S-Au bonds, monomeric and polymeric sulfur, and absence of nitrogen and sodium. Images from STM showed the formation of quasi-rectangular octomers in coexistence with another phase. A DFT model using the arrangement of sulfur dimers on the Au(1 1 1) surface effectively reproduced the experimental STM images.

  11. Piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Jani; Kuusisto, Anne; van Bruchem, John; Patel, Jayendra Z; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Savinainen, Juha R; Parkkari, Teija; Nevalainen, Tapio J

    2014-12-01

    The key hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), are potential targets for various therapeutic applications. In this paper, we present more extensively the results of our previous work on piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as FAAH and MAGL inhibitors. The best compounds of these series function as potent and selective MAGL/FAAH inhibitors or as dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations. This study revealed that MAGL inhibitors should comprise leaving-groups with a conjugate acid pKa of 8-10, while diverse leaving groups are tolerated for FAAH inhibitors.

  12. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  13. Anti-hypertensive property of a nickel-piperazine/NO donor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martina; Ciccone, Valerio; Pacini, Aurora; Roggeri, Riccardo; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-05-01

    The nickel-piperazine/NO donor compound, Ni(PipNONO)Cl, belonging to the family of compounds labelled as "metal-nonoates", due to its promising vasodilating activity, has been considered as a potential drug candidate in anti-hypertensive therapy. Drug efficacy has been evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in comparison with normotensive animals (C57BL/6 mice and WKY rats). In normotensive animals the metal-nonoate maintained blood pressure at basal level both following acute administration and after 30 days of treatment. In SHR, Ni(PipNONO)Cl reduced blood pressure in the dose range of 3-10mg/kg. When compared with a commercial NONOate, DETA/NO, used at the same doses, Ni(PipNONO)Cl was more active in reducing blood pressure in SHR than DETA/NO in the first two weeks, while the effect of the two molecules was similar in the third and fourth week. The degradation and control compound Ni(Pip)Cl2 had no effect on blood pressure and heart rate in same animal models. Remarkably, the blood pressure reduction induced by the new NO-donor Ni(PipNONO)Cl does not evoke changes in the heart rate and tolerance. Considering the mechanisms of vascular protection, 30 days of administration of Ni(PipNONO)Cl improved endothelial function in SHR by upregulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) through increased eNOS protein levels and downregulated Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), and by increasing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein level in aortae. In cultured endothelial cells Ni(PipNONO)Cl restored the cell functions (cytoskeletal protein expression, migration and proliferation) altered by the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β), impairing the endothelial to mesenchimal transition. In conclusion, Ni(PipNONO)Cl maintained unaltered blood pressure in normotensive mice and rats, and it exerted anti-hypertensive effect in SHR through the restoration of vascular endothelial protective functions.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of two organic cation hydrogensulfates: 1-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis(hydrogensulfate) monohydrate (SI) and 1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis(hydrogensulfate) (SII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbi, M.; Khedhiri, L.; Wojtaś, M.; Jeanneau, E.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of 1-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)piperazine and 1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)piperazine with H2SO4 in 2:1 molar ratio at RT affords the corresponding sulfate salts [C12H20N2][HSO4]2·H2O (SI) and [C12H20N2][HSO4]2 (SII). These compounds have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and spectroscopic investigations (IR and NMR). In the atomic arrangement of (SI) the HSO4- anions are associated by pairs linked to the water molecules forming corrugated ribbons, while in the (SII) structure, the pairs of the HSO4- anions form corrugated chains. Solid-state 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. NMR peaks were attributed with the aid of DFT calculations. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined.

  15. Carbon capture and sequestration: an exploratory inhalation toxicity assessment of amine-trapping solvents and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Garner, C Edwin; Wegerski, Chris; Senft, Al; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Rohr, Annette

    2014-09-16

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption with aqueous amine solvents is a method of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from flue gases. One concern is the possible release of amine solvents and degradation products into the atmosphere, warranting evaluation of potential pulmonary effects from inhalation. The CCS amines monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP) underwent oxidative and CO2-mediated degradation for 75 days. C57bl/6N mice were exposed for 7 days by inhalation of 25 ppm neat amine or equivalant concentration in the degraded mixture. The aqueous solutions were nebulized to create the inhalation atmospheres. Pulmonary response was measured by changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine expression in lung tissue. Ames mutagenicity and CHO-K1 micronucleus assays were applied to assess genotoxicity. Chemical analysis of the test atmosphere and liquid revealed complex mixtures, including acids, aldehydes, and other compounds. Exposure to oxidatively degraded MEA increased (p < 0.05) total cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes compared to control mice and caused inflammatory cytokine expression (statistical increase at p < 0.05). MEA and CO2-degraded MEA were the only atmospheres to show statistical (p < 0.05) increase in oxidative stress. CO2 degradation resulted in a different composition, less degradation, and lower observed toxicity (less magnitude and number of effects) with no genotoxicity. Overall, oxidative degradation of the amines studied resulted in enhanced toxicity (increased magnitude and number of effects) compared to the neat chemicals.

  16. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-04-27

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  17. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-11-15

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  18. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-05-23

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  19. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  20. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}- alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  1. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-05-29

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  2. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2007-03-31

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}- alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  3. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-01

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand.

  4. Fire self-extinguishing cotton fabric: development of piperazine derivatives containing phosphorous-sulfur-nitrogen and their flame retardant and thermal behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown interest in flame retardants containing phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur a combination small molecule with a promising new approach in preparing an important class of flame retardant materials. Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) and O,O,O',O'-tetramethyl pip...

  5. Group 12 metal complexes of (2-piperazine-1-yl-ethyl)-pyridin-2-yl-methylene-amine: rare participation of terminal piperazine N in coordination leads to structural diversity.

    PubMed

    Purkait, Suranjana; Aullón, Gabriel; Zangrando, Ennio; Chakraborty, Prateeti

    2017-02-14

    By using a potential tridentate ligand L ((2-piperazine-1-yl-ethyl)-pyridin-2-yl-methylene-amine), a series of group 12 metal complexes namely, [ZnLHCl2][Zn2LCl5]·2H2O (1), [CdL(SCN)2(CH3OH)]n (2), and [Hg(l-pyCO)Cl2] (3), were synthesized and structurally characterized. In all the complexes the piperazine nitrogen of the ligand takes part in coordination and leads to the complexes of group 12 metal ions having structural diversity. The X-ray diffraction analysis of complex 1 indicates for one Zn(ii) ion a geometry in between trigonal bipyramidal/square pyramidal and for the second a distorted tetrahedral sphere. In the polymeric complex 2 the Cd(ii) ion shows a distorted octahedral environment, while in the mononuclear complex 3, where Hg(ii) exhibits a square-pyramidal geometry, an unexpected condensation between the uncoordinated NH piperazine fragment with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde was detected. The M-N bond lengths in all the complexes are in accordance with the metal ionic radius. Continuous shape measures through a DFT approach provide the coordination environment around each metal centre that is comparable with the experimental observations. We have also investigated the importance of hydrogen bonding of methanol in the generation of the polymeric Cd complex 2 along with the rearrangement of the tridentate ligand to generate an octahedral complex. The photoluminescence properties of the complexes as well as of the ligand were investigated in solution at ambient temperature. The low quantum yield of the ligand was ascribed due to a very fast photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the nitrogen lone pair to the conjugated pyridine moiety. Complexation prevents the electron transfer, and consequently an increase in quantum yield was observed in the complexes. Among the three complexes the highest photoluminescence was exhibited by a Zn complex, being lower in Cd and Hg complexes as a consequence of the heavy atom perturbation effect.

  6. Acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines. Annual report, January-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sandall, O.C.; Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the simulateneous absorption or desorption of CO2 and H2S into and from a mixed aqueous amine solvent consisting of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). In work completed this year the authors have measured the density, viscosity and surface tension of pure MDEA and DEA over a range in temperatures. The diffusivity of N2O was measured in aqueous blends of MDEA and DEA at 50 wt% total amine for various ratios of DEA to MDEA over the temperature range 20 to 80 deg. C. A theoretically-based model has been developed for the correlation of the physical solubility of N2O in aqueous amine solutions. A penetration theory type model which was developed to describe acid gas absorption in aqueous amine solutions was used to carry out a sensitivity analysis for the various parameters affecting the rate of absorption of CO2 in MDEA solutions.

  7. Preferences of rhodamine coupled (aminoalkyl)-piperazine probes towards Hg(II) ion and their FRET mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Biswonath; Bag, Bamaprasad

    2013-08-14

    The metal ion induced absorption and emission signaling pattern of rhodamine coupled bis-(aminopropyl)-piperazine (1-3) and (aminoethyl)-piperazine (4) based probes evaluated in MeCN as well as in an MeCN-H2O binary mixture medium revealed that these probes exhibit optical signaling perturbations to a varying extent in MeCN, however, their complexation induced signaling could be tuned selectively towards Hg(II) in the presence of an aqueous component in the solvent medium where competitive interactions such as metal-probe interactions and hydration of metal ions play the determining factor to induce aqueous promoted Hg(II) selectivity. Attachment of another fluorophore (anthracene and nitrobenzofurazan moieties in 2 and 3 respectively) at the other end of the rhodamine coupled bis-(aminopropyl)-piperazine receptor enabled these probes to facilitate a complexation induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the excited fluorophore to the ring-opened rhodamine along with contributions through operative PET inhibition and rhodamine delactonization processes. The enhancement in absorption transition of these probes at ~557 nm upon selective Hg(II)-complexation and consequent colourless to pink colour change in the solution imply a chromogenic signaling pattern whereas simultaneous fluorescence amplification and/or FRET initiation lead to fluorogenic signaling to facilitate detection at lower concentration. The Hg(II)-selective photo-physical spectral modulation in the presence of other competitive metal ions, and their reversible dual channel signaling pattern under the action of counter anions or chelating agents such as EDTA or ethylenediamine establish the potential of these probes for highly selective, sensitive and reversible 'OFF-ON-OFF' detection of Hg(II). The complexation induced optical signaling pattern of probes with a propyl-linker in their receptor (1-3) in comparison with that of 4 consisting of an ethyl-spacer indicate that signaling

  8. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior

  9. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    PubMed Central

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N—H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine

  10. Influence of silica nanospheres on the separation performance of thin film composite poly(piperazine-amide) nanofiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Yihua; Song, Jie; Guan, Yipeng; Yu, Hui; Pan, Xianhui; Wu, Feiyang; Zhang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    A novel thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration (TFNN) membrane was fabricated by introducing silica nanospheres (ca. 235 ± 11 nm) in the interfacial polymerization process of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and piperazine (PIP) over polysulfone (PS) support for investigating the effect of silica nanofiller on the separation performance (i.e., permeability and salt rejection) of conventional thin film composite poly(piperazine-amide) nanofiltration (TFCN) membrane. The physicochemical characterization results show that all of the silica nanospheres are uniformly embedded on the surface of TFNN membrane. The introduction of silica nanospheres improves the hydrophilicity of the TFCN membrane and also causes its isoelectric point shift to a lower pH value. Moreover, the active poly(piperazine-amide) barrier layer of TFNN membrane (60.8 ± 2.3 nm) is thinner than that of the pristine TFCN membrane (72.1 ± 2.5 nm) as a control sample. The separation performance tests reveal that the addition of silica nanospheres can obviously elevate the salt rejection of the pristine TFCN membrane from 87.58 ± 0.15 to 94.81 ± 0.17% under 2000 ppm of MgSO4 solution and 0.5 MPa operating pressure, simultaneously accompanied by the increases of permeate flux from 19.36 ± 0.75 to 22.65 ± 0.68 L/m2 h. Additionally, compared with pristine TFCN membrane, the fabricated TFNN membrane has relatively low salt rejection (43.20 ± 0.27%) in 0.5 MPa operating pressure for 500 ppm of NaCl aqueous solution, which demonstrates that the introduction of silica nanospheres can dramatically promote the divalent-ionic separation selectivity. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that the nanocomposite TFNN membrane possesses stable filtration performance in the softening process of MgSO4 aqueous solution. The separation performance improvement should be attributed to the optimizations of microstructures and surface features of active barrier layer of TFNN membrane, caused by the addition of silica

  11. Synthesis, Spectral and Antibacterial Studies of Binuclear Titanium(IV) / Zirconium(IV) Complexes of Piperazine Dithiosemicarbazones

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.; Mishra, M. K.; Tripathi, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of mono(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV) trichloride and bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(IV)/ zirconium(IV) dichloride with a new class of dithiosemicarbazone, derived by condensing piperazine dithiosemicarbazide with benzaldehyde (L1H2), 2-chlorobenzaldehyde (L2H2), 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (L3H2) or salicylaldehyde (L4H4) have been studied and different types of binuclear products, viz. [{CpTiCl2}2L], [{Cp2MCl}2L], ((L=L1, L2 or L3), [{CpTiCI}2L4] and [{Cp2M}2L4] (M=Yi or Zr), have been isolated. Tentative structures are proposed for these complexes based upon elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, IR, 1H and 13C NMR) data. Attempts have been made to establish a correlation between antibacterial activity and the structures of the products. PMID:18365041

  12. Bis(1-methyl-piperazine-1,4-diium) di-μ-bromido-bis-[tetra-bromido-bismuthate(III)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Essid, Manel; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2014-06-01

    In the title hydrated salt, (C5H14N2)2[Bi2Br10]·2H2O, the com-plete [Bi2Br10](4-) biocta-hedron is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. In the crystal, the tetra-anions and water mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯Br and O-H⋯(Br,Br) hydrogen bonds to generate [100] chains. The chains are crosslinked by N-H⋯Br, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds originating from the piperazinediium dications, thereby forming a three-dimensional network.

  13. Identification of high-affinity P2Y₁₂ antagonists based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone.

    PubMed

    Zech, Gernot; Hessler, Gerhard; Evers, Andreas; Weiss, Tilo; Florian, Peter; Just, Melitta; Czech, Jörg; Czechtizky, Werngard; Görlitzer, Jochen; Ruf, Sven; Kohlmann, Markus; Nazaré, Marc

    2012-10-25

    A series of novel, highly potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists as inhibitors of platelet aggregation based on a phenylpyrazole glutamic acid piperazine backbone is described. Exploration of the structural requirements of the substituents by probing the structure-activity relationship along this backbone led to the discovery of the N-acetyl-(S)-proline cyclobutyl amide moiety as a highly privileged motif. Combining the most favorable substituents led to remarkably potent P2Y₁₂ antagonists displaying not only low nanomolar binding affinity to the P2Y₁₂ receptor but also a low nanomolar inhibition of platelet aggregation in the human platelet rich plasma assay with IC₅₀ values below 50 nM. Using a homology and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship model, a binding hypothesis elucidating the impact of several structural features was developed.

  14. Piperazines as nootropic agents: New derivatives of the potent cognition-enhancer DM235 carrying hydrophilic substituents.

    PubMed

    Martino, Maria Vittoria; Guandalini, Luca; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Menicatti, Marta; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Dei, Silvia; Manetti, Dina; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2017-03-15

    The piperazine ring of the potent nootropic drug DM235 has been decorated with H-bond donor and acceptor groups (CH2OH, CH2OMe, CH2OCOMe, COOEt); the aim was to insert new functional groups, suitable for further chemical manipulation. The influence of these modifications on nootropic activity was assessed by means of the mouse passive avoidance test; some of the newly synthesized molecules (alcohol 7b, acetate 8b and ester 10d) showed interesting in vivo potency. This makes it possible to use these functional groups for adding other residues, in order to increase molecular diversity, or for anchoring a biotin group, to obtain compounds useful to capture the biological target. Moreover, the new compounds will improve our knowledge of structure activity relationships of this family of drugs.

  15. Synthesis, evaluation and computational studies on a series of acetophenone based 1-(aryloxypropyl)-4-(chloroaryl) piperazines as potential atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Bali, Alka; Sharma, Komal; Bhalla, Abhishek; Bala, Suman; Reddy, Dinesh; Singh, Anant; Kumar, Anil

    2010-06-01

    A series of 1-(aryloxypropyl)-4-(chloroaryl) piperazines have been synthesized and the target compounds evaluated for atypical antipsychotic activity in apomorphine induced mesh climbing and stereotypy assays in mice. The compounds 11 and 12 have emerged as important lead compounds showing potential atypical antipsychotic profile. The physicochemical similarity of the new analogs with respect to standard drugs clozapine, ketanserin, ziprasidone and risperidone was assessed by calculating from a set of 10 physicochemical properties using software programs. The test compounds demonstrated good similarity values with respect to the standard drugs. The potential of these compounds to penetrate the blood brain barrier (log BB) was computed through an online software program and the values obtained for the compounds suggest a good brain permeation.

  16. 5-(Adamantan-1-yl)-3-[(4-benzyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Said-Abdelbaky, Mohammed; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C24H32N4OS, is a functionalized 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione with substituted piperazine and adamantanyl substituents attached at the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, of the oxadiazole spacer with an approximately C-shaped conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules form dimers via C—H⋯S inter­action. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation; the substituents S, methyl­ene C and adamantane C of the essentially planar oxadiazole ring are approximately in the same plane, with distances of −0.046 (2), −0.085 (5) and 0.003 (4) Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl and oxadiazole rings is 31.3 (3)°. PMID:22798843

  17. Pelanserin: 3-[3-(4-phenyl­piperazin-1-yl)prop­yl]quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Hernández, Gerardo; Somanathan, Ratnasamy; Bernès, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C21H24N4O2, is a potent serotonin 5-HT2 and α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. The n-propyl chain links the quinazolinedione heterocycle and the phenyl­piperazine group in which the benzene ring is equatorially located and the piperazine ring has the expected chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene ring and the quinazolinedione ring system is 74.1 (1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules form centrosymmetric dimers through R 2 2(8) hydrogen-bonded rings involving the amine and one carbonyl group of the quinazolinedione moiety. These dimers are extended into chains extending along the a-axis direction through expanded centrosymmetric cyclic C—H⋯O associations involving the second carbonyl group, giving R 2 2(20) and R 1 2(7) motifs. PMID:25249922

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Certain 7-Chloro-4-(piperazin-1-yl)quinoline Derivatives as VEGFR-II Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed Nabil; El-Azzouny, Aida M Abd El-Sattar; Ragab, Fatma Abdel-Fattah; Hamissa, Mohamed Farouk

    2017-03-17

    Signaling pathway inhibition of VEGFR-II is visualized as valuable tool in cancer management. In the current study, the synthesis of novel 1-4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(N-substituted-amino)-ethanone derivatives (4a-t) was achieved through the amination of 2-chloro-1-(4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone (3) with different secondary amines. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, (1) H-NMR, (13) C-NMR, HRMS, and microanalysis. Compounds 4a-t were subjected to in vitro anticancer screening against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) cell lines. The highest cytotoxicty against both cell lines was displayed by 2-(4-(4-bromobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-1-(4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone (4q), with IC50 values of 6.502 and 11.751 μM against MCF-7 and PC3 cells, respectively, compared with the standard drug doxorubicin (MCF-7: 6.774 μM, PC3: 7.7316 μM). Due to its notable activity toward MCF-7 cells, 4q was further evaluated as VEGFR-II inhibitor, showing an IC50 of 1.38 μM compared to sorafenib (0.33 μM). The docking study proved that 4q has a binding mode akin to that of VEGFR-II inhibitors.

  19. Design, synthesis, and structure-affinity relationships of regioisomeric N-benzyl alkyl ether piperazine derivatives as sigma-1 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Iman A; Banister, Samuel D; Beinat, Corinne; Giboureau, Nicolas; Reynolds, Aaron J; Kassiou, Michael

    2010-08-26

    A series of N-(benzofuran-2-ylmethyl)-N'-benzylpiperazines bearing alkyl or fluoroalkyl aryl ethers were synthesized and evaluated at various central nervous system receptors. Examination of in vitro sigma1 {[3H]+-pentazocine} and sigma2 ([3H]DTG) receptor binding profiles of piperazines 11-13 and 25-36 revealed several highly potent and sigma1 selective ligands, notably, N-(benzofuran-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(4'-methoxybenzyl)piperazine (13, Ki=2.7 nM, sigma2/sigma1=38) and N-(benzofuran-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(4'-(2''-fluoroethoxy)benzyl)piperazine (30, Ki=2.6 nM, sigma2/sigma1=187). Structural features for optimal sigma1 receptor affinity and selectivity over the sigma2 receptor were identified. On the basis of its favorable log D value, 13 was selected as a candidate for the development of a sigma1 receptor positron emission tomography radiotracer. [11C]13 showed high uptake in the brain and other sigma receptor-rich organs of a Papio hamadryas baboon. The in vivo evaluation of [11C]13 indicates that this radiotracer is a suitable candidate for imaging the sigma1 receptor in neurodegenerative processes.

  20. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P < 0.01) compared to untreated controls. The larvae that developed in the eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  1. Piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2015-01-01

    Series of piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides were designed using a ligand-based approach with consideration of the pharmacophoric requirements for 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The title carboxamides were synthesized using appropriate synthetic routes. Initially, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity of all the compounds was determined on isolated guinea pig ileum tissue against the 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, which was denoted in the form of pA2 values. The structure-activity relationship regarding the influence of the aromatic part and basic moiety as features in the 5-HT3 pharmacophore was derived. Among all the compounds screened, the piperazine derivatives of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h exhibited prominent 5-HT3 receptor antagonism with pA2 values of 7.5 and 7.3, respectively. Subsequent investigation of the antidepressant activities of selected compounds in the mouse forced swim test (FST) led to the identification of the piperazine analogs of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h as the most promising compounds. Both 13i and 8h demonstrated significant reduction in the duration of immobility as compared to the control. Importantly, none of the tested compounds affected the baseline locomotion of mice at the tested dose levels.

  2. Novel heteroleptic lanthanide organic frameworks containing pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and in situ generated piperazine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid from piperazine: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ay, Burak; Yildiz, Emel; Kani, İbrahim

    2016-01-15

    Two novel 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Ln(pydc)(pip){sub 1/2}(H{sub 2}O] (Ln=Ce (1) and Pr (2), H{sub 2}pydc=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}pip=2,5-piperazinedicarboxylic acid have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD), and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used for morphological analysis. Complexes are isostructural and feature interesting 3D frameworks. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c. Structural analyses of 1 and 2 show that Ln{sup 3+} ions connect with each other through H{sub 2}pydc and H{sub 2}pip. To the best of our knowledge, they are the first heteroleptic lanthanide polymers obtained through in situ 2,5-piperazinedicarboxylic acid syntheses. Moreover, thermal and luminescent properties of the compounds have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Luminescent properties of the compounds in different temperatures have been also investigated. - Highlights: • New cerium and praseodymium coordination polymers based on N-O-bifunctional ligands have been synthesized In situ hydrothermal decarboxylation. • 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and piperazine were used as ligands. • In situ hydrothermal decarboxylation and formation of ligands were observed.

  3. Coordination frameworks constructed from bipyridyl piperazine and MCl2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn): structural characterization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Song, Yinglin; Mi, Liwei; Hou, Hongwei; Tang, Mingsheng; Sang, Yali; Fan, Yaoting; Pan, Yan

    2006-02-14

    Three metal-organic polymers, [CoCl2(bpfp)]n 1, {[NiCl2(bpfp)2](H2O)3}n 2 and [ZnCl2(bpfp)]n 3 (bpfp = N,N'-bis(3-pyridylformyl)piperazine), are formed by the self-assembly of the flexible bpfp with MCl2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn), respectively. X-Ray single-crystal structural analysis reveals that polymer 1 exhibits a novel grid network, in which the grid is composed of segments of bpfp and cobalt ions. Polymer 2 consists of 2D rhombohedral grids, the dimensions of the grid are 15.782 x 12.434 A2 and the diagonal-to-diagonal distances are 13.186 x 25.169 A2. In polymer 3, infinite wavelike chains are extended to 2D supramolecular arrays via C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviors of 1-3 and bpfp were investigated in dilute DMF solution by Z-scan measurement. The results show that 1, 2 and 3 exhibit good third-order NLO properties, which are quite different from bpfp that shows weak NLO behavior. This paper demonstrates that metal ions can strongly influence the crystal structures and third-order NLO properties of polymers.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic resolution of 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-formyl)-piperazine enantiomers after chiral derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiong; Yu, Yu; Li, Longjiang

    2005-02-01

    Chiral separation of racemic mixtures is of the greatest importance to the pharmaceutical industry, as the isomers of a given racemate may exhibit substantially different pharmacological effects, not to mention possibly differing toxicity behaviour. A novel chiral separation method is developed for the determination of 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-formyl)piperazine (BFP) enantiomers. The indirect resolution is performed by applying precolumn derivatization with the chiral reagent 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate (GITC). The resulting diastereoisomers are separated on a reversed-phase ODS column with methanol-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.02mol/L, 50:50) as mobile phase. UV detection is at 250 nm. The effect of mobile phase composition upon resolution and analysis time is investigated. Two diastereoisomers show nearly base-line separation under optimal chromatographic conditions. The presented study provides a simple and accurate method for the enantiomeric quality control and the optical purity assay of BFP.

  5. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnár, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (−)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  6. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tucci, Fabio C; Jiang, Wanlong; Tran, Joe A; Fleck, Beth A; Hoare, Sam R; Wen, Jenny; Chen, Takung; Johns, Michael; Markison, Stacy; Foster, Alan C; Marinkovic, Dragan; Chen, Caroline W; Arellano, Melissa; Harman, John; Saunders, John; Bozigian, Haig; Marks, Daniel

    2008-05-15

    A series of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropylbenzylamine derivatives were synthesized and characterized as melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonists. Attaching an amino acid to benzylamines 7 significantly increased their binding affinity, and the resulting compounds 8-12 bound selectively to MC4R over other melanocortin receptor subtypes and behaved as functional antagonists. These compounds were also studied for their permeability using Caco-2 cell monolayers and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes. Most compounds exhibited low permeability and high efflux ratio possibly due to their high molecular weights. They also showed moderate metabolic stability which might be associated with their moderate to high lipophilicity. Pharmacokinetic properties of these MC4R antagonists, including brain penetration, were studied in mice after oral and intravenous administrations. Two compounds identified to possess high binding affinity and selectivity, 10d and 11d, were studied in a murine cachexia model. After intraperitoneal (ip) administration of 1mg/kg dose, mice treated with 10d had significantly more food intake and weight gain than the control animals, demonstrating efficacy by blocking the MC4 receptor. Similar in vivo effects were also observed when 11d was dosed orally at 20mg/kg. These results provide further evidence that a potent and selective MC4R antagonist has potential in the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  7. The antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of new xanthone derivative with piperazine moiety in behavioral tests in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pytka, Karolina; Żmudzka, Elżbieta; Lustyk, Klaudia; Rapacz, Anna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Barbara, Filipek

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Xanthones are flavonoids with numerous activities, including antioxidant, antidepressant., or anxiolytic-like. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like properties of four xanthone derivatives (3-chloro-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-9H-xanthen-9-one dihydrochloride [HBK-5], 6-methoxy-2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) methyl]-9H-xanthen-9-one dihydrochloride, 2-[(4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl) methyl]-6-methoxy-9H-xanthen-9-one dihydrochloride, 2-{[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-9H-xanthen-9-one hydrochloride), as well as the influence on cognitive and motor function of active compounds, using animal models. Materials and Methods: To determine the antidepressant-like activity, we used forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. We evaluated anxiolytic-like properties in the four-plate test in mice. We studied the influence on cognitive and motor function in passive avoidance step-through and chimney tests, respectively. Results: The antidepressant-like activity (in both FST and TST) showed only HBK-5. Moreover, the compound was also active in the four-plate test, which suggests that it possessed anxiolytic-like properties. HBK-5 did not cause any cognitive and motor deficits in mice at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. Conclusions: HBK-5 may have potential in the treatment of depression or anxiety disorders, but this issue needs further studies. PMID:27298499

  8. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from dl-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue

    2017-03-01

    dl-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only dl-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of dl-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  9. N-Aryl Piperazine Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Possess Efficacy in Preclinical Models of NMDA Hypofunction and Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, K.J.; Herman, E.J.; Ramsey, A.J.; Hammond, A.S.; Byun, N.E.; Stauffer, S.R.; Manka, J.T.; Jadhav, S.; Bridges, T.M.; Weaver, C.D.; Niswender, C.M.; Steckler, T.; Drinkenburg, W.H.; Ahnaou, A.; Lavreysen, H.; Macdonald, G.J.; Bartolomé, J.M.; Mackie, C.; Hrupka, B.J.; Caron, M.G.; Daigle, T.L.; Lindsley, C.W.; Conn, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired transmission through glutamatergic circuits has been postulated to play a role in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDAR) induces a syndrome that recapitulates many of the symptoms observed in patients with schizophrenia. Selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia through facilitation of transmission through central glutamatergic circuits. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel N-aryl piperazine mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 2-(4-(2-(benzyloxy)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)benzonitrile (VU0364289) and 1-(4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)ethanone (DPFE). VU0364289 and DPFE induced robust leftward shifts in the glutamate concentration-response curves for Ca2+ mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Both PAMs displayed micromolar affinity for the common mGlu5 allosteric binding site and high selectivity for mGlu5. VU0364289 and DPFE possessed suitable pharmacokinetic properties for dosing in vivo and produced robust dose-related effects in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a preclinical model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In addition, DPFE enhanced acquisition of contextual fear conditioning in rats and reversed behavioral deficits in a mouse model of NMDAR hypofunction. In contrast, DPFE had no effect on reversing apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These mGlu5 PAMs also increased monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, enhanced performance in a hippocampal-mediated memory task, and elicited changes in electroencephalogram dynamics commensurate with procognitive effects. Collectively, these data support and extend the role for the development of novel

  10. Experimental and In-Silico Investigation of Anti-Microbial Activity of 1-Chloro-2-Isocyanatoethane Derivatives of Thiomorpholine, Piperazine and Morpholine

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ujam, Oguejiofo T.; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Ujam, Ifeoma B.

    2017-01-01

    The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested. With morpholine, similar result was obtained except that cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC 15442) and Salmonella typhi (ATCC 6539) presented with weak sensitivity (7–8 mm) as shown by the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) measurement. The Gram positive organisms were more sensitive to morpholine than the other compounds. The highest IZD values of 15–18 mm were achieved except for Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) in which mobility of the compound stopped after 12 mm. S. pneumoniae was resistant to both thiomorpholine and piperazine. The yeast strains were not sensitive to any of the studied compounds investigated. The MIC tests evaluated against a reference antibiotic show that while morpholine was most active at 4 μg.ml-1 against both B. cereus ATCC (14579) and B. subtilis, the least active compound was thiomorpholine which inhibited S. aureus (ATCC 25923) at 64 μg.ml-1. The three compounds demonstrated high affinity for the target protein (DNA gyrase) ranging from -4.63 to -5.64 Kcal/mol and even showed better ligand efficiencies than three known antibiotics; chlorobiocin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. This study identified the studied compounds as potential antibiotic leads with acceptable physicochemical properties and gave the molecular basis for the observed interactions between the compounds and the target protein which can be harnessed in

  11. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  12. 1-(2-Ammonio­eth­yl)piperazin-1,4-diium dihydrogeno­phosphate monohydrogeno­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mrad, Mohamed Lahbib; Ferretti, Valeria; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C6H18N3·HPO4·H2PO4, is characterized by two kinds of inorganic chains running along the a-axis direction. The first one is composed of HPO4 2− anions, while the second one is built up by H2PO4 − anions. Both types of chains are held together by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The organic cations are attached to these chains through N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The piperazin-1,4-diium ring adopts a chair conformation. PMID:23284445

  13. Investigation of the mode of binding of a novel series of N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamides to the hepatitis C virus polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gentles, Robert G.; Sheriff, Steven; Beno, Brett R.; Wan, Changhong; Kish, Kevin; Ding, Min; Zheng, Xiaofan; Chupak, Louis; Poss, Michael A.; Witmer, Mark R.; Morin, Paul; Wang, Ying-Kai; Rigat, Karen; Lemm, Julie; Voss, Stacey; Liu, Mengping; Pelosi, Lenore; Roberts, Susan B.; Gao, Min; Kadow, John F.

    2013-11-20

    Structure based rationales for the activities of potent N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamide inhibitors of the hepatitis C viral polymerase are described herein. These compounds bind to the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), and co-crystal structures of select examples from this series with NS5B are reported. Comparison of co-crystal structures of a potent analog with both NS5B genotype 1a and genotype 1b provides a possible explanation for the genotype-selectivity observed with this compound class and suggests opportunities for the further optimization of the series.

  14. Synthesis of N-(6-(4-(Piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide Derivatives for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bajare, Swapnil; Anthony, Jessy; Nair, Amrutha; Damre, Anagha; B-Rao, Chandrika; Sivaramakrishnan, H.; Wilankar, Chandan; Marita, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent multifactorial disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are a major component of the metabolic disorder. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent PPARγ ligand and used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are potent insulin-sensitizing agents but due to adverse effects like hepatotoxicity, a safer alternative of TZDs is highly demanded. Here we report synthesis of N-(6-(4-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives as an alternate remedy for insulin resistance. PMID:25374688

  15. N-phenylpropyl-N'-substituted piperazines occupy sigma receptors and alter methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dennis K; Park, Eric S; Lever, Susan Z; Lever, John R

    This study examined the effect of the N-phenylpropyl-N'-substituted piperazine ligands SA4503 (3.4-dimethoxyphenethyl), YZ-067 (4-methoxyphenethyl), YZ-185 (3-methoxyphenethyl) and Nahas-3h (4-methoxybenzyl) on methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice. In a previous study in rats, SA4503 increased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity at a lower ligand dose and enhanced it at a higher dose. The other ligands have not been investigated in this assay. Presently, mice were administered sigma ligands, and specific [(125)I]E-IA-DM-PE-PIPZE and [(125)I]RTI-121 binding was measured to determine σ1 sigma receptor and dopamine transporter occupancy, respectively. Mice were also administered sigma ligands followed by methamphetamine, and locomotor activity was measured. Each of the ligands occupied σ1 sigma receptors (ED50=0.2-0.6μmol/kg) with similar potency, but none occupied the transporter (ED50>10μmol/kg). At the highest dose tested (31.6μmol/kg) all four sigma ligands significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Interestingly, SA4503, YZ-067 and Nahas-3h, but not YZ-185, enhanced methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity at lower ligand doses (1-3.16μmol/kg). These results suggest that these ligands function as stimulant agonists at lower doses and as antagonists at higher does, with subtle changes in the substitution pattern at the 3- and 4-positions of the phenethyl group contributing to the nature of the interactions. Overall, these data indicate a complex role for σ1 sigma receptor ligands in methamphetamine's behavioral effects.

  16. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of 1-[2-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine for imaging of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Xie, Lin; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Kumata, Katsushi; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    1-[2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)phenyl]piperazine (4) is a potent serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (Ki=2.6nM) with a low binding affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor (Ki=476nM). As a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the 5-HT7 receptor, [(11)C]4 was synthesized at high radiochemical yield and specific activity, by O-[(11)C]methylation of 2'-(piperazin-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-ol (6) with [(11)C]methyl iodide. Autoradiography revealed that [(11)C]4 showed in vitro specific binding with 5-HT7 in the rat brain regions, such as the thalamus which is a region with high 5-HT7 expression. Metabolite analysis indicated that intact [(11)C]4 in the brain exceeded 90% of the radioactive components at 15min after the radiotracer injection, although two radiolabeled metabolites were found in the rat plasma. The PET study of rats showed moderated uptake of [(11)C]4 in the brain (1.2SUV), but no significant regional difference in radioactivity in the brain. Pretreatment with 5-HT7-selective antagonist SB269970 (3) did not decrease the uptake of [(11)C]4 in the rat brain. Further studies are warranted that focus on the development of PET ligand candidates with higher binding affinity for 5-HT7 and higher in vivo stability in brain than 4.

  18. Design and synthesis of some new 1-phenyl-3/4-[4-(aryl/heteroaryl/alkyl-piperazine1-yl)-phenyl-ureas as potent anticonvulsant and antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Kumari, Shikha; Tiwari, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    A series of 1-phenyl-3/4-[4-(aryl/heteroaryl/alkyl-piperazine1-yl)-phenyl-urea derivatives (29-42) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity by using maximal electroshock (MES), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure tests. The acute neurotoxicity was checked by rotarod assay. Most of the test compounds were found effective in both seizure tests. Compound 30 (1-{4-[4-(4-chloro-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-phenyl}-3-phenyl-urea) exhibited marked anticonvulsant activity in MES as well as scPTZ tests. The phase II anticonvulsant quantification study of compound 30 indicates the ED50 value of 28.5 mg/kg against MES induced seizures. In addition, this compound also showed considerable protection against pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in rats. Seizures induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid model and thiosemicarbazide were significantly attenuated by compound 30, which suggested its broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. Interestingly, compound 30 displayed better antidepressant activity than standard drug fluoxetine. Moreover, compound 30 appeared as a non-toxic chemical entity in sub-acute toxicity studies.

