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Sample records for meal based diets

  1. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Solís, Camila J.; Alaurent, Trevor G. S.; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J.; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  2. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  3. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks.

  4. Stable isotope ratio analysis as a tool to discriminate between rainbow trout (O. mykiss) fed diets based on plant or fish-meal proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rojas, J M; Tulli, F; Messina, M; Tibaldi, E; Guillou, C

    2008-12-01

    The use of stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) as a rapid analytical tool to characterize and discriminate farmed fish on the basis of the feedstuffs included in the diet formulation is discussed. Two isoproteic (44.8%) and isolipidic (19.6%) extruded diets were formulated: a fish-meal-based diet (FM diet), containing fish meal as the sole protein source; a plant-protein-based diet (PP diet), where pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal replaced 80% of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to eight groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight: 106.6g) for 103 days in two daily meals under controlled rearing conditions. Growth performance (final body weight: 318.5 g; specific growth rate: 1.06%) and feed-to-gain ratio (0.79) were not affected by the dietary treatment. The differences in isotopic values of the two diets were clearly reflected in the different carbon and nitrogen isotopic values in rainbow trout fillets. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of muscle of farmed rainbow trout showed differences between farmed fish fed a fish-protein-based diet (-20.47 +/- 0.34 and 12.38 +/- 0.57 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively) and those fed a plant-protein-based diet (-23.96 +/- 0.38 and 7.15 +/- 0.51 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively). The results suggest that SIRA provides a robust and verifiable analytical tool to discriminate between fish fed on a plant or a fish protein diet.

  5. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  6. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets.

  7. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  8. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) ADG and G:F. In experiment 2, 90 piglets were housed three per pen and allocated to five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The five diets contained 1.03%, 1.25%, 1.31%, 1.36% and 1.51% SID lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) G:F, linearly decreased (p < 0.05) day-14 PUN and quadratically (p < 0.05) increased ADG and ADFI. The ADG data from experiment 2 were subjected to linear and quadratic broken-lines regression analyses, and the SID lysine requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain.

  9. Effects of replacing extracted soybean meal with rapeseed cake in corn grass silage-based diet for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Białek, Małgorzata; Bagnicka, Emilia; Jarczak, Justyna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Strzałkowska, Nina; Jóźwik, Artur; Krzyżewski, Józef; Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with a protein-equivalent amount of rapeseed cake in the diet on milking parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of milk in dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein-Friesian cows, 8 each, consisting of randomised blocks were studied: a control group (C) was given a traditional high-protein supplement (extracted soybean meal) and the experimental group (E), had part of extracted soybean meal replaced with rapeseed cake. Dry matter intake and milk yield in both groups were not affected by the diet but milk fat percentage and yield were decreased in both groups. Rapeseed cake had no effect on milk acidity or on protein (including casein) and lactose contents. A lower concentration of urea in milk in E group indicated a proper ratio of protein to energy in the fodder. Health condition of mammary gland and indicators of metabolic profile were not affected by rapeseed cake supplementation. In E group, the share of atherogenic saturated fatty acids (FA) was reduced after 11 weeks: palmitic, by 26% and myristic, by 22%; moreover, as compared with control cows, the content of monounsaturated FA in milk increased by 44% after 3 weeks and by 68% after 11 weeks, t-18:1 and c-9 t-11 isomer of CLA increased about 2.5-fold after 11 weeks. In E group, the atherogenic index (AI) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in C (by 54% on average) and the decrease with time was considerable (by 29%, P < 0.001). Contents of odd- and branched- chain FA in milk were not significantly affected thus reflecting proper rumen function. Partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed cake in the diet of cows may improve both milking indices and FA profile of milk.

  10. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology.

  11. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  12. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  13. Performance of laying pullets fed on cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and reject cashew nut meal.

    PubMed

    Onifade, A A; Tewe, O O; Okunola, O; Fanimo, A O

    1999-03-01

    1. A 70-d experiment was conducted to determine the response of 26-week-old laying pullets to cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and full-fat cashew nut meal (CNM) in comparison with a standard 550 g maize/kg reference diet. The 4 test diets all contained 315 g CNM/kg 232.5, 155.0, 77.5 and 0.0 g/kg of maize offal in combination with 77.5, 155.0, 232.5 and 315.0 g/kg of cassava peel, respectively. 2. Pullets fed on the 4 CNM-based diets consumed (P<0.05) less food than those fed on the reference diet; they also had lower (P<0.05) rates of lay, produced less (P<0.05) egg mass, had lower (P<0.05) food conversion efficiencies and their eggs had a lighter (P<0.05) yolk colour. Pullets fed some of the CNM-based diets also gained more (P<0.05) weight, the heaviest (P<0.05) being birds reared on the diet containing 315 g/kg cassava peel. Egg weight, shell thickness and albumen height from all eggs were similar. Pullets fed on the CNM-based diets had inferior (P<0.05) retention of dry matter and protein. 4. It was concluded that feeding full-fat CNM allowed for high dietary inclusion rates of cassava peel and maize offal and the resultant diets, which contained no maize, supported satisfactory performance of laying hens.

  14. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Faber, T A; Dilger, R N; Hopkins, A C; Price, N P; Fahey, G C

    2012-12-01

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively affect cecal fermentation and intestinal immune status in chicks challenged with an acute coccidiosis (Eimeria acervulina) infection and fed either a SBM-based diet or a semi-purified soy protein isolate- (SPI) based diet. Using a completely randomized design, 1-d-old broiler chicks (n = 200; 5 replications/treatment; 5 chicks/replication) were assigned to 1 of 4 SBM- or SPI-based diets containing either dietary cellulose (4%) or a fermentable carbohydrate, galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex (4%). On d 9 posthatch, an equal number of chicks on each diet were inoculated with either distilled water (sham control) or E. acervulina (1 × 10(6) oocysts) and then euthanized on d 7 postinoculation. Overall, body weight gain and feed intake were greater (P < 0.01) for SBM-fed chicks, regardless of infection status. Gain:feed ratio was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SPI-fed chicks except during d 3-7 postinoculation. Infection status, but not fiber source, affected propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and total branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (P ≤ 0.02). Soybean meal-based diets resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.04) short-chain fatty acid and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations than SPI-based diets. Messenger RNA fold changes relative to uninfected SBM-cellulose-fed chicks of all duodenal cytokines were greater (P ≤ 0.01) for infected chicks, and SBM-fed chicks had greater (P < 0.01) interferon-γ and interleukin-12β expression compared with SPI-fed chicks. Cecal tonsil cytokine expression was also affected (P ≤ 0.02) by infection; however, protein source only affected (P < 0.01) interleukin-1β expression in this tissue. Overall, a SBM-based diet, compared with a semi

  15. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  16. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  17. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  18. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  19. Response of piglets to the standardized ileal digestible isoleucine, histidine and leucine supply in cereal-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Primot, Y; Corrent, E; van Milgen, J