  19. Toward understanding amines and their degradation products from postcombustion CO2 capture processes with aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xinlei; Shaw, Stephanie L; Zhang, Qi

    2014-05-06

    Amine-based postcombustion CO2 capture (PCCC) is a promising technique for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning plants. A concern of the technique, however, is the emission of amines and their degradation byproducts. To assess the environmental risk of this technique, standardized stack sampling and analytical methods are needed. Here we report on the development of an integrated approach that centers on the application of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for characterizing amines and PCCC-relevant species. Molecular characterization is achieved via ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The method has been optimized, particularly, by decreasing the AMS vaporizer temperature, to gain quantitative information on the elemental composition and major nitrogen-containing species in laboratory-degraded amine solvents commonly tested for PCCC applications, including ethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP). The AMS-derived nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios for the degraded solvent and product mixtures agree well with the results from a total organic carbon and total nitrogen (TOC/TN) analyzer. In addition, marker ions identified in the AMS spectra are used to estimate the mass contributions of individual species. Overall, our results indicate that this new approach is suitable for characterizing PCCC-related mixtures as well as organic nitrogen species in other sample types. As an online instrument, AMS can be used for both real-time characterization of emissions from operating PCCC plants and ambient particles in the vicinity of the facilities.

  20. Toward Understanding Amines and Their Degradation Products from Postcombustion CO2 Capture Processes with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amine-based postcombustion CO2 capture (PCCC) is a promising technique for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning plants. A concern of the technique, however, is the emission of amines and their degradation byproducts. To assess the environmental risk of this technique, standardized stack sampling and analytical methods are needed. Here we report on the development of an integrated approach that centers on the application of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for characterizing amines and PCCC-relevant species. Molecular characterization is achieved via ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The method has been optimized, particularly, by decreasing the AMS vaporizer temperature, to gain quantitative information on the elemental composition and major nitrogen-containing species in laboratory-degraded amine solvents commonly tested for PCCC applications, including ethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP). The AMS-derived nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios for the degraded solvent and product mixtures agree well with the results from a total organic carbon and total nitrogen (TOC/TN) analyzer. In addition, marker ions identified in the AMS spectra are used to estimate the mass contributions of individual species. Overall, our results indicate that this new approach is suitable for characterizing PCCC-related mixtures as well as organic nitrogen species in other sample types. As an online instrument, AMS can be used for both real-time characterization of emissions from operating PCCC plants and ambient particles in the vicinity of the facilities. PMID:24617831

  1. Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Shah, Amisha D; Hu, Lanhua; Plewa, Michael J; McKague, Bruce; Mitch, William A

    2012-09-04

    With years of full-scale experience for precombustion CO(2) capture, amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO(2) capture. However, concerns for postcombustion applications have focused on the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines released following their formation by NO(x) reactions with amines within the capture unit. Analytical methods for N-nitrosamines in drinking waters were adapted to measure specific N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines and total N-nitrosamines in solvent and washwater samples. The high levels of amines, aldehydes, and nitrite in these samples presented a risk for the artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during sample storage or analysis. Application of a 30-fold molar excess of sulfamic acid to nitrite at pH 2 destroyed nitrite with no significant risk of artifactual nitrosation of amines. Analysis of aqueous morpholine solutions purged with different gas-phase NO and NO(2) concentrations indicated that N-nitrosamine formation generally exceeds N-nitramine formation. The total N-nitrosamine formation rate was at least an order of magnitude higher for the secondary amine piperazine (PZ) than for the primary amines 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and monoethanolamine (MEA) and the tertiary amine methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Analysis of pilot washwater samples indicated a 59 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration for a system operated with a 25% AMP/15% PZ solvent, but only 0.73 μM for a 35% MEA solvent. Unfortunately, a greater fraction of the total N-nitrosamine signal was uncharacterized for the MEA-associated washwater. At a 0.73 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration, a ~25000-fold reduction in concentration is needed between washwater units and downwind drinking water supplies to meet proposed permit limits.

  2. Investigation of various N-heterocyclic substituted piperazine versions of 5/ 7-{[2-(4-Aryl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-propyl-amino}-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthalen-2-ol: Effect on affinity and selectivity for dopamine D3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis A.; Mishra, Manoj; Zhang, Suhong; Biswas, Swati; Parrington, Ingrid; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on the design and synthesis of several heterocyclic analogues belonging to the 5/ 7-{[2-(4-aryl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-propyl-amino}-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthalen-2-ol series of molecules. Compounds were subjected to [3H]spiperone binding assays, carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 dopamine receptors, in order to evaluate their inhibition constant (Ki) at these receptors. Results indicate that N-substitution on the piperazine ring can accommodate various substituted indole rings. The results also show that in order to maintain high affinity and selectivity for the D3 receptor the heterocyclic ring does not need to be connected directly to the piperazine ring as the majority of compounds included here are linked either via an amide or a methylene linker to the heterocyclic moiety. The enantiomers of the most potent racemic compound 10e exhibited differential activity with (-)-10e (Ki; D2 = 47.5 nM, D3 = 0.57 nM) displaying higher affinity at both D2 and D3 receptors compared to its enantiomer (+)-10e (Ki; D2 = 113 nM, D3 = 3.73 nM). Additionally, compound (-)-10e was more potent and selective for the D3 receptor compared to either 7-OH-DPAT or 5-OH-DPAT. Among the bioisosteric derivatives, the indazole derivative 10g and benzo[b]thiophene derivative 10i exhibited the highest affinity for D2 and D3 receptors. In the functional GTPγS binding study, one of the lead molecules, (-)-15, exhibited potent agonist activity at both D2 and D3 receptors with preferential activity at D3. PMID:19427222

  3. Lanthanide N,N'-piperazine-bis(methylenephosphonates) (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) that display flexible frameworks, reversible hydration and cation exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Mowat, John P.S.; Groves, John A.; Wharmby, Michael T.; Miller, Stuart R.; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip; Wright, Paul A.

    2009-10-15

    Hydrothermal syntheses of lanthanide bisphosphonate metal organic frameworks comprising the light lanthanides lanthanum, cerium and neodymium and N,N'-piperazine bis(methylenephosphonic acid) (H{sub 2}L(1) and its 2-methyl and 2,5-dimethyl derivatives (H{sub 2}L(2) and H{sub 2}L(3)) gives three new structure types. At elevated starting pH (ca. 5 and above) syntheses give 'type I' materials with all metals and acids of the study (MLnLxH{sub 2}O, M=Na, K, Cs; Ln=La, Ce, Nd; x{approx}4: KCeL(1).4H{sub 2}O, C2/c, a=23.5864(2) A, b=12.1186(2) A, c=5.6613(2) A, beta=93.040(2){sup o}). The framework of structure type I shows considerable flexibility as the ligand is changed, due mainly to rotation around the -N-CH{sub 2}- bond of the linker in response to steric considerations. Type I materials demonstrate cation exchange and dehydration and rehydration behaviour. Upon dehydration of KCeL.4H{sub 2}O, the space group changes to P2{sub 1}/n, a=21.8361(12) A, b=9.3519(4) A, c=5.5629(3) A, beta=96.560(4){sup o}, as a result of a change of the piperazine ring from chair to boat configuration. When syntheses are performed at lower pH, two other structure types crystallise. With the 'non-methyl' ligand 1, type II materials result (LnL(1)H{sub 2}L(1).4.5H{sub 2}O: Ln=La, P-1, a=5.7630(13) A, b=10.213(2) A, c=11.649(2) A, alpha=84.242(2){sup o}, beta=89.051(2){sup o}, gamma=82.876(2){sup o}) in which one half of the ligands coordinate via the piperazine nitrogen atoms. With the 2-methyl ligand, structure type III crystallises (LnHL(2).4H{sub 2}O: Ln=Nd, Ce, P2{sub 1}/c, a=5.7540(9) A, b=14.1259(18) A, c=21.156(5) A, beta=90.14(2){sup o}) due to unfavourable steric interactions of the methyl group in structure type II. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanides La, Ce and Nd give a family of metal organic frameworks based on N,N'-piperazinebismethylenephosphonate ligands: these display reversible dehydration, structural flexibility and cation exchange.

  4. Crystal structure of 7-hy-droxy-8-[(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)meth-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one.

    PubMed

    Kubono, Koji; Kise, Ryuma; Kashiwagi, Yukiyasu; Tani, Keita; Yokoi, Kunihiko

    2016-12-01

    In the title compound, C15H18N2O3, the coumarin ring is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates a C(4) chain motif running along the c axis. The chain structure is stabilized by a C-H⋯π inter-action. The chains are linked by π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance of 3.5745 (11) Å], forming a sheet structure parallel to the bc plane.

  5. Crystal structure of 7-hy­droxy-8-[(4-methyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-2H-chromen-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Kubono, Koji; Kise, Ryuma; Kashiwagi, Yukiyasu; Tani, Keita; Yokoi, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H18N2O3, the coumarin ring is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å. An intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates a C(4) chain motif running along the c axis. The chain structure is stabilized by a C—H⋯π inter­action. The chains are linked by π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance of 3.5745 (11) Å], forming a sheet structure parallel to the bc plane. PMID:27980822

  6. Bis(1-methyl­piperazine-1,4-diium) di-μ-bromido-bis­[tetra­bromido­bismuthate(III)] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Essid, Manel; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2014-01-01

    In the title hydrated salt, (C5H14N2)2[Bi2Br10]·2H2O, the com­plete [Bi2Br10]4− biocta­hedron is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. In the crystal, the tetra­anions and water mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯Br and O—H⋯(Br,Br) hydrogen bonds to generate [100] chains. The chains are crosslinked by N—H⋯Br, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds originating from the piperazinediium dications, thereby forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:24940195

  7. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis-[dichromate(VI)].

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, S; Vinoth, E; Mullai, R U; Aruljothi, R; NizamMohideen, M

    2016-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic-inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra-hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C-H⋯O inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  8. Design, synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and descriptor based similarities study of N,N-diphenyl-2-[4-(substituted phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]acetamides as potential antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Dash, Radha Charan; Bhosale, Sharad H; Shelke, Suhas M; Suryawanshi, Mugdha R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2012-11-01

    A series of novel N,N-diphenyl-2-[4-(substituted phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]acetamides was designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-dopaminergic activity, anti-serotonergic activity and catalepsy induction studies in mice as an approach to novel potential antipsychotic agent. Antipsychotic activity of these compounds in terms of blocking of dopaminergic transmission was evaluated by their ability to inhibit apomorphine induced climbing behavior in mice and antiserotonergic activity of synthesized compounds was assessed by studying inhibition of 5-HTP induced head twitches. All the synthesized compounds were found to exhibit anti-dopaminergic and anti-serotonergic activity in behavioral models. The compound 3f showed better antipsychotic potential among the different synthesized compounds. The descriptor based similarities study for blood brain permeation established a good similarity between the synthesized compounds with standard atypical antipsychotics.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the reactions of the donors piperazine and N,N‧-dimethylpiperazine with σ- and π-acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzi, Hassan S.; AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Mostafa, Adel; Nour, El-Metwally

    2008-05-01

    The interactions of the electron donors piperazine (PIP) and N, N'-dimethylpiperazine (DMPIP) with the σ-acceptor iodine and the π-acceptors tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) were studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform at 25 °C. The electronic and infrared spectra of the resulting charge-transfer complexes were recorded, in addition to thermal analysis. The results obtained showed that the stoichiometries of the reactions are not fixed and depend on the nature of both the donor and the acceptor. The formed CT-complexes have the formulas of [(PIP)2I]+I3-, [(PIP)(TCNE) 2], [(PIP)(DDQ) 2], [(DMPIP)4I]+I3-, [(DMPIP)(TCNE) 2] and [(DMPIP)(DDQ) 2]. A general mechanism explaining the formation of triiodide complexes was suggested.

  10. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis­[dichromate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, S.; Vinoth, E.; Mullai, R. U.; Aruljothi, R.; NizamMohideen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra­hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H⋯O inter­actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308002

  11. Efficient approach to improving the flame retardancy of poly(vinyl alcohol)/clay aerogels: incorporating piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Tao; Liao, Shi-Fu; Shang, Ke; Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Jian-Qian; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Schiraldi, David A

    2015-01-28

    Ammonium polyphosphates (APP) modified with piperazine (PA-APP) was used to improve the flame retardancy of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT) aerogels, which were prepared via an environmentally friendly freeze-drying method. The thermal stabilities of the samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG); the flammability behaviors of samples were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94) and cone calorimeter (CC) tests. TG test results showed that the 5% weight loss temperature (T5%) of PVA/MMT/PA-APP was 10 °C higher than that of PVA/MMT/APP. In combustion testing, all of PVA/MMT/PA-APP aerogels achieved V-0 ratings and have a higher LOI values than the unmodified PVA/MMT aerogel. Moreover, the aerogel with 1% PA-APP5, which means that the content of piperazine is 5% in PA-APP, decreased the cone calorimetry THR value to 5.71 MJ/m(2), and increased the char residue to 52%. The compressive modulus of PVA/MMT/PA-APP was increased by 93.4% compared with PVA/MMT/APP because of the increase in interfacial adhesion between matrix and PA-APP fillers. The densities of the PVA/MMT/PA-APP samples were slightly lower than those of the unmodified aerogels because of reduced shrinkage in the presence of PA-APP. All the tests results indicated that the incorporation of PA-APP not only improved the thermal stability and flame retardancy of aerogels but also maintained their mechanical properties.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of metal(II) dipicolinate complexes derived from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkıdan, Nurgün; Yenikaya, Cengiz; İlkimen, Halil; Karahan, Ceyda; Darcan, Cihan; Korkmaz, Tülin; Süzen, Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    The new water-soluble and air stable compounds (H2ppz)[Co(dipic)2]·6H2O (1), (H2ppz)[Ni(dipic)2]·6H2O (2) and (H2ppz)[Zn(dipic)2]·6H2O (3) were prepared by the reaction of corresponding metal(II) acetates and a proton transfer salt, (H2ppz) (Hdipic)2, (4) of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H2dipic) and 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol (ppz). The compounds 1-3 were characterized by elemental, IR, UV-vis. thermal analyses, magnetic measurement and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecular structures of the title compounds consist of one 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1,4-diium (H2ppz+2) cation, one bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate)metal(II) [M(dipic)2]2- anion, and six uncoordinated water molecules. In compounds 1-3 the metal ions coordinate to two oxygen and one nitrogen atoms of two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate molecules forming an octahedral environment. Antimicrobial activities against Gram (-) wild type (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram (+) wild type (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis) and clinical isolate (Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter aeruginosa) were also studied. The results were reported, discussed and compared with the corresponding starting materials ((H2ppz) (Hdipic)2 (4), H2dipic and ppz). MIC (Minimal Inhibition Concentration) values of the newly synthesized compounds were determined as 4000 μg/ml (except B. subtilis and clinical isolate E. aeruginosa, >4000 μg/ml).

  13. 1-(4,5,6,7-Tetra­hydro­thieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5-yl)-2-{4-[3-(trifluoro­meth­yl)phen­yl]piperazin-1-yl}ethanone

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Shuang; Zheng, Guo; Liu, Ying; Liu, Deng-Ke

    2012-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C20H22F3N3OS, the piperazine ring has a chair conformation, and the N—C(=O)—C—N torsion angle is −59.42 (14)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions link the mol­ecules into layers parallel to (101). PMID:22590203

  14. Density and viscosity of some partially carbonated aqueous alkanolamine solutions and their blends

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, R.H.; Dingman, J.C.; Cronin, D.B.; Browning, G.J.

    1998-05-01

    Very little information is available concerning the effect of acid gas loading on the physical properties of amine-treating solutions flowing through the absorption and regeneration columns used in gas processing. The densities and viscosities of partially carbonated monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions were measured at 298 K. With increasing carbon dioxide loadings, significant increases in both density and viscosity were observed. These results were combined with literature data to produce correlations for alkanolamine solution density and viscosity as a function of amine concentration, carbon dioxide loading, and temperature. The resulting single-amine correlations were used to predict the densities and viscosities of DEA + MDEA and MEA + MDEA blends. Predictions are compared with data measured for these blends.

  15. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of selected synthetic cathinones and two piperazines in oral fluid. Cross reactivity study with an on-site immunoassay device.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernández-Vega, Hadriana; Steinmeyer, Stefan; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2014-12-29

    Since the past few years, several synthetic cathinones and piperazines have been introduced into the drug market to substitute illegal stimulant drugs such as amphetamine and derivatives or cocaine due to their unregulated situation. These emerging drugs are not usually included in routine toxicological analysis. We developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of methedrone, methylone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), fluoromethcathinone, fluoromethamphetamine, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) in oral fluid. Sample extraction was performed using Strata X cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 10min using an Atlantis(®) T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm), and formic acid 0.1% and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was satisfactorily validated, including selectivity, linearity (0.2-0.5 to 200ng/mL), limits of detection (0.025-0.1ng/mL) and quantification (0.2-0.5ng/mL), imprecision and accuracy in neat oral fluid (%CV=0.0-12.7% and 84.8-103.6% of target concentration, respectively) and in oral fluid mixed with Quantisal™ buffer (%CV=7.2-10.3% and 80.2-106.5% of target concentration, respectively), matrix effect in neat oral fluid (-11.6 to 399.7%) and in oral fluid with Quantisal™ buffer (-69.9 to 131.2%), extraction recovery (87.9-134.3%) and recovery from the Quantisal™ (79.6-107.7%), dilution integrity (75-99% of target concentration) and stability at different conditions (-14.8 to 30.8% loss). In addition, cross reactivity produced by the studied synthetic cathinones in oral fluid using the Dräger DrugTest 5000 was assessed. All the analytes produced a methamphetamine positive result at high concentrations (100 or 10μg/mL), and fluoromethamphetamine also at low concentration (0.075μg/mL).

  16. N-Nitrosopiperazines form at high pH in post-combustion capture solutions containing piperazine: a low-energy collisional behaviour study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Phil; Attalla, Moetaz I

    2010-12-30

    During the process of exploring aqueous piperazine chemistry under simulated flue-gas scrubbing conditions, positive-ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analyses of the resulting reaction mixtures in a triple quadrupole system revealed the presence of peaks at m/z 116 and 145, the putative N-nitroso derivatives of piperazine. Confirmation of the presence of these species in the reaction mixtures was achieved using collision-induced dissociation experiments. A purchased standard, together with in-house synthesised N-nitrosopiperazine standards (including N-nitroso derivatives derived from deuterium-labelled precursor materials), were used for this purpose. Across a small range of collision energies, large fluctuations in the abundance of the two major product ions of protonated N-nitrosopiperazine, m/z 86 and 85, were observed. Using B3LYP/6-311 + +G(d,p) computations, the potential energy surface was determined for loss of NO and [H,N,O]. At an activation energy slightly in excess of 1 eV, intramolecular isomerisation precedes loss of NO (m/z 86) via a 4,1 H-shift, and at activation energies between 2.1-2.3 eV, consecutive loss of NO and atomic hydrogen competes with the direct loss of nitrosyl hydride (m/z 85). It is recommended that any multiple reaction monitoring method for quantifying N-nitrosopiperazines at low collision energies use the sum of both transitions (m/z 116 ← 85, m/z 116 ← 86) to avoid errors that could be introduced by subtle changes in ES source conditions or collision voltages. This approach is adopted in an HPLC/MS/MS method used to monitor the degradation of N-nitrosopiperazine exposed to (i) broad-band UV light and (ii) heat typical of an amine regeneration (stripper) tower. The results reveal that aqueous N-nitrosopiperazine is thermally stable at 150°C but will degrade slowly upon exposure to UV light.

  17. An LC-MS/MS methodological approach to the analysis of hair for amphetamine-type-stimulant (ATS) drugs, including selected synthetic cathinones and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Lendoiro, Elena; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Cruz, Angelines; Páramo, Mario; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; de Castro, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) are the second most commonly used group of illicit drugs worldwide. However, in the last few years, new psychoactive substances (NPS) with stimulant effects have appeared on the illegal market, which are not detected with traditional analytical methods. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination in hair of classic ATS (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), synthetic cathinones (methylone, methedrone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, (±)-4-fluoromethamphetamine and 4-fluoromethcathinone), synthetic piperazines (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), and medicines (trazodone and phenazone) that produce mCPP as a metabolite, was developed and fully validated. Hair samples (30 mg) were incubated in acid methanol (0.1% HCl) and extracted by a mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis T3 (3 µm; 2.1x50 mm) analytical column, and ammonium formate 2 mM pH 3 and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was validated, including selectivity (no endogenous or exogenous interferences); linearity (2-20 to 2000-4000 pg/mg); limits of detection (0.2 to 5 pg/mg) and quantification (2 to 20 pg/mg); accuracy (93.4-109.4% of target concentration); imprecision (%CV<11.6%); extraction recovery (40.5-92.1%); matrix effect (24.1-227.2%); process efficiency (9.8-165.7%) and stability in the autosampler (-14.5% of loss). The method was applied to the analysis of 16 hair samples. Amphetamine (n=7; 69.1-777.1 pg/mg), methamphetamine (n=3; 120.4-1,538.9 pg/mg), MDA (n=2; 27.8-135.4 pg/mg) and MDMA (n=8; 73.4-3,654.5 pg/mg) were found. Moreover, 10 positive results for mCPP were detected (341.7->4000 pg/mg); however, in all cases trazodone identification (2085.3->4000 pg/mg) probed a licit origin of mCPP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structures, molecular docking, and in vitro biological activities evaluation of transition metal complexes with 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperazine-1-carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Ya-Na; Xu, Chun-Na; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Cao, Qi-Yue; Qian, Shao-Song; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Three novel mononuclear complexes, [MⅡ(L)2·2H2O], (M = Cu, Ni or Cd; HL = 4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperazine-1-carboxylic acid)were synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular docking study preliminarily revealed that complex 1 had potential urease inhibitory activity. In accordance with the result of calculation, in vitro tests of the inhibitory activities of complexes 1-3 against jack bean urease showed complex 1 (IC50 = 8.17 ± 0.91 μM) had better inhibitory activities than the positive reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) (IC50 = 26.99 ± 1.43 μM), while complexes 2 and 3 showed no inhibitory activities., kinetics study was carried out to explore the mechanism of the inhibiting of the enzyme, and the result indicated that complex 1 was a competitive inhibitor of urease. Albumin binding experiment and in vitro toxicity evaluation of complex 1 were implemented to explore its Pharmacological properties.

  19. Evaluation of three neutral capillary coatings for the determination of analyte-cyclodextrin binding constants by affinity capillary electrophoresis. Application to N,N'-disubstituted piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Danel, Cécile; Melnyk, Patricia; Azaroual, Nathalie; Larchanché, Paul-Emmanuel; Goossens, Jean-François; Vaccher, Claude

    2016-07-15

    The performances of three neutral static coatings (hydroxypropyl cellulose, polyethylene oxide and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) have been evaluated in order to determine the binding constants of the complexes formed between four polycationic compounds (piperazine derivatives) and four cyclodextrins of pharmaceutical interest (β-CD, HP-β-CD, Me-β-CD and sulfobutyl ether-β-CD) by affinity capillary electrophoresis. The physically-adsorbed poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) coating proves to be the more efficient to mask the silanol groups of the capillary wall since the lowest electroosmotic flow was measured for this coating. Moreover, it drastically reduces the adsorption of the compounds since it allows a correct repeatability of their migration time, higher efficiencies of the peaks and no baseline shift. Then, it was verified for four complexes that this coating allows a correct determination of the binding constants avoiding the CD adsorption which is responsible of an undervaluation of binding constants. The highest binding constants are obtained using the anionic sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD). The structure of the complex formed between the tacrine derivative and the SBE-β-CD was further investigated through 2D ROESY NMR experiments and structure-binding constant relationships. Results suggest that the inclusion in the SBE-β-CD cavity occurs through the aliphatic ring portion of the tacrine moiety.

  20. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine.

    PubMed

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Sevčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea.

  1. Mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols: Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding and cheminuclease activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Karthick, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Four new zinc(II) complexes [Zn(HL1-4)Cl2] (1-4), where HL1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, have been isolated and fully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 4 shows the distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry around zinc(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonding interaction. The complexes display no d-d electronic band in the visible region due to d10 electronic configuration of zinc(II) ion. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes exhibit similar voltammogram at reduction potential due to electrochemically innocent Zn(II) ion, which evidenced that the electron transfer is due to the nature of the ligand. Binding interaction of complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied by UV-Vis absorption titration, viscometric titration and cyclic voltammetry. All complexes bind with CT DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order of 2 > 1 ≫ 3 > 4. The prominent cheminuclease activity of complexes on plasmid DNA (pBR322 DNA) was observed in the absence and presence of H2O2. Oxidative pathway reveals that the underlying mechanism involves hydroxyl radical.

  2. Antioxidant, DNA binding and nuclease activities of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes derived from 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols and diimines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Imran Musthafa, M. A.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-12-01

    A series of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)](ClO4)2 (1-8) [L1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)], have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions and the electronic spectra revealed the square pyramidal geometry with N4O coordination environment around copper(II) nuclei. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The EPR spectra of complexes with g|| (2.206-2.214) and A|| (154-172 × 10-4 cm-1) values support the square-based CuN3O coordination chromophore and the presence of unpaired electron localized in dx-y ground state. Antioxidant studies against DPPH revealed effective radical scavenging properties of the synthesized complexes. Binding studies suggest that the heteroleptic copper(II) complexes interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through minor-groove and electrostatic interaction, and all the complexes display pronounced nuclease activity against supercoiled pBR322 DNA.

  3. Molecular simplification of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones gives piperazine derivatives that maintain high nootropic activity.

    PubMed

    Manetti, D; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A; Dei, S; Galeotti, N; Gualtieri, F; Romanelli, M N; Teodori, E

    2000-11-16

    Several 4-substituted 1-acylpiperazines, obtained by molecular simplification of 4-substituted 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones, have been synthesized and tested in vivo on the mouse passive avoidance test, to evaluate their nootropic activity. The results show that, apparently, an N-acylpiperazine group can mimic the 2-pyrrolidinone ring of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-one, as the compounds of the new series maintain high nootropic activity. Moreover molecular simplification produces more clear-cut structure-activity relationships with respect to the parent series. The mechanism of action also appears to be similar in the two series. In fact, although the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated, the most potent compound of each class (DM232 and 13, DM235) is able to increase acetylcholine release in rat brain. Piperazine derivatives represent a new class of nootropic drugs with an in vivo pharmacological profile very similar to that of piracetam, showing much higher potency with respect to the reference compound. Among the compounds studied, 13 (DM235) shows outstanding potency, being active at a dose of 0.001 mg kg(-1) sc.

  4. Structural, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and physicochemical studies of a new chlorocadmate template by 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudani, S.; Jeanneau, E.; Jelsch, C.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopic characterization of a new chlorocadmate template by the 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine ligand are reported. In the atomic arrangement, the CdCl5O entities are deployed in corrugated rows along the a-axis at y = 1/4 and y = 3/4 to form layers parallel to the (a,b) plane. In these crystals, piperazinediium cations are in a chair conformation and are inserted between these layers through Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯Cl, Osbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form infinite three-dimensional network. Investigation of intermolecular interactions and crystal packing via Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that H⋯Cl and Csbnd H⋯Hsbnd C intermolecular interactions are the most abundant contacts of the organic cation in the crystal packing. The crystal contacts enrichments reveals that, the Cd++ … Cl- salt bridges, the Cd⋯O complexation and Osbnd H⋯Cl- and Nsbnd H⋯Cl-strong H-bonds are the driving forces in the packing formation. The presence of twelve independent chloride anions and four organic cation in the asymmetric unit allowed comparing their contact propensities. The 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. Additional characterization of this compound has also been performed by IR spectroscopy.

  5. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, J. Sharmi; Devi, T. S. Renuga; Ramkumaar, G. R.; Bright, A.

    2016-01-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid were recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method (B3LYP). The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational band assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties, Mulliken and natural atomic charge distribution were calculated using both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method and compared. UV-Visible and HOMO-LUMO analysis were carried out. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using gauge including atomic orbital method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and molecular electrostatic potential of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemically reactive site in the molecule.

  6. Progress of bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported in 1981, AIDS, as the global disease affecting 33.2 million people in 2007, has always been an unsolved problem worldwide. Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and thereby has been the prime drugs target for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy against AIDS. To date, two classes of RT inhibitors (RTIs), e.g., nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and a lot of compounds tested as RTIs have been described. To our knowledge, bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) have been considered as one class of promising NNRTIs, such as structurally and chemically related NNRTI delavirdine, which was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in 1997. In this mini-review, we make attempts to report the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of BHAPs, in the meantime, the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 replication by combining delavirdine with other HIV-1 inhibitors is also discussed. It will pave the way for the design and development of BHAPs as anti-HIV-1 agents in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  7. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato-κ4 N}zinc

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra­kis­[4-(benzo­yloxy)phen­yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin­ation geometry about the central ZnII atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro­gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn—N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn— N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra­molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter­layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:27555935

  8. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of (piperazine-κN){5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato-κ(4) N}zinc.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Soumaya; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Turowska-Tyrk, Ilona; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C72H44N4O8)(C4H10N2)] or [Zn(TPBP)(pipz] (where TPBP and pipz are 5,10,15,20-tetra-kis-[4-(benzo-yloxy)phen-yl]porphyrinato and piperazine ligands respectively), features a distorted square-pyramidal coordin-ation geometry about the central Zn(II) atom. This central atom is chelated by the four N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and further coordinated by a nitro-gen atom of the piperazine axial ligand, which adopts a chair confirmation. The average Zn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 2.078 (7) Å and the Zn- N(pipz) bond length is 2.1274 (19) Å. The zinc cation is displaced by 0.4365 (4) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion toward the piperazine axial ligand. This porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits major saddle and moderate ruffling deformations. In the crystal, the supra-molecular structure is made by parallel pairs of layers along (100), with an inter-layer distance of 4.100 Å while the distance between two pairs of layers is 4.047 Å. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] procedure in PLATON following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered n-hexane solvent and water mol-ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol-ecules.

  9. (E)-1-{4-[Bis(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)meth-yl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-(4-eth-oxy-3-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Bin

    2012-04-01

    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C(31)H(36)N(2)O(5), the piperazine ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the bis-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methyl group is 83.42 (15)°. In the crystal, centrosymmetric-ally related mol-ecules are linked through pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into dimers, generating an R(2) (2)(10) ring motif. The dimers are further connected into chains parallel to [2-10] by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the meth-oxy groups.

  10. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone: A potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ammirati, Mark J.; Andrews, Kim M.; Boyer, David D.; Brodeur, Anne M.; Danley, Dennis E.; Doran, Shawn D.; Hulin, Bernard; Liu, Shenping; McPherson, R. Kirk; Orena, Stephen J.; Parker, Janice C.; Polivkova, Jana; Qiu, Xiayang; Soglia, Carolyn B.; Treadway, Judith L.; VanVolkenburg, Maria A.; Wilder, Donald C.; Piotrowski, David W.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    A series of 4-substituted proline amides was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species and low plasma protein binding. Compound 5, PF-00734200, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  11. Retention of ionisable compounds on high-performance liquid chromatography XIX. pH variation in mobile phases containing formic acid, piperazine and tris as buffering systems and methanol as organic modifier.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2009-07-10

    In previous works a model to estimate the pH of methanol-aqueous buffer mobile phases from the aqueous pH and concentration of the buffer and the fraction of organic modifier was developed. This model was successfully applied and validated for buffers prepared from ammonia, acetic, phosphoric and citric acids. In the present communication this model has been extended to formic acid, piperazine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffers. Prior to the modelling work, the pK(a) values of the studied buffers at several methanol-water compositions were determined.

  12. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR, NLO) investigation and molecular docking study of 1-(4-Methylbenzyl) piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, K.; Periandy, S.

    2017-04-01

    The title compound, 1-(4-Methylbenzyl) piperazine, was analyzed by recording FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) spectra in solid phase, 1H and 13C NMR in CDCl3 (deuterated chloroform) and UV spectrum (200-400 nm) in solid phase and in ethanol solution. The different conformers of the compound and their minimum energies were studied by potential energy surface scan, using semi-empirical method PM6. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set along with B3LYP and B3PW91 functionals have been used to compute ground state molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have carried out with the help of Potential Energy distribution (PED) analysis. Factor group analysis has also been tabulated. Charge distribution, Frontier Molecular Orbitals, UV-Vis spectra, Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) maps, Non-linear optical (NLO) property and thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures, were determined using B3LYP functional along with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The theoretical 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were computed using B3LYP functional with 6-311++G (2d, p) basis sets. Natural Bond orbital analysis were computed and possible transitions were correlated with the electronic transitions. The title compound not only exhibits appreciable dipole moment and hyper polarizability (indicating good NLO properties) but also forms a stable complex with Bacillus cereus, (2HUC), with binding affinity -6.7 kcal/mol through molecular docking, suggesting that, it might exhibit inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus.

  13. Synthesis and positive inotropic evaluation of [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine and tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine derivatives bearing substituted piperazine moieties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long-Xu; Cui, Bai-Ri; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jia-Chun; Cui, Xun; Liu, Li-Ping; Piao, Hu-Ri

    2014-04-01

    Four series of [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine and tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine derivatives bearing substituted piperazine moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their positive inotropic activity by measuring the left atrium stroke volume in isolated rabbit-heart preparations. Several compounds were developed and showed favorable activities compared to the standard drug milrinone, with (4-([1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazin-6-yl)piperazin-1-yl)(p-tolyl)methanone (5g) being identified as the most potent with an increased stroke volume of 19.15±0.22% (milrinone: 2.46±0.07%) at a concentration of 3×10(-5) M. A preliminary study of mechanism of action revealed that 5g displayed its positive inotropic effect may be related to the PDE-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. Compounds exhibiting inotropic effects were also evaluated in terms of the chronotropic effects.

  14. Design, synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo evaluation of carbon-11 labeled N-[2-[4-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide, a potential Positron Emission Tomography tracer for the dopamine D4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lacivita, Enza; De Giorgio, Paola; Lee, Irene T.; Rodeheaver, Sean I.; Weiss, Bryan A.; Fracasso, Claudia; Caccia, Silvio; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Maeda, Jun; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Schetz, John A.; Leopoldo, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the design, synthesis, physicochemical, and pharmacological evaluation of D4 dopamine receptor ligands related to N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (2). Structural features were incorporated to increase affinity for the target receptor, to improve selectivity over D2 and sigma1 receptors, to enable labeling with carbon-11 or fluorine-18, and to adjust lipophilicity within the range considered optimal for brain penetration and low nonspecific binding. Compounds 7 and 13 showed the overall best characteristics: nanomolar affinity for the D4 receptor, > 100-fold selectivity over D2 and D3 dopamine receptor 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors and sigma1 receptors, and logP = 2.37–2.55. Following intraperitoneal administration, both compounds rapidly entered the central nervous system. The methoxy of N-[2-[4-(3-cyanopyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (7) was radiolabelled with carbon-11 and subjected to PET analysis in non-human primate. [11C]7 time-dependently accumulated to saturation in the posterior eye in the region of the retina, a tissue containing a high density of D4 receptors. PMID:20873719

  15. Antitumor activity of JS-K [O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate] and related O2-aryl diazeniumdiolates in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shami, Paul J; Saavedra, Joseph E; Bonifant, Challice L; Chu, Jingxi; Udupi, Vidya; Malaviya, Swati; Carr, Brian I; Kar, Siddhartha; Wang, Meifeng; Jia, Lee; Ji, Xinhua; Keefer, Larry K

    2006-07-13

    The literature provides evidence that metabolic nitric oxide (NO) release mediates the cytotoxic activities (against human leukemia and prostate cancer xenografts in mice) of JS-K, a compound of structure R(2)N-N(O)=NO-Ar for which R(2)N is 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl and Ar is 2,4-dinitrophenyl. Here we present comparative data on the potencies of JS-K and 41 other O(2)-arylated diazeniumdiolates as inhibitors of HL-60 human leukemia cell proliferation, as well as in the NCI 51-cell-line screen for six of them. The data show JS-K to be the most potent of the 42 in both screens and suggest that other features of its structure and metabolism besides NO release may contribute importantly to its activity. Results with control compounds implicate JS-K's arylating ability, and the surprisingly low IC(50) value of the N-(ethoxycarbonyl)piperazine byproduct of NO release suggests a role for the R(2)N moiety. In addition to the above-mentioned in vivo activities, JS-K is shown here to be carcinostatic in a rat liver cancer model.

  16. Collection of VLE data for acid gas - alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report, September 29, 1990--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes research from September 29, 1990 through September 30, 1996, involving the development a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic apparatus and method for measuring vapor - liquid equilibrium (VLE) systems of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with aqueous alkanolamine solutions. The original apparatus was developed and modified as it was used to collect VLE data on acid gas systems. Vapor and liquid calibrations were performed for spectral measurements of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in the vapor and in solution with aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 20 wt % DEA at 50{degrees}C and 40{degrees}C. VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 50 wt% and 23 wt% MDEA at 40{degrees}C and in 23 wt% MDEA at 50{degrees}C. VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 35 wt% MDEA + 5 wt% DEA and in 35 wt% MDEA + 10 wt% DEA at 40{degrees}C and 50{degrees}C. Measurements were made of residual amounts of carbon dioxide in each VLE system. The new FTIR spectrometer is now a consistently working and performing apparatus.

  17. Solubility of nitrous oxide in amine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bensetiti, Z.; Iliuta, I.; Larachi, F.; Grandjean, B.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in 13 amine solvents and solutions was correlated to amine mole fractions and temperature using feedforward neural networks. This general correlation, using a massive database, predicted N{sub 2}O solubility at temperatures between 283 and 398 K in pure solvents [H{sub 2}O, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanolamine (AMP)], in binary aqueous amine solutions [H{sub 2}O/MEA, H{sub 2}O/DEA, H{sub 2}O/MDEA, and H{sub 2}O/AMP], and in ternary aqueous amine blends [AMP/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, AMP/DEA/H{sub 2}O, DEA/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, MDEA/MEA/H{sub 2}O, and AMP/MEA/H{sub 2}O]. Combined with the N{sub 2}O analogy, this present improved correlation can be advantageously implemented in amine plant design software and procedures for the prediction of CO{sub 2} solubility in amine blend solutions over wide temperature and concentration ranges.

  18. In vitro hepatotoxicity of 'Legal X': the combination of 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dias da Silva, Diana; Silva, Maria João; Moreira, Patrícia; Martins, Maria João; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carmo, Helena

    2017-03-01

    N-Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) are two synthetic phenylpiperazine analogues that have been frequently commercialized in combination as an alternative to ecstasy ('Legal X'). Despite reports of several clinical complications following the use of these drugs in association, few studies have been conducted so far to elucidate their combined toxicity. The present study was aimed at clarifying the cytotoxic effects of mixtures of BZP and TFMPP in vitro. Human-derived HepaRG cells and primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to the drugs, individually or combined at different mixture ratios, and cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. Mixture additivity expectations were calculated by the independent action and the concentration addition (CA) models and compared with the experimental outcomes. To delineate the mechanisms underlying the elicited effects, a range of stress endpoints was evaluated, including oxidative stress, energetic imbalance, and metabolic interactions. It was observed that primary rat hepatocytes are more sensitive than HepaRG cells to the toxicity of BZP (EC50 2.20 and 6.60 mM, respectively) and TFMPP (EC50 0.14 and 0.45 mM, respectively). For all BZP-TFMPP combinations tested, CA was the most appropriate model to predict the mixture effects. TFMPP proved to act additively with BZP to produce significant hepatotoxicity (p < 0.01). Remarkably, substantial mixture effects were observed even when each drug was present at concentrations that were harmless individually. In primary hepatocytes, a small deviation from additivity (antagonism) was observed toward the upper range of the concentration-response curve. GC/MS data suggest that a metabolic interaction may be at a play, as the mixture favors the metabolism of both substances, to a significant extent in the case of BZP (p < 0.05). Also, our results demonstrate the influence of oxidative stress and energetic imbalance on these effects (increase in RNS

  19. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734 821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17 340 to 4 879 681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The “all X” mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738 192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28 392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19 915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant

  20. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734,821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines.

    PubMed

    Houghten, Richard A; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P; Dooley, Colette T; Eans, Shainnel O; Santos, Radleigh G; LaVoi, Travis; Nefzi, Adel; Welmaker, Greg; Giulianotti, Marc A; Toll, Lawrence

    2016-01-11

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17,340 to 4,879,681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The "all X" mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738,192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28,392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19,915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant respiratory

  1. Poly[diaqua­(μ4-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)[μ2-1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine]dizinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Li, Yan; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Liang-Zhong; Zhang, Duo

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn2(C10H2O8)(C16H20N4)(H2O)2]n, the ZnII atom is in a distorted tetra­hedral environment, being coordinated by one N atom from a 1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine (3-bpmp) ligand, two O atoms from two carboxyl­ate groups of the pyromellitate anion and one water mol­ecule. The distortion of the tetrahedral coordination may be ascribed to the hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl­ate groups and the adjacent water mol­ecules. Each ZnII atom links to three organic ligands and each pyromellitate ligand coordinates to four ZnII atoms, forming a (3,4)-connected infinite three-dimensional framework. O—H⋯N inter­actions also occur. PMID:21754666

  2. Poly[1,4-bis­(4-pyridylmeth­yl)piperazine­diium [[tetra­aqua­cobaltate(II)]-μ-pyromellitato-κ2 O 1:O 4] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sposato, Laura K.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, {(C16H22N4)[Co(C10H2O8)(H2O)4]·2H2O}n, the octa­hedrally coordinated CoII atom is situated on an inversion center and possesses four aqua ligands. The Co atoms are linked into an anionic coordination polymer chain by bis-monodentate pyromellitate ligands. The chain motifs are connected into a supra­molecular layer by hydrogen bonding mediated by uncoordinated water mol­ecules. Charge balance is provided by doubly protonated bis­(4-pyridylmeth­yl)piperazine units, which are anchored to the coordination polymer chain motifs by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21578710

  3. 4-(3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide (ML267), a Potent Inhibitor of Bacterial Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase That Attenuates Secondary Metabolism and Thwarts Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    4′-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) catalyze a post-translational modification essential to bacterial cell viability and virulence. We present the discovery and medicinal chemistry optimization of 2-pyridinyl-N-(4-aryl)piperazine-1-carbothioamides, which exhibit submicromolar inhibition of bacterial Sfp-PPTase with no activity toward the human orthologue. Moreover, compounds within this class possess antibacterial activity in the absence of a rapid cytotoxic response in human cells. An advanced analogue of this series, ML267 (55), was found to attenuate production of an Sfp-PPTase-dependent metabolite when applied to Bacillus subtilis at sublethal doses. Additional testing revealed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and chemical genetic studies implicated efflux as a mechanism for resistance in Escherichia coli. Additionally, we highlight the in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of compound 55 to further demonstrate the potential utility of this small-molecule inhibitor. PMID:24450337

  4. Computer-aided structure-affinity relationships in a set of piperazine and 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives binding to the μ-opioid receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlocco, Daniela; Cignarella, Giorgio; Greco, Giovanni; Novellino, Ettore

    1993-10-01

    Molecular modeling studies were carried out on a set of piperazine and 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives with the aim to highlight the main factors modulating their affinity for the μ-opioid receptor. Structure-affinity relationships were developed with the aid of molecular mechanics and semiempirical quantum-mechanics methods. According to our proposed pharmacodynamic model, the binding to the μ-receptor is promoted by the following physico-chemical features: the presence of hydrocarbon fragments on the nitrogen ring frame capable of interacting with one of two hypothesized hydrophobic receptor pockets; a `correct' orientation of an N-propionyl side chain so as to avoid a sterically hindered region of the receptor; the possibility of accepting a hydrogen bond from a receptor site complementary to the morphine phenol oxygen.

  5. Poly[diaquabis(mu(3)-hexamethylenetetramine)[mu(2)-2,2'-(piperazine-1,4-diyl)bis(ethanesulfonato)]disilver(I)]: a three-dimensional pillared-layer framework encapsulating a water chain of (H(2)O)(12) clusters.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Jing; Pan, Dao-cheng; Xu, Guo-Hai

    2010-09-01

    The title compound, {[Ag(2)(C(8)H(16)N(2)O(6)S(2))(C(6)H(12)N(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)].12H(2)O}(n), consists of a two-dimensional Ag(I)-hexamethylenetetramine (6,3) net pillared by the 2,2'-(piperazine-1,4-diyl)bis(ethanesulfonate) ligand, which lies across a centre of inversion. This compound can also be viewed as a (3,4)-connected topology by considering the hexamethylenetetramine ligand and the Ag(I) ion as the three- and four-connected nodes, respectively. There is a one-dimensional channel along the a axis accommodating a water chain assembled by the (H(2)O)(12) clusters.

  6. Physical solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous alkanolamines via nitrous oxide analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, G.J.; Weiland, R.H. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    In the petrochemical and natural gas industry, the removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from process gas streams is commonly achieved by reacting these impurities with aqueous alkanolamines. Van Krevelen coefficients for protonated monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), the carbamates of MEA and DEA, and the bicarbonate ion have been determined experimentally from measurements of the solubility of N[sub 2]O at 25 C and atmospheric pressure in aqueous solutions of these ions. Measured values different significantly from values recommended by others in the absence of experimental data. By analogy with N[sub 2]O, the solubility of carbon dioxide in the same solutions can be estimated.

  7. Acid gas absorption in aqueous solutions of mixed amines

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, E.B.; Ashour, S.S.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-12-31

    A mass transfer model has been developed to describe the rate of absorption (or desorption) of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of a tertiary and a secondary or a primary amine. The model is based on penetration theory, and all significant chemical reactions are incorporated in the model. The reactions are taken to be reversible, with reactions involving only a proton transfer considered to be at equilibrium. The particular amines studied in this research were methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a tertiary amine, and diethanolamine (DEA), a secondary amine. Key physicochemical data needed in the model, such as diffusion coefficients, kinetic rate constants, and gas solubilities, were measured. Experimental absorption rates of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S were measured in a model gas-liquid contacting device and were compared with model predictions. Experiments were carried out for single amine solutions (both MDEA and DEA) and for amine blends.

  8. N-[(R)-(6-Bromo-2-meth­oxy­quinolin-3-yl)(phen­yl)meth­yl]-N-[(S)-1-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)eth­yl]-2-(piperazin-1-yl)acetamide

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lei; Wang, Rui; Li, Chang-Yi; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Tie-Min

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C32H35BrN4O3, the piperazine ring exists in a chair conformation. The quinoline ring system is oriented at dihedral angles of 82.70 (17) and 19.54 (17)° to the phenyl and meth­oxy­phenyl rings, respectively. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions are present in the crystal structure. PMID:22219953

  9. Studies of tricyclic piperazine/piperidine furnished molecules as novel integrin αvβ3/αIIbβ3 dual antagonists using 3D-QSAR and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yulian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shuwei; Ai, Chunzhi

    2011-02-01

    The development of injectable integrin α(v)β(3)/α(IIb)β(3) dual antagonists attracts much attention of research for treating of acute ischemic diseases in recent years. In this work, based on a dataset composed of 102 tricyclic piperazine/piperidine furnished dual α(v)β(3) and α(IIb)β(3) antagonists, a variety of in silico modeling approaches including the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), and molecular docking were applied to reveal the requisite 3D structural features impacting the biological activities. Our statistical results show that the ligand-based 3D-QSAR models for both the α(v)β(3) and α(IIb)β(3) studies exhibited satisfactory internal and external predictability, i.e., for the CoMFA models, results of Q(2)=0.48, R(ncv)(2)=0.87, R(pred)(2)=0.71 for α(v)β(3) and Q(2)=0.50, R(ncv)(2)=0.85, R(pred)(2)=0.72 for α(IIb)β(3) analysis were obtained, and for the CoMSIA ones, the outcomes of Q(2)=0.55, R(ncv)(2)=0.90, R(pred)(2)=0.72 for α(v)β(3) and Q(2)=0.52, R(ncv)(2)=0.88, R(pred)(2)=0.74 for α(IIb)β(3) were achieved respectively. In addition, through a comparison between 3D-QSAR contour maps and docking results, it is revealed that that the most crucial interactions occurring between the tricyclic piperazine/piperidine derivatives and α(v)β(3)/α(IIb)β(3) receptor ligand binding pocket are H-bonding, and the key amino acids impacting the interactions are Arg214, Asn215, Ser123, and Lys253 for α(v)β(3), but Arg214, Asn215, Ser123 and Tyr190 for α(IIb)β(3) receptors, respectively. Halogen-containing groups at position 15 and 16, benzene sulfonamide substituent at position 23, and the replacement of piperazine with 4-aminopiperidine of ring B may increase the α(v)β(3)/α(IIb)β(3) antagonistic activity. The potencies for antagonists to inhibit isolated α(v)β(3) and α(IIb)β(3) are linear correlated, indicating that similar interaction mechanisms may exist for the series

  10. Crystal structure of 3-{[4-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)piperazin-1-yl]meth-yl}-5-(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione.

    PubMed

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A; Abuelizz, Hatem A; El-Emam, Ali A; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S M; Garcia-Granda, Santiago

    2016-02-01

    The title compound, C18H20N4O2S2, is a new 1,3,4-oxa-diazole and a key pharmacophore of several biologically active agents. It is composed of a meth-yl(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione moiety linked to a 2-meth-oxy-phenyl unit via a piperazine ring that has a chair conformation. The thio-phene ring mean plane lies almost in the plane of the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 4.35 (9)°. The 2-meth-oxy-phenyl ring is almost normal to the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.17 (10)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and slipped parallel π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.6729 (10) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. The thio-phene ring has an approximate 180° rotational disorder about the bridging C-C bond.

  11. Retention of ionisable compounds on high-performance liquid chromatography XVIII: pH variation in mobile phases containing formic acid, piperazine, tris, boric acid or carbonate as buffering systems and acetonitrile as organic modifier.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2009-03-20

    In the present work dissociation constants of commonly used buffering species, formic acid, piperazine, tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane, boric acid and carbonate, have been determined for several acetonitrile-water mixtures. From these pK(a) values a previous model has been successfully evaluated to estimate pH values in acetonitrile-aqueous buffer mobile phases from the aqueous pH and concentration of the above mentioned buffers up to 60% of acetonitrile, and aqueous buffer concentrations between 0.005 (0.001 mol L(-1) for formic acid-formate) and 0.1 mol L(-1). The relationships derived for the presently studied buffers, together with those established for previously considered buffering systems, allow a general prediction of the pH variation of the most commonly used HPLC buffers when the composition of the acetonitrile-water mobile phase changes during the chromatographic process, such as in gradient elution. Thus, they are an interesting tool that can be easily implemented in general retention models to predict retention of acid-base analytes and optimize chromatographic separations.

  12. Layer silicates modified with 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine for the removal of Th(IV), U(VI) and Eu(III) from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Denis L; Pinto, Alane A; Viana, Rúbia R; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-15

    Natural montmorillonite (M) and synthetic kanemite (K) have been functionalized with 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine reacted with methylacrylate to yield new inorganic-organic chelating materials. The original and modified materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, textural analysis, SEM and nuclear magnetic nuclei of carbon-13 and silicon-29. The chemically modified clay samples (M-APPMA and K-APPMA) showed modification of its physical-chemical properties including: specific area 45.0m(2)g(-1) (M) to 978.8 m(2)g(-1) (M-APPMA) and 23.5m(2)g(-1) (K) to 898.9 m(2)g(-1) (K-APPMA). The ability of these materials to remove thorium(IV), uranyl(VI) and europium(III) from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms, which were fitted to non-linear Sips adsorption isotherm model. To achieve the best adsorption conditions the influence of pH and variation of metal concentration were investigated. The energetic effects (Delta(int)H degrees , Delta(int)G degrees and Delta(int)S degrees ) caused by metal ions adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations.

  13. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis-(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N,O(2))chlorido-cuprate(II)].

    PubMed

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Ayi, Ayi Anyama; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro-chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the Cu(II) atom. The coordination environment of the Cu(II) atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu-Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. Further but weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions consolidate the packing.

  14. Heptanuclear Co(II)5Co(III)2 Cluster as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Heng; Guo, Ling-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Wen-Guang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2017-02-06

    Inspired by the transition-metal-oxo cubical Mn4CaO5 in photosystem II, we herein report a disc-like heptanuclear mixed-valent cobalt cluster, [Co(II)5Co(III)2(mdea)4(N3)2(CH3CN)6(OH)2(H2O)2·4ClO4] (1, H2mdea = N-methyldiethanolamine), for photocatalytic oxygen evolution. The topology of the Co7 core resembles a small piece of cobaltate protected by terminal H2O, N3(-), CH3CN, and multidentate N-methyldiethanolamine at the periphery. Under the optimal photocatalytic conditions, 1 exhibits water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 210 and a turnover frequency (TOFinitial) of 0.23 s(-1). Importantly, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to not only identify the possible main active species in the water oxidation reaction but also monitor the evolutions of oxidation states of cobalt during the photocatalytic reactions. These results shed light on the design concept of new water oxidation catalysts and mechanism-related issues such as the key active intermediate and oxidation state evolution in the oxygen evolution process. The magnetic properties of 1 were also discussed in detail.

  15. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl)-1-[(4-ethyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-4-[(E)-(4-hy­droxy­benzyl­idene)amino]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; Alrashood, Khalid A.; Al-Tamimi, Abdul-Malek S.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title thione, C26H36N6OS, the 1,2,4-triazole ring is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å) and the benzene ring is twisted out of this plane [dihedral angle = 62.35 (12)°]. Supra­molecular zigzag chains feature in the crystal packing. These are sustained by O—H⋯N(piperazine) hydrogen bonds, and are connected into the three-dimensional crystal structure by C—H⋯S and C—H⋯O inter­actions. The crystal studied was a racemic twin. PMID:22412560

  16. Biochemical and biological properties of 4-(3-phenyl-[1,2,4] thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid phenylamide, a mechanism-based inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Karbarz, Mark J; Luo, Lin; Chang, Leon; Tham, Chui-Se; Palmer, James A; Wilson, Sandy J; Wennerholm, Michelle L; Brown, Sean M; Scott, Brian P; Apodaca, Richard L; Keith, John M; Wu, Jiejun; Breitenbucher, James Guy; Chaplan, Sandra R; Webb, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme within the amidase-signature family. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of several endogenous biologically active lipids, including anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide), oleoyl ethanolamide, and palmitoyl ethanolamide. These endogenous FAAH substrates have been shown to be involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including synaptic regulation, regulation of sleep and feeding, locomotor activity, pain and inflammation. Here we describe the biochemical and biological properties of a potent and selective FAAH inhibitor, 4-(3-phenyl-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid phenylamide (JNJ-1661010). The time-dependence of apparent IC(50) values at rat and human recombinant FAAH, dialysis and mass spectrometry data indicate that the acyl piperazinyl fragment of JNJ-1661010 forms a covalent bond with the enzyme. This bond is slowly hydrolyzed, with release of the piperazinyl fragment and recovery of enzyme activity. The lack of inhibition observed in a rat liver esterase assay suggests that JNJ-1661010 is not a general esterase inhibitor. JNJ-1661010 is >100-fold preferentially selective for FAAH-1 when compared to FAAH-2. JNJ-1661010 dose-dependently increases arachidonoyl ethanolamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, and palmitoyl ethanolamide in the rat brain. The compound attenuates tactile allodynia in the rat mild thermal injury model of acute tissue damage and in the rat spinal nerve ligation (Chung) model of neuropathic pain. JNJ-1661010 also diminishes thermal hyperalgesia in the inflammatory rat carrageenan paw model. These data suggest that FAAH inhibitors with modes of action similar to JNJ-1661010 may be useful clinically as broad-spectrum analgesics.

  17. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-01-15

    1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a designer drug with serotonergic properties. Previous studies with male Wistar rats (WI) had shown, that TFMPP was metabolized mainly by aromatic hydroxylation. In the current study, it was examined whether this reaction may be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 by comparing TFMPP vs. hydroxy TFMPP ratios in urine from female Dark Agouti rats, a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats, an intermediate model, and WI, a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Furthermore, the human hepatic CYPs involved in TFMPP hydroxylation were identified using cDNA-expressed CYPs and human liver microsomes. Finally, TFMPP plasma levels in the above mentioned rats were compared. The urine studies suggested that TFMPP hydroxylation might be catalyzed by CYP2D6 in humans. Studies using human CYPs showed that CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed TFMPP hydroxylation, with CYP2D6 being the most important enzyme accounting for about 81% of the net intrinsic clearance, calculated using the relative activity factor approach. The hydroxylation was significantly inhibited by quinidine (77%) and metabolite formation in poor metabolizer genotype human liver microsomes was significantly lower (63%) compared to pooled human liver microsomes. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that female Dark Agouti rats exhibited significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels compared to those of male Dark Agouti rats and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels. In conclusion, the presented data give hints for possible differences in pharmacokinetics in human PM and human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype subjects relevant for risk assessment.

  18. The antidepressant-like activity of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one involves serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Walczak, Maria; Kij, Agnieszka; Rapacz, Anna; Siwek, Agata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-10-05

    Xanthone derivatives have been shown to posses many biological properties. Some of them act within the central nervous system and show neuroprotective or antidepressant-like properties. Taking this into account we investigated antidepressant-like activity in mice and the possible mechanism of action of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one (HBK-11) - a new xanthone derivative. We demonstrated that HBK-11 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, comparable to that of venlafaxine. The combined treatment with sub-effective doses of HBK-11 and fluoxetine (but not reboxetine or bupropion) significantly reduced the immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, the antidepressant-like activity of HBK-11 in the aforementioned test was blocked by p-chlorophenylalanine, and significantly reduced by serotonergic 5HT1A receptor antagonist - WAY-1006335 and 5HT2A/C receptor antagonist - ritanserin. As none of the above treatments influenced the spontaneous locomotor activity, it can be concluded that HBK-11 mediates its activity through a serotonergic system, and its antidepressant-like effect involves 5HT1A and 5HT2A/C receptor activation. Furthermore, at antidepressant-like doses HBK-11 did not cause the mice to display locomotor deficits in rotarod or chimney tests. Considering the pharmacokinetic profile, HBK-11 demonstrated rapid absorption after i.p. administration, high clearance value, short terminal half-life, very high volume of distribution and incomplete bioavailability. The compound studied had good penetration into the brain tissue of mice. Since studied xanthone derivative seems to present interesting, untypical mechanism of antidepressant-like action i.e. 5HT2A/C receptor activation, it may have a potential in the treatment of depressive disorders, and surely requires further studies.

  19. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V.; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducing Escherichia coli strain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx. PMID:26824939

  20. The small molecule '1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate' and its derivatives regulate global protein synthesis by inactivating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mi-Na; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Kyung Kon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, InKi

    2016-05-01

    By environmental stresses, cells can initiate a signaling pathway in which eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2-α) is involved to regulate the response. Phosphorylation of eIF2-α results in the reduction of overall protein neogenesis, which allows cells to conserve resources and to reprogram energy usage for effective stress control. To investigate the role of eIF2-α in cell stress responses, we conducted a viability-based compound screen under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress condition, and identified 1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate (AMC-01) and its derivatives as eIF2-α-inactivating chemical. Molecular characterization of this signaling pathway revealed that AMC-01 induced inactivation of eIF2-α by phosphorylating serine residue 51 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the negative control compounds did not affect eIF2-α phosphorylation. In contrast with ER stress induction by thapsigargin, phosphorylation of eIF2-α persisted for the duration of incubation with AMC-01. By pathway analysis, AMC-01 clearly induced the activation of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) kinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), whereas it did not modulate the activity of PERK or heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI). Finally, we could detect a lower protein translation rate in cells incubated with AMC-01, establishing AMC-01 as a potent chemical probe that can regulate eIF2-α activity. We suggest from these data that AMC-01 and its derivative compounds can be used as chemical probes in future studies of the role of eIF2-α in protein synthesis-related cell physiology.

  1. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Jürgen A; Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducingEscherichia colistrain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx.

  2. Neuroprotective targets through which 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), a sigma receptor ligand, mitigates the effects of methamphetamine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J; Rosen, Abagail; McCurdy, Christopher R; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2014-02-05

    Exposure to high or repeated doses of methamphetamine can cause hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, which are thought to increase the risk of developing a variety of neurological conditions. Sigma receptor antagonism can prevent methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, but the underlying cellular targets through which the neuroprotection is conveyed remain unknown. Differentiated NG108-15 cells were thus used as a model system to begin elucidating the neuroprotective mechanisms targeted by sigma receptor antagonists to mitigate the effects of methamphetamine. In differentiated NG108-15 cells, methamphetamine caused the generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, an increase in PERK-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, ultimately resulting in apoptosis at micromolar concentrations, and necrotic cell death at higher concentrations. The sigma receptor antagonist, 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79), attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and accompanying cellular toxicity. In contrast, 1,3-di(2-tolyl)-guanidine (DTG), a sigma receptor agonist, shifted the dose response curve of methamphetamine-induced cell death towards the left. To probe the effect of temperature on neurotoxicity, NG108-15 cells maintained at an elevated temperature (40 °C) exhibited a significant and synergistic increase in cell death in response to methamphetamine, compared to cells maintained at a normal cell culture temperature (37 °C). SN79 attenuated the enhanced cell death observed in the methamphetamine-treated cells at 40 °C. Together, the data demonstrate that SN79 reduces methamphetamine-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation and caspase activation, thereby conveying neuroprotective effects against methamphetamine under regular and elevated temperature conditions.

  3. Determination of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products, ethanolamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo

    2006-07-28

    A method for determining N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethanolamine (TEA), hydrolysis products of nitrogen mustards, in water, urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization by tert-butyldimethylsilylation (TBDMS) is described. The sample solution was evaporated to dryness, and reacted with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) at 60 degrees C for 1h. The TBDMS derivatives were separated on a DB-5 column and detected by electron-ionization MS. The quantitation of EDEA, MDEA and TEA was performed by measuring the respective peak areas on the extracted ion chromatograms of m/z 216, m/z 202 and m/z 346, respectively, using nonadecane (C19), the peak area of which was measured at m/z 268, as an internal standard. When the water sample was initially analyzed, considerable loss of EDEA, MDEA and TEA occurred by evaporation. The addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the water sample (final 1 mM), however, permitted quantitative recoveries to be achieved (88%, 88% and 79% for EDEA-(TBDMS)2, MDEA-(TBDMS)2 and TEA-(TBDMS)3, respectively). The limits of detections (LODs, scan mode, S/N = 3) were 2.5, 2.5 and 10 ng/ml for EDEA, MDEA and TEA, respectively. Ethanolamines could be also determined in urine samples (volume 0.1 ml), with reasonable recoveries of 72-100% by the addition of HCl (final 1 mM). For the analysis of serum samples, the sample was precipitated by the addition of perchloric acid (final 3.2%), and the resulting supernatant was neutralized with potassium carbonate, and then acidified by the addition of HCl. The recovery of TBDMS derivatives of ethanolamines was found to rather low (7-31%).

  4. Pharmacology and antitussive efficacy of 4-(3-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-amide (JNJ17203212), a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Scott, Brian P; Nasser, Nadia; Ao, Hong; Maher, Michael P; Dubin, Adrienne E; Swanson, Devin M; Shankley, Nigel P; Wickenden, Alan D; Chaplan, Sandra R

    2007-11-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays an integral role in modulating the cough reflex, and it is an attractive antitussive drug target. The purpose of this study was to characterize a TRPV1 antagonist, 4-(3-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-amide (JNJ17203212), against the guinea pig TRPV1 receptor in vitro followed by a proof-of-principle study in an acid-induced model of cough. The affinity of JNJ17203212 for the recombinant guinea pig TRPV1 receptor was estimated by radioligand binding, and it was functionally characterized by antagonism of low-pH and capsaicin-induced activation of the ion channel (fluorometric imaging plate reader and electrophysiology). The nature of antagonism was further tested against the native channel in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. Following pharmacokinetic characterization of JNJ17203212 in guinea pigs, pharmacodynamic and efficacy studies were undertaken to establish the antitussive efficacy of the TRPV1 antagonist. The pK(i) of JNJ17203212 for recombinant guinea pig TRPV1 was 7.14 +/- 0.06. JNJ17203212 inhibited both pH (pIC(50) of 7.23 +/- 0.05) and capsaicin (pIC(50) of 6.32 +/- 0.06)-induced channel activation. In whole-cell patch clamp, the pIC(50) for inhibition of guinea pig TRPV1 was 7.3 +/- 0.01. JNJ17203212 demonstrated surmountable antagonism in isolated trachea, with a pK(B) value of 6.2 +/- 0.1. Intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg JNJ17203212 achieved a maximal plasma exposure of 8.0 +/- 0.4 microM, and it attenuated capsaicin evoked coughs with similar efficacy to codeine (25 mg/kg). Last, JNJ17203212 dose-dependently produced antitussive efficacy in citric acid-induced experimental cough in guinea pigs. Our data provide preclinical support for developing TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of cough.

  5. Buffer Standards for pH Measurement of N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic Acid (HEPES) for I = 0.16 mol.kg from 5 to 55 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rabindra N; Roy, Lakshmi N; Ashkenazi, Shahaf; Wollen, Joshua T; Dunseth, Craig D; Fuge, Michael S; Durden, Jared L; Roy, Chandra N; Hughes, Hannah M; Morris, Brett T; Cline, Kevin L

    2009-04-01

    The values of the second dissociation constant, pK(2) of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) have been reported at 12 temperatures over the temperature range 5 to 55 degrees C, including 37 degrees C. This paper reports the results for the pa(H) of eight isotonic saline buffer solutions with an I = 0.16 mol*kg(-1) including compositions: (a) HEPES (0.01 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.01 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.15 mol*kg(-1)); (b) HEPES (0.02 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.02 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.14 mol*kg(-1)); (c) HEPES (0.03 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.03 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.13 mol*kg(-1)); (d) HEPES (0.04 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.04 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.12 mol*kg(-1)); (e) HEPES (0.05 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.05 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.11 mol*kg(-1)); (f) HEPES (0.06 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.06 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.10 mol*kg(-1)); (g) HEPES (0.07 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.07 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.09 mol*kg(-1)); and (h) HEPES (0.08 mol*kg(-1)) + NaHEPES (0.08 mol*kg(-1)) + NaCl (0.08 mol*kg(-1)). Conventional pa(H) values, for all eight buffer solutions from 5 to 55 degrees C have been calculated. The operational pH values with liquid junction corrections, at 25 and 37 degrees C have been determined based on the NBS/NIST standard between the physiological phosphate standard and four buffer solutions. These are recommended as pH standards for physiological fluids in the range of pH 7.3 to 7.5 at I = 0.16 mol*kg(-1).

  6. Ether modifications to 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503): effects on binding affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors and monoamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A; Peterson, Ryan M; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A; Lever, John R; Lever, Susan Z

    2015-01-01

    Two series of novel ether analogs of the sigma (σ) receptor ligand 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503) have been prepared. In one series, the alkyl portion of the 4-methoxy group was replaced with allyl, propyl, bromoethyl, benzyl, phenethyl, and phenylpropyl moieties. In the second series, the 3,4-dimethoxy was replaced with cyclic methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy groups. These ligands, along with 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, were evaluated for σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity, and compared to SA4503 and several known ether analogs. SA4503 and a subset of ether analogs were also evaluated for dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) affinity. The highest σ1 receptor affinities, Ki values of 1.75-4.63 nM, were observed for 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, SA4503 and the methylenedioxy analog. As steric bulk increased, σ1 receptor affinity decreased, but only to a point. Allyl, propyl and bromoethyl substitutions gave σ1 receptor Ki values in the 20-30 nM range, while bulkier analogs having phenylalkyl, and Z- and E-iodoallyl, ether substitutions showed higher σ1 affinities, with Ki values in the 13-21 nM range. Most ligands studied exhibited comparable σ1 and σ2 affinities, resulting in little to no subtype selectivity. SA4503, the fluoroethyl analog and the methylenedioxy congener showed modest six- to fourteen-fold selectivity for σ1 sites. DAT and SERT interactions proved much more sensitive than σ receptor interactions to these structural modifications. For example, the benzyl congener (σ1Ki=20.8 nM; σ2Ki=16.4 nM) showed over 100-fold higher DAT affinity (Ki=121 nM) and 6-fold higher SERT affinity (Ki=128nM) than the parent SA4503 (DAT Ki=12650 nM; SERT Ki=760 nM). Thus, ether modifications to the SA4503 scaffold can provide polyfunctional ligands having a broader spectrum of possible pharmacological actions.

  7. The serotonin1A receptor partial agonist S15535 [4-(benzodioxan-5-yl)1-(indan-2-yl)piperazine] enhances cholinergic transmission and cognitive function in rodents: a combined neurochemical and behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J; Gobert, Alain; Roux, Sylvain; Porsolt, Roger; Meneses, Alfredo; Carli, Mirjana; Di Cara, Benjamin; Jaffard, Robert; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Lestage, Pierre; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Peglion, Jean-Louis; Dekeyne, Anne

    2004-10-01

    These studies examined the influence of the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(1A) receptor partial agonist S15535 [4-(benzodioxan-5-yl)1-(indan-2-yl)piperazine] upon cholinergic transmission and cognitive function in rodents. In the absence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, S15535 dose-dependently (0.04-5.0 mg/kg s.c.) elevated dialysis levels of acetylcholine in the frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of freely moving rats. In the cortex, the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100,635 [(N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) cyclo-hexanecarboxamide) fumarate] dose-dependently (0.0025-0.63) blocked this action of S15535. By contrast, in dorsal hippocampus, WAY100,635 mimicked the induction of acetylcholine release by S15535. In a social recognition paradigm, S15535 dose-dependently (0.16-10.0) improved retention, an action blocked by WAY100,635 (0.16), which was ineffective alone. Furthermore, S15535 dose-dependently (0.04-2.5) and WAY100,635 reversibly abolished amnesic properties of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.63) in this procedure. Cognitive deficits provoked by scopolamine in autoshaping and Morris water-maze procedures were likewise blocked by S15535 at doses of 0.63 to 10.0 and 0.16 to 2.5, respectively. In a two-platform spatial discrimination task, in which S15535 similarly abrogates cognitive deficits elicited by scopolamine, injection of S15535 (1.0 and 10.0 microg) into dorsal hippocampus blocked amnesic effects of the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (0.5 microg). Finally, S15535 (0.16-0.63) improved performance in a spatial, delayed nonmatching to sample model in mice, and in an operant delayed nonmatching to sample model in old rats, S15535 (1.25-5.0 mg/kg p.o.) increased response accuracy and reduced latency to respond. In conclusion, S15535 reinforces frontocortical and hippocampal release of acetylcholine and displays a broad-based pattern of procognitive properties

  8. Alternative stripper configurations for CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous amines

    SciTech Connect

    Oyenekan, B.A.; Rochelle, G.T.

    2007-12-15

    Aqueous absorption/stripping is a promising technology for the capture of CO{sub 2} from existing or new coal-fired power plants. Four new stripper configurations (matrix, internal exchange, flashing feed, and multipressure with split feed) have been evaluated with seven model solvents that approximate the thermodynamic and rate properties of 7m (30 wt %) monoethanolamine (MEA), potassium carbonate promoted bypiperazine (PZ), promoted MEA, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) promoted by PZ, and hindered amines. The results show that solvents with high heats of absorption (MEA, MEA/PZ) favor operation at normal pressure. The relative performance of the alternative configurations is matrix > internal exchange > multipressure with split feed > flashing feed. MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ are attractive alternatives to 7m MEA. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22 and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively,with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal.

  9. Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phase 1, September 29, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor -- liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as ``hindered`` amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor -- liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.

  10. Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor -- liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor -- liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.

  11. Viscosities of aqueous blended amines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas, oil refineries, petroleum chemical plants, and synthetic ammonia industries for the removal of acidic components like CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The viscosities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP), and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation for the viscosity deviation was applied to represent the viscosity. On the basis of the available viscosity data for five ternary systems, MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. For the viscosity calculation of the systems tested, the overall average absolute percent deviation is about 1.0% for a total of 499 data points.