    2013-06-01

    Improving the amino acid (AA) profile of the diet by using l-Lys, l-Thr, dl-Met, l-Trp and l-Val helps to reduce the dietary CP content, thereby reducing nitrogen excretion while maintaining the performance of pigs. Valine is the fifth limiting AA in cereal-soybean meal-based diets. The extent to which the CP content in the diet can be reduced further without compromising performance depends on the requirement of the next limiting AA. In cereal-soybean meal-based diets, Ile, His and Leu may be the limiting AAs after Val, although information on the requirements for these AAs is scarce. Six experiments were conducted to determine the effect of supplementing a low-CP diet with l-Ile, l-His and l-Leu on the performance of pigs weighing 10 to 20 kg. Experiment 1 was designed to determine the most limiting AA with respect to performance among Ile, His and Leu. A diet 10% deficient in Ile, Leu and His relative to the National Research Council (NRC, 1998) requirement estimates tended to decrease daily feed intake and daily gain by 6% and 8%, respectively. A 10% deficiency in His alone had no effect, whereas a 10% deficiency in Ile or Leu slightly reduced daily feed intake and gain. In the remaining experiments, the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile : Lys, His : Lys and Leu : Lys requirements were estimated. In Experiments 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 14 blocks of six pigs each were assigned to six levels of SID Ile : Lys (40%, 43%, 46%, 49%, 52% and 55%), His : Lys (20%, 24%, 28%, 32%, 36% and 40%), His : Lys (21%, 24%, 27%, 30%, 33% and 36%), Leu : Lys (70%, 78%, 86%, 94%, 102% and 110%) and Leu : Lys (80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, 120% and 130%), respectively. Across experiments, the estimated SID Ile : Lys, His : Lys and Leu : Lys requirements for maximizing daily gain were 49%, 32% and 102%, respectively, using a curvilinear plateau model. When Ile, His and Leu levels were 10% below the requirement estimate, daily gain was reduced by 9%, 3% and 3%, respectively. The results of

  20. Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

    PubMed

    Bligh, H Frances J; Godsland, Ian F; Frost, Gary; Hunter, Karl J; Murray, Peter; MacAulay, Katrina; Hyliands, Della; Talbot, Duncan C S; Casey, John; Mulder, Theo P J; Berry, Mark J

    2015-02-28

    There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.

  1. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  2. Optimizing zinc supplementation levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed practical type fish meal and plant based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the primary protein source used in commercial feeds for rainbow trout. However, FM is a finite resource and availability is increasingly limited due to continued expansion of fish culture worldwide. Limited availability has caused a significant increase in the price of FM. Therefor...

  3. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  4. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows.

  5. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  6. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  7. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  8. Nutritional and metabolic implications of replacing cornstarch with D-xylose in broiler chickens fed corn and soybean meal-based diet.

    PubMed

    Regassa, A; Kiarie, E; Sands, J S; Walsh, M C; Kim, W K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Effects of substituting cornstarch with D-xylose on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, serum metabolites, and expression of select hepatic genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in broiler chickens. A total of 360 one-day-old male Ross chicks were fed 3 diets (n = 24; 5 chicks/cage) for 21 days. A control corn-soybean meal-based diet with 25% cornstarch was formulated to meet specifications. Two additional diets were formulated by substituting cornstarch with 5 or 15% D-xylose w/w. Growth performance and digestibility by index method were determined in 12 replicate cages. Birds in these replicates had free access to feed and water, the BW and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly and the excreta samples were collected on d 18 to 20. The other 12 replicates were used for blood and liver sampling by serial slaughter. On d 18, baseline (t0) birds were sampled following a 12 h overnight fasting and birds allowed 30 min access to the feed; samples were subsequently taken at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min post feeding. Serum metabolites (glucose, xylose, and insulin) were assayed at all time points, whereas expression of hepatic transcripts was evaluated at zero, 180 and 300 min. Xylose linearly reduced (P < 0.05) FI, BWG, gross energy digestibility, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) but increased (P < 0.05) serum xylose level. Serum glucose and insulin levels were higher (P < 0.05) in the post-fed state compared with baseline, irrespective of treatments. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between diet and sampling time on the expression of hepatic genes. At t0, xylose linearly increased (P < 0.05) the expression of pyruvate carboxylase, Acetyl Co-A acethyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and glucose transporter 2. Xylose linearly reduced (P < 0.05) the expression of ACAT2 at 300 min post feeding. In conclusion, 5% or more xylose reduced growth performance and utilization of nutrients linked to hepatic enzymes and transcription

  9. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-Wamwiza, L; Milla, S; Pierrard, M-A; Rurangwa, E; Mandiki, S N M; Van Look, K J W; Kestemont, P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM and maize meal (diet 1); 25% FM mixed with crude sunflower oil cake (SFOC) and bean meal (BM) (diet 2); 12.5% FM mixed with sunflower oil cake, BM and ground nut oil cake (GOC) (diet 3) and 0% FM mixed with de-hulled sunflower oil cake (SFOCD), BM and ground nut oil cake (diet 4). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm quality, plasma sex steroids (11-keto testosterone [11-KT]; testosterone [T]; estradiol-17beta [E2]) were evaluated on 10 to 24 fish fed on each diet. Sperm quality was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Total replacement of fish meal by plant products markedly increased sperm volume, spermatocrit, spermatozoa integrity, and sperm motility. Fish fed diet 3 (12.5% fish meal) provided intermediate results on sperm quality whereas the lowest values were obtained in fish fed diets 1 and 2. In fish fed 0% fish meal (diet 4), androgen levels were higher and estrogen levels were lower than in fish fed fish meal diets. Based on dietary lipid and fatty acid analyses, these results suggest a positive impact of short chain n-6 fatty acids on androgen synthesis and sperm quality. In conclusion, a combination of ground nut oil cake, bean meal and sunflower oil cake (preferably when the sunflower is dehulled) in African catfish diet improves the sperm quality.

  10. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  11. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  12. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  13. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    PubMed

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p < 0.05). In both experiments, nutrients and energy digestibility did not differ between diets (p > 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p < 0.05), without effect on faecal score. Higher concentration of propionate, acetate and lactate, and lower ammonia and pH were found in the faeces of dogs fed SBM (p < 0.05). Higher post-prandial urea was verified in dogs fed SBM (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of enzymes increased faecal concentration of propionate, acetate and total short-chain fatty acid (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce post-prandial urea concentration (p = 0.06). Although with similar digestibility, SBM shows a worse utilization of absorbed amino acids than the PM. Soybean oligosaccharides can beneficially

  14. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p < 0.05) across the treatments in terms of FI and BWG. The difference in feed:gain at 15% or 20% SFM was observed to be non-significant. Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation.

  15. Influence of canola meal-based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility, carcass, and immunity responses of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, T; Sarwar, M; Ahmad, G; Mirza, M A; Nawaz, H; Mushtaq, M M Haroon; Noreen, U

    2007-10-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 2 levels of endo-1,4-beta xylanase and endo-1,3-beta glucanase combination (with and without), 3 levels of digestible Lys (0.8, 0.9, and 1.0%), and 2 levels of canola meal (CM; 20 and 30%) were evaluated in 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 2,448 male Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2,750 kcal of ME.kg(-1) and 19.6% CP from 1 to 42 d of age. The BW gain was significantly reduced when 30% CM was added in the diets during 1 to 21 d. Feed:gain and mortality were also observed to be high. No significant effect of enzyme addition or Lys level was observed on feed intake, BW gain, feed:gain, and mortality during the starter phase. When the data were pooled for 42 d, BW gain and feed:gain were unaffected by enzyme addition or Lys levels. A depression in breast weight was observed due to 30% CM or 0.8 and 0.9% digestible Lys at 43 d. Leg weights were significantly depressed by enzyme addition or increasing digestible Lys to 1.0% of the diets. The AME, nitrogen digestibility, and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal diseases were also unaffected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the 30% CM is not recommended in broiler diets especially during starter phase (1 to 21 d). However, the CM may be used up to 30% of the diets during finishing phase. The digestible Lys can be lowered to 0.8% when amino acids in proportion to digestible Lys follow the ideal AA ratio. The glucanase and xylanase cocktail have no pronounced effect on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

  16. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  17. Improvement of nutritive value of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal in the formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish gut bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Bairagi, A; Ray, A K

    2005-09-01

    Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.0 kcalg(-1) approximately) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fish meal based diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings for 80 days and fish performance was studied. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities were used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 degrees C. Fermentation of grass pea seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and anti-nutritional factors, such as tannins, phytic acid and the neurotoxin, beta-ODAP and enhancing the available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth response, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, 30% fermented grass pea seed meal incorporated diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of fish fed diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to those fed diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The highest deposition of carcass protein was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicated that fermented grass pea seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to 30% level compared to 10% level of raw seed meal.