  12. Densities of aqueous blended amines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.H.; Li, M.H.

    1997-05-01

    Solutions of alkanolamines are an industrially important class of compounds used in the natural gas and synthetic ammonia industries and petroleum chemical plants for the removal of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from gas streams. The densities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) + N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) + water, DEA + 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) + water, and monoethanolamine (MEA) + 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) + water were measured from 30 C to 80 C. A Redlich-Kister equation of the excess volume was applied to represent the density. Based on the available density data for five ternary systems: MEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, MEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, DEA + MDEA + H{sub 2}O, DEA + AMP + H{sub 2}O, and MEA + 2-PE + H{sub 2}O, a generalized set of binary parameters were determined. The density calculations show quite satisfactory results. The overall average absolute percent deviation is about 0.04% for a total of 686 data points.

  13. Polymerization Behavior and Polymer Properties of Eosin-Mediated Surface Modification Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Randle, Thomas James; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification by surface-mediated polymerization necessitates control of the grafted polymer film thicknesses to achieve the desired property changes. Here, a microarray format is used to assess a range of reaction conditions and formulations rapidly in regards to the film thicknesses achieved and the polymerization behavior. Monomer formulations initiated by eosin conjugates with varying concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) were evaluated. Acrylamide with MDEA or ascorbic acid as a coinitiator was also investigated. The best formulation was found to be 40 wt% acrylamide with MDEA which yielded four to eight fold thicker films (maximum polymer thickness increased from 180 nm to 1420 nm) and generated visible films from 5-fold lower eosin surface densities (2.8 vs. 14 eosins/µm2) compared to a corresponding PEGDA formulation. Using a microarray format to assess multiple initiator surface densities enabled facile identification of a monomer formulation that yields the desired polymer properties and polymerization behavior across the requisite range of initiator surface densities. PMID:19838291

  14. Collection of VLE data for acid gas-alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Technical report, October 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. The natural gas industry requires vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data to develop more energy efficient amine mixtures. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second objective is to make VLE measurements for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE data on MDEA and other amines, energy savings can be implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy saved is estimated to be 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr. 14 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp.). (iii) Limitations. For use... per bird over 12 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp... milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaris...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp.). (iii) Limitations. For use... per bird over 12 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp... milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaris...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp.). (iii) Limitations. For use... per bird over 12 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp... milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaris...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp.). (iii) Limitations. For use... per bird over 12 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp... milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaris...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp.). (iii) Limitations. For use... per bird over 12 weeks. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaridia spp... milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) Indications for use. For removal of large roundworm (Ascaris...

  20. Diethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldioxalate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Francisco J; Rojas-Pérez, Rodrigo E; García-Báez, Efrén V; Höpfl, Herbert; Padilla-Martínez, Itzia I

    2004-09-01

    The ethyl oxamate group, N-C(O)-C(O)-OEt, in the title compound, alternatively called diethyl N,N':N,N'-bis(ethylene)dioxamate, C12H18N2O6, can be considered as being composed of two singly bonded amide and ester functionalities. The ethyl oxamate group is not planar. The two carbonyl groups are almost perpendicular, with an oxalyl O=C-C=O torsion angle of -111.34 (17) degrees. The molecule is located on an inversion centre. Infinite supramolecular tapes, propagating along the b axis, are formed through soft C-H...O interactions which form a centrosymmetric R(2)2(12) motif.

  1. Highly stretchable nanoalginate based polyurethane elastomers.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Barmar, Mohammad

    2013-06-20

    Highly stretchable elastomeric samples based on cationic polyurethane dispersions-sodium alginate nanoparticles (CPUD/SA) were prepared by the solution blending of sodium alginate and aqueous polyurethane dispersions. CPUDs were synthesized by step growth polymerization technique using N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a source of cationic emulsifier. The chemical structure and thermal-mechanical properties of these systems were characterized using FTIR and DMTA, respectively. The presence of nanoalginate particles including nanobead and nanorod particles were proved by SEM and EDX. It was observed that thermal properties of composites increased with increasing SA content. All prepared samples were known as thermoplastic-elastomers with high percentages of elongation. Excellent compatibility of prepared nanocomposites was proved by the DMTA data.

  2. Crystal structure of 3-{[4-(2-meth­oxy­phen­yl)piperazin-1-yl]meth­yl}-5-(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa­diazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Abuelizz, Hatem A.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Garcia-Granda, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C18H20N4O2S2, is a new 1,3,4-oxa­diazole and a key pharmacophore of several biologically active agents. It is composed of a meth­yl(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa­diazole-2(3H)-thione moiety linked to a 2-meth­oxy­phenyl unit via a piperazine ring that has a chair conformation. The thio­phene ring mean plane lies almost in the plane of the oxa­diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 4.35 (9)°. The 2-meth­oxy­phenyl ring is almost normal to the oxa­diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.17 (10)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [inter­centroid distance = 3.6729 (10) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. The thio­phene ring has an approximate 180° rotational disorder about the bridging C—C bond. PMID:26958404

  3. Organically templated uranium(IV) fluorooxalates with layer structures: (H4TREN)[U2F6(C2O4)3].4H2O (TREN = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) and (H4APPIP)[U2F6(C2O4)3].4H2O (APPIP = 1,4-bis(3-amino-propyl)piperazine).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Min; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Pei-Lin; Lii, Kwang-Hwa

    2007-03-14

    Two organically-templated layered uranium(IV) fluorooxalates, (H(4)TREN)[U(2)F(6)(C(2)O(4))(3)].4H(2)O (1) (TREN = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) and (H(4)APPIP)[U(2)F(6)(C(2)O(4))(3)].4H(2)O (2) (APPIP = 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic susceptibility. Both structures consist of anionic [U(2)F(6)(C(2)O(4))(3)](4-) layers separated by organic ammonium cations and lattice water molecules. The UF(3)O(6) polyhedra are connected by oxalate ligands in different ways within the layers. They are the first examples of organically-templated uranium fluorooxalates. Crystal data for compound 1 follow: monoclinic, P2(1)/c (No. 14), a = 19.1563(5) A, b = 8.9531(2) A, c = 16.6221(4) A, beta = 114.633(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Crystal data for compound are the same as those for 1 except a = 10.3309(8) A, b = 15.564(1) A, c = 17.537(1) A, and beta = 95.430(4) degrees.

  4. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan; Yildiz, Emel; Lopez, Valerie; Nanao, Max H.; Zubieta, Jon

    2016-01-15

    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(pyrz)]{sub n} (1) and (H{sub 2}pip){sub n}[Ln{sub 2}(pydc){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H{sub 2}pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H{sub 2}pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln–O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1–3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four novel metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Thermal and luminescent properties of the compounds have been investigated.

  5. Development of (S)-N6-(2-(4-(Isoquinolin-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]-thiazole-2,6-diamine and its analogue as a D3 receptor preferring agonist: Potent in vivo activity in Parkinson’s disease animal models

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Zhen, Juan; Kharkar, Prashant; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report structure-activity relationship study of a novel hybrid series of compounds where structural alteration of aromatic hydrophobic moieties connected to the piperazine ring and bioisosteric replacement of the aromatic tetralin moieties were carried out. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptors with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (Ki). Functional activity of selected compounds in stimulating GTPγS binding was assessed with CHO cells expressing human D2 receptors and AtT-20 cells expressing human D3 receptors. SAR results identified compound (−)-24c (D-301) as one of the lead molecules with preferential agonist activity for D3 receptor (EC50 (GTPγS); D3 = 0.52 nM; D2/D3 (EC50): 223). Compounds (−)-24b and (−)-24c exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. The two lead compounds (−)-24b and (−)-24c exhibited high in vivo activity in two Parkinson’s disease (PD) animal models, reserpinized rat model and 6-OH-DA induced unilaterally lesioned rat model. Future studies will explore potential use of these compounds in the neuroprotective therapy for PD. PMID:20038106

  6. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan; Yildiz, Emel; Lopez, Valerie; Nanao, Max H.; Zubieta, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu2Cl2(pyrz)]n (1) and (H2pip)n[Ln2(pydc)4(H2O)2]n (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H2pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H2pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H2pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln-O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1-3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature.

  7. High-throughput sample preparation and simultaneous column regeneration liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of nitrogen mustard metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Mills, Grier; Nixon, Christopher; Wyatt, Shane A; Croley, Timothy R

    2011-08-15

    Nitrogen mustards (NMs) are known to have DNA alkylation and strong vesicant properties. Their availability to terrorist organizations makes them a potential choice for chemical attacks on civilian populations. After an exposure, it is difficult to measure NMs directly because of their rapid metabolism in the human body. Therefore to determine an individual's level of exposure to NMs, it is necessary to analyze for NM metabolites being excreted by the body. The metabolites of NMs are generated by a hydrolysis reaction, and are easily detectable by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This work is focused on the development of a high-throughput assay for the quantitation of N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) metabolites of bis (2-chloroethyl) ethylethanamine (HN1) and bis (2-chloroethyl) methylethanamine (HN2), respectively. The method uses automated 96-well plate sample preparation of human urine samples and a 2-position 10-port switching valve to allow for simultaneous regeneration of the liquid chromatography (LC) columns. Using this method, over 18 h was saved through the reduction of sample preparation and analysis time when compared to a conventional method for 96 samples. The validated method provided excellent accuracy for both EDEA (100.9%) and MDEA (100.6%) with precision better than 5.27% for each analyte.

  8. Nucleophilic stabilization of water-based reactive ink for titania-based thin film inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, C.; Marani, D.; Esposito, V.

    2017-02-01

    Drop on demand deposition (DoD) of titanium oxide thin films (<500 nm) is performed via a novel titanium-alkoxide-based solution that is tailored as a reactive ink for inkjet printing. The ink is developed as water-based solution by a combined use of titanium isopropoxide and n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used as nucleophilic ligand. The function of the ligand is to control the fast hydrolysis/condensation reactions in water for the metal alkoxide before deposition, leading to formation of the TiO2 only after the jet process. The evolution of the titanium-ligand interactions at increasing amount of MDEA is here elucidated in terms of long term stability. The ink printability parameter (Z) is optimized, resulting in a reactive solution with printability, Z, >1, and chemical stability up to 600 h. Thin titanium oxide films (<500 nm) are proved on different substrates. Pure anatase phase is obtained after annealing at low temperature (ca. 400 °C).

  9. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis­(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O 2)chlorido­cuprate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro­chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the CuII atom. The coordination environment of the CuII atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu—Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl inter­actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. Further but weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions consolidate the packing. PMID:28217352

  10. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe... stomach tube or drench, it shall also bear the statement “Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian;” if not labeled for use by stomach tube or drench,...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe... stomach tube or drench, it shall also bear the statement “Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian;” if not labeled for use by stomach tube or drench,...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe... stomach tube or drench, it shall also bear the statement “Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian;” if not labeled for use by stomach tube or drench,...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe... stomach tube or drench, it shall also bear the statement “Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian;” if not labeled for use by stomach tube or drench,...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... oral dose. Administer as a drench or by stomach tube suspended in 1 pint of warm water; by dose syringe... stomach tube or drench, it shall also bear the statement “Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian;” if not labeled for use by stomach tube or drench,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara... for each 5 pounds, or fraction thereof of body weight, except dogs weighing over 25 pounds should...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms (ascarids) Toxocara mystax and Toxacaris leonina. 1 (3) Limitations. Administer in animal's food or milk. For...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms (ascarids) Toxocara mystax and Toxacaris leonina. 1 (3) Limitations. Administer in animal's food or milk. For...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms (ascarids) Toxocara mystax and Toxacaris leonina. 1 (3) Limitations. Administer in animal's food or milk. For...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms (ascarids) Toxocara mystax and Toxacaris leonina. 1 (3) Limitations. Administer in animal's food or milk. For...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... canis and Toxascaris leonina. 1 (ii) Cats. It is used for the removal of large roundworms (ascarids) Toxocara mystax and Toxacaris leonina. 1 (3) Limitations. Administer in animal's food or milk. For...

  1. Scheduling the blended solution as industrial CO2 absorber in separation process by back-propagation artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Zakaria, Azmi; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Bin Mohd; Islam, Aminul; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-11-05

    It is believe that 80% industrial of carbon dioxide can be controlled by separation and storage technologies which use the blended ionic liquids absorber. Among the blended absorbers, the mixture of water, N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and guanidinium trifluoromethane sulfonate (gua) has presented the superior stripping qualities. However, the blended solution has illustrated high viscosity that affects the cost of separation process. In this work, the blended fabrication was scheduled with is the process arranging, controlling and optimizing. Therefore, the blend's components and operating temperature were modeled and optimized as input effective variables to minimize its viscosity as the final output by using back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN). The modeling was carried out by four mathematical algorithms with individual experimental design to obtain the optimum topology using root mean squared error (RMSE), R-squared (R(2)) and absolute average deviation (AAD). As a result, the final model (QP-4-8-1) with minimum RMSE and AAD as well as the highest R(2) was selected to navigate the fabrication of the blended solution. Therefore, the model was applied to obtain the optimum initial level of the input variables which were included temperature 303-323 K, x[gua], 0-0.033, x[MDAE], 0.3-0.4, and x[H2O], 0.7-1.0. Moreover, the model has obtained the relative importance ordered of the variables which included x[gua]>temperature>x[MDEA]>x[H2O]. Therefore, none of the variables was negligible in the fabrication. Furthermore, the model predicted the optimum points of the variables to minimize the viscosity which was validated by further experiments. The validated results confirmed the model schedulability. Accordingly, ANN succeeds to model the initial components of the blended solutions as absorber of CO2 capture in separation technologies that is able to industries scale up.

  2. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A

    2015-08-21

    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3μm functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE

  3. Rigorous modeling of the acid gas heat of absorption in alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Emilie Blanchon le Bouhelec; Pascal Mougin; Alain Barreau; Roland Solimando

    2007-08-15

    In this work, we are interested in the estimation of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S heats of absorption in aqueous solutions of alkanolamine: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Two methods can be used to calculate the heat release during the absorption phenomenon. The easier which consists of applying the integration of the Gibbs-Helmholtz expression remains inaccurate. The second one, more rigorous, evaluates the heat transfer through an internal energy balance for an open system. The balance expression contains partial molar enthalpies of species in the liquid phase which are calculated from the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) excess Gibbs energy model. The calculations carried out in this method can be considered as predictive regarding the NRTL model because its interaction parameters were previously and solely fitted on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data and not on experimental heat of absorption data. The comparison between both methods and experimental data for the three alkanolamines shows the contribution of this rigorous calculation to better estimate both properties (i.e., solubility and heat) and its usefulness to improve processes. Heats of absorption calculated with the second method can be used in addition to VLE data to fit NRTL parameters. This procedure leads to less-correlated parameters and allows extrapolating the model with more confidence. 63 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future.

  5. A cotton fabric modified with a hydrogel containing ZnO nanoparticles. Preparation and properties study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Desislava; Atanasova, Daniela; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Lukanova, Varbina; Grabchev, Ivo

    2015-08-01

    Two different methods were used to obtain composite materials based on a ZnO nanoparticles-hydrogel-cotton fabric. The hydrogels, synthesized by photopolymerization, were utilized to provide uniform distribution and binding of the nanoparticles to the fiber surface and to prevent their agglomeration. N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was used as a co-initiator in hydrogel photopolymerization and as an alkaline agent in the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the difference in size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles, examined by a TEM and SEM, it was found that the materials have distinct photoluminescence properties, e.g. in the entire visible or UV range. The composite materials with small size nanoparticles and photoluminescence in near UV range were investigated for antibiotic activity against the bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter johnsonii known as important pathogens in clinical infections. Significantly high antibacterial effect on the bacteria tested was achieved, especially on A. johnsonii. This suggests potential application of the new formulations as effective wound dressings to control the spread of infections.

  6. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  7. Synthesis of water-based cationic polyurethane for antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cationic polymers are often used as antimicrobial materials and transfection reagents. Water-based process could reduce environmental pollution and prevent the risk of solvent residue in the final product. In this study, waterborne biodegradable cationic polyurethane (WCPU) was synthesized by reacting polycaprolactone (PCL diol), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA) under 75°C. An aqueous dispersion of WCPU nanoparticles (NPs) could be acquired by vigorous stirring under acidic condition. The particles in the dispersion had an average size of ∼80nm and a zeta potential of ∼60mV. When cast into films, the contact angle of the film was ∼67° and the zeta potential was ∼16mV. WCPU NPs demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (100% inhibition with a contact time of 3h). Meanwhile, the antibacterial ratio of WCPU films to E. coli and S. aureus reached 100% after 24h of contact. Moreover, WCPU NPs could be used as a transfection reagent without significant toxicity for concentrations less than 1000μg/mL and showed the ability to condensate plasmid DNA. The transfection efficiency for HEK293T cells and hBMSCs was ∼60% and ∼30% at 48h, respectively, after the transfection. Therefore, the WCPU synthesized in this study has potential antibacterial and gene delivery applications.

  8. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  9. Electropolymerized carbonic anhydrase immobilization for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Merle, Geraldine; Fradette, Sylvie; Madore, Eric; Barralet, Jake E

    2014-06-17

    Biomimetic carbonation carried out with carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2-absorbing solutions, such as methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), is one approach that has been developed to accelerate the capture of CO2. However, there are several practical issues, such as high cost and limited enzyme stability, that need to be overcome. In this study, the capacity of CA immobilization on a porous solid support was studied to improve the instability in the tertiary amine solvent. We have shown that a 63% porosity macroporous carbon foam support makes separation and reuse facile and allows for an efficient supply and presentation of CO2 to an aqueous solvent and the enzyme catalytic center. These enzymatic supports conserved 40% of their initial activity after 42 days at 70 °C in an amine solvent, whereas the free enzyme shows no activity after 1 h in the same conditions. In this work, we have overcome the technical barrier associated with the recovery of the biocatalyst after operation, and most of all, these electropolymerized enzymatic supports have shown a remarkable increase of thermal stability in an amine-based CO2 sequestration solvent.

  10. Quenching the Quantum Tunneling of Magnetization in Heterometallic Octanuclear {TM(III)4 Dy(III)4 } (TM=Co and Cr) Single-Molecule Magnets by Modification of the Bridging Ligands and Enhancing the Magnetic Exchange Coupling.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-01-31

    We report the synthesis, structural characterisation, magnetic properties and provide an ab initio analysis of the magnetic behaviour of two new heterometallic octanuclear coordination complexes containing Co(III) and Dy(III) ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed molecular formulae of [Co(III)4 Dy(III)4 (μ-OH)4 (μ3 -OMe)4 {O2 CC(CH3 )3 }4 (tea)4 (H2 O)4 ]⋅4 H2 O (1) and [Co(III)4 Dy(III)4 (μ-F)4 (μ3 -OH)4 (o-tol)8 (mdea)4 ]⋅ 3 H2 O⋅EtOH⋅MeOH (2; tea(3-) =triply deprotonated triethanolamine; mdea(2-) =doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine; o-tol=o-toluate), and both complexes display an identical metallic core topology. Furthermore, the theoretical, magnetic and SMM properties of the isostructural complex, [Cr(III)4 Dy(III)4 (μ-F4 )(μ3 -OMe)1.25 (μ3 -OH)2.75 (O2 CPh)8 (mdea)4 ] (3), are discussed and compared with a structurally similar complex, [Cr(III)4 Dy(III)4 (μ3 -OH)4 (μ-N3 )4 (mdea)4 (O2 CC(CH3 )3 )4 ] (4). DC and AC magnetic susceptibility data revealed single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour for 1-4. Each complex displays dynamic behaviour, highlighting the effect of ligand and transition metal ion replacement on SMM properties. Complexes 2, 3 and 4 exhibited slow magnetic relaxation with barrier heights (Ueff ) of 39.0, 55.0 and 10.4 cm(-1) respectively. Complex 1, conversely, did not exhibit slow relaxation of magnetisation above 2 K. To probe the variance in the observed Ueff  values, calculations by using CASSCF, RASSI-SO and POLY_ANISO routine were performed on these complexes to estimate the nature of the magnetic coupling and elucidate the mechanism of magnetic relaxation. Calculations gave values of JDy-Dy as -1.6, 1.6 and 2.8 cm(-1) for complexes 1, 2 and 3, respectively, whereas the JDy-Cr interaction was estimated to be -1.8 cm(-1) for complex 3. The developed mechanism for magnetic relaxation revealed that replacement of the hydroxide ion by fluoride quenched the quantum tunnelling of

  11. Exploring the Influence of Diamagnetic Ions on the Mechanism of Magnetization Relaxation in {Co(III)2Ln(III)2} (Ln = Dy, Tb, Ho) "Butterfly" Complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-03-06

    The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)(2-) = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co(III) ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln(III) ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81.2 cm(-1), while complexes 2 and 3 exhibit field induced SMM behavior, with a Ueff value of 34.2 cm(-1) for 2. The barrier height for 3 could not be quantified. To understand the experimental observations, we performed DFT and ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations to probe the single-ion properties and the nature and magnitude of the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic coupling and to develop an understanding of the role the diamagnetic Co(III) ion plays in the magnetization relaxation. The calculations were able to rationalize the experimental relaxation data for all complexes and strongly suggest that the Co(III) ion is integral to the observation of SMM behavior in these systems. Thus, we explored further the effect that the diamagnetic Co(III) ions have on the magnetization blocking of 1. We did this by modeling a dinuclear {Dy(III)2} complex (1a), with the removal of the diamagnetic ions, and three complexes of the types {K(I)2Dy(III)2} (1b), {Zn(II)2Dy(III)2} (1c), and {Ti(IV)2Dy(III)2} (1d), each containing a different diamagnetic ion. We found that the presence of the diamagnetic ions results in larger negative charges on the bridging hydroxides (1b > 1c > 1 > 1d), in comparison to 1a (no diamagnetic ion), which reduces quantum tunneling of magnetization effects, allowing for more desirable SMM characteristics

  12. Experimental Measurement and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions in the High Gas Loading Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Humbul; Maulud, Abdulhalim Shah; Man, Zakaria

    2016-09-01

    The solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous alkanolamine solutions was investigated in the high gas loading region based on experimental measurements and thermodynamic modeling. An experimental phase equilibrium study was performed to evaluate the absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of five representative alkanolamines, including monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and piperazine. The carbon dioxide loadings of these solutions were determined for a wide range of pressures (62.5 kPa to 4150 kPa), temperatures (303.15 K to 343.15 K) and alkanolamine concentrations (2 M to 4 M). The results were found to be largely consistent with those previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, a hybrid Kent-Eisenberg model was developed for the correlation of the experimental data points. This new model incorporated an equation of state/excess Gibbs energy model for determining the solubility of carbon dioxide in the high-pressure-high gas loading region. This approach also used a single correction parameter, which was a function of the alkanolamine concentration. The results of this model were in excellent agreement with our experimental results. Most notably, this model was consistent with other reported values from the literature.

  13. Self-assembled 3D heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers with octahedral net skeletons: structural features, molecular magnetism, thermal and oxidation catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Karabach, Yauhen Y; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Gil-Hernández, Beatriz; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Kirillov, Alexander M; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2010-12-06

    The new three-dimensional (3D) heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers [Cu(6)(H(2)tea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·6nH(2)O (1) and [Cu(6)(Hmdea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·7nH(2)O (2) have been easily generated by aqueous-medium self-assembly reactions of copper(II) nitrate with triethanolamine or N-methyldiethanolamine (H(3)tea or H(2)mdea, respectively), in the presence of potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide. They have been isolated as air-stable crystalline solids and fully characterized including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The latter reveal the formation of 3D metal-organic frameworks that are constructed from the [Cu(2)(μ-H(2)tea)(2)](2+) or [Cu(2)(μ-Hmdea)(2)](2+) nodes and the octahedral [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) linkers, featuring regular (1) or distorted (2) octahedral net skeletons. Upon dehydration, both compounds show reversible escape and binding processes toward water or methanol molecules. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 reveal strong antiferromagnetic [J = -199(1) cm(-1)] or strong ferromagnetic [J = +153(1) cm(-1)] couplings between the copper(II) ions through the μ-O-alkoxo atoms in 1 or 2, respectively. The differences in magnetic behavior are explained in terms of the dependence of the magnetic coupling constant on the Cu-O-Cu bridging angle. Compounds 1 and 2 also act as efficient catalyst precursors for the mild oxidation of cyclohexane by aqueous hydrogen peroxide to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (homogeneous catalytic system), leading to maximum total yields (based on cyclohexane) and turnover numbers (TONs) up to about 22% and 470, respectively.

  14. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  15. Neuronal effects of a nickel-piperazine/NO donor complex in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Monti, Martina; Casella, Luigi; Roggeri, Riccardo; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-09-01

    In the brain, NO is a very important molecule in the regulation of cerebral and extra cerebral cranial blood flow and arterial diameters. It is also importantly involved in many neuronal functions and innumerable roles of NO in many brain related disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, drug addiction, anxiety, major depression, have been postulated. The present study aimed to explore the neuronal role exerted by the metal-nonoate compound Ni(PipNONO)Cl, a novel NO donor whose vascular protective effects have been recently demonstrated. Ni(PipNONO)Cl showed antidepressant-like properties in the tail suspension test and antiamnesic activity in the passive avoidance test in the absence of any hypernociceptive response to a mechanical stimulus. These effects were related to the NO-releasing properties of the compound within the central nervous system as demonstrated by the increase of iNOS levels in the brain, spinal cord and dura mater. The modulation of neuronal functions appeared after acute and repeated treatment, showing the lack of any tolerance to neuronal effects. At the dose used (10 mg/kg i.p.), Ni(PipNONO)Cl did not induce any visible sign of toxicity and experiments were performed in the absence of locomotor impairments. In addition to the NO-related neuronal activities of Ni(PipNONO)Cl, the decomposition control compound Ni(Pip)Cl2 showed anxiogenic-like and procognitive effects. The present findings showed neuronal modulatory activity of Ni(PipNONO)Cl through a NO-mediated mechanism. The activities of the decomposition compound Ni(Pip)Cl2 attributed to Ni(PipNONO)Cl the capability to modulate additional neuronal functions independently from NO releasing properties extending and improving the therapeutic perspectives of the NO donor.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  20. Synthesis, growth and characterization of a new organic three dimensional framework: Piperazin-1-ium 4-aminobenzenesulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekha, P.; Peramaiyan, G.; NizamMohideen, M.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Kanagadurai, R.

    2016-05-01

    Piperazinium p-aminobenzenesulfonate (PPABS), a new nonlinear optical material was synthesized and crystals were grown from the methanol solvent by slow evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study elucidated the crystal structure of PPABS. It crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system with space group of Pbca. UV-vis-NIR spectral study was performed to analyze optical transparency of PPABS crystal and found that the grown crystal has sufficient transparency in the entire visible region with lower cutoff wavelength of 321 nm. The thermal stability and decomposition stages of the sample were studied by TG/DTA analyses. The different environmental carbon and hydrogen atoms of the proposed structure were identified by NMR spectral studies. The electric field response of crystal was determined from the dielectric studies. From the Z-scan measurements, the third order nonlinear optical properties of grown crystal were studied.

  1. Acidity constant determination of novel drug precursor benzothiazolon derivatives including acyl and piperazine moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar; Berber, Halil

    2013-07-01

    In this study, protonation and deprotonation behaviors of eight new drug precursor benzothiazolon derivatives in all of acidic and basic scale (super acidic, pH, super basic regions) are analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Acidity constants (pKa), elucidation of the structure and protonation mechanisms of the studied molecules are obtained. Substituent effect on acidity constant values is discussed. These molecules are protonated from oxygen atom of acetamide group in the keto form. The protonation is found to be considerably contributed by the keto form.

  2. Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of coumarin derivatives containing piperazine skeleton as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Wu, Xun; Qiao, Fang; Sha, Shao; Lv, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-11-01

    A series of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives were designed and synthesized in order to find some more potent antibacterial drugs. Their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. These compounds showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains. Compound 4 g represented the most potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus with MIC of 0.236, 0.355 μg/mL, respectively. What's more, it showed the most potent activity against SaFabI with IC50 of 0.57 μM. Molecular docking of 4 g into S. aureus Enoyl-ACP-reductase active site were performed to determine the probable binding mode, while the QSAR model was built to check the previous work as well as to introduce new directions.

  3. 4-Benzyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride chloro­form solvate

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Mihai G.; Varga, Richard A.; Silvestru, Cristian; Breunig, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    The ions of the title chloro­form-solvated salt, C11H17N2 +·Cl−·CHCl3, are linked by a strong N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond; the solvent mol­ecule also inter­acts with the chloride ion through a C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond. Additionally, neighboring cations form weak hydrogen bonds to the anion, resulting in a supra­molecular ribbon that runs along the a axis. PMID:21203283

  4. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... product in horses simultaneously with, or within 2 weeks before or after treatment with, or exposure to... horses for removal of bots (Gastrophilus nasalis, Gastrophilus intestinalis), large strongyles.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  5. 1-Benzyl­piperazine-1,4-diium bis­(perchlorate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kaabi, Kamel; El Glaoui, Meher; Jeanneau, Erwann; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C11H18N2 2+·2ClO4 −·H2O, one perchlor­ate anion is disordered over two orientations in a 0.66 (3):0.34 (3) ratio. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations, anions and water mol­ecules into ribbons extending along [100]. PMID:21587939

  6. 1-Benzyl-piperazine-1,4-diium bis-(perchlorate) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, Kamel; El Glaoui, Meher; Jeanneau, Erwann; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2010-06-23

    In the title compound, C(11)H(18)N(2) (2+)·2ClO(4) (-)·H(2)O, one perchlor-ate anion is disordered over two orientations in a 0.66 (3):0.34 (3) ratio. Inter-molecular O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations, anions and water mol-ecules into ribbons extending along [100].

  7. The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal free and metallophthalocyanines containing triazole/piperazine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Mermer, Arif; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Demirbaş, Neslihan; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetra [1,2,4]-triazole substituted metal-free phthalocyanine and its metal complexes (Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II)) and the investigation of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal-free, Zn(II), Pb(II), Fe(II) phthalocyanines were performed for the first time in this study. Electrochemical characterizations of the complexes were performed with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Voltammetric responses of the complexes supported the proposed structures, since complexes bearing redox inactive Pc ring metal centers just gave Pc based electron transfer reactions, while iron phthalocyanine went to metal based electron transfer reaction in addition to the Pc based ones. Electron withdrawing nature of [1,2,4]-triazole substituents shifted the redox processes toward the positive potentials. All complexes were electropolymerized during the oxidation reactions in dichloromethane (DCM) solvent. Types of the metal center of the complexes altered the electropolymerization reactions of the complexes. Spectra and colors of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements.

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  9. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not include... information. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1 ounce (30 milliliters) per 100 pounds of body weight for the.... If the drug is for administration by stomach tube, it shall be labeled: “Federal law restricts...

  10. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not include... information. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1 ounce (30 milliliters) per 100 pounds of body weight for the.... If the drug is for administration by stomach tube, it shall be labeled: “Federal law restricts...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  13. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not include... information. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1 ounce (30 milliliters) per 100 pounds of body weight for the.... If the drug is for administration by stomach tube, it shall be labeled: “Federal law restricts...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chemicals. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 18.2 milligrams of trichlorfon, 12.5 milligrams of.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  15. Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of metronidazole derivatives containing piperazine skeleton as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Qiao, Fang; Wu, Xun; Sha, Shao; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-04-15

    Metronidazole has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Hereby a series of novel metronidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized based on nitroimidazole scaffold in order to find some more potent antibacterial drugs. For these compounds which were reported for the first time, their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. These compounds showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains. Compound 4m represented the most potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC of 0.003 μg/mL and it showed the most potent activity against S. aureus TyrRS with IC50 of 0.0024 μM. Molecular docking of 4m into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site were also performed to determine the probable binding mode.

  16. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion

  17. A novel piperazine linked β-amino alcohols bearing a benzosuberone scaffolds as anti-proliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Vanguru, Sowmya; Jilla, Lavanya; Sajja, Yasodakrishna; Bantu, Rajashaker; Nagarapu, Lingaiah; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Bhaskar, Bala; Jain, Nishant; Sivan, Sreekanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2017-02-15

    A new series of 1-((9-chloro-2,3-dimethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[7]annulen-8-yl)methoxy)-3-(4-phenylpiperzin-1-yl) propan-2-ols (6a-k) have been designed, synthesized and their structures were established by spectroscopic data (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HRMS) and further confirmed by X-ray analysis. The newly synthesized compounds 6a-k were evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activity against four cancer cell lines such as HeLa (cervical), MDA-MB-231 (breast), A549 (lung) and MIAPACA (pancreatic). Among the compounds tested, the compound 6e displayed most potent activity against four cancer cell lines with GI50 values ranging from 0.010 to 0.097μM. The structure and anti-proliferative activity relationship was further supported by in silico molecular docking study of the active compounds against Colchicine binding site of β-tubulin.

  18. Catalytic Synthesis of N-Unprotected Piperazines, Morpholines, and Thiomorpholines from Aldehydes and SnAP Reagents.

    PubMed

    Luescher, Michael U; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-09-07

    Commercially available SnAP (stannyl amine protocol) reagents allow the transformation of aldehydes and ketones into a variety of N-unprotected heterocycles. By identifying new ligands and reaction conditions, a robust catalytic variant that expands the substrate scope to previously inaccessible heteroaromatic substrates and new substitution patterns was realized. It also establishes the basis for a catalytic enantioselective process through the use of chiral ligands.

  19. Self-assembled copper(II) coordination polymers derived from aminopolyalcohols and benzenepolycarboxylates: structural and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Kirillov, Alexander M; Karabach, Yauhen Y; Haukka, Matti; Guedes da Silva, M Fatima C; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2008-01-07

    The new copper(II) or copper(II)/sodium(I) 1D coordination polymers [Cu2(Hmdea)2(mu-H2O)(mu2-tpa)]n.2nH2O (1), [Cu2(H2tipa)2(mu2-ipa)]n.4nH2O (2), [Cu2(H2tea)2Na(H2O)2(mu2-tma)]n.6nH2O (3), [Cu2(H2tea)2(mu2-ipa)]n.nH2O (4a), and [Cu2(H2tea)2{mu3-Na(H2O)3}(mu3-ipa)]n(NO3)n.0.5nH2O (4b) have been prepared in aqueous medium by self-assembly from copper(II) nitrate, aminopolyalcohols [methyldiethanolamine (H2mdea), triisopropanolamine (H3tipa), and triethanolamine (H3tea)] as main chelating ligands and benzenepolycarboxylic acids [terephthalic (H2tpa), isophthalic (H2ipa), and trimesic (H3tma) acid] as spacers. They have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, the latter indicating the formation of unusual multinuclear metal cores interconnected by various benzenepolycarboxylate spacers, leading to distinct wavelike, zigzag, or linear 1D polymeric metal-organic chains. These are further extended to 2D or 3D hydrogen-bonded supramolecular networks via extensive interactions with the intercalated crystallization water molecules. The latter are associated, also with aqua ligands, by hydrogen bonds resulting in acyclic (H2O)3 clusters in 1, (H2O)8 clusters in 2, infinite 1D water chains in 3, and disordered water-nitrate associates in 4b, all playing a key role in the structure stabilization and its extension to further dimensions. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have shown that 1-4 exhibit a moderately strong ferromagnetic coupling through the alkoxo bridge. The small Cu-O-Cu bridging angle and the large out-of-plane displacement of the carbon atom of the alkoxo group accounts for this behavior. The magnetic data have been analyzed by means of a dinuclear and a 1D chain model, and the magnetic parameters have been determined. The magnetic exchange coupling in 3, to our knowledge, is the highest found in alkoxo-bridged copper(II) complexes.

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  1. A novel screening method for 64 new psychoactive substances and 5 amphetamines in blood by LC-MS/MS and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Busardò, Francesco P; Palumbo, Diego; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Fioravanti, Alessia; Catalani, Valeria; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2016-09-10

    Identification and quantification of new psychoactive substances (NPS), both in biological and non-biological samples, represent a hard challenge for forensic toxicologists. NPS are increasingly emerging on illegal drug market. Many cases of co-consumption of NPS and other substances have also been reported. Hence, the development of analytical methods aiming at the detection of a broad-spectrum of compounds (NPS and "traditional" drugs) could be helpful. In this paper, a fully validated screening method in blood for the simultaneous detection of 69 substances, including 64 NPS (28 synthetic cannabinoids, 19 synthetic cathinones, 5 phenethylamines, 3 indanes, 2 piperazines, 2 tryptamines, 2 phencyclidine, methoxetamine, ketamine and its metabolite) and 5 amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine - MDEA-) by a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring analysis through liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described. This method is very fast, easy to perform and cheap as it only requires the deproteinization of 200μL of blood sample with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation is achieved with a C18 column. The analysis is very sensitive, with limits of quantification ranging from 0.1 to 0.5ng/mL. The method is linear from 1 to 100ng/mL and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was always above 0.9900. Precision and accuracy were acceptable at any quality control level and recovery efficiency range was 72-110%. Matrix effects did not negatively affect the analytical sensitivity. This method was successfully applied to three real cases, allowing identification and quantification of: mephedrone and methamphetamine (post-mortem); ketamine, MDMA and MDA (post-mortem); AB-FUBINACA (ante-mortem).

  2. Gas cleanup for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.

    1984-08-01

    Visual aids are presented describing various classes of primary gas cleanup. These are: (1) amine systems (MDEA Process); (2) alkali salt systems; (3) physical absorption systems (Selexol Process, Stretford Process); (4) mixed solvent systems; and (5) Claus Sulfur Recovery System. Flowsheets are also presented for the MDEA, Selexol and Stretford processes.

  3. Poly[piperazine-1,4-diium [μ(4)-chlorido-μ(3)-chlorido-tri-μ(2)-chlorido-chloridodicadmate(II)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Adib, Marwa; El Glaoui, Meher; Pereira da Silva, Pedro Sidonio; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2012-02-01

    In the title compound, {(C(5)H(14)N(2))[Cd(2)Cl(6)]·H(2)O}(n), the asymmetric unit contains one piperazinediium cation, one [Cd(2)Cl(6)](2-) anion and a water mol-ecule. The coordination geometries of the two Cd(2+) cations are distorted octa-hedral. Adjacent Cd(II) atoms are inter-connected alternately by paired chloride bridges, generating polymeric chains parallel to [010]. Neighbouring chains are connected by O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules, forming layers at z = n/2. The crystal packing is further stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, one of which is bifurcated.

  4. trans-2,5-Di­methyl­piperazine-1,4-diium bis(perchlorate) dihydrate: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mleh, Cherifa; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated mol­ecular salt, C6H16N2 2+·2ClO4 −·2H2O, contains a half dication (completed by inversion symmetry), a perchlorate anion and a water mol­ecule. The extended structure consists of infinite chains of formula [(ClO4)H2O]nn − ions extending along the b axis linked by Ow—H⋯O (w = water) hydrogen bonds. These chains are cross-linked by the dications via N—H⋯Ow and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, thus forming a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. Three-dimensional Hirshfeld surface analysis and two-dimensional fingerprint maps reveal that the structure is dominated by H⋯O/O⋯H and H⋯H contacts. PMID:27375895

  5. Responsive, di-metallic lanthanide complexes of a piperazine-bridged bis-macrocyclic ligand: modulation of visible luminescence and proton relaxivity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Michael; Amoroso, Angelo J; Harding, Lindsay P; Pope, Simon J A

    2010-04-14

    The synthesis of a new functionalised bis-macrocyclic ligand (L1) is described together with the corresponding Ln(III) complexes, Ln(2)- (Ln = Gd(III), Eu(III)). Phosphorescence measurements on Gd(2)- at 77 K allowed the ligand-centred triplet state ((3)pi-pi*) to be estimated at ca. 28500 cm(-1). Steady state and time-resolved measurements confirmed emission from the f-centred excited state ((5)D(0)) for Eu(2)-. (1)H NMRD profiles revealed the longitudinal proton relaxivity (r(1)) of Gd(2)- to be 8.3 mM(-1)s(-1)(30 MHz, 25 degrees C). The interaction of Cu(II) and Hg(II) with the lanthanide complexes was probed using luminescence and relaxivity measurements. Addition of Cu(II) (10 eq.) resulted in quenching of the Eu(III) emission, but no increase in r(1) of the Gd(III) dimer. Addition of Hg(II) (10 eq.) caused changes to the hypersensitive emission bands of Eu(III) together with an increase in r(1) of Gd(2)- to be 10.3 mM(-1)s(-1)(30 MHz, 25 degrees C) suggesting a net increase in hydration at the Gd(III) centres.

  6. Sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDIs): a new potent, enantiomeric SDI, 4-[2-1R-hydroxy-ethyl)-pyrimidin-4-yl]piperazine-1-sulfonic acid dimethylamide.

    PubMed

    Mylari, B L; Oates, P J; Beebe, D A; Brackett, N S; Coutcher, J B; Dina, M S; Zembrowski, W J

    2001-08-16

    We report here on our medicinal chemistry and pharmacology efforts to provide a potent sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDI) as a tool to probe a recently disclosed hypothesis centered on the role of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in the second step of the polyol pathway, under conditions of high glucose flux. Starting from a weak literature lead, 2, and through newly developed structure-activity relationships, we have designed and executed an unambiguous synthesis of enantiomeric SDI, 6, which is at least 10x more potent than 2. Also, 6 potently inhibits SDH in streptozotocin-diabetic rat sciatic nerve. We have described an expedient synthesis of a key building template, 33, for future research in the SDI area that may facilitate the discovery of even more potent SDIs with longer duration of action in vivo.

  7. Efficacy of hybrid tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole based aryl piperazines D-264 and D-301 at D2 and D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Juan; Antonio, Tamara; Jacob, Joanna C.; Grandy, David K.

    2016-01-01

    In elucidating the role of pharmacodynamic efficacy at D3 receptors in therapeutic effectiveness of dopamine receptor agonists, the influence of study system must be understood. Here two compounds with D3 over D2 selectivity developed in our earlier work, D-264 and D-301, are compared in dopamine receptor-mediated G-protein activation in striatal regions of wild-type and D2 receptor knockout mice and in CHO cells expressing D2 or D3 receptors. In caudate-putamen of D2 knockout mice, D-301 was ~ 3-fold more efficacious than D-264 in activating G-proteins as assessed by [35S]GTP S binding; in nucleus accumbens, D-301 stimulated G-protein activation whereas D-264 did not. In contrast, the two ligands exerted similar efficacy in both regions of wild-type mice, suggesting both ligands activate D2 receptors with similar efficacy. In D2 and D3 receptor-expressing CHO cells, D-264 and D-301 appeared to act in the [35S]GTP S assay as full agonists because they produced maximal stimulation equal to dopamine. Competition for [3H]spiperone binding was then performed to determine Ki/EC50 ratios as an index of receptor reserve for each ligand. Action of D-301, but not D-264, showed receptor reserve in D3 but not in D2 receptor-expressing cells, whereas dopamine showed receptor reserve in both cell lines. G o1 is highly expressed in brain and is important in D2 -like receptor-G protein coupling. Transfection of G o1 in D3- but not D2-expressing CHO cells led to receptor reserve for D-264 without altering receptor expression levels. D-301 and dopamine exhibited receptor reserve in D3-expressing cells both with and without transfection of G o1. Altogether, these results indicate that D-301 has greater intrinsic efficacy to activate D3 receptors than D-264, whereas the two compounds act on D2 receptors with similar intrinsic efficacy. These findings also suggest caution in interpreting Emax values from functional assays in receptor-transfected cell models without accounting for receptor reserve. PMID:26718829

  8. 75 FR 41488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... section in Step 5(a) on Copy 1. The new drug analytes are methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly... MDEA are both close chemical analogues of MDMA. The fourth change is to revise the Medical...

  9. Carbonic anhydrase promotes the absorption rate of CO2 in post-combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vinoba, Mari; Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala; Kim, Dae Hoon; Yoon, Yeoil; Nam, Sung Chan; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeong, Soon Kwan

    2013-05-09

    The rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by monoethanol amine (MEA), diethanol amine (DEA), N-methyl-2,2'-iminodiethanol (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl 1-propanol (AMP) solutions was found to be enhanced by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA), has been investigated using a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) device. The enthalpy (-ΔHabs) of CO2 absorption and the absorption capacities of aqueous amines were measured in the presence and/or absence of CA enzyme via differential reaction calorimeter (DRC). The reaction temperature (ΔT) under adiabatic conditions was determined based on the DRC analysis. Bicarbonate and carbamate species formation mechanisms were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis. The overall CO2 absorption rate (flux) and rate constant (kapp) followed the order MEA > DEA > AMP > MDEA in the absence or presence of CA. Hydration of CO2 by MDEA in the presence of CA directly produced bicarbonate, whereas AMP produced unstable carbamate intermediate, then underwent hydrolytic reaction and converted to bicarbonate. The MDEA > AMP > DEA > MEA reverse ordering of the enhanced CO2 flux and kapp in the presence of CA was due to bicarbonate formation by the tertiary and sterically hindered amines. Thus, CA increased the rate of CO2 absorption by MDEA by a factor of 3 relative to the rate of absorption by MDEA alone. The thermal effects suggested that CA yielded a higher activity at 40 °C.

  10. Disposition of the Highly Fat Distributed Compound 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-(2,2,4,6,7-Pentamethyl -2,3-Dihydro-1-Benzofuran-5-yl)Piperazine (TAK-357) in Rats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Goto, A; Moriya, Y; Mandai, T; Wakabayashi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Tagawa, Y; Kondo, T; Asahi, S

    2017-01-01

    The non-clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAK-357, a highly lipophilic (clogP>6) potential agent for the amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, was investigated in rats and dogs. A long half-life (t1/2) in plasma was observed in animals and a low total body clearance with high distribution volume was consistent with the long t1/2. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies using radiolabeled TAK-357 revealed that the total radioactivity was highly distributed to the adipose tissues and sustained with high concentration for over 4 weeks after oral administration. The metabolite analysis also revealed that the main component in the plasma and adipose tissues was unchanged TAK-357. The major elimination route of absorbed TAK-357 was suggested to be by metabolism. An ADME study indicated that the adipose tissue is the main depot of remaining TAK-357 in the body and slow release from the adipose tissues contributes to the long t1/2. The PK of highly lipophilic compounds have a tendency to be affected by body weight changes especially changes in the adipose tissues. Therefore, it is considered that the relationship between the plasma levels of TAK-357 and the body weight should be evaluated carefully during the clinical trials.

  11. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl)-4-ethyl-1-[(4-phenyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S.; Al-Tuwaijri, Hanaa M.; Said-Abdelbaky, Mohammed; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C25H35N5S, has an approximately C-shaped conformation. The dihedral angle between the triazole and phenyl planes is 79.5 (2)°. The crystal structure consists of infinite chains parallel to the b axis, constructed by C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds between translation-related mol­ecules. Adjacent chains are linked via weak C—H⋯C inter­actions between the adamantyl and phenyl groups. PMID:22904841

  12. Synthesis of new piperazine derived Cu(II)/Zn(II) metal complexes, their DNA binding studies, electrochemistry and anti-microbial activity: validation for specific recognition of Zn(II) complex to DNA helix by interaction with thymine base.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Irshad-Ul-Haq; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2009-06-01

    New 3,4:9,10-dibenzo-2,11-dihydroxy-1,12-bispiperazine-5,8-dioxododecane complexes [C(24)H(36)N(4)O(6)Cu] (1), [C(24)H(32)N(4)O(4)Zn] (2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, Mass, EPR, UV-vis spectroscopy and molar conductance measurements. The complexes are non-ionic in nature and possess octahedral geometry around Cu(2+), Zn(2+) central metal ions. The binding studies of 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetery and viscosity measurements. The calculated binding constant K(b) for 1 and 2 obtained from UV-vis absorption studies was 7.6x10(3)M(-1), 80.8x10(4)M(-1), respectively. The intrinsic binding constants were also estimated to be 7.0x10(4)M(-1) and 7.53x10(5)M(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively by using emission titrations. These experimental results suggest that complexes are groove binders and interact to CT-DNA with different affinities. Both the complexes in presence and absence of CT-DNA show quasireversible wave corresponding to Cu(II)/Cu(I) and Zn(II)/Zn(I) redox couple. The changes in E(1/2), DeltaE, I(pa)/I(pc) ascertain the interaction of 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further, decrease in viscosity of CT-DNA with increasing concentration of complexes was observed. In vitro, antimicrobial activity against fungi A. brassicicola, A. niger and bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa of complexes were carried out, which indicate that complex 2 is more active against both fungal and bacterial strains as shown by % inhibition data.

  13. Spectroscopic, radiochemical, and theoretical studies of the Ga3+-N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES buffer) system: evidence for the formation of Ga3+ - HEPES complexes in (68) Ga labeling reactions.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Prata, M I M; Rodrigues, S P J; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Riss, P J; Amor-Coarasa, A; Burchardt, C; Kroll, C; Roesch, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports have claimed a superior performance of HEPES buffer in comparison to alternative buffer systems for (67/68) Ga labeling in aqueous media. In this paper we report spectroscopic ((1) H and (71) Ga NMR), radiochemical, mass spectrometry and theoretical modeling studies on the Ga(3+)/HEPES system (HEPES = N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) performed with the aim of elucidating a potential contribution of HEPES in the (68/67) Ga radiolabeling process. Our results demonstrate that HEPES acts as a weakly but competitive chelator of Ga(3+) and that this interaction depends on the relative Ga(3+): HEPES concentration. A by-product formed in the labeling mixture has been identified as a [(68) Ga]Ga(HEPES) complex via chromatographic comparison with the nonradioactive analog. The formation of this complex was verified to compete with [(68) Ga]Ga(NOTA) complexation at low NOTA concentration. Putative chelation of Ga(3+) by the hydroxyl and adjacent ring nitrogen of HEPES is proposed on the basis of (1)H NMR shifts induced by Ga(3+) and theoretical modeling studies.

  14. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel 2-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)1, 8 naphthyridine 3-carboxylic acids as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the management of depression.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2014-12-01

    1, 8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid analogs were synthesized and found to possess potential 5-HT3 receptor antagonism as well as antidepressant-like activity. Initially, 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of all the compounds was determined in the form of pA2 value against agonist 2-methyl 5-HT in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation from guinea-pig ileum. Among all the compounds tested, compound 7a demonstrated most promising pA2 value of 7.6. Subsequently, all the compounds were evaluated for antidepressant activity using forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice. Compounds 7a, 7d, 7f, 7h, and 7i exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidepressant-like activity as compound to vehicle-treated group. Importantly, none of the tested compound affected locomotor activity of mice at tested dose levels.

  15. 2-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with anxiolytic-like activity in rodent behavioral models.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Arghya Kusum; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic potential of a series of novel carboxylic acid based 1,8 naphthyridines as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The pA2 values of all the compounds were determined against agonist 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparations from guinea pig ileum. Compounds with higher pA2 values, particularly those greater than ondansetron, a standard 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and optimal log P values were screened in mice by using behavioral tests such as a light-dark (L/D) aversion test, elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and an open field test (OFT). In the L/D test, compounds 7a, 7b, 7d, 7e, and 7i (2 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the latency time to leave the light compartment, total time spent in the light compartment, and the number of transitions between the light and dark compartments. Compounds 7a, 7d, 7f, 7h, and 7i (2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into the open arms in the EPM test. In addition, compounds 7a, 7d, 7e, 7f, and 7h (2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ambulation scores and the frequency of rearing in the OFT.

  16. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-02-24

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

  17. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  18. Synthesis, crystal structures, molecular docking, in vitro monoamine oxidase-B inhibitory activity of transition metal complexes with 2-{4-[bis (4-fluorophenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl} acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan-dan; Wang, Riu; Zhu, Jin-long; Cao, Qi-yue; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Hai-liang; Qian, Shao-song

    2017-01-01

    Three novel complexes, [Cu(L)2(H2O)](1), [Zn(L)2(H2O)2]·CH3OH·1.5H2O(2), and [Ni(L)2(H2O)1.8]·CH3OH·1.2H2O (3) (HL = 2-{4-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]pipera-zin-1-yl} acetic acid), were synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Molecular docking study preliminarily revealed that complex 1 had potential Monoamine oxidase B inhibitory activity. All acquired compounds were tested against rat brain MAO-B in vitro. In accordance with the result of calculation, it showed complex 1 (IC50 = 1.85 ± 0.31 μM) have good inhibitory activity against MAO-B at the same micromolar concentrations with positive control Iproniazid Phosphate (IP, IC50 = 7.59 ± 1.17 μM). These results indicated that complex 1 was a potent MAO-B inhibitor.

  19. A N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine dangled 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-based fluorescent sensor for selective relay recognition of Cu(2+) and sulfide in water.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijun; Zheng, Zhuxuan; Bian, Yanjiang

    2016-12-01

    A new 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-based derivative (L) was synthesized and applied as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor for relay recognition of Cu(2+) and S(2-) in water (Tris-HCl 10 mM, pH = 7.0) solution. L exhibits an excellent selectivity to Cu(2+) over other examined metal ions with a prominent fluorescence 'turn-off' at 392 nm. L interacts with Cu(2+) through a 1:2 binding stoichiometry with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10(-7) M. The on-site formed L-2Cu(2+) complex exhibits excellent selectivity to S(2-) with a fluorescence 'off-on' response via a Cu(2+) displacement approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-07-23

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

  1. CW Detection Instrument R&D Design Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    common alkaline, gel cell, nickel cadmium, silver zinc, nickel metal hydride, lithium thionyl chloride , and lithium sulfur dioxide. Large numbers of some...columns ....................................... 29 3-7 .GC analysis of thionyl chloride on DB-5 and MB-210 columns...dichloridie 14. Thionyl chloride 15. Ethyldiethanolamine 16. Methyldiethanolamine i17. Triethanolamine 8 can be extended, an analysis of the

  2. Determination of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products in rat urine samples using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Alp, Orkun

    2011-05-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed, validated and demonstrated by measuring the levels of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products in the urine collected from dosed rats. The recovery values for trimethylsilyl derivatives of EDEA and MDEA are between 82-95% and 88-112%, respectively. In vivo studies performed by using three different doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg) of HN2 base of nitrogen mustard. MDEA concentrations were between 43.1-232.2 ng/mL. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) values are 2.5 ng/mL and 1.6 ng/mL for EDEA and MDEA, respectively, and the precision of the method in terms of RSD is between 5-8%.

  3. Comparison of five derivatizing agents for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine by extractive acylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Adrienn; Hidvégi, Elod; Somogyi, Gábor Pál

    2012-06-01

    Five acylation reagents have been compared for use as derivatizing agents for the analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The evaluated reagents were heptafluorobutyric anhydride, pentafluoropropionic anhydride, trifluoroacetic anhydride, acetic anhydride (AA) and N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide). The ATS included amphetamine, methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). A mixture of the ATS was added to urine (1 mL) followed by KOH solution and saturated NaHCO(3) solution. The sample was then extracted with dichloromethane and the derivatizing agent and 2 µL were injected into the GC-MS instrument. The derivatizing agents were compared with reference to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, peak area values, relative standard deviations (RSDs), linearities, limits of detection (LODs) and selectivities. The acetic anhydride proved to be the best according to the S/N ratio and peak area results for amphetamine, MA, MDMA and MDEA. The best RSD values of peak areas and of S/N ratios at 3 µg/mL were also given by AA in cases of MDA, MDMA and MDEA. At 20 µg/mL, the lowest RSD values of peak areas for MDA and the lowest RSD values of S/N ratios for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA were again given by AA. Additionally, the highest correlation coefficients for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA and the lowest LOD results for MA, MDMA and MDEA were produced by AA.

  4. LC-MS/MS in the elucidation of an isomer of the recreational drug methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine: methylenedioxy dimethylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Casteele, Sofie R Vande; Bouche, Marie-Paule L; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the surplus value of a quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration TOF mass spectrometer, coupled to a liquid chromatographic separation system, for the unequivocal identification and structural elucidation of an unknown compound in the field of designer drugs. In a patient sample set (blood, tissues, vitreous humor, etc.), analyzed with a dedicated liquid chromatographic-fluorescence detection method for the determination of methylenedioxy amphetamine, methylenedioxy methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), a "strange" inexplicable peak appeared at a retention time not corresponding to any of our reference materials. Based on the identical excitation and emission wavelengths in detection, and a retention behavior comparable to MDEA, it was assumed that this unknown compound was an isomer of the recreational drug MDEA. With a simple and straightforward methodological crossover between LC fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS, additional information for structural elucidation was easily obtained. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (fluorescence detection part) and on a Hypersil BDS phenyl column (mass spectrometric detection part). MS showed that the unknown compound's molecular mass was identical to that of MDEA, and, in addition, its fragmentation pattern too proved quite similar to that of MDEA. A thorough literature overview and study of the fragmentation pattern by means of the MS/MS spectrum led to an evidence-based hypothesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDM) being the unknown compound. To confirm this hypothesis, MDDM was synthesized and its presence in our biological sample was finally demonstrated by co-injection with alternatively synthesized MDDM and MDEA. This application shows the synergism between LC and MS in the elucidation of unknown compounds, nevertheless emphasizing the essence of chromatographic separation when dealing with isomers.

  5. More experiences with corrosion and fouling in a refinery amine system

    SciTech Connect

    Litschewski, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a roller coaster ride of corrosion and subsequent fouling in a Refinery MDEA system. The accelerated corrosion was first initiated by addition of caustic and the following up and down corrosion rate was a result of operating conditions imposed by increased sour crude charge, fouling and misapplication of MDEA. System variables that were controlled during this period included equipment metallurgy, the addition of caustic to neutralize heat stable salts (HSS), ion exchange to remove HSS and sodium, amine circulation rate, reboiler steam rate and the injection of a corrosion inhibitor.

  6. Cationic Mn4 single-molecule magnet with a sterically isolated core.

    PubMed

    Heroux, Katie J; Quddusi, Hajrah M; Liu, Junjie; O'Brien, James R; Nakano, Motohiro; del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Hendrickson, David N

    2011-08-15

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a ligand-modified Mn(4) dicubane single-molecule magnet (SMM), [Mn(4)(Bet)(4)(mdea)(2)(mdeaH)(2)](BPh(4))(4), are presented, where the cationic SMM units are significantly separated from neighboring molecules in the crystal lattice. There are no cocrystallized solvate molecules, making it an ideal candidate for single-crystal magnetization hysteresis and high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Increased control over intermolecular interactions in such materials is a crucial factor in the future application of SMMs.

  7. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  8. Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Narimatsu, S; Suzuki, T

    1992-10-06

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine (CZ) [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-piperazine] to 1-(diphenylmethyl)piperazine (M-1), 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine (M-2), benzophenone (M-3) and 1-[4'-hydroxyphenyl)-phenylmethyl]-4-(3- phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine (M-4) has been studied in rat liver microsomes. In Wistar rats, kinetic analysis revealed sex differences (male > female) in the Km values for formation of all the metabolites and the Vmax values for the formation of M-1, M-3 and M-4. The reactions required NADPH, and were inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF 525-A. Only M-2 formation was suppressed by sparteine or metoprolol, and was significantly lower in female Dark Agouti rats than in Wistar rats of both sexes. The results suggest that CZ is oxidized by cytochrome P450, and M-2 formation is related to debrisoquine/sparteine-type polymorphic drug oxidation.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  10. Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-05-25

    Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation allowed the detection of FIP via its metabolites in rat urine after administration of a common FIP dose. Therefore, this qualitative procedure should also be suitable for detection of a FIP intake in human urine. Differentiation of an intake of FIP from that of other drugs which form common metabolites is discussed.

  11. Selective GlyT1 inhibitors: discovery of [4-(3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl][5-methanesulfonyl-2-((S)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methylethoxy)phenyl]methanone (RG1678), a promising novel medicine to treat schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alanine, Alexander; Alberati, Daniela; Bender, Markus; Borroni, Edilio; Bourdeaux, Patrick; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hainzl, Dominik; Halm, Remy; Hauser, Nicole; Jolidon, Synese; Lengyel, Judith; Marty, Hans-Peter; Meyer, Thierry; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mory, Roland; Narquizian, Robert; Nettekoven, Mathias; Norcross, Roger D; Puellmann, Bernd; Schmid, Philipp; Schmitt, Sebastien; Stalder, Henri; Wermuth, Roger; Wettstein, Joseph G; Zimmerli, Daniel

    2010-06-24

    The GlyT1 transporter has emerged as a key novel target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Herein, we report on the optimization of the 2-alkoxy-5-methylsulfonebenzoylpiperazine class of GlyT1 inhibitors to improve hERG channel selectivity and brain penetration. This effort culminated in the discovery of compound 10a (RG1678), the first potent and selective GlyT1 inhibitor to have a beneficial effect in schizophrenic patients in a phase II clinical trial.

  12. Spectral investigations, DFT computations and molecular docking studies of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(2-methylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, K. S.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Pakosińska-Parys, Magdalena; Alsenoy, C. Van

    2015-10-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of the title compound have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analysed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarisability calculation reveals the present material has a reasonably good propensity for nonlinear optical activity. Due to the different potential biological activity of the title compound, molecular docking study is also reported and the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

  13. Structure-activity relationship study of N⁶-(2-(4-(1H-Indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N⁶-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine analogues: development of highly selective D3 dopamine receptor agonists along with a highly potent D2/D3 agonist and their pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2012-06-28

    In our effort to develop multifunctional drugs against Parkinson's disease, a structure-activity-relationship study was carried out based on our hybrid molecular template targeting D2/D3 receptors. Competitive binding with [(3)H]spiroperidol was used to evaluate affinity (K(i)) of test compounds. Functional activity of selected compounds in stimulating [(35)S]GTPγS binding was assessed in CHO cells expressing either human D2 or D3 receptors. Our results demonstrated development of highly selective compounds for D3 receptor (for (-)-40K(i), D3 = 1.84 nM, D2/D3 = 583.2; for (-)-45K(i), D3 = 1.09 nM, D2/D3 = 827.5). Functional data identified (-)-40 (EC(50), D2 = 114 nM, D3 = 0.26 nM, D2/D3 = 438) as one of the highest D3 selective agonists known to date. In addition, high affinity, nonselective D3 agonist (-)-19 (EC(50), D2 = 2.96 nM and D3 = 1.26 nM) was also developed. Lead compounds with antioxidant activity were evaluated using an in vivo PD animal model.

  14. Interaction of D₃ preferring agonist (-)-N⁶-(2-(4-(biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N⁶-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264) with cloned human D₂L, D₂S, and D₃ receptors: potent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and G protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Cote, Samantha; Santra, Soumava; Dutta, Aloke K

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of the novel D(3) dopamine receptor agonist, D-264, on activation of D(3) and D(2) dopamine receptor signal transduction pathways and cell proliferation. AtT-20 neuroendocrine cells stably expressing human D(2S), D(2L), and D(3) dopamine receptors were treated with D-264 and the coupling of the receptors to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and G protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels was determined using Western blotting and whole-cell voltage clamp recording, respectively. D-264 potently activated MAPK signaling pathway coupled to D(2S), D(2L), and D(3) dopamine receptors. The activation of MAPK was more pronounced than the reference agonist quinpirole and was longer lasting. D-264 also activated GIRK channels coupled to D(2S), D(2L), and D(3) receptors. In addition, D-264 dose-dependently induced cell proliferation in AtT-D(2L) and AtT-D(3) cells. These results indicate that D-264 robustly activates GIRK channels and MAPK coupled to D(2) and D(3) dopamine receptors in AtT-20 cells. D-264 is also a potent inducer of cell proliferation.

  15. Structural analysis of (S)-1-((1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)oxy)-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propan-2-ol and binding mechanism with α1A-adrenoceptor: TDDFT calculations, X-ray crystallography and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Binhao; Xu, Xingjie; Jiang, Renwang; Yuan, Mu

    2016-02-01

    The title compound, (S)-1-((1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)oxy)-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazi-n-1-yl)propan-2-ol (1), belongs to a class of arylpiperazine derivatives that exhibit good bioactivity against α1A-adrenoceptor. The current study describes conformational analysis of five energy-minimized conformers obtained at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The characteristically positive rotatory strengths at an excitation energy of 256 nm were achieved using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Molecular orbital studies clearly elucidated the origins of electronic transitions at 256 nm. The absolute configuration of (S)-1 was unambiguously determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Molecular docking solved the binding mode of 1-α1A-adrenoceptor complex. This work can serve as a basis for better drug design of highly selective antagonists with chirality.

  16. Discovery of 4-(4-(2-((5-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)(propyl)amino)-ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-8-ol and its analogues as highly potent dopamine D2/D3 agonists and as iron chelator: In vivo activity indicates potential application in symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been implicated strongly due to generation of oxidative stress leading to dopamine cell death. In our overall goal to develop bifunctional/multifunctional drugs, we designed dopamine D2/D3 agonist molecules with a capacity to bind to iron. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptors with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (Ki). Functional activity of selected compounds was carried out with GTPγS binding assay. SAR results identified compounds (+)-19a and (−)-19b as two potent agonists for both D2 and D3 receptors (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 4.51 and 1.69 nM and D3 = 1.58 and 0.74 nM for (−)-19b and (+)-19a, respectively). In vitro complexation studies with 19b demonstrated efficient chelation with iron. Furthermore, the deoxyribose assay with 19b demonstrated potent antioxidant activity. In PD animal model study, (−)-19b exhibited potent in vivo activity in reversing locomotor activity in reserpinized rats and also in producing potent rotational activity in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. This reports initial development of unique lead molecules which might find potential use in symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment of PD. PMID:20146482

  17. Design and synthesis of a novel family of triazine-based inhibitors of sorbitol dehydrogenase with oral activity: 1-[4-[3R,5S-dimethyl-4-(4-methyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl]-(R) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mylari, Banavara L; Withbroe, Gregory J; Beebe, David A; Brackett, Nathaniel S; Conn, Edward L; Coutcher, James B; Oates, Peter J; Zembrowski, William J

    2003-09-15

    Two new templates, (R) 2-hydroxyethyl-pyridine and (R) 2-hydroxyethyl-triazine, were used to design novel sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDIs). The design concept included spawning of these templates to function as effective ligands to the catalytic zinc within the enzyme through incorporation of optimally substituted piperazino-triazine side chains so as to accommodate the active site in the enzyme for efficient binding. This strategy resulted in orally active SDIs, which penetrate key tissues, for example, sciatic nerve of chronically diabetic rats. The latter template led to the design of the title inhibitor, 33, which normalized the elevated sciatic nerve fructose by 96% at an oral dose of 10mg/kg.

  18. Probing the "additive effect" in the proline and proline hydroxamic acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of nitroalkanes to cyclic enones.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Govindan, Subramaniyan; Warrier, Jayakumar S

    2005-11-01

    The effect of chirality and steric bulk of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines as additives in the conjugate addition of 2-nitropropane to cyclohexenone, catalyzed by l-proline, was investigated. Neither chirality nor steric bulk affects the enantioselectivity of addition, which gives 86-93% ee in the presence of achiral and chiral nonracemic 2,5-disubstituted piperazines. Proline hydroxamic acid is shown for the first time to be an effective organocatalyst in the same Michael reaction.

  19. A study to investigate the performance of the Benfield-HiPure process of natural gas sweetening using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, Richard

    capacity and plant energy efficiency. Due to the complexity and high investment cost of the Benfield HiPure process, potential alternatives are evaluated. The alternatives are basically MDEA based solvents with promoters to enable the simultaneous removal of H 2S and CO2. BASF's MDEA, MDEA/DEA or MDEA/DGA processes seem to be the best alternatives to the Benfield HiPure process. Using MDEA/DEA or MDEA/DGA process will reduce the capital costs of ADGAS by 50% , and up to 48% will be saved on the annual power consumption (0.33 million dollars per years) . BASF's MDEA has slightly higher capital costs due to the additional units required on the high pressure flash and the quenching units used to generate the semi-lean solution. However, BASF's MDEA process still stands as one of the best alternatives with a savings of about 102 million dollars (48%) on the capital costs and up to 36% (3.96 USD per ton of acid gas removed) on the cost stripping.

  20. Solubility of light hydrocarbons in gas treating solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, F.D.; Mather, A.E.; Jou, F.Y.; Lal, D.

    1985-01-01

    The solubility of methane and ethane in amine treating solutions, including MEA, DEA, DGA, MDEA and TEA and selected physical solvents, has been measured at temperatures in the range 25/sup 0/ to 130/sup 0/C at partial pressures of the hydrocarbons up to about 13.0 mpa. Data were also determined for TEA solutions loaded with CO/sub 2/. The results are useful in the estimation of hydrocarbon losses in gas-treating processes.

  1. The first 4d/4f single-molecule magnet containing a {Ru(III)2Dy(III)2} core.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-02-07

    We report the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the first 4d-4f single-molecule magnet. The complex [Ru(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(O2CPh)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] displays a butterfly type core, with an anisotropy barrier of 10.7 cm(-1). Ab initio and DFT calculations provide insight into the observed magnetic behaviour.

  2. Crystal structure of aqua-1κO-{μ-2-[(2-hydroxy­ethyl)methylamino]ethanolato-2:1κ4 O 1,N,O 2:O 1}[μ-2,2′-(methylimino)diethanolato-1:2κ4 O,N,O′:O]dithiocyanato-1κN,2κN-chromium(III)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Rusanova, Julia A.; Semenaka, Valentina V.; Dyakonenko, Viktoriya V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [CrCu(C5H11NO2)(C5H12NO2)(NCS)2(H2O)] or [Cr(μ-mdea)Cu(μ-Hmdea)(NCS)2H2O], (where mdeaH2 is N-methylethanolamine, C5H13NO2) is formed as a neutral heterometal CuII/CrIII complex. The mol­ecular structure of the complex is based on a binuclear {CuCr(μ-O)2} core. The coordination environment of each metal atom involves the N,O,O atoms of the tridentate ligand, one bridging O atom of the ligand and the N atom of the thio­cyanato ligands. The CuII ion adopts a distorted square-pyramidal coordination while the CrIII ion has a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry completed by the aqua ligand. In the crystal, the binuclear complexes are linked via two pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers, which are arranged in columns parallel to the a axis. In the μ-mdea ligand two –CH2 groups and the methyl group were refined as disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies. The structure was refined as a two-component twin with a twin scale factor of 0.242 (1). PMID:26396853

  3. New analytical technique for carbon dioxide absorption solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Pouryousefi, F.; Idem, R.O.

    2008-02-15

    The densities and refractive indices of two binary systems (water + MEA and water + MDEA) and three ternary systems (water + MEA + CO{sub 2}, water + MDEA + CO{sub 2}, and water + MEA + MDEA) used for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture were measured over the range of compositions of the aqueous alkanolamine(s) used for CO{sub 2} absorption at temperatures from 295 to 338 K. Experimental densities were modeled empirically, while the experimental refractive indices were modeled using well-established models from the known values of their pure-component densities and refractive indices. The density and Gladstone-Dale refractive index models were then used to obtain the compositions of unknown samples of the binary and ternary systems by simultaneous solution of the density and refractive index equations. The results from this technique have been compared with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) results, while a third independent technique (acid-base titration) was used to verify the results. The results show that the systems' compositions obtained from the simple and easy-to-use refractive index/density technique were very comparable to the expensive and laborious HPLC/titration techniques, suggesting that the refractive index/density technique can be used to replace existing methods for analysis of fresh or nondegraded, CO{sub 2}-loaded, single and mixed alkanolamine solutions.

  4. Measurement of 3,4-MDMA and related amines in diagnostic and forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Skrinska, Victor A; Gock, Susan B

    2005-01-01

    The phenylalkylamine derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, XTC, Adam), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, MDE, Eve), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), are psychostimulants with hallucinogenic properties. MDA is also a metabolite of both MDMA and MDEA. These drugs are ring-substituted amphetamine derivatives that produce hallucinogenic, entactogenic ('love drug'), and stimulating effects. MDMA was initially developed as an appetite suppressant, however, its use as a therapeutic drug has been very limited. Because of its effects as a hallucinogenic psychostimulant with relatively low toxicity, it has emerged over the last two decades as a common recreational psychostimulant or 'club drug' at 'raves'. MDMA, MDEA, and MDA are often referred to as 'rave' or 'designer' drugs. They are produced in clandestine laboratories and have an increasing presence on the illicit drug market worldwide. Significant adverse health effects have been reported that include: serotonin neurotoxicity, severe psychiatric disorders, renal failure, malignant hyperthermia, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A number of fatal outcomes associated with severe MDMA intoxication have been reported.