  18. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  19. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P < 0.001) BW gain (808 vs. 750 g/bird) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.27 vs. 1.32) than those consuming a fine corn-containing diet (geometric mean diameter of 482 µm). This was further substantiated by a lower AMEn content (2,852 vs. 2,972 kcal/kg). Addition of amylase had no effect on growth performance of chickens fed a conventional corn-containing diet, but improved BW gain, feed conversion ratio, and diet AMEn in those fed the finely ground corn, possibly due to increased starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet

  20. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001) while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330

  1. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  2. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production <80%), egg production, daily egg mass, and FCR increased quadratically with increasing dietary Zn levels (P < 0.05). The highest egg production and daily egg weight were obtained when 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg diet was supplemented, with lowest FCR. Similarly, the highest egg production and daily egg mass were observed in the group supplemented with 30 or 45 mg Zn/kg during the peak laying period of the subsequent 120 d (daily egg production >80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity.

  3. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan WA; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. Conclusion: A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. (Trial

  4. Roasted full-fat kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soyabeans (Glycine max) meals in broiler chicken diet.

    PubMed

    Poné, D K; Fomunyam, R T

    2004-07-01

    An 8-week experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed on diets containing either roasted full-fat soyabean meal (RSBM), roasted full-fat kidney bean meal (RKBM), cottonseed cake meal (CSM) or soyabean meal (SBM). A total of 240 unsexed, day-old-chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments so that there were 10 chicks per experimental unit in a randomized complete block design with three blocks and two replicates per block. Cumulative feed intake was depressed (p < 0.01) with the RSBM-based diet (71 g/bird per day) and was lowest with the RKBM-based diet (64 g/bird per day). Growth was closely related to feed intake, averaging 2122 g, 2094 g, 1960 g and 1601 g for CSM-, SBM-, RSBM- and RKBM-based diets, respectively. However, feed conversion ratio (g food intake/g body weight gain) was similar at 8 weeks of birds' age, although the values were highest (p<0.01) at the first 2 weeks of age for birds fed on RKBM-based diets. Mortality was not affected (p >0.05) by treatment effects. Feed cost efficiency (CFA Franc (Fcfa) per kilogram live chicken) showed that the SBM-based diet (494 Fcfa) and RKBM-based diet (493 Fcfa) were more expensive (p<0.01) than the RSBM-based diet (400 Fcfa). The CSM-based diet was the most economical (358 Fcfa) as a result of the lower market price of cottonseed cake. Despite suboptimal production performance and given current market prices, replacing imported SBM with locally produced RKBM, RSBM or CSM would allow farmers to save 1%, 19% and 28%, respectively, on feed cost efficiency. Roasting soyabeans in place of imported SBM allowed farmers to save about 19% for each CFA franc spent on a kilogram of live bird at 8 weeks of age.

  5. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day's worth of meals for three diet types.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some "probiotic" health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 10(9) CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  6. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish.

  7. Glandless cottonseed meal replaces fishmeal in shrimp diet research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal is high in protein and less expensive than fishmeal and soybean meal. Although cottonseeds contain the toxic compound gossypol, cotton plants can be engineered without gossypol in their seeds. In a study, cottonseed meal replaced up to 67% of dietary fishmeal without significantly ...

  8. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  9. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( < 0.05) final BW, ADG, and ADFI than pigs fed CM-HP, and pigs fed diets with reduced NE had greater ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( < 0.05) as the concentration of dietary canola meal increased. Serum concentrations of IgG were reduced if canola meal was included in the diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( < 0.05). In conclusion, up to 30% CM-HP or CM-CV in diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance

  10. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively impact cecal fermentation and inte...

  11. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    treatment. Milk N efficiency tended to be higher for LP treatments in trial 1, but not in trial 2. Low milk urea N suggested nitrogen losses to the environment may be lower when cows were fed diets based on DDGS in both trials. The studies indicated that DDGS with rumen-protected Lys and Met could substitute solvent-extracted soybean meal in low-protein corn silage- and ryegrass silage-based diets for late-lactation dairy cows averaging 20.6 or 27.4 kg of milk/d, respectively.

  12. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  13. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, a...

  14. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits.

  15. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Jayne; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe shared meal patterns and examine associations with dietary intake among young adults. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study (Project EAT: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Setting Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.0, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008–2009 (mean age=25.3, “young adulthood”). Subjects There were 2,052 participants who responded to the 10-year follow-up survey and reported on frequency of having shared meals. Results Among young adults, the frequency of shared meals during the past week was as follows: never (9.9%), one or two times (24.7%), three to six times (39.1%), and seven or more times (26.3%). Having more frequent family meals during adolescence predicted a higher frequency of shared meals in young adulthood above and beyond other relevant sociodemographic factors such as household composition and parental status. Compared to young adults who never had family meals during adolescence, those young adults who reported seven or more family meals per week during adolescence had an average of one additional shared meal per week. Having more frequent shared meals in young adulthood was associated with greater intake of fruit among males and females, and with higher intakes of vegetables, milk products, and some key nutrients among females. Conclusions Nutrition professionals should encourage families of adolescents to share meals often and establish the tradition of eating together, and work with young adults to ensure that healthy food and beverage choices are offered at mealtimes. PMID:22857517

  16. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  17. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  18. Nutrition knowledge of rural older populations: can congregate meal site participants manage their own diets?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lionel; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Congregate meal sites were funded to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural older individuals in improving their health-related practices. Although the participants in the program are largely female, the meals are designed to meet one third of the daily caloric intake of a 70-year-old male, and to satisfy his recommended dietary allowances for total fat, fiber, calcium, and sodium. The actual percentage of the required nutrient intake contributed by meals served at congregate sites is indefinite. Moreover, the ability of congregate meal participants to manage their diets and their receptiveness to helpful nutrition information in that regard is unknown. Our objective was to promote nutritional knowledge in economically disadvantaged, rural older participants by studying its impact on their ability to benefit from congregate meal programs. We used a test, intervention, retest methodology to examine the effect of short-term nutrition interventions on congregate meal site participants' nutrition knowledge. The objective was to determine the participants' potential for managing their own diets (e.g., their ability to determine what diet behaviors are appropriate for specific chronic conditions). We found that while congregate meal site participants have knowledge of nutrition recommendations, their ability to apply this information in helping themselves to prevent or control their chronic conditions remains in question.

  19. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  20. Efficacy of New 6-Phytase from Buttiauxella spp. on Growth Performance and Nutrient Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Corn Soybean Meal-based Diets.