  5. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, J.I.; Yoon, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPD) has been measured at (30, 40, and 60) C and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide ranging from (0.5 to 3065) kPa. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions were (10 and 30) mass % AMPD. The tendency of the solubility of carbon dioxide in 30 mass % AMPD aqueous solution at 40 C was found to be similar to that in 30 mass % N-methyldiethanolamine aqueous solution.

  6. Differentiation of the 1-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-piperazinopropanes and 1-(methoxyphenyl)-2-piperazinopropanones by GC-IRD and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hay, Karim M; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2014-02-01

    Two amphetamine-like piperazine-containing compounds, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-piperazinopropane (3,4-MDPPP), its positional isomer 1-(2,3-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-piperazinopropane (2,3-MDPPP) and three methcathinone-like piperazine-containing regioisomeric ring substituted 1-(methoxyphenyl)-2-piperazinopropanones (OMePPPOs) have identical elemental composition and no marked differences in their mass spectra. Perfluoroacylation of the secondary amine nitrogen of these isomeric piperazines gave mass spectra with differences in the relative abundance of some fragment ions but did not alter the fragmentation pathway to provide unique ions for discrimination among these isomers. Gas chromatography coupled to infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for the identification of the carbonyl containing compounds and the differentiation of the 3,4-MDPPP from its direct (2,3-MDPPP) and indirect (OMePPPOs) regioisomers. The vapor phase infrared spectra provide for specific confirmation of each of the isomeric piperazines. The perfluoroacyl derivative forms of the five piperazines involved in this study were resolved on two stationary phases, the first is composed of 100% dimethyl polysiloxane (Rtx-1) and the second of 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane (Rtx-5).

  7. Ring-opening reactions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) derived quaternary ammonium salts with phenols and related nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Maraš, Nenad; Polanc, Slovenko; Kočevar, Marijan

    2012-02-14

    1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) has been evaluated as a starting material for the synthesis of 1-alkyl-4-(2-phenoxyethyl)piperazines and related derivatives. We found that 1-alkyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium salts, resulting from the alkylation of DABCO, efficiently react with a variety of nucleophiles in polyethyleneglycol (PEG) or diglyme at high temperatures to give piperazine products resulting from the nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. The benzylation side reaction was found to be relevant with softer nucleophiles when using 1-benzyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium salts, while other types of alkylations were not observed. One-pot methodologies allow for the synthesis of piperazines directly from primary alcohols, alkyl halides or sulfonates, using phenols, or other nucleophile sources, and DABCO.

  8. An evaluation of levamisole for treatment of ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Farahmandian, I; Arfaa, F; Katz, N; Winsor, E; Bennett, E

    1978-02-01

    Levamisole (Decaris, Belgium) was tested in Iran, Brazil, and in Mississippi and Louisiana for its efficacy as a single-dose oral treatment for Ascaris infections. Subjects were children ages 2 to 15 years, and numbers treated with levamisole and comparative anthelmintics are as follows: 453 with levamisole; 461 with piperazine citrate; 17 with pyrantel pamoate; and 19 with a placebo. Cure rates and total reduction in mean egg counts observed were 92% and 98% respectively for levamisole and 66% and 90% for piperazine. Sixteen of 17 treated with pyrantel pamoate were cured. In none of the drugs were there notable side reactions, but in all four studies side effects were more frequent with piperazine than with levamisole. Levamisole was found to be a well-tolerated, highly effective single-dose ascaricide. It should prove to be particularly useful for mass chemotherapy in Ascaris control programs.

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Imidazolium and Piperazinium Salts of Pyropheophorbide-a for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengee, Gerelt-Ireedui; Badraa, Narangerel; Shim, Young Key

    2008-01-01

    We have designed imidazolium and piperazinium salts of pyropheophorbide-a in order to develop effective photosensitizers which have good solubility in polar and non polar media and to reveal the possible influences of the piperazine and imidazole moieties on the biological activities of pyropheophorbide-a. The phototoxicity of those pyropheophorbide-a salts against A549 cells was studied in vitro and compared with that of pyropheophorbide-a. The result showed that complexing piperazine and imidazole into pyropheophorbide-a decreases its dark toxicity without greatly decreasing phototoxicity and, enhances its phototoxicity without greatly increasing dark toxicity, respectively. This work not only describes novel amphiphilic salt complexes of pyropheophobide-a which retain the biological activities of the parent compound pyropheophorbide-a and could be effective candidate for PDT, but also reveals the possibility of developing effective photosensitizers by complexing imidazole and piperazine into other hydrophobic photosensitizers. PMID:19325811

  11. Efficient synthesis of deuterium labeled hydroxyzine and aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Mohit; Sandbhor, Mahendra; Wozniak, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Hydroxyzine and aripiprazole are active pharmaceutical ingredients that have been largely acknowledged for their antipsychotic properties. Deuterium labeled isotopes of hydroxyzine and aripiprazole are internal standards that can aid in the further research of non-isotopic forms via quantification analysis using HPLC-MS/MS. The synthesis of hydroxyzine-d8 was accomplished by coupling piperazine-d8 with 4-chlorobenzhydryl chloride followed by the reaction of the first intermediate with 2-(2-chloroethoxy) ethanol to afford 11.7% of hydroxyzine-d8 with 99.5% purity. The synthesis of aripiprazole-d8 was also achieved in two steps. 1,4-Dibromobutane-d8 reacted with 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone. The first intermediate was then coupled with 1-(2, 3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine hydrochloride to produce 33.4% of aripiprazole-d8 with 99.93% purity.

  12. General Urban Warfare Amphibious Logistics Applications. Volume 2. Operations Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-23

    lists below, in the event local hospitals or clinics are not readily available. Pharmaceutical form and srn Total reuired Analggsics 1 acetylsalicylic ... acid tab 300mg 14,000 tab 2 paracetamol tab 500mg 7,000 tab Antihelminthic I piperazine tab 500mg 4,000 tab 2 piperazine syrup 500mg/5ml 10 litres 3...UNCLASSIFIED 2 chloroquine syrup 50mg/5ml base 10 litres ferrous salt and folic acid tab 60mg iron with 9,000 tab 0.25mg

  13. Synthesis and functional survey of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or their precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kálai, Tamás; Altman, Robin; Maezawa, Izumi; Balog, Mária; Morisseau, Christophe; Petrlova, Jitka; Hammock, Bruce D.; Jin, Lee-Way; Trudell, James; Voss, John C.; Hideg, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    A series of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or pre-nitroxides on 9-amino group via methylene or piperazine spacers were synthesized; the nitroxide or its precursors were incorporated into the Tacrine scaffold. The new compounds were tested for their hydroxyl radical and peroxyl radical scavenging ability, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor activity and protection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these assays, we conclude that Tacrine analogs connected to five and six-membered nitroxides via piperazine spacers (9b, 9b/HCl and 12) exhibited the best activity, providing direction for further development of additional candidates with dual functionality (anti Alzheimer’s and antioxidant). PMID:24657571

  14. Pharmacomodulation on the 3-acetylursolic acid skeleton: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel N-{3-[4-(3-aminopropyl)piperazinyl]propyl}-3-O-acetylursolamide derivatives as antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Gnoatto, Simone C B; Susplugas, Sophie; Dalla Vechia, Luciana; Ferreira, Thais B; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Zimmer, Karine R; Demailly, Catherine; Da Nascimento, Sophie; Guillon, Jean; Grellier, Philippe; Verli, Hugo; Gosmann, Grace; Sonnet, Pascal

    2008-01-15

    A series of new piperazine derivatives of ursolic acid was synthesized and tested against Plasmodium falciparum strains. They were also tested on their cytotoxicity effects upon MRC-5 cells. Seven new piperazinyl analogues showed significant activity in the nanomolar range (IC(50)=78-167nM) against Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistant strain FcB1. A possible mechanism of interaction implicating binding of these compounds to beta-hematin was supported by in vitro tests. Moreover, the importance of the hydrophilic framework attached at the terminal nitrogen atom of the bis-(3-aminopropyl)piperazine joined to the triterpene ring was also explored through molecular dynamic simulations.

  15. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  16. Triprotic acid-base microequilibria and pharmacokinetic sequelae of cetirizine.

    PubMed

    Marosi, Attila; Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Béni, Szabolcs; Kökösi, József; Noszál, Béla

    2009-06-28

    (1)H NMR-pH titrations of cetirizine, the widely used antihistamine and four related compounds were carried out and the related 11 macroscopic protonation constants were determined. The interactivity parameter between the two piperazine amine groups was obtained from two symmetric piperazine derivatives. Combining these two types of datasets, all the 12 microconstants and derived tautomeric constants of cetirizine were calculated. Upon this basis, the conflicting literature data of cetirizine microspeciation were clarified, and the pharmacokinetic absorption-distribution properties could be interpreted. The pH-dependent distribution of the microspecies is provided.

  17. Brønsted acid-mediated cyclization–dehydrosulfonylation/reduction sequences: An easy access to pyrazinoisoquinolines and pyridopyrazines

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramana Sreenivasa

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and alternative synthetic approach has been developed to prepare various N-(arylethyl)piperazine-2,6-diones from 4-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetic acid and primary amines using carbonyldiimidazole in the presence of a catalytic amount of DMAP at ambient temperature. Piperazine-2,6-diones are successfully transformed to pharmaceutically useful pyridopyrazines or pyrazinoisoquinolines and ene-diamides via an imide carbonyl group activation strategy using a Brønsted acid. Subsequent dehydrosulfonylation reactions of the ene-diamides, in a one pot manner, smoothly transformed them to substituted pyrazinones. A concise synthesis of praziquantel (1) has also been achieved through this method. PMID:28382181

  18. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  19. A new GC-MS method for the determination of five amphetamines in human hair.

    PubMed

    Villamor, J L; Bermejo, A M; Fernández, P; Tabernero, M J

    2005-03-01

    A new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA) in hair is proposed. Hair was hydrolyzed in 1 M NaOH at 40 degrees C, subjected to extraction with 4:1 (v/v) methylene chloride/isopropanol, and derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and ethyl acetate. Calibration curves for the five analytes were constructed over the concentration range 0.5-25.0 ng/mg, using their pentadeuterated analogues as internal standards. The limits of detection and quantitation obtained were 0.045 and 0.151 ng/mg for AP; 0.014 and 0.048 ng/mg for MA; 0.013 and 0.043 ng/mg for MDA; 0.017 and 0.057 ng/mg for MDMA; and 0.007 and 0.023 ng/mg for MDEA. The accuracy of the method was found to be in the range +/- 9%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 8%. Overall, 24 hair specimens tested positive for one or more amphetamines, with average concentrations of 0.88 ng/mg for AP, 10.14 ng/mg for MA, 1.30 ng/mg for MDA, and 8.87 ng/mg for MDMA. Only one specimen tested positive for MDEA with a concentration of 0.84 ng/mg.

  20. Simultaneous determination of eight underivatized amphetamines in hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS).

    PubMed

    Stanaszek, Roman; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate an analytical procedure to determine a group of eight amphetamines, amphetamine (AMP), ephedrine (EP), methcathinone (MTC), paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA), methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), in hair. The target substances were extracted with 1-chlorobutane after alkaline (1M NaOH) digestion and analyzed underivatized with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). APCI-MS parameters such as fragmentor and capillary voltage, corona current, drying gas temperature and flow rate, vaporizer temperature, and nebulizer gas pressure were optimized with the application of flow injection analysis. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions of the studied drugs, and their deuterated analogues were used as internal standards. The limits of detection were 0.05 ng/mg for MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA; 0.10 ng/mg for EP and AMP; and 0.20 ng/mg for MTC and PMA. A linear response was observed for all drugs from 0 to 20 ng/mg. The method was applied to the determination of amphetamines in 93 authentic hair samples obtained from detoxification and methadone treatment patients, revealing the following concentrations: 0.17-17.28 ng/mg (EP), 0.52-2.08 ng/mg (MTC), 0.15-62.52 ng/mg (AMP), 0.10-16.52 ng/mg (MA), 0.10-0.88 ng/mg (MDMA), and 0.10-0.16 ng/mg (MDEA). MDA and PMA were never detected.

  1. Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

  2. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Linan; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-06-01

    Aildenafil, 1-{[3-(6, 7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4, 3-d] primidin-5-yl)-4-ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl}-cis-3, 5-dimethylpiperazine, a phosphodiesterase type V enzyme inhibitor (PDE5I), is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to elucidate metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. Thirty-one phase I metabolites have been found by LTQ/Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry in rat urine, faeces, and bile after oral administration. Major biotransformation pathways of aildenafil included N-dealkylation of the piperazine ring, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, aliphatic hydroxylation and loss of alkyl group of piperazine ring. Minor pathways involved hydroxylation on the phenyl ring, pyrazole N-demethylation, O-deethylation, loss of piperazine ring (cleavage of N-S bond) and dehydrogenation on the piperazine ring. Similar metabolic pathways of aildenafil were observed in the incubations of liver microsomes from mouse, rat, and dog as well as from human. The depletion rate of parent drug in mouse and rat liver microsomes was significantly different from that in human liver microsomes. The cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping analysis was conducted using isozyme-specific inhibitors. The results indicated that CYP3A was the main isoenzyme involved in oxidative metabolism of aildenafil. Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide valuable information on possible metabolic behaviours of aildenafil in humans.

  3. Studies of flammability and thermal degradation for flame retardant cotton fabric with P-N containing derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a phosphoramidate Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4- diyldiphosphoramidate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) on cotton twill fabrics was compared with that of a previously studied Diethyl 4- methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (DEPP). TEPP was formed in a reaction between two phosphonat...

  4. The comparison of differences in flammability and thermal degradation between cotton fabrics treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a phosphoramidate Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphoramidate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) on cotton twill fabrics was compared with that of a previously studied Diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (DEPP). TEPP was formed in a reaction between two phosphonates...

  5. Tip-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy: I. Modulating Adhesion Between Silicon Nitride and Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    sodium phosphate, tris( hydroxymethyl )aminomethane, glycine , and N -2-hydroxyethyt- piperazine N ’-2...biologi- cal research, including sodium phosphate tris( hydroxyniethyl ) aminomnethane. glycine , and N -2 hydroxyethylpiperazine N ’-2 ethanesulfonic acid...including tris( hydroxymethyl ) undesirable, as is often the case, either Tris, Hepes or aminomethane (Tris), glycine , and N -2-hydroxyethyl- glycind

  6. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    PubMed

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine.

  7. Development of the phosphorus and nitrogen containing flame retardant for value added cotton product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is our desire to develop new crosslinking agents for cotton textiles that afford useful flame protection regardless of fabric construction. Herein we present the synthesis and the application of the triazine and piperazine derivatives as flame retardant on cotton. Novel phosphorus-nitrogen contai...

  8. Regioselective Green Electrochemical Approach to the Synthesis of Nitroacetaminophen Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Salahifar, Eslam; Nematollahi, Davood; Bayat, Mehdi; Mahyari, Amir; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi

    2015-10-02

    A regioselective green synthesis of nitroacetaminophen derivatives was carried out by electrochemical oxidation of acetaminophen, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, and 1-(4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile. The present work has led to the development of a reagentless green and facile electrochemical method for the synthesis of some nitroacetaminophen derivatives.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel series of farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors as non-peptidic CAAX tetrapeptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Perez, Michel; Maraval, Catherine; Dumond, Stephan; Lamothe, Marie; Schambel, Philippe; Etiévant, Chantal; Hill, Bridget

    2003-04-17

    A novel series of compounds, derived from 4-amino-phenyl piperazine, has been designed to selectively inhibit farnesyl protein transferase (FPTase) as CAAX tetrapeptide analogues. Certain of these compounds were shown to possess low nanomolar inhibitory activity both against the isolated enzyme and in cultured cells.

  10. Modulation of the Cs2CO3-promoted catalytic amination by a crown ether.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, Y; Nishi, T; Minamikawa, J

    2000-11-06

    The catalytic addition of 18-Crown-6 in some Cs2CO3-promoted amination of triflates and bromides was beneficial to improve sluggish reaction with suppression of the unwanted side products. The protocol was useful for the preparation of chlorinated aryl piperazines from phenol derivatives.

  11. Antimycotic azoles. 6. Synthesis and antifungal properties of terconazole, a novel triazole ketal.

    PubMed

    Heeres, J; Hendrickx, R; Van Cutsem, J

    1983-04-01

    The preparation and antifungal properties of cis-1-[4-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1, 3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]-4-(1-methylethyl)piperazine are reported. Terconazole has a high topical in vivo activity against vaginal candidosis in rats and against dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

  12. A bivalent cationic dye enabling selective photo-inactivation against Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Jiang, Guo-Yu; Hou, Yuan-Jun; Zhang, Bao-Wen; Zhou, Qian-Xiong; Wang, Xue-Song

    2015-05-07

    A piperazine-modified Crystal Violet was found to be able to selectively inactivate Gram-negative bacteria upon visible light irradiation but left Gram-positive bacteria less damaged, which can serve as a blueprint for the development of novel narrow-spectrum agents to replenish the current arsenal of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT).

  13. M[superscript 2+]•EDTA Binding Affinities: A Modern Experiment in Thermodynamics for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Root, Hannah B.; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Shabestary, Nahid; De Meo, Cristina; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to experimentally determine thermodynamic values for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)(aq) + M[superscript 2+](aq) reactions (M[superscript 2+] = Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]). Students showed that for reactions in a N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N"-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)…

  14. Light-assisted synthesis and functionalization of silver nanoparticles with thiol derivative thioxanthones: new insights into the engineering of metal/chromophore nanoassemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Songlin; Schneider, Raphaël; Vidal, Loïc; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Balan, Lavinia

    2014-09-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were generated, functionalized, and stabilized using a one-step photochemical approach that does not require more than few minutes with a low power near UV LED source. A series of thiol-functionalized thioxanthone (TX) derivatives were prepared and used for the photoinduced synthesis of Ag NPs and their surface functionalization and stabilization. Upon illumination, Ag+ ions are reduced by free radicals generated through an oxidoreductive process occurring between excited TX groups and N-methyldiethanolamine. This process generates monodispersed silver nanoparticles with an average diameter about 2-7 nm depending on the TX derivative used. Due to the strong interaction between Ag atoms and thiol groups of the ligands, AgNPs are capped in situ by TX derivatives and exhibit remarkable stability in solution. Subsequent studies carried out on silver NPs/TX nanoassemblies (designed as AgNPs@S-TX) demonstrated their potentials in free radical photopolymerization of acrylate monomers.

  15. Composites prepared from the waterborne polyurethane cationomers-modified graphene. Part II. Electrical properties of the polyurethane films.

    PubMed

    Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Zenker, Marek; Subocz, Jan

    The research was planned to test electrical properties of polymer films made from polyurethane cationomers with 0-2 wt.% graphene admixture. The cationomers were synthetized in the reaction of 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), polycaprolactone diol (M = 2000), N-methyldiethanolamine, and formic acid. It was found that addition of approx. 2 wt.% of graphene causes the loss of volume resistivity by three orders of magnitude and percolation threshold is already set at approx. 1 wt.%. The frequency characteristic of a real part of permittivity ε' and imaginary part of permittivity ε″ were measured for the tested films. On the base of Havriliak-Negami equation, parameters of relaxation functions in frequency domain were estimated for samples containing various contents of graphene. The influence of the cationomer phase structure on observed changes of dielectric losses coefficient tgδ in the full-measuring frequency spectrum was discussed.

  16. New chlorinated amphetamine-type-stimulants disinfection-by-products formed during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Pineda, Oriol; Ventura, Francesc; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2012-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated high removal rates of amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATSs) through conventional drinking water treatments; however the behaviour of these compounds through disinfection steps and their transformation into disinfection-by-products (DBPs) is still unknown. In this work, for the first time, the reactivity of some ATSs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) with chlorine has been investigated under simulated and real drinking water treatment conditions in order to evaluate their ability to give rise to transformation products. Two new DBPs from these illicit drugs have been found. A common chlorinated-by-product (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, was identified for both MDA and MDEA while for MDMA, 3-chlorocatechol was found. The presence of these DBPs in water samples collected through drinking water treatment was studied in order to evaluate their formation under real conditions. Both compounds were generated through treatment from raw river water samples containing ATSs at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 15 ng/L for MDA and from 2.3 to 78 ng/L for MDMA. One of them, (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, found after the first chlorination step, was eliminated after ozone and GAC treatment while the MDMA DBP mainly generated after the postchlorination step, showed to be recalcitrant and it was found in final treated waters at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.8 ng/L.

  17. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  18. Co-effects of amines molecules and chitosan films on in vitro calcium carbonate mineralization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jifei; Kennedy, John F; Nie, Jun; Ma, Guiping

    2015-11-20

    Amines monomers, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), 2-dimethylaminoethylamine (DMEDA) and N-methiyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were used to induce the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals on chitosan films, by using (NH4)2CO3 diffusion method at ambient temperature. The obtained CaCO3 particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influence of reaction variables, such as the additive concentration and their types were also investigated on the products. The morphologies of CaCO3 crystals, inter-grown in cube-shape, were controlled by DMAEMA and DMEA. It was observed that the morphologies of CaCO3 changed from the cube grown arms to massive calcite with a hole on the face by increasing the concentrations of DMEDA and MDEA. While the precipitation grew on chitosan film without any organic additive, only single cube-shaped crystals were obtained. By these results the possible mechanisms can be proposed that electronic movement of the groups on the monomer effected ions configuration and molecules absorbed on the exposed surface, resulted the change of the surface energy, which caused the change in the morphology of CaCO3.

  19. Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl.

  20. Simultaneous determination of HFBA-derivatized amphetamines and ketamines in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hei Hwa; Lee, Jong Feng; Lin, Sin Yu; Chen, Ping Ho; Chen, Bai Hsiun

    2011-04-01

    To facilitate the analysis of targeted drugs under high sample volume testing environment, an extraction, derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis method was developed for simultaneously determination of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, and norketamine in urine. This method utilized solid-phase extraction in conjunction with derivatization using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) as the derivatization reagent. Using a 1-mL sample, the limits of quantitation achieved for the analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine, and norketamine were 25, 15, 60, 60, 70, 25, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Upper limits of quantitation were 8000 ng/mL for all amphetamines and 6000 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine. Except for dehydronorketamine (DHNK), within-day and between-day precisions (as expressed in CV%) for quality control samples were ≤ 3.1% and ≤ 4.95%, respectively. Except DHNK, the within-day accuracy ranged between 96.0% and 110.7% and the between-day accuracy ranged between 96.9% and 108.7%. A group of 107 urine samples previously determined to contain the target analytes were analyzed by this new approach. Quantitative data produced by both methods agreed well. With this new approach, we were able to use a single analytical protocol to conduct the confirmation test for samples that preliminarily tested positive (by immunoassay) for amphetamines, ketamine, or both.

  1. A rapid method for the extraction, enantiomeric separation and quantification of amphetamines in hair.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Botrè, Francesco; Bermejo, Ana Maria; Tabernero, Maria Jesús

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a rapid and sensitive method for the determination and chiral separation of amphetamines and related designer drugs in hair samples. The substances are extracted from hair matrix by a 30 min treatment with a saturated carbonate buffer at pH 10 under ultrasonication. A commercial chiral derivatizing agent, trifluoroacetyl-prolyl chloride, is then added to the solution that is directly extracted with hexane and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS in SIM mode. R and S isomers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA and MDEA can be separated and detected with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mg for amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDA, and of 0.2 ng/mg for MDMA and MDEA. The method was then applied to 12 samples from suspected amphetamines abusers, showing the presence of both isomers of amphetamine and MDMA in one sample (27 and 1.5 ng/mg, respectively) and of MDMA in further eight samples, in concentrations ranging from traces to 2.7 ng/mg. No differences were observed in the disposition of different isomers in hair.

  2. Determination of amphetamines in human urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Nikolaos; Christopoulou, Klio; Theodoridis, Georgios; Tsoukali, Heleni; Psaroulis, Dimitrios

    2003-06-05

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is under investigation for its usefulness in the determination of a widening variety of volatile and semivolatile analytes in biological fluids and materials. Semivolatiles are increasingly under study as analytical targets, and difficulties with small partition coefficients and long equilibration times have been identified. Amphetamines were selected as semivolatiles exhibiting these limitations and methods to optimize their determination were investigated. A 100- micro m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated SPME fiber was used for the extraction of the amphetamines from human urine. Amphetamine determination was made using gas chromatography (GC) with flame-ionization detection (FID). Temperature, time and salt saturation were optimized to obtain consistent extraction. A simple procedure for the analysis of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (MA) in urine was developed and another for 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and GC-FID. Higher recoveries were obtained for amphetamine (19.5-47%) and methamphetamine (20-38.1%) than MDA (5.1-6.6%), MDMA (7-9.6%) and MDEA (5.4-9.6%).

  3. Application of solvent microextraction to the analysis of amphetamines and phencyclidine in urine.

    PubMed

    Casari, C; Andrews, A R

    2001-09-01

    A fast and simple method to detect some commonly abused illicit drugs, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylendioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylendioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylendioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) and phencyclidine (PCP) in urine using solvent microextraction (SME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) analysis has been developed. The extraction is conducted by suspending a 2 microl drop of chloroform in a 2 ml urine sample. Following 8 min of extraction, the organic solvent is withdrawn into the syringe and injected into a GC with a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID). The effects of different extraction solvents and times, pH and sample preparation were studied. The optimized method was capable of detecting drugs in urine at concentrations below Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) established cut-off values for preliminary testing. Good linearity and reproducibility of extraction were obtained. The limits of detection were 0.5 microg/ml for amphetamine, 0.1 microg/ml for methamphetamine and MDA, 0.05 microg/ml for MDMA, 0.025 microg/ml for MDEA and 0.015 microg/ml for PCP. Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values ranged between 5 and 20% for the studied drugs.

  4. Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

    1999-12-10

    We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting.

  5. Detection of methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine in spiked plasma by HPLC and TLC.

    PubMed

    Oztunç, Aysel; Onal, Armağan; Toker, Sidika Ertürk

    2010-01-01

    HPLC and TLC methods were developed for separation and detection of some amphetamine analogs: methamphetamine (MA); 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"); and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in spiked plasma samples. The methods are based on purple chromogens formed by displacement reaction of these secondary aliphatic amine-bearing drugs with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane at 80 degrees C for 25 min. For HPLC, both normal phase (silica gel) and RP (C18) columns were used. With the former, good detection limits in plasma were obtained with a 6 min run: 70, 100, and 500 ng/mL for MDMA, MA, and MDEA, respectively. For TLC, hexane-chloroform (1 + 9) and benzene-diethyl ether-petroleum ether (40-60 degrees)-acetonitrile-ethyl methyl ketone (2 + 3.5 + 3.5 + 0.5 + 0.5) were used as mobile phases for silica gel 60 TLC and cyano-bonded silica gel HPTLC plates, respectively. The former offered more sensitive results than the latter. Influence of evaporation steps on recovery and interferences for the HPLC and TLC methods were investigated. The developed methods are selective, simple, and easily applicable.

  6. Heterometallic 3d-4f single-molecule magnets: ligand and metal ion influences on the magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Le, Crystal; Ungur, Liviu; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Abrahams, Brendan F; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-04-06

    Six tetranuclear 3d–4f single-molecule magnet (SMM) complexes formed using N-n-butyldiethanolamine and N-methyldiethanolamine in conjunction with ortho- and para-substituted benzoic acid and hexafluoroacetoacetone ligands yield two families, both having a butterfly metallic core. The first consists of four complexes of type {Co2(III)Dy2(III)} and {Co2(III)Co(II)Dy(III)} using N-n-butyldiethanolamine with variation of the carboxylate ligand. The anisotropy barriers are 80 cm–1, (77 and 96 cm–1—two relaxation processes occur), 117 and 88 cm–1, respectively, each following a relaxation mechanism from a single DyIII ion. The second family consists of a {Co2(III)Dy2(III)} and a {Cr2(III)Dy2(III)} complex, from the ligand combination of N-methyldiethanolamine and hexafluoroacetylacetone. Both show SMM behavior, the Co(III) example displaying an anisotropy barrier of 23 cm–1. The Cr(III) complex displays a barrier of 28 cm–1, with longer relaxation times and open hysteresis loops, the latter of which is not seen in the Co(III) case. This is a consequence of strong Dy(III)–Cr(III) magnetic interactions, with the relaxation arising from the electronic structure of the whole complex and not from a single DyIII ion. The results suggest that the presence of strong exchange interactions lead to significantly longer relaxation times than in isostructural complexes where the exchange is weak. The study also suggests that electron-withdrawing groups on both bridging (carboxylate) and terminal (β-diketonate) ligands enhance the anisotropy barrier.

  7. Crystal structure of vilazodone hydro­chloride methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiu-Rong; Ye, Jia-Li; Gu, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H28N5O2 +·Cl−·CH3OH {systematic name: 4-(2-carbamoyl-1-benzo­furan-5-yl)-1-[4-(5-cyano-1H-indol-3-yl)but­yl]piperazin-1-ium chloride methanol monosolvate}, the protonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. The indole ring plane is nearly perpendicular to the benzo­furan ring system, with a dihedral angle of 85.77 (2)°. In the crystal, the organic cations, Cl− anions and methanol solvent mol­ecules are linked by classical N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, and weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:27980830

  8. Crystal structure of a new hybrid compound based on an iodido-plumbate(II) anionic motif.

    PubMed

    Mokhnache, Oualid; Boughzala, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of the one-dimensional organic-inorganic lead iodide-based compound catena-poly[bis-(piperazine-1,4-diium) [[tetra-iodido-plumbate(II)]-μ-iodido] iodide monohydrate], (C4N2H12)2[PbI5]I·H2O, were obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a solution containing lead iodide and piperazine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Inorganic lead iodide chains, organic (C4N2H12)(2+) cations, water mol-ecules of crystallization and isolated I(-) anions are connected through N-H⋯·I, N-H⋯OW and OW-H⋯I hydrogen-bond inter-actions. Zigzag chains of corner-sharing [PbI6](4-) octa-hedra with composition [PbI4/1I2/2](3-) running parallel to the a axis are present in the structure packing.

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  10. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  11. Stability of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence and absence of metal ions in acidic solution.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Urszula; Krzek, Jan; Walczak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic-densitometric method was used to determine the stability of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in the presence and absence of metal ions in acidic solutions at 22 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 90 degrees C. The degradation of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin followed first order reaction kinetics in presence of metal ions. The extent of this degradation however depended on the type of metal ion and temperature. Product structures of ciprofloxacin (1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-7-(piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-4(1H)-one) and norfloxacin (1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-4(1H)-one) were determined by analysis of UV spectra and using LC-MS method.

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-aryl-piperidine derivatives as potent (partial) agonists for human histamine H3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Miki; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Kakui, Nobukazu; Sato, Yasuo

    2010-07-15

    4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-1-aryl-piperazine and piperidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as candidate human histamine type 3 agonists. The piperazine derivatives were found to have low (or no) affinity for human histamine H3 receptor, whereas the piperidine derivatives showed moderate to high affinity, and their agonistic activity was greatly influenced by substituents on the aromatic ring. Among the piperidine-containing compounds, 17d and 17h were potent human histamine H3 receptor agonists with high selectivity over the closely related human H4 receptor. Our results indicate that appropriate conformational restriction, that is, by the piperidine spacer moiety, favors specific binding to the human histamine H3 receptor.

  13. Use of a hydrolytic procedure and spectrometric methods in the structure elucidation of a thiocarbonyl analogue of sildenafil detected as an adulterant in an over-the-counter herbal aphrodisiac.

    PubMed

    Reepmeyer, John C; D'Avignon, D André

    2009-01-01

    A sildenafil-related compound was detected in an herbal dietary supplement marketed as an aphrodisiac. The compound was identified as an analogue of sildenafil in which the carbonyl group in the pyrimidine ring of sildenafil was substituted with a thiocarbonyl group, and the methyl group on the piperazine ring was substituted with a hydroxyethyl group. Based on this structure, the compound was named thiohydroxyhomosildenafil. The structure of the compound was established using HPLCIMS, UV spectrometry, electrospray ionization-MS/MS, NMR spectrometry, and a hydrolytic process. One key product of hydrolysis was 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine; the identification of this product defined the amine portion of the compound. Another key product of hydrolysis was hydroxyhomosildenafil, generated by hydrolysis of the thiocarbonyl group to a carbonyl group (C = S --> C = O). Hydroxyhomosildenafil was detected as a minor component in the dietary supplement.

  14. 'Catalysts' for polyacrylamide gel polymerization and detection of proteins by silver staining.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, D F; Merril, C R

    1988-01-01

    The crosslinker diacrylyl-piperazine produces polyacrylamide gels which display improved electrophoretic separation of proteins and better physical strength. It also produces gels with improved detection of proteins by ammoniacal silver staining by reducing the background. This reduced background provided us with an opportunity to investigate residual background staining caused by the catalytic reagents utilized in the polymerization of acrylamide gels. The commonly used catalyst system, tetramethyl-ethylenediamine and ammonium persulfate was shown to be responsible for the yellow staining background found after a prolonged development time with silver staining. An alternate catalyst system has been designed to decrease further the formation of this background staining. Dimethyl-piperazine or tetramethylethylenediamine, potassium or ammonium persulfate, and sodium thiosulfate are shown to provide for gels which have excellent mechanical and staining characteristics. These catalytic systems produce little background staining despite prolonged development time with the ammoniacal silver stain, and they reduce background staining with the dichromate silver stain.

  15. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  16. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-07-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. CO{sub 2} mass transfer rates are second order in piperazine concentration and increase with ionic strength. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ will require 25 to 46% less heat than 7 m MEA. The first pilot plant campaign was completed on June 24. The CO{sub 2} penetration through the absorber with 20 feet of Flexipac{trademark} 1Y varied from 0.6 to 16% as the inlet CO{sub 2} varied from 3 to 12% CO{sub 2} and the gas rate varied from 0.5 to 3 kg/m{sup 2}-s.

  17. Differentiation of methylenedioxybenzylpiperazines (MDBPs) and methoxymethylbenzylpiperazines (MMBPs) By GC-IRD and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hay, Karim M; Awad, Tamer; Deruiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2011-07-15

    The substituted benzylpiperazines, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (3,4-MDBP), its regioisomer 2,3-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (2,3-MDBP) and four isobaric ring substituted methoxymethylbenzylpiperazines (MMBP) have almost identical mass spectra. Perfluoroacylation of the secondary amine nitrogen of these isomeric piperazines gave mass spectra with differences in relative abundance of some fragment ions. However, the spectra did not yield any unique fragments for specific identification of one isomer to the exclusion of the other compounds. Gas chromatography coupled with infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for the structural differentiation between the six isomers. The mass spectra in combination with the vapor phase infrared spectra provide for specific confirmation of each of the isomeric piperazines. The underivatized and perfluoroacyl derivative forms of the ring substituted benzylpiperazines were resolved on the polar stationary phase Rtx-200.

  18. Differentiation of methylenedioxybenzylpiperazines (MDBP) by GC-IRD and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hay, Karim M; Awad, Tamer; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2010-02-25

    The substituted benzylpiperazine, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (3,4-MDBP) and its regioisomer 2,3-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (2,3-MDBP) have almost identical mass spectra. Perfluoroacylation of the secondary amine nitrogen of these regioisomeric piperazines gave mass spectra with differences in relative abundance of some fragment ions. However the spectra did not yield any unique fragments for specific identification of one regioisomer to the exclusion of the other compound. Gas chromatographic separation coupled with infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for structural differentiation between the two regioisomers. The mass spectrum in combination with the vapor-phase infrared spectrum provides for specific confirmation of each of the regioisomeric piperazines. The underivatized and perfluoroacyl derivative forms of the ring substituted benzylpiperazines were resolved on a 30-m capillary column containing an Rxi-50 stationary phase.

  19. Drug evaluation: PRX-00023, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist for depression.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    EPIX Pharmaceuticals Inc (formerly Predix Pharmaceuticals Inc) is developing PRX-00023, an oral aryl piperazine 5-HT1A agonist, for the potential treatment of depression. While initially in development for generalized anxiety disorder, EPIX is now only focusing on the development of PRX-00023 for depression. In November 2006, EPIX reported that it planned to initiate a phase II trial in patients with depression in the first half of 2007.

  20. Redox-Neutral α-Sulfenylation of Secondary Amines: Ring-Fused N,S-Acetals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Secondary amines react with thiosalicylaldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of acetic acid to generate ring-fused N,S-acetals in redox-neutral fashion. A broad range of amines undergo α-sulfenylation, including challenging substrates such morpholine, thiomorpholine, and piperazines. Computational studies employing density functional theory indicate that acetic acid reduces the energy barriers of two separate steps, both of which involve proton transfer. PMID:24927364

  1. Imidazolidine-4-one derivatives in the search for novel chemosensitizers of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Matys, Anna; Podlewska, Sabina; Witek, Karolina; Witek, Jagna; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Schabikowski, Jakub; Otrębska-Machaj, Ewa; Latacz, Gniewomir; Szymańska, Ewa; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Molnar, Joseph; Amaral, Leonard; Handzlik, Jadwiga

    2015-08-28

    A series of amine derivatives of 5-aromatic imidazolidine-4-ones (7-19), representing three subgroups: piperazine derivatives of 5-arylideneimidazolones (7-13), piperazine derivatives of 5-arylideneimidazolidine-2,4-dione (14-16) and primary amines of 5-naphthyl-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-diones (17-19), was evaluated for their ability to improve antibiotics effectiveness in two strains of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 25923 (a reference strain) and MRSA (methicillin resistant S. aureus) HEMSA 5 (a resistant clinical isolate). The latter compounds (17-19) were obtained by 4-step synthesis using Bucherer-Bergs condensation, two-phase bromoalkylation and Gabriel reactions. The naphthalen derivative: (Z)-5-(naphthalen-2-ylmethylene)-2-(piperazin-1-yl)-3H-imidazol-4(5H)-one (10) was the most potent in combination with β-lactam antibiotics and ciprofloxacin against the resistant strain. The high potency to increase efficacy of oxacillin was noted for (Z)-5-(anthracen-10-ylmethylene)-2-(piperazin-1-yl)-3H-imidazol-4(5H)one (12) too. In order to explain the mechanism of action of the compounds 10 and 12, docking studies with the use of crystal structures of a penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) and MecR1 were carried out. Their outcomes suggested that the most probable mechanism of action of the active compounds is the interaction with MecR1. Molecular dynamic experiments performed for the active compounds and compound 13 (structurally similar to 12) supported this hypothesis and provided possible explanation of activity dependencies of the tested compounds in terms of the restoration of antibiotic efficacy in S. aureus MRSA HEMSA 5.

  2. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activities of novel dihydropyranoaurone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Bae, Eun Ju; Han, Young Taek

    2017-04-10

    A novel series of dihydropyranoaurone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-inflammatory agents. Late-stage derivatization by versatile piperazine-catalyzed aldol reaction between dihydropyanobenzofuran intermediate 2 and diverse aldehydes readily afforded the novel dihydropyranoaurone analogs. Evaluation of the synthesized dihydropyranoaurone derivatives and related compounds regarding their inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrite production of lipopolysaccaride-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells provided insight into the structure-activity relationship of aurone derivatives.

  3. Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

    1994-02-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate.

  4. Bespoke SnAP reagents for the synthesis of C-substituted spirocyclic and bicyclic saturated N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Kimberly; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-17

    The precise placement of C-substituents on bicyclic and spirocyclic N-heterocycles is readily achieved by the combination of aldehydes and new SnAP reagents. The substituted SnAP reagents are readily prepared from simple starting materials and couple with a variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes at room temperature under operationally simple conditions to deliver substituted morpholine and piperazine products.

  5. New Stable Cu(I) Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-yl)benzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-yl)benzene Amines.

    PubMed

    Kore, Nitin; Pazdera, Pavel

    2016-12-22

    A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I) catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I) catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG) or electron withdrawing (EWG) groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  6. Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Keh-Liang; Chen, Su-Chin; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the possibility of using a multiple ionization mode approach of GC/MS was developed for the simultaneous hair testing of common drugs of abuse in Asia, including amphetamines (amphetamine, AP; methamphetamine, MA; methylenedioxy amphetamine, MDA; methylenedioxy methamphetamine, MDMA; methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine, MDEA), ketamine (ketamine, K; norketamine, NK), and opiates (morphine, MOR; codeine, COD; 6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM). This strategy integrated the characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using electron impact ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI). Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (methanol-TFA). The samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure, derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives analyzed by GC-MS with EI and NCI. The limit of detection (LOD) with GC/EI-MS analysis obtained were 0.03 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA; 0.05 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR, and COD; and 0.08 ng/mg for 6-AM. The LOD of GC/NCI-MS analysis was much lower than GC/EI-MS analysis. The LOD obtained were 30 pg/mg for AP and MDA in GC/EI-MS and 2 pg/mg in GC/NCI-MS. Therefore, the sensitivity of AP and MDA in GC/NCI-MS was improved from 15-fold compared with EI. The sensitivity of AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MOR, and COD was improved from 15- to 60-fold compared with EI. In addition, the sensitivity of 6-AM increased 8-fold through selection of m/z 197 for the quantitative ion. Moreover, K and NK could dramatically improve their sensitivity at 200- and 2000-fold. The integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS can obtain the high sensitivity and complementary results of drugs of abuse in hair. Six hair samples from known drug abusers were examined by this new strategy. These results show that integrating the characteristics of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS were not only enhancement of

  7. Simultaneous analysis of six amphetamines and analogues in hair, blood and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Application to the determination of MDMA after low ecstasy intake.

    PubMed

    Chèze, Marjorie; Deveaux, Marc; Martin, Claire; Lhermitte, Michel; Pépin, Gilbert

    2007-08-06

    A rapid and sensitive method using LC-MS/MS triple stage quadrupole for the determination of traces of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB) in hair, blood and urine has been developed and validated. Chromatography was carried out on an Uptisphere ODB C(18) 5 microm, 2.1 mm x 150 mm column (Interchim, France) with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate 2 mM pH 3.0 buffer. Urine and blood were extracted with Toxitube A (Varian, France). Segmented scalp hair was treated by incubation 15 min at 80 degrees C in NaOH 1M before liquid-liquid extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate (2/1, v/v). The limits of quantification (LOQ) in blood and urine were at 0.1 ng/mL for all analytes. In hair, LOQ was <5 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, at 14.7 pg/mg for AP and 15.7 pg/mg for MDA. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.1-50 ng/mL in blood and urine; in the range 5-500 pg/mg for MA, MDMA, MDEA and MBDB, and 20-500 pg/mg for AP and MDA. Inter-day precisions were <13% for all analytes in all matrices. Accuracy was <20% in blood and urine at 1 and 50 ng/mL and <10% in hair at 20 and 250 pg/mg. This method was applied to the determination of MDMA in a forensic case of single administration of ecstasy to a 16-year-old female without her knowledge during a party. She suffered from hyperactivity, sweating and agitation. A first sample of urine was collected a few hours after (T+12h) and tested positive to amphetamines by immunoassay by a clinical laboratory. Blood and urine were sampled for forensic purposes at day 8 (D+8) and scalp hair at day 60 (D+60). No MDMA was detected in blood, but urine and hair were tested positive, respectively at 0.42 ng/mL and at 22 pg/mg in hair only in the segment corresponding to the period of the offence, while no MDA was detectable. This method allows

  8. Experimental and field studies with thiophanate in pigs.

    PubMed

    Baines, D M; Dalton, S E; Eichler, D A

    1976-08-14

    Thiophanate, administered at a dosage of 50 mg per kg to artifically infected pigs, removed 96 to 99 per cent of adult Oesophagostomum spp, Hyostrongylus rubidus and Trichuris suis. Activity was also high against larval stages of these nematodes, except for 26-day-old T suis. Thiophanate also showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H rubidus and Oesophagostomum spp. At 50 mg per kg thiophanate administered alone was inactive against Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri, the former species also being refractory at 200 mg per kg. Field trials confirmed these efficacy results in naturally infected animals. Pellet formulations providing mean dosages of 63 mg thiophanate per kg for adult pigs and 75 mg thiophanate per kg with 83 mg piperazine base per kg for growing pigs were highly effective in reducing the faecal output of Oesophagostomum spp, H rubidus and T suis eggs. In growing pigs, A suum was controlled by the thiophanate/piperazine product. No palatability or tolerance problems were observed when thiophanate or thiophanate/piperazine mixtures were administered at recommended dosage or multiples thereof in experimental or field studies.

  9. [Experimental study on CO2 absorption by aqueous ammonia-based blended absorbent].

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi-Xiang; Xiang, Qun-Yang; Zhou, Xu-Ping; Fang, Meng-Xiang

    2014-07-01

    A crucial problem for the promising absorbent aqueous ammonia (NH3) is the low CO2 absorption rate. The mass transfer coefficient (K(G)) of CO2 in aqueous NH3-based absorbents on a wetted wall column facility was investigated. Monoethanolamine (MEA), piperazine (PZ), 1-methyl piperazine (1-MPZ) and 2-methyl piperazine (2-MPZ) were introduced into NH3 solutions as additives, all of which significantly increased the mass transfer coefficient of CO2 in the solutions. With CO2 loading of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mol x mol(-1), K(G) of 3 mol x L(-1) NH3 + 0.3 mol x L(-1) PZ blended solution increased by 2, 2.2, 2.2, and 1.9 fold as compared to that of 3 mol x L(-1) NH3. Typically, PZ, the additive with best performance, was chosen for further study. The effects of temperature and PZ concentration on CO2 absorption in PZ solution and the blended NH3/PZ solution. The calculated pseudo first order rate constant [42.7 m3 x (mol x s)(-1)] was analyzed to further elucidate the reaction mechanism in the blended NH3/PZ solution.

  10. Clinical effects of perazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol limonene pinene enteric soft capsules for treatment of children with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHIZHEN; PAN, JINGMEI; SUN, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JUAN; LI, NA

    2016-01-01

    The clinical effects of piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol limonene pinene enteric soft capsules for treatment of children with IgA nephropathy were investigated. Sixty children with IgA nephropathy were included in the study and were randomly divided into the control (n=30) and observation (n=30) groups. The patients in the control group were treated with conservative or hormone therapy while patients in the observation group were treated with piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptol-limonene-pinene enteric soft capsules. Clinical effects were observed and compared. The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, while the incidence of complications was significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05). Serum IgA and fibronectin levels of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group, while the level of C3 was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, piperazine ferulate tablets combined with eucalyptus enteric soft capsule constituted a safe and effective for the treatment of children with IgA nephropathy. The treatment was superior to conservative or hormone therapy, and thus worthy of clinical promotion. PMID:27347034

  11. An efficient synthesis and biological screening of benzofuran and benzo[d]isothiazole derivatives for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA GyrB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kummetha Indrasena; Srihari, Konduri; Renuka, Janupally; Sree, Komanduri Shruthi; Chuppala, Aruna; Jeankumar, Variam Ullas; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Babu, Kondra Sudhakar; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2014-12-01

    A series of twenty eight molecules of ethyl 5-(piperazin-1-yl)benzofuran-2-carboxylate and 3-(piperazin-1-yl)benzo[d]isothiazole were designed by molecular hybridization of thiazole aminopiperidine core and carbamide side chain in eight steps and were screened for their in vitro Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) GyrB ATPase assay, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA gyrase super coiling assay, antitubercular activity, cytotoxicity and protein-inhibitor interaction assay through differential scanning fluorimetry. Also the orientation and the ligand-protein interactions of the top hit molecules with MS DNA gyrase B subunit active site were investigated applying extra precision mode (XP) of Glide. Among the compounds studied, 4-(benzo[d]isothiazol-3-yl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazine-1-carboxamide (26) was found to be the most promising inhibitor with an MS GyrB IC50 of 1.77 ± 0.23 μM, 0.42 ± 0.23 against MTB DNA gyrase, MTB MIC of 3.64 μM, and was not cytotoxic in eukaryotic cells at 100 μM. Moreover the interaction of protein-ligand complex was stable and showed a positive shift of 3.5 °C in differential scanning fluorimetric evaluations

  12. Differentiation of methoxybenzoylpiperazines (OMeBzPs) and methylenedioxybenzylpiperazines (MDBPs) By GC-IRD and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hay, Karim M; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2012-06-01

    The designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (3,4-MDBP), its positional isomer 2,3-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (2,3-MDBP) and three regioisomeric ring-substituted methoxybenzoylpiperazines (OMeBzPs) have identical elemental composition and no marked differences in their mass spectra with only the three methoxybenzoylpiperazine regioisomers showing one unique major fragment ion at m/z 152. Perfluoroacylation of the secondary amine nitrogen of these isomeric piperazines gave mass spectra with differences in the relative abundance of some fragment ions but did not alter the fragmentation pathway to provide unique ions for discrimination among these isomers. Exact mass determination using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) did not provide any discrimination among these compounds since the main fragment ions are of identical elemental composition. Gas chromatography coupled to infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for the identification of the carbonyl containing compounds and the differentiation of the psychoactive designer drug 3,4-MDBP from its direct (2,3-MDBP) and indirect (OMeBzPs) regioisomers. The mass spectra in combination with the vapour phase infrared spectra provide for specific confirmation of each of the isomeric piperazines. The underivatized and perfluoroacyl derivative forms of the five piperazines involved in this study were resolved on a stationary phase of 100% trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200).

  13. Differentiation of methylbenzylpiperazines (MBPs) and benzoylpiperazine (BNZP) using GC-MS and GC-IRD.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hay, Karim M; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2012-06-01

    Three-ring substituted methylbenzylpiperazines (MBPs) and their isobaric benzoylpiperazine (BNZP) have equal mass and many common mass spectral fragment ions. The mass spectrum of BNZP yields a unique benzoyl-group containing fragment at m/z 122 and an additional major fragment at m/z 69 that allows its discrimination from the three MBP regioisomers. Perfluoroacylation of the secondary amine nitrogen of these isomeric piperazines gave mass spectra with differences in relative abundance of some fragment ions but acylation does not alter the fragmentation pathway and did not provide additional MS fragments of discrimination among these isomers. Gas chromatography coupled with infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for the structural differentiation between the four isomers. The mass spectra in combination with the vapour phase IR spectra provide for specific confirmation of each of the isomeric piperazines. The underivatized and perfluoroacyl derivatives of these four piperazines were resolved on a stationary phase of 100% trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200). Gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry provides an additional means of differentiating between the isobaric MBP and BNZP which have equivalent nominal masses but are different in their elemental composition and exact masses.

  14. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak Kabadi

    2007-03-17

    The main objective of this research was to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture process, and for better understanding of the thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-Alkanolamine systems. An experimental set-up has been designed using the Isothermal Micro Calorimeter for measuring the solubilities and enthalpies of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA, MDEA, PZ, KF and water. All the measurements were done at temperatures 15, 40, and 75 C by maintaining a constant pressure of 100 psig. A detailed study has been done on the variation of solubilities and enthalpies over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and concentrations, by extracting the information from the literature.

  15. [A proficiency test for hair analysis in detecting drug abuse as an index of the quality of toxicologic analysis].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Scisłowski, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    The Society of Hair Testing--SoHT organized a quality control test: "2004 Proficiency Test on Drugs of Abuse in Hair". 23 toxicological units participated in the test, among them the Toxicological Laboratory of The Institute of Forensic Medicine CM UJ. Five hair samples were obtained for analysis comprising four groups of drugs of abuse as follows: opioids (6-monoacethylmorphine, morphine, codeine), amphetamine (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine--MDA, 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine--MDMA, 3,4-methylendioxyethylamphetamine--MDEA), cocaine and metabolites (benzoiloecgonine, cocaethylene) and cannabinoids (D9-tetrahydrocannabinol --9-THC, cannabinol--CBN). Obtained results were evaluated positively in all groups of drugs which were the subject of examination. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in chemical ionization under atmospheric pressure option (LC-APCI-MS-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and electron-impact ionization mode (GC-EI-MS-MS) were applied for analysis of analytes.

  16. Low-energy process recovers CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.E. III; Wagner, U.

    1983-02-07

    This paper discusses processes for removal of acid gas constituents from natural gas, which include the alkanolamine processes such as monethanolamine (MEA) and DEA, but also physical solvent processes such as Selexol, Sepasolv MPE, Rectisol, and Purisol. It points out that a key advantage of physical solvent processes is that the solution can be regenerated by flashing rather than by the steam stripping used in the conventional alkanolamine processes. A single-stage and two-stage activated MDEA process developed in West Germany for treating high-pressure natural gas is described. The one or two-stage process is also applicable to high pressure natural gas streams containing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/.

  17. Magnetic and 57Fe Mössbauer study of the single molecule magnet behavior of a Dy3Fe7 coordination cluster.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Lan, Yanhua; Mereacre, Valeriu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Buth, Gernot; Sougrati, Moulay T; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2009-10-05

    The reaction between N-methydiethanolamine (mdeaH(2)), benzoic acid, FeCl(3), and DyCl(3) yields a decanuclear coordination cluster, [Dy(3)Fe(7)(mu(4)-O)(2)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mdea)(7)(mu-benzoate)(4)(N(3))(6)] x 2 H(2)O x 7 CH(3)OH (1) whose single crystal structure exhibits three and seven crystallographically distinct Dy(III) and Fe(III) ions; six of the Fe(III) ions are pseudo-octahedrally coordinated, whereas the seventh has a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. Both direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that, upon cooling, intracluster antiferromagnetic interactions are dominant in 1, yielding a ferrimagnetic spin arrangement. The out-of-phase (chi'') ac susceptibility reveals that 1 undergoes a slow relaxation of its magnetization mainly resulting from the anisotropy of the Dy(III) ions. This slow relaxation has been confirmed both by magnetization measurements on an oriented single crystal of 1 and by the observation of hysteresis loops below 1.9 K. The macroscopic magnetic studies yield an effective energy barrier, U(eff), of 33.4 K for this relaxation, a barrier that is the highest yet reported for a lanthanide(III)-Fe(III) single molecule magnet. The (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra of 1 obtained between 3 and 35 K are consistent with the presence of Fe(III) intracluster antiferromagnetic coupling with slow magnetic relaxation relative to the Larmor precession time, thus confirming, on a microscopic scale, the presence of a barrier to the magnetic relaxation below 35 K. Between 55 and 295 K the Mössbauer spectra reveal paramagnetic behavior with six partially resolved quadrupole doublets, one for the trigonal-bipyramidal Fe(III) site and five for the six pseudo-octahedral Fe(III) sites.

  18. Enantioselectivity in the methylation of the catecholic phase I metabolites of methylenedioxy designer drugs and their capability to inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed dopamine 3-methylation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-06-01

    The designer drugs R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA, Eve), and R,S-N-methyl-benzodioxolyl-butanamine (MBDB, Eden) are chiral compounds, and their in vitro and in vivo metabolism is enantioselective with a preference for the S-enantiomer caused in part by P450-mediated demethylenation. As the elimination of the catecholamine metabolites could also be enantioselective, the aim of the present study was to investigate the O-methylation to the corresponding methoxy derivatives catalyzed by the soluble or membrane-bound form of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As all three compounds showed substrate inhibition effects during the incubation, their inhibition potential was quantified using the methylation of dopamine as a marker reaction. For investigation of the catechol-O-methylation catalyzed by the soluble form of the COMT (sCOMT), incubations with human liver cytosol (HLC) were performed. Human liver microsomes (HLM) were used for investigation of the membrane-bound form. For inhibition studies, 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) was incubated in HLC. The respective catechols were added at various concentrations to check whether they influence the methylation of 3-hydroxytyramine. Our data showed that the S-enantiomers of all studied catecholamines were preferably O-methylated by both types of COMT. Comparing the resulting kinetics of the HLC and HLM assays, the affinity for all substrates was 10-fold higher for the membrane-bound COMT, whereas the turnover rate was 10-fold higher for the soluble COMT. Uncompetitive inhibition of dopamine methylation could be observed for all tested catechols. In conclusion, elimination of the catecholamine metabolites of MDMA, MDEA, and MBDB was shown to be enantioselective and might therefore contribute to the different pharmacokinetic properties observed for both enantiomers. Furthermore, the catecholic metabolites were identified to be uncompetitive inhibitors

  19. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  20. Controlled release of protein from biodegradable multi-sensitive injectable poly(ether-urethane) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yangyun; Chen, Jiaming; Wang, Yinong; Ma, Jianbiao; Wu, Guolin

    2014-03-12

    The synthesis and characterization of multi-sensitive polymers for use as injectable hydrogels for controlled protein/drug delivery is reported. A series of biodegradable multi-sensitive poly(ether-urethane)s were prepared through a simple one-pot condensation of poly(ethylene glycol), 2,2'-dithiodiethanol, N-methyldiethanolamine, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The sol-gel phase transition behaviors of the obtained copolymers were investigated. Experimental results showed that the aqueous medium comprising the multi-segment copolymers underwent a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing temperature and pH. At a certain concentration, the copolymer solution could immediately change to a gel under physiological conditions (37 °C and pH 7.4), indicating their suitability as in situ injectable hydrogels in vivo. Insulin was used as a model protein drug for evaluation of the injectable hydrogels as a site-specific drug delivery system. The controlled release of insulin from the hydrogel devices was demonstrated by degradation of the copolymer, which is modulated via the 2,2'-dithiodiethanol content in the poly(ether-urethane)s. These hydrogels having multi-responsive properties may prove to be promising candidates for injectable and controllable protein drug delivery devices.

  1. A simple approach for morphology tailoring of alginate particles by manipulation ionic nature of polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Barmar, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    A number of different ionic aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUDs) were synthesized based on NCO-terminated prepolymers. Two different anionic and cationic polyurethane samples were synthesized using dimethylol propionic acid and N-methyldiethanolamine emulsifiers, respectively. Then, proper amounts of PUDs and sodium alginate were mixed to obtain a number of aqueous polyurethane dispersions-sodium alginate (PUD/SA) elastomers. The chemical structure, thermal, morphological, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties, and hydrophilicity content of the prepared samples were studied by FTIR, EDX, DSC, TGA, SEM, DMTA, tensile testing and contact angle techniques. The cationic polyurethanes and their blends with sodium alginate showed excellent miscibility and highly stretchable properties, while the samples containing anionic polyurethanes and alginate illustrated a poor compatibility and no significant miscibility. The morphology of alginate particles shifted from nanoparticles to microparticles by changing the nature of PUDs from cationic to anionic types. The final cationic elastomers not only showed better mechanical properties but also were formulated easier than anionic samples.

  2. Composites prepared from the waterborne polyurethane cationomers-modified graphene. Part I. Synthesis, structure, and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Pielichowska, Kinga; Špírková, Milena

    In the reaction of 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), polycaprolactone diol, and N-methyldiethanolamine, they were synthesized aqueous dispersions of polyurethane cationomers, from which films were prepared after adding 0-2 wt% graphene. In order to obtain nanocomposites, graphene was previously noncovalent functionalized in tetrahydrofurane in the field of ultrasound. The chemical structure and the morphology of obtained nanocomposites were analyzed by IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) microcalorimetry methods. It was found that the presence of graphene results in increased thermal and mechanical strength of received polymer films and contributes to the increase in hydrophobicity of generally hydrophilic coatings prepared from waterborne polyurethane cationomers. Based on received results, possible interactions between graphene and phase structure of polyurethane cationomers were discussed. Relating to the so far described applications of graphene for the modification of polyurethanes, the novelty of this work is the concept of incorporation of graphene particles to polyurethane cationomer chains exclusively through a simple noncovalent functionalization and to investigate the effect of graphene on the properties obtained in this way of thin polyurethane film.

  3. Analysis of Ethanolamines: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS888

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Vu, A; Koester, C

    2008-10-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method titled 'Analysis of Diethanolamine, Triethanolamine, n-Methyldiethanolamine, and n-Ethyldiethanolamine in Water by Single Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): EPA Method MS888'. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in 'EPA Method MS888' for analysis of the listed ethanolamines in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of 'EPA Method MS888' can be determined.

  4. Photochemical solution processing of films of metastable phases for flexible devices: the β-Bi2O3 polymorph.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mezcua, Dulce; Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ricote, Jesús; Jiménez-Rioboó, Rafael J; da Silva, Cosmelina Gonçalves; Chateigner, Daniel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Sirera, Rafael; Calzada, M Lourdes

    2016-12-20

    The potential of UV-light for the photochemical synthesis and stabilization of non-equilibrium crystalline phases in thin films is demonstrated for the β-Bi2O3 polymorph. The pure β-Bi2O3 phase is thermodynamically stable at high temperature (450-667 °C), which limits its applications in devices. Here, a tailored UV-absorbing bismuth(III)-N-methyldiethanolamine complex is selected as an ideal precursor for this phase, in order to induce under UV-light the formation of a -Bi-O-Bi- continuous network in the deposited layers and the further conversion into the β-Bi2O3 polymorph at a temperature as low as 250 °C. The stabilization of the β-Bi2O3 films is confirmed by their conductivity behavior and a thorough characterization of their crystal structure. This is also supported by their remarkable photocatalytic activity. Besides, this processing method has allowed us for the first time the preparation of β-Bi2O3 films on flexible plastic substrates, which opens new opportunities for using these materials in potential applications not available until now (e.g., flexible photocatalytic reactors, self-cleaning surfaces or wearable antimicrobial fabrics). Therefore, photochemical solution deposition (PCSD) demonstrates to be not only an efficient approach for the low temperature processing of oxide films, but also an excellent alternative for the stabilization of metastable phases.

  5. Performance evaluation of carbon dioxide-alkanolamine- water system by equation of state/excess Gibbs energy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, H.; Maulud, A. S.; Man, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Numerous thermodynamic techniques have been applied to correlate carbon dioxide- alkanolamine-water systems, with varying accuracy and complexity. With advent of high pressure carbon dioxide absorption in industry, the development of high pressure thermodynamic models have became an exigency. Equation of state/excess Gibbs energy models promises a substantial improvement in this field. Many researchers have shown application of these models to high pressure vapour liquid equilibria of said system with good correlation. However, no study shows the range of application of these models in presence of other competitive techniques. Therefore, this study quantitatively describes the range of application of equation of state/excess Gibbs energy models to carbon dioxide-alkanolamine systems. The model uses Linear Combination of Vidal and Michelsen mixing rule for correlation of carbon dioxide absorption in single aqueous monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine mixtures. The results show that correlation of equation of state/excess Gibbs energy models show a transient change at carbon dioxide loadings of 0.8. Therefore, these models are applicable to the above mentioned system for carbon dioxide loadings beyond 0.8 mol/mol and higher. The observations are similar in behaviour for all tested alkanolamines and are therefore generalized for the system.

  6. Photochemical solution processing of films of metastable phases for flexible devices: the β-Bi2O3 polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mezcua, Dulce; Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ricote, Jesús; Jiménez-Rioboó, Rafael J.; da Silva, Cosmelina Gonçalves; Chateigner, Daniel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Sirera, Rafael; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-12-01

    The potential of UV-light for the photochemical synthesis and stabilization of non-equilibrium crystalline phases in thin films is demonstrated for the β-Bi2O3 polymorph. The pure β-Bi2O3 phase is thermodynamically stable at high temperature (450–667 °C), which limits its applications in devices. Here, a tailored UV-absorbing bismuth(III)-N-methyldiethanolamine complex is selected as an ideal precursor for this phase, in order to induce under UV-light the formation of a –Bi–O–Bi– continuous network in the deposited layers and the further conversion into the β-Bi2O3 polymorph at a temperature as low as 250 °C. The stabilization of the β-Bi2O3 films is confirmed by their conductivity behavior and a thorough characterization of their crystal structure. This is also supported by their remarkable photocatalytic activity. Besides, this processing method has allowed us for the first time the preparation of β-Bi2O3 films on flexible plastic substrates, which opens new opportunities for using these materials in potential applications not available until now (e.g., flexible photocatalytic reactors, self-cleaning surfaces or wearable antimicrobial fabrics). Therefore, photochemical solution deposition (PCSD) demonstrates to be not only an efficient approach for the low temperature processing of oxide films, but also an excellent alternative for the stabilization of metastable phases.

  7. Photochemical solution processing of films of metastable phases for flexible devices: the β-Bi2O3 polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mezcua, Dulce; Bretos, Iñigo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ricote, Jesús; Jiménez-Rioboó, Rafael J.; da Silva, Cosmelina Gonçalves; Chateigner, Daniel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Sirera, Rafael; Calzada, M. Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The potential of UV-light for the photochemical synthesis and stabilization of non-equilibrium crystalline phases in thin films is demonstrated for the β-Bi2O3 polymorph. The pure β-Bi2O3 phase is thermodynamically stable at high temperature (450–667 °C), which limits its applications in devices. Here, a tailored UV-absorbing bismuth(III)-N-methyldiethanolamine complex is selected as an ideal precursor for this phase, in order to induce under UV-light the formation of a –Bi–O–Bi– continuous network in the deposited layers and the further conversion into the β-Bi2O3 polymorph at a temperature as low as 250 °C. The stabilization of the β-Bi2O3 films is confirmed by their conductivity behavior and a thorough characterization of their crystal structure. This is also supported by their remarkable photocatalytic activity. Besides, this processing method has allowed us for the first time the preparation of β-Bi2O3 films on flexible plastic substrates, which opens new opportunities for using these materials in potential applications not available until now (e.g., flexible photocatalytic reactors, self-cleaning surfaces or wearable antimicrobial fabrics). Therefore, photochemical solution deposition (PCSD) demonstrates to be not only an efficient approach for the low temperature processing of oxide films, but also an excellent alternative for the stabilization of metastable phases. PMID:27996042

  8. Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N,N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention.

    PubMed

    Garg, Prabhat; Purohit, Ajay; Tak, Vijay K; Dubey, D K

    2009-11-06

    N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC-FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC-MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC-FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting the analytes to their fluorinated derivatives. Owing to high absorptivity in IR region, these derivatives facilitated their detection by GC-FTIR analysis. Derivatizing reagents having trimethylsilyl, trifluoroacyl and heptafluorobutyryl groups on imidazole moiety were screened. Derivatives formed there were analyzed by GC-FTIR quantitatively. Of these reagents studied, heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) produced the greatest increase in sensitivity by GC-FTIR detection. 60-125 folds of sensitivity enhancement were observed for the analytes by HFBI derivatization. Absorbance due to various functional groups responsible for enhanced sensitivity were compared by determining their corresponding relative molar extinction coefficients ( [Formula: see text] ) considering uniform optical path length. The RSDs for intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility for various derivatives were 0.2-1.1% and 0.3-1.8%. Limit of detection (LOD) was achieved up to 10-15ng and applicability of the method was tested with unknown samples obtained in international proficiency tests.

  9. Oxidative metabolism of flunarizine and cinnarizine by microsomes from B-lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Uchino, K; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1996-11-01

    The oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine [(E)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, CZ] and flunarizine [(E)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazine, FZ] was examined in microsomes from lymphoblastoid cells that expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Among 10 kinds of CYP enzymes examined, only CYP2D6 catalyzed p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl ring of CZ (C-2 formation) and FZ (F-2 formation), and only CYP2B6 exhibited activity for p-hydroxylation (C-4 formation) of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ at a substrate concentration of 50 microM. On the other hand, CYP2C9 together with CYP1A1, -1A2 and/or -2A6 mediated N-desalkylation at the 1- and 4-positions of the piperazine ring of the two drugs that formed C-1 and C-3 from CZ and F-1 and F-3 from FZ, respectively, whereas CYP2C8, -2C19, -2E1 or -3A4 did not show detectable activity for these reactions under the conditions used. We then examined kinetics for the oxidative metabolism of CZ and FZ using CYP2B6 and -2D6 that have considerable activities. CYP2D6 with Km values of 2 to 4 microM had intrinsic clearance values (Vmax/Km) of 0.31 and 0.14 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-2 and F-2 formation, respectively, while CYP2B6 with a Km value of 17 microM exhibited the clearance value of 0.10 ml/min/nmol CYP for C-4 formation. These results suggest that CYP2D6 mainly mediates p-hydroxylation of the cinnamyl phenyl rings of CZ and FZ, and CYP2B6 mediates that of the diphenylmethyl group of CZ.

  10. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  11. Structure of an anti-DNA fab complexed with a non-DNA ligand provides insights into cross-reactivity and molecular mimicry.

    PubMed

    Schuermann, Jonathan P; Henzl, Michael T; Deutscher, Susan L; Tanner, John J

    2004-11-01

    Antibodies that recognize DNA (anti-DNA) are part of the autoimmune response underlying systemic lupus erythematosus. To better understand molecular recognition by anti-DNA antibodies, crystallographic studies have been performed using an anti-ssDNA antigen-binding fragment (Fab) known as DNA-1. The previously determined structure of a DNA-1/dT5 complex revealed that thymine bases insert into a narrow groove, and that ligand recognition primarily involves the bases of DNA. We now report the 1.75-A resolution structure of DNA-1 complexed with the biological buffer HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid). All three light chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) and HCDR3 contribute to binding. The HEPES sulfonate hydrogen bonds to His L91, Asn L50, and to the backbone of Tyr H100 and Tyr H100A. The Tyr side-chains of L32, L92, H100, and H100A form nonpolar contacts with the HEPES ethylene and piperazine groups. Comparison to the DNA-1/dT5 structure reveals that the dual recognition of dT5 and HEPES requires a 13-A movement of HCDR3. This dramatic structural change converts the combining site from a narrow groove, appropriate for the edge-on insertion of thymine bases, to one sufficiently wide to accommodate the HEPES sulfonate and piperazine. Isothermal titration calorimetry verified the association of HEPES with DNA-1 under conditions similar those used for crystallization (2 M ammonium sulfate). Interestingly, the presence of 2 M ammonium sulfate increases the affinities of DNA-1 for both HEPES and dT5, suggesting that non-polar Fab-ligand interactions are important for molecular recognition in highly ionic solvent conditions. The structural and thermodynamic data suggest a molecular mimicry mechanism based on structural plasticity and hydrophobic interactions.

  12. Behavioral approach to nondyskinetic dopamine antagonists: identification of seroquel.

    PubMed

    Warawa, E J; Migler, B M; Ohnmacht, C J; Needles, A L; Gatos, G C; McLaren, F M; Nelson, C L; Kirkland, K M

    2001-02-01

    A great need exists for antipsychotic drugs which will not induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesias (TDs). These side effects are deemed to be a consequence of nonselective blockade of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine D2 receptors. Nondyskinetic clozapine (1) is a low-potency D2 dopamine receptor antagonist which appears to act selectively in the mesolimbic area. In this work dopamine antagonism was assessed in two mouse behavioral assays: antagonism of apomorphine-induced climbing and antagonism of apomorphine-induced disruption of swimming. The potential for the liability of dyskinesias was determined in haloperidol-sensitized Cebus monkeys. Initial examination of a few close cogeners of 1 enhanced confidence in the Cebus model as a predictor of dyskinetic potential. Considering dibenzazepines, 2 was not dyskinetic whereas 2a was dyskinetic. Among dibenzodiazepines, 1 did not induce dyskinesias whereas its N-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl analogue 3 was dyskinetic. The emergence of such distinctions presented an opportunity. Thus, aromatic and N-substituted analogues of 6-(piperazin-1-yl)-11H-dibenz[b,e]azepines and 11-(piperazin-1-yl)dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepines and -oxazepines were prepared and evaluated. 11-(4-[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]piperazin-1-yl)dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine (23) was found to be an apomorphine antagonist comparable to clozapine. It was essentially nondyskinetic in the Cebus model. With 23 as a platform, a number of N-substituted analogues were found to be good apomorphine antagonists but all were dyskinetic.

  13. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Jason T.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Venable, Daryl F.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. PMID:23932792

  14. Discovery, Optimization, and Characterization of Novel Chlorcyclizine Derivatives for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that chlorcyclizine (CCZ, Rac-2), an over-the-counter antihistamine piperazine drug, possesses in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. Here, we describe structure–activity relationship (SAR) efforts that resulted in the optimization of novel chlorcyclizine derivatives as anti-HCV agents. Several compounds exhibited EC50 values below 10 nM against HCV infection, cytotoxicity selectivity indices above 2000, and showed improved in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. The optimized molecules can serve as lead preclinical candidates for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and as probes to study hepatitis C virus pathogenesis and host–virus interaction. PMID:26599718

  15. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  16. Supramolecular complexation of N-alkyl- and N,N'-dialkylpiperazines with cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous solution and in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Rekharsky, Mikhail V; Yamamura, Hatsuo; Mori, Tadashi; Sato, Akihiro; Shiro, Motoo; Lindeman, Sergey V; Rathore, Rajendra; Shiba, Kouhei; Ko, Young Ho; Selvapalam, Narayanan; Kim, Kimoon; Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2009-01-01

    Complex stoichiometry/composition and degree of oligomerization (oligomeric supramolecular complex formation) of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with N-alkyl- and N,N'-dialkylpiperazine were investigated in aqueous solutions by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), ESI-MS, NMR and light scattering measurements. It was found that the complex stability and the degree of oligomerization increase with elongating the alkyl chain attached to the piperazine core. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed a clear correlation between the structure of CB[6]-alkylpiperazine crystals obtained from aqueous solutions and the molecular weight/properties of host-guest oligomers existed in the solution as supramolecular "seeds" of crystal formation.