    PubMed

    Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-10-01

    A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (p<0.05) for NC vs PC birds. Phytase response in NC birds was linear (p<0.05) with 2,000 FTU showing the greatest improvement on body weight gain (20%), feed conversion (7.4%), tibia ash (18%), AR of Ca (38%), AR of P (51%) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (5.1%) relative to NC. Furthermore, phytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (p<0.05) AR of P, dry matter, and N beyond that of the lower doses of phytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Efficacy of New 6-Phytase from Buttiauxella spp. on Growth Performance and Nutrient Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Corn Soybean Meal-based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Kiarie, E.; Woyengo, T.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (p<0.05) for NC vs PC birds. Phytase response in NC birds was linear (p<0.05) with 2,000 FTU showing the greatest improvement on body weight gain (20%), feed conversion (7.4%), tibia ash (18%), AR of Ca (38%), AR of P (51%) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (5.1%) relative to NC. Furthermore, phytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (p<0.05) AR of P, dry matter, and N beyond that of the lower doses of phytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26323404

  2. Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Randolph, J H; Parker, G R; Coffey, R D; Laurent, K M; Armstrong, C L; Mikel, W B; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2002-03-01

    Dehulled soybean meal prepared from genetically modified, herbicide (glyphosate)-tolerant Roundup Ready soybeans containing the CP4 EPSPS protein and near-isogenic conventional soybeans were assessed in an experiment with growing-finishing pigs. The soybeans were grown in the yr 2000 under similar agronomic conditions except that the Roundup Ready soybeans were sprayed with Roundup herbicide. Both were processed at the same plant. The composition of the two types of soybeans and the processed soybean meal were similar. Corn-soybean meal diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal and fortified with minerals and vitamins were fed to 100 cross-bred pigs from 24 to 111 kg BW. Diets contained approximately 0.95% lysine initially and were reduced to 0.80 and 0.65% lysine when pigs reached 55 and 87 kg BW, respectively. There were 10 pens (five pens of barrows and five pens of gilts) per treatment with five pigs per pen. All pigs were scanned at 107 kg mean BW and all barrows were killed at the end of the test for carcass measurements and tissue collection. Rate and efficiency of weight gain, scanned backfat and longissimus area, and calculated carcass lean percentage were not different (P > 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal. Gilts gained slower, but they were more efficient and leaner (P < 0.05) than barrows. Responses to the type of soybean meal were similar for the two sexes with no evidence of a diet x sex interaction for any of the traits. In most instances, carcass traits of barrows were similar for the two types of soybean meal. Longissimus muscle samples from barrows fed conventional soybean meal tended (P = 0.06) to have less fat than those fed Roundup Ready soybean meal, but water, protein, and ash were similar. Sensory scores of cooked longissimus muscles were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. The results indicate that Roundup Ready soybean meal is essentially equivalent in composition and

  3. Extra-phosphoric effects of phytase with and without xylanase in corn-soybean meal-based diets fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the extra-phosphoric effects of phytase on amino acid (AA) and energy digestibility (experiments 1 and 2) and growth performance (experiment 2) of broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P supplemented with xylanase. Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks (864 males in experiment 1 and 1,152 females in experiment 2) were randomly distributed into battery cages (6 replicate cages per treatment) with 12 birds per cage at 1 d of age. In both experiments, factorial arrangements of treatments were evaluated consisting of 6 phytase [0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, or 16,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg] and 2 xylanase [0 or 16,000 birch xylan units (BXU)/kg] concentrations in experiment 1 and 4 phytase (0, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 FTU/kg) and 4 xylanase (0, 8,000, 16,000, or 32,000 BXU/kg) concentrations in experiment 2. Treatments were provided from 27 to 32 d of age in experiment 1 and from 1 to 32 d of age in experiment 2. Digesta contents of the terminal ileum were collected at 32 d of age (experiment 1 and 2), and growth performance was measured at 1, 14, and 25 d of age in experiment 2. There was no interaction of phytase and xylanase; only main effects of phytase were observed. In experiment 1, broilers fed diets supplemented with phytase at 1,000 FTU/kg had increased (P < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of all AA with the exception of Ala and Met. Diets fed to broilers supplemented with higher concentrations of phytase did not further increase AID of any AA (P > 0.05) above the addition of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase. Phytase supplementation did not affect ileal digestible energy (P > 0.05). For all variables measured, significant log-linear or log-quadratic effects of phytase (P > 0.05) were not observed. In contrast, broilers fed diets supplemented with phytase in experiment 2 exhibited log-linear (P < 0.05) increases in AID of AA but not apparent ileal digestible energy. However, supplementation with 2,000 FTU/kg of

  4. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  5. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing genetically modified canola meal from event DP-Ø73496-4, near-isogenic canola meal, or commercial canola meals.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hong, B; Delaney, B; Iiams, C

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus L.) line containing event DP-Ø73496-4 (hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) was produced by the insertion of the glyphosate acetyltransferase (gat4621) gene derived from Bacillus licheniformis. Expression of the GAT4621 protein present in 73496 canola plants confers in planta tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of broiler chickens fed canola meal from 73496 canola seed with that of broiler chickens fed non-GM canola meal in a 42-d feeding trial. Diets were prepared using meal processed from seed from unsprayed 73496 plants or from plants sprayed with an in-field application of glyphosate herbicide [73496(S)]. For comparison, additional diets were produced with canola meal obtained from the non-GM near-isogenic control or non-GM commercial reference DuPont Pioneer brand varieties 42H72, 42H73, 46A65, and 44A89. Diets were fed to Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter and grower phases containing 10 or 20% canola meal, respectively, and a finisher phase with a common corn-soybean meal diet without any canola meal. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance measures or organ and carcass yields between broilers consuming diets produced with canola meal from unsprayed or sprayed 73496 seed and those consuming diets produced with canola meal from control seed. Additionally, all performance, organ, and carcass measures from control, 73496, and 73496(S) canola treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from the reference canola groups. It was concluded from these results that meal processed from 73496 canola seed (unsprayed plants or plants sprayed with glyphosate) was nutritionally equivalent to meal processed from non-GM near-isogenic control canola seed.

  6. Toxic effects of fermented and unfermented sorghum meal diets naturally contaminated with mycotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Kazanas, N; Ely, R W; Fields, M L; Erdman, J W

    1984-01-01

    Male weanling rats fed diets containing fermented and unfermented tannin-free sorghum meals naturally contaminated with traces of ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and an unidentified toxic substance developed anorexia. Mean changes in body weight over a 28-day feeding period for rats fed fermented and unfermented sorghum meal and ANCR casein diets of 8% protein were -2.8, +13.8, and +100.5 g, respectively. Rats fed fermented sorghum meal developed alopecia; hematological findings showed a decreased mean corpuscular volume, hypochromic microcytosis, balanced leukopenia, and hypoproteinuria . Histological findings showed testicular hypoplasia of the germinal epithelium and no mature spermatozoa. Necrosis and mineralization in Henle's loop were also observed. No damage was apparent to the liver, cerebellum, cerebrum, spleen, or adrenal glands. Images PMID:6234860

  7. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    PubMed

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance.

  8. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jenna M.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some “probiotic” health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 109 CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 106 and 1.4 × 106 CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  9. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  10. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    PubMed

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05). Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05). All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05). The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  11. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg) weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  12. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  13. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  14. Effects of replacing fish meal by soybean meal along with supplementing phosphorus and magnesium in diet on growth performance of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus.

    PubMed

    Imanpoor, Mohamad Reza; Bagheri, Tahere

    2012-04-01

    Looking for replacing fish meal by cheaper and more sustainable protein sources is essential for reducing the cost of fish feeds. Soybean meal is a suitable alternative protein sources for carnivorous fish such as Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. However, it contains antinutritional factors that may affect bioavailability of minerals and lead in reduced growth. Achieving a cost-effective diet that does not have negative effects on growth is the goal of aquaculture programs. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Persian sturgeon (352.07 ± 5.51 g) to determine the combined effects of phosphorous (SP), magnesium and phosphorous (SPMg), phytase (SF), phytase and magnesium (SFMg), phosphorous and phytase (SPF), phosphorous, magnesium and phytase (SPMgF) on weight gain, feed efficiency, specific growth rate, and condition factor. A control diet was prepared with fish meal as a control group. Inclusion of P, Mg, and phytase contents within soybean diets did not improve feed efficiency, and still, the control diet containing fish meal showed better weight gain and feed efficiency. Among soybean meal groups, feed efficiency and specific growth rate were significantly improved for fish fed the diet containing just phytase (SF) and both phytase and phosphorus (P ≤ 0.05). It was true for specific growth rate and condition factor. Phytase significantly enhanced growth whether included with or without phosphorous. This study showed that fish meal is more sufficient for Persian sturgeon, and soybean meal could be partly an alternative protein source if phosphorous supplied for fish by incorporation with microbial phytase or phosphorous.