  17. Zinc(II) complexation by some biologically relevant pH buffers.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowski, D; Tesmar, A; Jacewicz, D; Pranczk, J; Chmurzyński, L

    2014-12-01

    The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique supported by potentiometric titration data was used to study the interaction of zinc ions with pH buffer substances, namely 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (Mes), piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (Pipes), and dimethylarsenic acid (Caco). The displacement ITC titration method with nitrilotriacetic acid as a strong, competitive ligand was applied to determine conditional-independent thermodynamic parameters for the binding of Zn(II) to Mes, Pipes, and Caco. Furthermore, the relationship between the proposed coordination mode of the buffers and the binding enthalpy has been discussed.

  18. Evaluation of phenylpiperazines as targeting agents for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, J. W.; Graham, W. A.; Fischman, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of radiolabelled phenylpiperazines as agents for the detection and therapy of tumours of neural crest origin was evaluated by in vitro pharmacological studies with human neuroblastoma cell lines [SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2C)], and in vivo by biodistribution measurements. The ability of phenylpiperazines: 4-phenyl-piperazine (PP), 1-carboxamidino-4-phenyl-piperazine (CAPP), [4-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCPP), 4-(3-trifluoro methyl phenyl)-piperazine (TFMPP), and (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl)-piperazinium hydrochloride (DMPP) and chlorophenyl hydroxypiperidine [CP(OH)P], to inhibit MIBG uptake by neuroblastoma cells was determined by incubation with [125I]MIBG (0.1 microM) for 2 h in the presence of varying concentrations (10(-8)-10(-3) M) of ligand. For measuring uptake, cells were incubated with [125I]IPP (0.1 microM) and cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times. Retention was studied by incubating cells in the presence of [125I]IPP (0.1 microM) for 2 h, followed by replacement with drug-free medium and determination of cell-bound radioactivity. Selectivity of [125I]IPP uptake was studied by inhibition studies with MIBG, DMI, 5HT and phenylpiperazines. The biodistribution of [125I]IPP was measured in normal rats at 0.083, 0.5, 1, 2 and 24 h (six animals per group). The IC50S (microM) for inhibition of [125I]MIBG uptake were: PP, 1.5; CPP, 2.5; CAPP, 2.5; DMPP, 5; CP(OH)P, 30 and TFMPP, 65. The rate of cellular uptake of [125I]IPP was greatest between 0 and 60 min and decreased after 60 min, similar to MIBG. After an initial rapid washout of approximately 50% of the radioactivity, retention remained constant for 3 h. The IC50S (microM) for inhibition of [125I]IPP uptake were: MIBG, 18-25; DMI, 0.6-1.5; 5HT, > 100; IPP, 1.8-2.5; CPP, 7.0-9.0 and TFMPP, > or = 20. The in vivo studies demonstrated a pattern of distribution similar to MIBG. The results demonstrate that phenylpiperazines display significant affinity for neuroblastoma with uptake

  19. A theoretical study of the structure and protonation of Palbociclib (PD 0332991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2014-01-01

    The geometry, protonation and chemical shifts of the important new drug, Palbociclib (8-cyclopentyl-6-ethanoyl-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-ylamino)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one), have been studied theoretically. The conclusion is that in the active site of its target enzyme, Palbociclib exists as a cation protonated on the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The tautomerism of the neutral form in solution has also been determined indicating that it is a mixture of two imino tautomers in fast equilibrium.

  20. Carbohydrate-based switch-on molecular sensor for Cu(II) in buffer: absorption and fluorescence study of the selective recognition of Cu(II) ions by galactosyl derivatives in HEPES buffer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Nitin Kumar; Ramanujam, Balaji; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Rao, Chebrolu Pulla

    2006-08-03

    [graph: see text] 1-(Beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1'-deoxy-1'-iminomethyl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene (L1), possessing an ONO binding core, was found to be selective for Cu2+ ions in N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] buffer, at concentrations < or = 580 ppb, at physiological pH by eliciting switch-on behavior, whereas the other ions, viz., Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, caused no significant change in the fluorescence. Whereas the binding characteristics were ascertained by absorption spectroscopy, the species formed were shown by Q-TOF ES MS.

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  2. Possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors affecting parkinsonism inducement by cinnarizine and flunarizine.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Isozaki, S; Masubuchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Narimatsu, S

    1995-11-09

    Potentialities of cinnarizine [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, CZ] and its fluorine derivative flunarizine [1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)-methyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine, FZ] to induce parkinsonism as an adverse effect were evaluated pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically in rats. In multiple-dose experiments, CZ or FZ was given to rats at a daily dose of 20 mumol/kg for 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days, and CZ, FZ, and the ring-hydroxylated metabolites of their cinnamyl moiety [1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-[3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]piperazine, C-2 and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-[3-(4'- hydroxyphenyl)propenyl]piperazine, F-2] in the plasma and striatum were determined 24 hr after the final dose. Plasma and striatum concentrations of the above compounds except for FZ reached steady state after 10 doses, but their concentrations of FZ continued to increase throughout the experiments. The concentrations obtained after the 30 doses were in the order of FZ > F-2 > CZ > C-2 for the plasma and of F-2 > FZ > CZ > C-2 for the striatum. The ratios of striatum to plasma concentrations of C-2 and F-2 were 2.4 and 3 times higher than those of the parent drugs. Binding affinities of CZ, FZ, and their 10 metabolites for rat striatal dopamine D-2 receptors (D2-R) were assessed by competitive radioligand-binding studies using [3H]-N-[(2RS,3RS)-1-benzyl-2-methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]-5-chloro-2-met hoxy- 4-methylamino-benzamide ([3H]-YM-09151-2). The IC50s calculated from their Ki values were in the order of F-2 < C-2 < FZ < CZ < C-4 < F-1, indicating that C-2 and F-2 exhibit higher affinities for D2-R than the parent drugs, whereas affinities of other metabolites were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than those of C-2 and F-2. These results suggest some important roles of C-2 and F-2 in the development of parkinsonism as active metabolites during chronic medication with CZ and FZ, respectively.

  3. A ferroelectric olefin-copper(I) organometallic polymer with flexible organic ligand (R)-MbVBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Xi; Xing, Zheng; Chen, Li-Zhuang; Han, Guang-Fan

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of (R)-2-methyl-1,4-bis(4-vinylbenzyl)piperazine [(R)-MbVBP] and CuCl afforded a novel olefin-copper(I) coordination compound. Introducing the flexible ligand (R)-MbVBP allowed the olefin-copper(I) organometallic compound to crystallize in a polar point group P21. The compound was ferroelectric, and its electric hysteresis loop showed a remnant polarization (Pr) of 0.13-0.32 μC cm-2 and a coercive field (Ec) of 3.5-11 kV cm-1.

  4. Buclizine.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A E; Al-Badr, Abdullah A

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive profile on buclizine hydrochloride, the piperazine derivative which is a sedating antihistamine with antimuscarinic and moderate sedative action and used mainly for its antiemetic effect in the prevention of motion sickness and migraine, is prepared. This profile contains the following sections: description, uses and applications, methods of preparation, physical characteristics, methods of analysis and stability. The physical characteristics section includes solubility, melting range, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Methods of analysis section includes compendial BP methods, spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and chromatography (TLC, GC, HPLC).

  5. Novel Benzamide-Based Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists: The Identification of Two Candidates for Clinical Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The preclinical characterization of novel phenyl(piperazin-1-yl)methanones that are histamine H3 receptor antagonists is described. The compounds described are high affinity histamine H3 antagonists. Optimization of the physical properties of these histamine H3 antagonists led to the discovery of several promising lead compounds, and extensive preclinical profiling aided in the identification of compounds with optimal duration of action for wake promoting activity. This led to the discovery of two development candidates for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. PMID:25893048

  6. Clinical trials with the new antitussive levodropropizine in adult bronchitic patients.

    PubMed

    Allegra, L; Bossi, R

    1988-08-01

    The results of 6 clinical trials involving a total of 174 patients are reported. Levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526) was compared in double-blind manner with placebo, morclofone and cloperastine. The antitussive activity and therapeutic efficacy of the drug were shown to be greater than those of placebo and morclofone and similar to those of cloperastine. Levodropropizine was effective in about 80% of patients; in responders, cough frequency was reduced by an average of 33-51%. Levodropropizine was generally well tolerated and mild side-effects were reported for only 3% of patients.

  7. Antitussive properties of levodropropizine.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, S; Melillo, G; Bestetti, A; Borsa, M; Giuliani, P; Tonon, G C

    1988-08-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and rabbits and in unanaesthetized guinea-pigs. Levodropropizine was shown to have good antitussive activity. Intravenously, it was 1/10 to 1/20 as active as codeine and comparable to dropropizine, from which it is derived, on mechanically and electrically induced coughing in rabbits and guinea-pigs. After oral administration to the guinea-pig the antitussive activity of levodropropizine was comparable with those of both dropropizine and codeine against coughing induced by irritant aerosols.

  8. 8-Chloro-5-(4-phenethylpiperazin-1-­yl)pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Ben; Crosby, Ian T.; Forsyth, Craig M.; Lloyd, Edward J.; Vom, Amelia; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    As part of an anti­psychotic drug discovery program, we report the crystal structure of the title compound, C24H23ClN4O. The mol­ecule has a tricyclic framework with a characteristic buckled V-shaped pyridobenzoxazepine unit, with the central seven-membered heterocycle in a boat configuration. The piperazine ring displays a chair conformation with the 2-phenyl-ethyl substituent assuming an equatorial orientation. There are two crystallographically independent, but virtually identical, mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21201082

  9. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 12-(substituted aminomethyl) berberrubine derivatives as anti-diabetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Renjun; Wu, Jianbo; He, Yun; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

    2014-04-01

    By introducing various amino methyl groups into 12-position of berberrubine, a series of 12-(substituted aminomethyl) berberrubine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-diabetic activity against type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results indicated that most of the prepared compounds exhibited moderate to good anti-diabetic activity, which were comparable to or even better than the berberine, the positive control rosiglitazone and insulin. Especially, compound 3b with an N-methyl piperazine-4-methyl group at C-12, exerted the most powerful anti-diabetic activity.

  10. Novel benzamide-based histamine h3 receptor antagonists: the identification of two candidates for clinical development.

    PubMed

    Letavic, Michael A; Aluisio, Leah; Apodaca, Richard; Bajpai, Manoj; Barbier, Ann J; Bonneville, Anne; Bonaventure, Pascal; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Dugovic, Christine; Fraser, Ian C; Kramer, Michelle L; Lord, Brian; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Li, Lilian Y; Ly, Kiev S; Mcallister, Heather; Mani, Neelakandha S; Morton, Kirsten L; Ndifor, Anthony; Nepomuceno, S Diane; Pandit, Chennagiri R; Sands, Steven B; Shah, Chandra R; Shelton, Jonathan E; Snook, Sandra S; Swanson, Devin M; Xiao, Wei

    2015-04-09

    The preclinical characterization of novel phenyl(piperazin-1-yl)methanones that are histamine H3 receptor antagonists is described. The compounds described are high affinity histamine H3 antagonists. Optimization of the physical properties of these histamine H3 antagonists led to the discovery of several promising lead compounds, and extensive preclinical profiling aided in the identification of compounds with optimal duration of action for wake promoting activity. This led to the discovery of two development candidates for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials.

  11. A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay.

  12. Research on Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    piperazine (may also be named 1,4-pi- perazinediethanol), according to the following assignments: C 2-CH 2-O aN CH2-CH2-OH Infrared analysis in a KBr pellet...use a static magnetic bias field and pulsed radio- frequency fields to excite a short duration response from all of the hydro - gen contained in the...spectroscopy (quasi- elastic light scattering). . FRF water content can be measured quantitatively with the Karl Fischer method or by heat of adsorption

  13. Stereoselective Synthesis of Saturated Heterocycles via Pd-Catalyzed Alkene Carboetherification and Carboamination Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of Pd-catalyzed carboetherification and carboamination reactions between aryl/alkenyl halides and alkenes bearing pendant heteroatoms is described. These transformations effect the stereoselective construction of useful heterocycles such as tetrahydrofurans, pyrrolidines, imidazolidin-2-ones, isoxazolidines, and piperazines. The scope, limitations, and applications of these reactions are presented, and current stereochemical models are described. The mechanism of product formation, which involves an unusual intramolecular syn-insertion of an alkene into a Pd-Heteroatom bond is also discussed in detail. PMID:19183704

  14. Structure-Based Design of Novel Tetrahydro-Beta-Carboline Derivatives with a Hydrophilic Side Chain as Potential Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Elhady, Ahmed K.; Sigler, Sara C.; Noureldin, Nazih; Canzoneri, Joshua C.; Ahmed, Nermin S.; Piazza, Gary A.; Abadi, Ashraf H.

    2015-01-01

    Tadalafil is a clinically approved phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It contains two chiral carbons, and the marketed isomer is the 6R, 12aR isomer with a methyl substituent on the terminal nitrogen of the piperazinedione ring. In this report, tadalafil analogues with an extended hydrophilic side chain on the piperazine nitrogen were designed to interact with particular hydrophilic residues in the binding pocket. This leads to analogues with moderate inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase-5, even for isomers in which chiral carbons are of the S configuration. PMID:28117310

  15. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits Apoptosis by the Profibrotic Factor Angiotensin II via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 in Endothelial Cells and Tissue Explants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Triton X-100) for 30 min, followed by a wash in 1 Tris borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer (0.089 M Tris, 0.089 M boric acid , and 0.002 M EDTA, pH 8.0). Nuclei were...0.2 ml of NP-40 buffer [5 mM piperazine-N,N-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid ), pH 8.0, 85 mM KCl, 0.5% NP-40, protease inhibitors, and RNase inhibitor] and

  16. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  17. Organic anion and cation transport in vitro by dog choroid plexus: effects of neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Bárány, E H

    1979-02-01

    Dog lateral choroid plexus accumulates the cation 14C-emepronium and the divalent anion 125I-iodipamide in vitro. At 10 micron, high potency neuroleptics with a substituted piperazine side chain and also haloperidol depress only the uptake of the cation and even stimulate the uptake of the anion. In contrast, at 1--10 micron, the accumulation of both test substances is inhibited by neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants with an aliphatic side chain. Such unspecific effects on seemingly unrelated transport systems at concentrations reached clinically in the CSF might explain some side actions of low potency neuroleptics and antidepressants.

  18. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Terraun Jones

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed with a stand-alone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Parameters have been developed for use of the electrolyte NRTL model in AspenPlus. Analytical methods have been developed using gas chromatography and ion chromatography. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been ordered.

  19. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. A simple thermodynamic model has been developed to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. A rate model has been formulated to predict the CO{sub 2} flux with these solutions under absorber conditions. A process and instrumentation diagram and process flow diagram have been prepared for modifications of the existing pilot plant system.

  20. Synthesis of novel oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in C-28 position derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Liu, Xinyu; Lee, Eung-Seok; Sun, Jingyang; Feng, Zhonghua; Zhao, Longxuan; Zhao, Chunhui

    2017-04-01

    A series of nitrogen-containing derivatives of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were prepared by a modification at C-28 position via esterification with 2-hydroxyacetic acid followed by amidation with amines, such as piperazine, N-methylpiperazine, and alkane-1, 2-diamines, alkane-1, 4-diamines, alkane-1, 6-diamines. In vitro antiproliferative activities of the compounds prepared towards MCF-7, Hela and A549 cell lines were evaluated by a MTT method to show that OA-5a, OA-5b, OA-5c and UA-5a showed somewhat improved antiproliferative activities against MCF-7, Hela and A549 cells comparing to that of the positive control, gefitinib.

  1. Wheel-shaped [Mn12] single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Rumberger, Evan M; Shah, Sonali J; Beedle, Christopher C; Zakharov, Lev N; Rheingold, Arnold L; Hendrickson, David N

    2005-04-18

    The reaction of [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(3))(16)(H(2)O)(4)].4H(2)O.2CH(3)COOH with n-methyldiethanol amine (H(2)mdea), n-ethyldiethanol amine (H(2)edea), or n-butyldiethanol amine (H(2)bdea) leads to the formation of wheel-shaped Mn(III)(6)Mn(II)(6) complexes with the general formula [Mn(12)(R)(O(2)CCH(3))(14)] (1, R = mdea; 2, R = edea; and 3, R = bdea). Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, whereas complex 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C(2/c). Complex 1a has the same molecular structure as complex 1 but crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1/n). Complex 3a has the same molecular structure as complex 3 but crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data collected for complexes 1, 2, and 3 indicate that antiferromagnetic exchange interactions are present. The spin ground states of complexes 1, 2, and 3 were determined by fitting variable-field magnetization data collected in the 2-5 K temperature range. Fitting of these data yielded the spin ground-state parameters of S = 8, g = 2.0, and D = -0.47 cm(-1) for complex 1; S = 8, g = 2.0, and D = -0.49 cm(-1) for complex 2; and S = 8, g = 2, and D = -0.37 cm(-1) for complex 3. The ac magnetic susceptibility data were measured for complexes 1, 2, and 3 at temperatures between 1.8 and 10 K with a 3 G ac field oscillating in the range 50-1000 Hz. Slow kinetics of magnetization reversal relative to the frequency of the oscillating ac field were observed as frequency-dependent out-of-phase peaks for complexes 1, 2, and 3, and it can be concluded that these three complexes are single-molecule magnets.

  2. Amphetamines as potential inducers of fatalities: a review in the district of Ghent from 1976-2004.

    PubMed

    De Letter, Els A; Piette, Michel H A; Lambert, Willy E; Cordonnier, Jan A C M

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine (AMP) and its derivatives, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy'), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, MDE), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) is an important public issue. Fatalities following ingestion of these substances are not infrequent in current forensic practice. The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, considering the wide range of blood levels reported in fatalities, to provide insight into the interpretation of a quantified blood level and, secondly, to examine and discuss possible causes, mechanisms and manners of death. All the medico-legal files between January 1976 and December 2004 were skimmed through to investigate whether amphetamine and/or derivatives were involved in the fatal outcome. Particularly, in addition to overdose cases due to or including amphetamines, all amphetamines-related fatalities were examined. In addition to AMP, MDMA, MDEA, and MDA, two other amphetamine derivatives, namely 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) were considered. In 34 fatalities, amphetamines were involved and the majority were men, under the age of 25 years. A wide range of blood levels was found: e.g. MDMA blood concentrations in cases of 'pure' intoxication were found between 0.27 and 13.51 microg/ml. The age and sex distribution as well as the broad range of quantified amphetamines blood levels were in line with those reported in the literature. In our study group, 'pure' intoxications with amphetamines, polydrug overdoses, and the combination of amphetamines use and polytrauma were the most prominent causes of death. Considering the manner of death in these fatalities, unintentional overdoses were most frequent, though suicides, traffic accidents, and criminal offences associated with amphetamines use also accounted for significant percentages. Acute to subacute cardiopulmonary failure was the most frequent mechanism of death, followed by (poly)trauma, mechanical

  3. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  4. Simultaneous determination of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, and their metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Cheong, Jae Chul; Ko, Beom Jun; Lee, Sang Kyu; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jin, Changbae; In, Moon Kyo

    2008-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of seven amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), N,N-dimethylamphetamine (DMA), and N,N-dimethylamphetamine-N-oxide (DMANO)) in human urine. Seven deuterium-labeled compounds were prepared for use as internal standards to quantify the analytes. One milliliter of urine was combined with 1 mL of 0.2 M sodium carbonate buffer solution (pH 9.0) before solid phase extraction (SPE). An Oasis HLB SPE column followed by chromatographic separation on a Capcell Pak C18 MG-II column (150 x 2.0 mm I.D., 5 microm) and electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring were used for selective and sensitive detection. The use of ammonium formate (5 mM, pH adjusted to 4.0 with formic acid, Solvent A) and acetonitrile (Solvent B) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 230 microL/min was found to be the most effective for the separation. The linear ranges were 5.0-1000 ng/mL for AP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, DMA, and DMANO and 10.0-1000 ng/mL for MA, with good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.996). The intra-day, inter-day, and interperson precisions were within 14.6%, 12.1% and 15.5%, respectively. The intra-day, inter-day, and interperson accuracies were between -11.6 and 9.0%, -7.9 and 2.3%, and -13.2 and 4.3%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for each analytical compound were lower than 1.95 ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 72.3 to 103.3%. The applicability of the developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from confirmed drug abusers.

  5. Synthesis and in vitro pharmacological evaluation of indolyl carboxylic amide analogues as D3 dopamine receptor selective ligands†

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Li, Shihong; Li, Aixiao; Taylor, Michelle; Ho, David; Malik, Maninder; Luedtke, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of substituted 1H-indolyl carboxylic acid amides that contain a N-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine or N-(2-fluoroethoxy)piperazine group were synthesized and their affinities for human dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptors were determined. Two of these compounds, 14a and 14b, displayed high binding affinity at D3 (Ki = 0.18 and 0.4 nM, respectively), and selectivity for D3 vs. D2 receptors (87-fold and 60-fold, respectively). These two compounds had low binding affinity at D4 receptors and σ receptor sites. The intrinsic activity of these compounds at D2 and D3 receptors was determined using a forskolin-dependent adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay; both 14a and 14b were found to be partial agonists. Furthermore, for compound 14a, the log D value of 2.85 suggested it has suitable lipophilicity for crossing the blood–brain-barrier. PMID:24156012

  6. [In vitro comparative study of the protective effect of different theophyllines on the leucocytes' histamine-release induced by antigen (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Biot, N; Grosclaude, M; Kofman, J; Perrin-Fayolle, M

    1980-01-01

    The recent discovery of the protective action of xanthic bases towards histamine-release consecutive to the antigen-antibody reaction led the authors to study the importance of this protection induced by various theophylline derivatives. The technique used was that described by LICHTENSTEIN and OSLER: isolation of leucocytes, measurement of histamine liberated in the presence of antigen, same measurement done in the presence of antigen and theophylline. The antigens used were: house dust, Dermatophagoides pteronyssimus (DP), graminaceae pollens. The tested theophyllines were: the theophylline base, aminophylline, bamiphylline, diprophylline, thio theo, piperazine acefilinate. All these substances studied brought a reduction of the histamine-release but according to a variable frequency and intensity: the thio theo, the diprophylline and the piperazine acefilinate gave the best results. Besides the latters are clearer when the antigen was dust or DP. This study enables the confirmation of the inhibiting action of theophyllines on histamine-release induced by antigen, but complementary studies on a larger number of cases seem necessary in order to determine precisely the most efficient derivatives.

  7. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP.

  8. Synthesis of ciprofloxacin-conjugated poly (L-lactic acid) polymer for nanofiber fabrication and antibacterial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Parwe, Sharad P; Chaudhari, Priti N; Mohite, Kavita K; Selukar, Balaji S; Nande, Smita S; Garnaik, Baijayantimala

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was conjugated with polylactide (PLA) via the secondary amine group of the piperazine ring using PLA and 7-(4-(2-Chloroacetyl) piperazin-1-yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Zinc prolinate, a biocompatible catalyst was synthesized, characterized, and used in ring opening polymerization of L-lactide. Five different kinds of OH-terminated poly(L-lactide) (two-, three-, four-, six-arm, star-shaped) homopolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dodecanol, glycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol as initiator and zinc prolinate as a catalyst. The structures of the polymers and conjugates were thoroughly characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLA (molecular weight =100,000) and ciprofloxacin conjugated PLA were used for fabrication of nonwoven nanofiber mat (diameter ranges; 150–400 nm) having pore size (62–102 nm) using electrospinning. The microbiological assessment shows that the release of ciprofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity. The drug-release behavior of the mat was studied to reveal potential application as a drug delivery system. The result shows that the ciprofloxacin release rates of the PLA conjugate nonwoven nanofiber mat could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ciprofloxacin system, based on nonwoven nanofiber mat, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. PMID:24741303

  9. Antiproliferative activity of the Michael adducts of aroylacrylic acids and cyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Juranić, Ivan O; Tošić, Ana V; Kolundžija, Branka; Drakulić, Branko J

    2014-08-01

    Antiproliferative activity of twenty one Michael adducts of aroylacrylic acids and cyclic amines (N-Me-piperazine, imidazole, 2-Me-imidazole, and indole) was tested toward five human tumor cell lines (HeLa, LS174, K562, FemX, MDA-MB-361) in vitro. Compounds exerted antiproliferative activity in the high to the single-digit micromolar concentrations, causing increase of the cell population fraction in S phase and apoptosis. N-Me-piperazine and imidazole derivatives of aroylacrylic acids substituted with bulky alkyl substituents (2,4-di-i-Pr-Ph-, 2,4,6-tri-Et-Ph-, or β-tetrahydronaphthyl-) showed the best potency, while indole adducts were proved as the inferior antiproliferative agents. Few compounds showed significant selectivity, tumor versus healthy cells, with selectivity index ~60 for the most selective congener. An unbiased in silico distinction between more and less potent compounds was obtained from 3D QSAR models derived by alignment-independent GRIND-2 descriptors.

  10. Synthesis, kinetic mechanism and docking studies of vanillin derivatives as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Zaman; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discover the extent of contribution to antityrosinase activity by adding hydroxy substituted benzoic acid, cinnamic acid and piperazine residues to vanillin. The study showed the transformation of vanillin into esters as shown in (4a-4d), (6a-6b), and (8a-8b). In addition, the relationship between structures of these esters and their mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity was explored. The kinetics of inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase by these esters was also investigated. It was found that hydroxyl substituted benzoic acid derivatives were weak inhibitors; however hydroxy or chloro substituted cinnamic acid and piperazine substituted derivatives were able to induce significant tyrosinase inhibition. The mushroom tyrosinase (PDBID 2ZWE) was docked with synthesized vanillin derivatives and their calculated binding energies were compared with experimental IC50 values which provided positive correlation. The most potent derivative 2-(4-formyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-oxoethyl (2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate (6a) possesses hydroxy substituted cinnamic acid scaffold having IC50 value 16.13 μM with binding energy of -7.2 kcal/mol. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of (6a) is comparable with standard kojic acid. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 6a was mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitor with inhibition constant values Ki (13 μM) and Ki' (53 μM) and formed reversible enzyme inhibitor complex. The active vanillin analog (6a) was devoid of toxic effects as shown in cytotoxic studies.

  11. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of acyclic Schiff's base ligands: Spectral, structural, electrochemical, antibacterial, DNA binding and cleavage activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kim, Young-Inn; Ganesan, Vengatesan

    2014-03-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes (1&2) of ligands L1 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl)piperazine] or L2 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl) piperazine] have been synthesized and characterised. The single crystal X-ray study had shown that ligands L1 and L2 crystallize in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group. The mononuclear copper(II) complexes show one quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near cathodic region (-0.77 to -0.85 V) in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) investigated by absorption studies and fluorescence spectral studies show good binding affinity to CT DNA, which imply both the copper(II) complexes can strongly interact with DNA efficiently. The copper(II) complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as reducing agent through a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. The Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities which indicates that the complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.

  12. HEPES-stabilized encapsulation of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Suo, Zhiyong; Yang, Xinghong; Avci, Recep; Kellerman, Laura; Pascual, David W; Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2007-01-30

    Most bacteria, planktonic and sessile, are encapsulated inside loosely bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in their physiological environment. Imaging a bacterium with its capsule requires lengthy sample preparation to enhance the capsular contrast. In this study, Salmonella typhimurium was investigated using atomic force microscopy for a practical means of imaging an encapsulated bacterium in air. The investigation further aimed to determine the relation between the buffers used for preparing the bacterium and the preservation of the capsular material surrounding it. It was observed that rinsing bacteria with HEPES buffer could stabilize and promote capsule formation, while rinsing with PBS, Tris, or glycine removes most of the capsular EPS. For bacteria rinsed with HEPES and air-dried, the height images showed only the contour of the capsular material, while the phase and amplitude images presented the detailed structures of the bacterial surface, including the flagella encapsulated inside the capsular EPS. The encapsulation was attributed to the cross-linking of the acidic exopolysaccharides mediated by the piperazine moiety of HEPES through electrostatic attraction. This explanation is supported by encapsulated bacteria observed for samples rinsed with N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine solution and by the presence of entrapped HEPES within the dry capsular EPS suggested by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Crystal structures of vortioxetine and its methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Bo; Gu, Jian-Ming; Sun, Meng-ying; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vortioxetine, C18H22N2S, (1), systematic name 1-{2-[(2,4-di­methyl­phen­yl)sulfan­yl]phen­yl}piperazine, a new drug used to treat patients with major depressive disorder, has been crystallized as the free base and its methanol monosolvate, C18H22N2S·CH3OH, (2). In both structures, the vortioxetine mol­ecules have similar conformations: in (1), the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 80.04 (16)° and in (2) it is 84.94 (13)°. The C—S—C bond angle in (1) is 102.76 (14)° and the corresponding angle in (2) is 103.41 (11)°. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the exocyclic N—C bond in a pseudo-equatorial orientation in both structures. No directional inter­actions beyond normal van der Waals contacts could be identified in the crystal of (1), whereas in (2), the vortioxetine and methanol mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. PMID:26396746

  14. N-Substituted piperazinyl quinolones as potential cytotoxic agents: structure-activity relationships study.

    PubMed

    Foroumadi, Alireza; Emami, Saeed; Rajabalian, Saeed; Badinloo, Marziyeh; Mohammadhosseini, Negar; Shafiee, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    As part of a continuing search for new potential anticancer candidates in the piperazinyl quinolone series, the cytotoxicity evaluation of new N-substituted piperazinyl quinolones was of our interest. The growth inhibitory activities of 12 new compounds, namely N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] and N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-2-oxyiminoethyl] piperazinyl quinolones 1-12 were determined against six cancer cell lines using MTT colorimetric assay. Preliminary screening showed that most of the new N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl]piperazinyl quinolones 4-12 containing (un)substituted oxime moiety showed significant cytotoxic activity and the modification of functionality on ethyl spacer produced a relatively minor change of activity. Thus, in the piperazinyl quinolone series, cytotoxic activity can be positively modulated through the introduction of 2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl residue on the piperazine ring. The results revealed that the introduction of 2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of quinolone antibacterials (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and enoxacin) changes the biological profile of piperazinyl quinolones from antibacterials to cytotoxic agents.

  15. The fluorescence of a chelating two-photon-absorbing dye is enhanced with the addition of transition metal ions but quenched in the presence of acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, David J.; Long, Stephanie L.; Yu, Zhenning; Kannan, Ramamurthi; Mikhailov, Alexandr; Rebane, Aleksander; Tan, Loon-Seng; Haley, Joy E.

    2016-09-01

    A pseudo-symmetric two-photon absorbing dye (1) containing a central piperazine unit substituted with (benzothiazol-2- yl)-9,9-diethylfluoren-2-yl pendant groups has been synthesized and characterized. The molecule has a two-photonabsorption cross-section of σ2 = 140 GM in tetrahydrofuran at 740 nm and shows significant solvatochromism in the excited-state fluorescence spectra. The emission spectra broaden and the maxima bathochromically shift from 411 nm to 524 nm in n-hexane and acetonitrile, respectively. Moreover, the central piperazine moiety serves as a potential chelation site for ions. Addition of copper(I) hexafluorophosphate and zinc(II) triflate in acetonitrile indicate ground-state complexation with a shift in the emission maximum from 524 nm to 489 nm and 487 nm, respectively. Interestingly, the newly formed Cu and Zn complexes are more strongly emissive than the free dye. Finally, addition of p-toluenesulfonic acid in tetrahydrofuran also blue-shifts the emission maximum, but the intensity is quenched. Due to the photophysical changes induced by addition of metal ions and protons, the dye shows promise as a potential sensor.

  16. Morpholylureas are a new class of potent and selective inhibitors of the type 5 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3).

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Jack U; Atwell, Graham J; Heinrich, Daniel M; Brooke, Darby G; Silva, Shevan; Rigoreau, Laurent J M; Trivier, Elisabeth; Turnbull, Andrew P; Raynham, Tony; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Denny, William A

    2014-02-01

    Inhibitors of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1C3 are of interest as potential drugs for leukemia and hormone-related cancers. A series of non-carboxylate morpholino(phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methanones were prepared by palladium-catalysed coupling of substituted phenyl or pyridyl bromides with the known morpholino(piperazin-1-yl)methanone, and shown to be potent (IC50∼100nM) and very isoform-selective inhibitors of AKR1C3. Lipophilic electron-withdrawing substituents on the phenyl ring were positive for activity, as was an H-bond acceptor on the other terminal ring, and the ketone moiety (as a urea) was essential. These structure-activity relationships are consistent with an X-ray structure of a representative compound bound in the AKR1C3 active site, which showed H-bonding between the carbonyl oxygen of the drug and Tyr55 and His117 in the 'oxyanion hole' of the enzyme, with the piperazine bridging unit providing the correct twist to allow the terminal benzene ring to occupy the lipophilic pocket and align with Phe311.

  17. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of acyclic Schiff's base ligands: spectral, structural, electrochemical, antibacterial, DNA binding and cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kim, Young-Inn; Ganesan, Vengatesan

    2014-03-25

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes (1&2) of ligands L(1) [N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl)piperazine] or L(2) [N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl) piperazine] have been synthesized and characterised. The single crystal X-ray study had shown that ligands L(1) and L(2) crystallize in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group. The mononuclear copper(II) complexes show one quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near cathodic region (-0.77 to -0.85 V) in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) investigated by absorption studies and fluorescence spectral studies show good binding affinity to CT DNA, which imply both the copper(II) complexes can strongly interact with DNA efficiently. The copper(II) complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as reducing agent through a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. The Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities which indicates that the complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.

  18. Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammarling, Krister; Hilborn, Jöns; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy

    2014-02-01

    Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (β-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR.

  19. Discovery of N-{4-[(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-methylpropyl}-4-phenoxybenzamide Analogues as Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kormos, Chad M.; Jin, Chunyang; Cueva, Juan Pablo; Runyon, Scott P; Thomas, James B.; Brieaddy, Lawrence E.; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Navarro, Hernán A.; Gilmour, Brian P.; Carroll, F. Ivy

    2013-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the discovery and development of new κ opioid receptor antagonists. We recently reported that N-substituted 3-methyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperazines were a new class of opioid receptor antagonists. In this study we report the syntheses of two piperazine JDTic-like analogues. Evaluation of the two compounds in an in vitro [35S]GTPγS binding assay showed that neither compound showed the high potency and κ opioid receptor selectivity of JDTic. A library of compounds using the core scaffold 21 was synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit [35S]GTPγS binding stimulated by the selective κ opioid agonist U69,593. These studies led to N-[(1S)-1-{[(3S)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl]-4-phenoxybenzamide (11a), a compound that showed good κ opioid receptor antagonist properties. An SAR study based on 11a provided 28 novel analogues. Evaluation of these 28 compounds in the [35S]GTPγS binding assay showed that several of the analogues were potent and selective κ opioid receptor antagonists. PMID:23651437

  20. Towards Optimization of Arylamides As Novel, Potent, and Brain-Penetrant Antiprion Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The prion diseases caused by PrPSc, an alternatively folded form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), are rapidly progressive, fatal, and untreatable neurodegenerative disorders. We employed HTS ELISA assays to identify compounds that lower the level of PrPSc in prion-infected mouse neuroblastoma (ScN2a-cl3) cells and identified a series of arylamides. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies indicated that small amides with one aromatic or heteroaromatic ring on each side of the amide bond are of modest potency. Of note, benzamide (7), with an EC50 of 2200 nM, was one of only a few arylamide hits with a piperazine group on its aniline moiety. The basic piperazine nitrogen can be protonated at physiologic pH, improving solubility, and therefore, we wanted to exploit this feature in our search for a drug candidate. An SAR campaign resulted in several key analogues, including a set with biaryl groups introduced on the carbonyl side for improved potency. Several of these biaryl analogues have submicromolar potency, with the most potent analogue 17 having an EC50 = 22 nM. More importantly, 17 and several biarylamides (20, 24, 26, and 27) were able to traverse the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and displayed excellent drug levels in the brains of mice following oral dosing. These biarylamides may represent good starting points for further lead optimization for the identification of potential drug candidates for the treatment of prion diseases. PMID:23977416