  15. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets.

    PubMed

    Cramer, K R; Greenwood, M W; Moritz, J S; Beyer, R S; Parsons, C M

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of various raw and rendered animal by-product meals commonly used in companion animal diets. Six freeze-dried raw animal meals (beef lungs, pork lungs, sheep lungs, pork livers, oceanfish, chicken necks) and 3 rendered animal meals (lamb meal, regular ash poultry by-product meal, and low ash poultry by-product meal) were fed in chick assays to determine Lys and TSAA bioavailability, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR). Each experimental diet was offered to 4 replicates of 5 chicks per pen in all growth assays. Furthermore, each animal by-product meal was fed to mature White Leghorn roosters for determination of true AA digestibility. All freeze-dried, raw animal meals were offered to 5 replicate roosters, and all rendered animal meals were offered to 4 replicate roosters. Most raw animal meals exhibited moderate to high protein quality. Lysine bio-availabilities ranged from 86 to 107% and 70 to 99% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Bio-availability of TSAA ranged from 64 to 99% and 61 to 78% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The PER values ranged from 2.83 to 4.03 and 2.01 to 3.34 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The NPR values ranged from 3.83 to 4.8 and 3.05 to 4.12 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Despite a numeric increase in NPR vs. PER values, the overall ranking of animal meals remained similar. Lamb meal had the poorest PER and NPR values, and pork lungs had the greatest values. Total essential AA digestibility and total AA digestibility ranged from 93.6 to 96.7 and 90.3 to 95.5%, respectively, for raw animal meals and 84.0 to 87.7 and 79.2 to 84.8%, respectively, for rendered animal meals. Rendered animal meals generally had lower protein quality than raw animal meals, with lamb meal consistently having the poorest protein quality and pork livers having the greatest protein quality.

  16. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objec...

  17. Nutritive value of the meat and bone meals from cattle or pigs in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Karakas, P; Versteegh, H A; van der Honing, T Y; Kogut, T J; Jongbloed, A W

    2001-08-01

    The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents (224, 306, 387, and 209,293, 430 g/kg, respectively) were tested for digestibility at a 10% inclusion level. The MBMcattle and MBMpig with the lowest ash (224 and 209 g/kg, respectively) were tested also at 20% inclusion. A basal diet (corn-soybean meal) was used as a control. Two-week-old broiler chickens were used in four replicates per treatment (14 to 32 d of age). The AMEn of MBM was high (10.51 to 13.04 MJ/kg DM). Species origin had no significant effect, whereas more ash and a higher inclusion level decreased the AMEn. The factors investigated showed no significant effect on the excretal digestibility of CP or on total AA. Excretal digestibility of total amino acids (AA) ranged from 60 to 65%. The ileal digestibility of CP and AA of MBMpig with 209 g/kg ash was also tested at 10 and 20% inclusion. Excretal digestibility was significantly higher than ileal digestibility of CP (63.8 and 55.8%, respectively) and total AA (60.9 and 56.2%, respectively). The 20% inclusion level resulted in a lower digestibility for both methods. The digestibility of CP was measured by four different in vitro techniques, based on pepsin digestibility. The data showed a large variation and did not correlate at all with the in vivo digestibility values.

  18. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing roundup ready (event RT73), nontransgenic control, or commercial canola meal.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Stanisiewski, E P; Riordan, S G; Nemeth, M A; George, B; Hartnell, G F

    2004-03-01

    A 42-d experiment compared the nutritional value of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready event RT73) canola meal to that of conventional canola meal when fed to rapidly growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers using a randomized complete block design. Five pens of males and 5 pens of females were used in each of 8 canola meal treatments (glyphosate-tolerant, nontransgenic control, and 6 commercial varieties). Broilers (10 birds/pen) were fed approximately 25% wt/wt canola meal during the first 20 d and 20% wt/wt canola meal thereafter. In general, performance response variables for glyphosate-tolerant canola meal were not different (P > 0.05) than those for the nontransgenic and commercial canola meals. Carcass fat pad, breast meat, thighs, legs, and wings (on a percentage basis) were similar across treatments (P > 0.05). Expressed as percentage of live weight, chill weight of the broilers fed diets containing glyphosate-tolerant canola meal was not different from those fed all other diets, but some differences were observed between the nontransgenic control and commercial diets. No major differences were observed in percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in breast or thigh meat (P > 0.05) across treatments. Comparisons of the glyphosate-tolerant canola diet to the population of all other diets (combining sexes) showed no major differences (P > 0.05) in performance, carcass yields, or moisture, protein, and fat in breast and thigh meat. Broilers fed diets containing glyphosate-tolerant canola meal had similar growth performance to birds fed nontransgenic control and commercial canola diets.

  19. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  20. Diets Containing Sea Cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus) Meals Are Hypocholesterolemic in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Castillo, Leticia; Davalos, Alberto; Grant, George; Valadez-Gonzalez, Nina; Montero, Jorge; Barrera-Perez, Hirian Alonso Moshe; Chim-Chi, Yasser; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel Angel; Ceja-Moreno, Víctor; Acereto-Escoffie, Pablo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water) and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h). It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method. PMID:24260223

  1. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  2. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  3. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-03-03

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice.

  4. A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Hu, Yangjiang; Yu, Yu

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0% 60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0% 80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  5. Cashew reject meal in diets of laying chickens: nutritional and economic suitability.

    PubMed

    Akande, Taiwo O; Akinwumi, Akinyinka O; Abegunde, Taye O

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nutritional and economic suitability of cashew reject meal (full fat and defatted) as replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) in the diets of laying chickens. A total of eighty four brown shavers at 25 weeks of age were randomly allotted into seven dietary treatments each containing 6 replicates of 2 birds each. The seven diets prepared included diet 1, a control with GNC at 220gkg(-1) as main protein source in the diet. Diets 2, 3 and 4 consist of gradual replacement of GNC with defatted cashew reject meal (DCRM) at 50%, 75% and 100% on weight for weight basis respectively while diets 5, 6 and 7 consist of gradual inclusion of full fat cashew reject meal (FCRM) to replace 25%, 35% and 50% of GNC protein respectively. Each group was allotted a diet in a completely randomized design in a study that lasted eight weeks during which records of the chemical constituent of the test ingredients, performance characteristics, egg quality traits and economic indicators were measured. Results showed that the crude protein were 22.10 and 35.4% for FCRM and DCRM respectively. Gross energy of DCRM was 5035 kcal/kg compared to GNC, 4752 kcal/kg. Result of aflatoxin B1 revealed moderate level between 10 and 17 μg/Kg in DCRM and GNC samples respectively. Birds on control gained 10 g, while those on DCRM and FCRM gained about 35 g and 120 g respectively. Feed intake declined (P < 0.05) with increased level of FCRM. Hen day production was highest in birds fed DCRM, followed by control and lowest value (P < 0.05) was recorded for FCRM. No significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for egg weight and shell thickness. Fat deposition and cholesterol content increased (P > 0.05) with increasing level of FCRM. The cost of feed per kilogram decreased gradually with increased inclusion level of CRM. The prediction equation showed the relative worth of DCRM compared to GNC was 92.3% whereas the actual market price of GNC triples that of

  6. The School Meal System and School-Based Nutrition Education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Taejung

    2015-01-01

    Since the school meal was first served in Korea in 1953, there have been many changes, particularly during the last decade. Recently, the representative features of the school meal system became free school meals for all pupils in elementary school and a nutrition teacher system in schools. These policies were suggested to implement more and more the educational role of the school meal. The rate of schools serving school meals reached 100% as of 2013, and 99.6% students eat a school meal each school day. Nutrition teachers were assigned to schools from 2007, and 4,704 (47.9%) nutrition teachers of all nutrition employees were employed in schools as of 2013. At present, various nutrition education materials are being development by local education offices and government agencies, and various education activities are being implemented spiritedly. The ultimate goal of school meals and school-based nutrition education are as follows: 1) improvement of the health of students; 2) promotion of the traditional Korean diet; and 3) extension of opportunities for a healthier dietary life.

  7. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  8. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

    PubMed

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  9. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  10. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda

  11. Fish meal replacement with solvent extracted soybean meal or soy protein isolate in a practical diet formulation for Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus, L.) reared in low salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two eight-week growth trials were conducted with juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, fed 0 to 100% replacement of FM protein with soybean meal (SBM) or soy protein isolate (SPI). Practical-type diets were formulated with at least 360 g kg1 digestible protein and 24 mg kJ-1 digestible p...

  12. Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M; Lambraki, Irene; Storey, Kate E; McCargar, Linda

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight concerned (n=602), 61% were healthy weight and of those not dieting or weight concerned (n=1224), 13% were overweight/obese. The ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that HEI-C was likely to be rated lower among those weight concerned and dieting (p<.001), and among those that skipped the breakfast meal (p<.001). The current study identified inappropriate weight concerns and dieting that compromised diet quality and has implications for future intervention and policy development.

  13. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  14. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  15. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with blood vegetable waste meal in the diets of weaner rabbits.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively.

  16. Feeding behavior of finishing goats fed diets containing detoxified castor meal, co-product of the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio; Leite, Vagner Maximino; Santos, Stefanie Alvarenga; Borja, Máikal Souza; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Júnior, José Esler Freitas; Leite, Laudi Cunha; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta

    2017-02-01

    An investigation was made into the feeding behavior of goats to evaluate the effects of a detoxified castor bean meal in the diet of goats. Thirty-six ½ crossbred Boer goats were used, with an average weight of 20 ± 3.2 kg. A completely randomized design was used with four treatments (diets with of 0, 100, 200, and 300 g detoxified castor bean meals/kg dry matter) and nine replicates. Castor bean meal was detoxified using calcium oxide. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, and the forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50. The feeding behavior was observed on the 17th, 45th, and 70th days of the experiment. For the evaluation of feeding behavior (feeding, idle, and rumination times), the animals were observed in 5-min intervals for 24 h. The addition of detoxified castor bean meal did not change (P > 0.05) the evaluated behavioral variables. Linear reduction was observed (P < 0.05) in the efficiencies of feeding and rumination, expressed in g dry matter/h. The variables related to the time series discretization of the feeding behavior of goats did not change (P > 0.05) with the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal. The inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal in growing goats' diets does not change the feeding, rumination, and idle times, however, decreases intake, feeding, and rumination efficiencies of dry matter.

  17. Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

    2012-07-01

    Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment.

  18. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes.

    PubMed

    Neal, G E; Judah, D J; Carthew, P; Verma, A; Latour, I; Weir, L; Coker, R D; Nagler, M J; Hoogenboom, L A

    2001-02-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were detected histologically following feeding with the two detoxified meals. There were, however, clear differences between the two meals in respect of growth rates of the rats. In addition, feeding one of the detoxified meals resulted in hepatic abnormalities detected using novel immunohistochemical reagents. Differences between the two detoxified meals were also indicated by the results of studies using meals 'spiked' with [14C]-aflatoxin B1 prior to being subjected to the detoxification processes. The meals differed in the bioavailability of the label. It was concluded that peanut meal where an initial, unacceptable level of contamination with aflatoxins had been reduced by two ammonia-based processes to comparable, acceptable levels, may still have different effects in vivo when incorporated into animal diets.

  19. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  20. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  1. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P < 0.05) and Mn (P < 0.05), as dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic

  2. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  3. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg(-1) of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg(-1) protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  4. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  5. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  6. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  7. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  8. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  9. Are Family Meal Patterns Associated with Overall Diet Quality during the Transition from Early to Middle Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of participation in regular family meals (greater than or equal to 5 meals/week) with eating habits and dietary intake during adolescence. Design: Population-based, longitudinal study (Project EAT: Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed in Minnesota classrooms at Time 1 (1998-1999) and by mail…

  10. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  11. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets.

  12. Associations between children's diet quality and watching television during meal or snack consumption: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Avery, Amanda; Anderson, Catherine; McCullough, Fiona

    2017-02-17

    Studies have identified an association between watching television (TV) and childhood obesity. This review adds context to existing research by examining the associations between TV viewing, whilst eating, and children's diet quality. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched from January 2000 to June 2014. Cross-sectional trials of case control or cohort studies, which included baseline data, measuring the associations between eating whilst watching TV and children's food and drink intake. Quality of selected papers was assessed. Thirteen studies, representing 61,674 children aged 1-18 yrs, met inclusion criteria. Of six studies reporting overall food habits, all found a positive association between TV viewing and consumption of pizza, fried foods, sweets, and snacks. Of eight studies looking at fruit and vegetable consumption, seven identified a negative association with eating whilst watching TV (p < .0001). Four out of five studies identified a positive association between watching TV whilst eating and servings of sugar-sweetened beverages (p < .0001). Four studies identified an association between low socioeconomic status and increased likelihood of eating whilst watching TV (p ≤ .01). Family meals did not overcome the adverse impact on diet quality of having the TV on at mealtimes. Eating whilst watching television is associated with poorer diet quality among children, including more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat, high-sugar foods and fewer fruits and vegetables. Although these differences in consumption are small, the cumulative effect may contribute to the positive association between eating whilst watching TV and childhood obesity.

  13. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens.

  14. Improvement in non-specific immunity and disease resistance of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), by diets containing Daphnia similis meal.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shieh-Tsung; Shiu, Ya-Li; Wu, Tsung-Meng; Lin, Yu-Syuan; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2015-05-01

    A 42-day study was conducted with barramundi, Lates calcarifer, to evaluate the effects of Daphnia meal derived from Daphnia similis on fish growth, immune response, and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila. Three isonitrogenous (45%) and isolipid (10%) experimental diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 5% (D5), and 10% (D10) Daphnia meal. Growth was depressed when fish were fed with the D10 diet for 42 days compared to control. However, the growth in fish fed with control and D5 diets for 42 days was not significantly different. By day 42, the leukocyte phagocytic activity and respiratory burst activity were significantly increased in D5 and D10 groups compared to control. Mx gene expression in the spleen and head kidney of fish after being injected with nerve necrosis virus was also significantly up-regulated in both groups compared to control. In an increased immune response, D5 and D10 fish had significantly higher survival rates than control after being challenged by A. hydrophila. Therefore, we suggest that a 5% Daphnia-meal diet could improve the barramundi immune response and disease resistance without a negative impact on growth.

  15. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  16. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  17. An optimal dietary non-phytate phosphorus level of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Liu, S B; Luo, X G

    2016-10-01

    It is imperative to evaluate precise nutrient requirements of animals in order to optimize productivity and minimize feed cost and nutrient excretions. The current non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) recommendation for broilers is based on the papers published 30 years ago. However, today's commercial birds are quite different from those before 30 years. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted with growing male broiler chickens to evaluate an optimal dietary NPP level of broiler chickens fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The 1-day-old chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.39% NPP from 1 to 3 weeks of age. At 22 days of age, 360 birds were selected and randomly allotted by BW to one of 10 dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds per cage for each treatment. Birds were fed the P-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with inorganic P as CaHPO4·H2O ranging from 0.00% to 0.45% with 0.05% increment from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The dietary NPP levels were 0.09%, 0.14%, 0.20%, 0.24%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 0.38%, 0.45%, 0.49% and 0.54%, respectively, and the dietary Ca level was fixed at 0.90% for all treatments. The results showed that average daily gain, serum inorganic P concentration, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage and P percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage and P percentage, middle toe BMC, total body BMC and BMD were affected (P<0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P<0.0001) and quadratically (P<0.003) as dietary NPP levels increased. Optimal dietary NPP levels estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P<0.0001) of the above indices are 0.21%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.29%, 0.30%, 0.27%, 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively. It is suggested that the total body BMC and BMD, and middle toe ash P and BMC might be new, sensitive and non-invasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements

  18. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Walz, L S; White, T W; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R; Blouin, D C; Froetschel, M A; Brown, T F; Lupton, C J; Chapa, A M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of replacing some soybean meal (SBM) protein with fish meal (FM) protein in diets adequate and slightly deficient in CP, with or without .75% sodium bentonite (NaB) on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of individually fed Suffolk lambs. Diets were based on corn, SBM, and cottonseed hulls. In Exp. 1, five lambs were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments (11% CP with 3% FM, 13% CP with 0 or 3% FM). Lambs fed diets that contained 11% CP with 3% FM or 13% CP with 0% FM had similar DMI and ADG. Gain and feed efficiency were slightly improved (P = .18) by the 13% CP diet with 3% FM. In Exp. 2, 32 lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments (13.5% CP of DM) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (0 or 3% FM, and 0 or .75% NaB on an as-fed basis). The DMI and ADG were increased (P < .05) by FM and NaB supplementation. Interactions (P < .05) revealed that NaB increased DMI, ADG, gain per feed (g/kg of DMI), and plasma urea N concentration in the absence of FM but not in the presence of FM in the diet. Neither FM nor NaB influenced (P = .25) wool growth. Total ruminal VFA were increased (P < .06) by FM and NaB. Differences in mineral content of phalanx bone, liver, and kidney were small and may be related to the mineral content of diets and the effect of NaB on mineral solubilities. Similar DMI and ADG of lambs fed FM and NaB separately and in combination suggest that their beneficial effect is not additive.

  19. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  20. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  1. Studies on the toxic effects of crambe meal and two of its constituents, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and epi-progoitrin, in broiler chick diets.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffery, E; Tumbleson, M; Zhang, Y; Parsons, C; Wallig, M

    1996-12-01

    1. Studies were undertaken to determine a safe inclusion rate for crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meal in broiler chick diets, and to determine the mechanism for adverse effects by investigating its constituents; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) and 3-butenyl glucosinolate (epi-progoitrin, E-PG). 2. Crambe meals were prepared to differ in E-PG (19, 36 and 40 g/kg) and CHB contents (0.1, 0.7 and 1.9 g/kg), and with either active or inactive thioglucosidase. 3. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 50 or 100 g/kg of the diet for 12 or 13 d. In separate studies, isolated E-PG or CHB were mixed into the diet or administered by gavage to 7-d-old broiler chicks in amounts equivalent to 50 or 100 g/kg crambe meal diets for 10 and 12 d, respectively. 4. Weight gain decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the high glucosinolate crambe diets or isolated E-PG. Food consumption decreased (P < 0.05) in chicks fed on the diet containing the high E-PG meal with active enzyme. 5. Mild liver lesions and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase were found in chicks fed on the diet containing the high glucosinolate meal with active enzyme. Other organs, including thyroids, were normal. 6. Commercially-processed crambe meal appeared safe at an inclusion rate of 50 or 100 g/kg diet, but could not be recommended at this point for long term feeding.

  2. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  3. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2016-11-19

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO4·7H2O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  4. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  5. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

  6. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  7. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  8. A complete diet-based algorithm for predicting nonheme iron absorption in adults.

    PubMed

    Armah, Seth M; Carriquiry, Alicia; Sullivan, Debra; Cook, James D; Reddy, Manju B

    2013-07-01

    Many algorithms have been developed in the past few decades to estimate nonheme iron absorption from the diet based on single meal absorption studies. Yet single meal studies exaggerate the effect of diet and other factors on absorption. Here, we propose a new algorithm based on complete diets for estimating nonheme iron absorption. We used data from 4 complete diet studies each with 12-14 participants for a total of 53 individuals (19 men and 34 women) aged 19-38 y. In each study, each participant was observed during three 1-wk periods during which they consumed different diets. The diets were typical, high, or low in meat, tea, calcium, or vitamin C. The total sample size was 159 (53 × 3) observations. We used multiple linear regression to quantify the effect of different factors on iron absorption. Serum ferritin was the most important factor in explaining differences in nonheme iron absorption, whereas the effect of dietary factors was small. When our algorithm was validated with single meal and complete diet data, the respective R(2) values were 0.57 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.0001). The results also suggest that between-person variations explain a large proportion of the differences in nonheme iron absorption. The algorithm based on complete diets we propose is useful for predicting nonheme iron absorption from the diets of different populations.

  9. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    PubMed

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P < 0.05) and had greater G:F (0.540 vs. 0.471 and 0.455; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the DDGS or the DDGS-S diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P < 0.01), but there was no difference between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets

  11. Low-protein, crystalline amino acid-supplemented, sorghum-soybean meal diets for the 10- to 20-kilogram pig.

    PubMed

    Brudevold, A B; Southern, L L

    1994-03-01

    Five randomized block design experiments were conducted to determine the limiting amino acids (or other nutrients) in low-CP (12%) sorghum-soybean meal (S-SBM) diets for the 10- to 20-kg pig. Average initial weights were 10.7, 10.5, 9.1, 10.2, and 10.9 kg in Exp. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The nine treatments in Exp. 1 were 1) Basal (B, 12% CP), 2) B + .26% methionine (Met), 3) B + .24% histidine (His), 4) B + .21% isoleucine (Ile), 5) B + .12% tryptophan (Trp), 6) B + .24% valine (Val), 7) B+Met+His, 8) B+Met+His+Ile+Trp+Val (AllAA), and 9) S-SBM positive control (PC, 21.81% CP). All diets provided 1.10% Lys and .83% Thr. Individual addition of His and Val to the B diet increased (P < .10) gain. The gain of pigs fed the AllAA diet did not differ (P > .10) from that of pigs fed the PC diet. Experiment 2 consisted of the nine treatments used in Exp. 1, except that Treatment 7 in Exp. 2 contained His+Val (H+V) rather than Met+His. Individual additions of Ile, Trp, and H+V increased (P < .10) gain/feed compared with the B diet. Performance of pigs fed the AllAA diet was not different (P > .10) from that of pigs fed the PC diet. Addition of NaHCO3 (Exp. 3), Phe (Exp. 4), or nonessential N (Exp. 5) to the AllAA diet did not affect (P > .10) pig performance compared with pigs fed the AllAA diet. However, in Exp. 3, pigs fed the PC diet grew faster (P < .03) and had greater (P < .10) apparent N digestibilities than pigs fed the AllAA diet. In summary, low-CP, S-SBM diets may be equally third limiting in His, Ile, Trp, and Val for the 10- to 20-kg pig.

  12. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID

  13. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  14. Effects of Supplementation of β-Mannanase in Corn-soybean Meal Diets on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lv, J N; Chen, Y Q; Guo, X J; Piao, X S; Cao, Y H; Dong, B

    2013-04-01

    A total of 288 crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) growing pigs were used in two experiments to investigate the effects of adding β-mannanase to corn-soybean meal-based diets on pig performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Both experiments lasted 28 d and were split into two phases namely 1 to 14 days (phase 1) and 15 to 28 days (phase 2). In Exp. 1,144 pigs weighing 23.60±1.59 kg BW were assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 200, 400 or 600 U/kg β-mannanase. Increasing the level of β-mannanase increased weight gain (quadratic effect; p<0.01) and feed efficiency (linear and quadratic effect; p<0.01) during the second phase and the overall experiment. However, performance was unaffected (p>0.05) by treatment during phase 1. Increasing the amount of β-mannanase in the diet improved (linear and quadratic effect; p<0.05) the ATTD of CP, NDF, ADF, calcium, and phosphorus during both phases. Based on the results of Exp. 1, the optimal supplementation level was determined to be 400 U/kg and this was the level that was applied in Exp. 2. In Exp. 2, 144 pigs weighing 23.50±1.86 kg BW were fed diets containing 0 or 400 U/kg of β-mannanase and 3,250 or 3,400 kcal/kg digestible energy (DE) in a 2×2 factorial design. β-Mannanase supplementation increased (p<0.01) weight gain and feed efficiency while the higher energy content increased (p<0.01) feed intake and feed efficiency during both phases and overall. Increased energy content and β-mannanase supplementation both increased (p<0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, phosphorus, and GE during both phases. There were no significant interactions between energy level and β-mannanase for any performance or digestibility parameter. In conclusion, the β-mannanase used in the present experiment improved the performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn and soybean. The mechanism through which the improvements were obtained appears to be related to improvements in ATTD.

  15. In vitro versus in situ evaluation of the effect of phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus solubility in soya bean and rapeseed meal broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N K; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Burton, E J

    2014-01-01

    1. In vitro assays provide a rapid and economical tool to evaluate dietary effects, but have limitations. In this study, the effect of phytase supplementation on solubility, and presumed availability, of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in soya bean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) based diets were evaluated both in situ and by a two-step in vitro digestion assay that simulated the gastric and small intestine (SI) phases of digestion. 2. Comparison of the in vitro findings to in situ findings was used to evaluate the in vitro assay. Ross 308 broilers (n = 192) were fed on one of 6 SBM or RSM diets supplemented with 0, 500 or 5000 FTU/kg phytase from 0 to 28 d post hatch. The 6 diets and raw SBM and RSM were exposed to a two-step in vitro assay. Ca and P solubility and pH in the gizzard and jejunal digesta and in the gastric and SI phase of in vitro digestion were measured. 3. Both in vitro and in situ analyses detected that Ca solubility was lowest when diets were supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase, compared to the control diets and diets supplemented with 5000 FTU/kg phytase. Phosphorus solubility increased with increasing phytase level. Both methods also identified that mineral solubility plateaus in the gastric phase. 4. Overall relationship of the two methods was strong for both determination of gastric phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively) and also SI phase Ca and P solubility (r = 0.71 and 0.82, respectively). However, mineral solubility and pH were higher when measured in vitro than in situ, and the in situ assay identified an interaction among the effects of phase, protein source and phytase inclusion level on Ca solubility that the in vitro assay did not detect. 5. This two-step in vitro assay successfully predicted phytase efficacy, but to determine detailed response effects in the animal, in situ data is still required.

  16. Inclusion of guava enhances non-heme iron bioavailability but not fractional zinc absorption from a rice-based meal in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13–15 y of age, from 2 government-run...

  17. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves sup 59 Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 {plus minus} 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 {plus minus} 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 {plus minus} 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 {plus minus} 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 {plus minus} 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal.

  18. Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide

    PubMed Central

    Hever, Julieanna

    2016-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing body of evidence in support of the health advantages of plant-based nutrition, there is a need for guidance on implementing its practice. This article provides physicians and other health care practitioners an overview of the myriad benefits of a plant-based diet as well as details on how best to achieve a well-balanced, nutrient-dense meal plan. It also defines notable nutrient sources, describes how to get started, and offers suggestions on how health care practitioners can encourage their patients to achieve goals, adhere to the plan, and experience success. PMID:27400178

  19. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most

  20. Inclusion of guava enhances non-heme iron bioavailability but not fractional zinc absorption from a rice-based meal in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Radhika, Madhari S; Dripta, Roy Choudhury; Ravinder, Punjal; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M; Abrams, Steven A

    2013-06-01

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13-15 y of age, from 2 government-run residential schools. Participants were given a standardized rice meal (regular) and the same meal with 100 g of guava fruit (modified) with (57)Fe on 2 consecutive days. A single oral dose of (58)Fe in orange juice was given at a separate time as a reference dose. Zinc absorption was assessed by using (70)Zn, administered intravenously, and (67)Zn given orally with meals. The mean hemoglobin concentration was similar in girls (129 ± 7.8 g/L) and boys (126 ± 7.1 g/L). There were no sex differences in the indicators of iron and zinc status except for a higher hepcidin concentration in boys (P < 0.05). The regular and modified meals were similar in total iron (10-13 mg/meal) and zinc (2.7 mg/meal) content. The molar ratio of iron to phytic acid was >1:1, but the modified diet had 20 times greater ascorbic acid content. The absorption of (57)Fe from the modified meal, compared with regular meal, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in both girls (23.9 ± 11.2 vs. 9.7 ± 6.5%) and boys (19.2 ± 8.4 vs. 8.6 ± 4.1%). Fractional zinc absorption was similar between the regular and modified meals in both sexes. Hepcidin was found to be a significant predictor of iron absorption (standardized β = -0.63, P = 0.001, R(2) = 0.40) from the reference dose. There was no significant effect of sex on iron and zinc bioavailability from meals. We conclude that simultaneous ingestion of guava fruit with a habitual rice-based meal enhances iron bioavailability in adolescents.

  1. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations. PMID:27898676

  2. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.

  3. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  4. Soaking increases the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Ellersieck, M R; Veum, T L

    1997-05-01

    Sixty-three crossbred barrows averaging 18.7 kg initial BW were used in a 6-wk study of the effects of soaking on the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase (Natuphos, BASF) in a low-P corn-soybean meal diet. The basal corn-soybean meal diet contained .06% available P, .32% total P, and .55% Ca with no added inorganic P. The basal diet was supplemented with 0, 250, or 500 phytase units (PU)/kg of diet. The diet was fed dry or soaked (2 parts water:1 part diet and mixed for 2 h at 30 degrees C before feeding) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A positive control diet was supplemented with inorganic P and provided .23% available P, .48% total P, and .60% Ca. Pigs were individually penned and fed their respective diets to appetite in four equal meals daily. There were no soaking x phytase interactions (P > .1 to .6) for growth performance criteria. Daily gain and gain/feed ratio were increased (P < .01) by soaking and increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. Daily feed intake was increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. There were soaking x phytase quadratic interactions (P < .01) for apparent P absorption criteria because soaking the 250 PU/kg diet increased P absorption similar to that obtained with the 500 PU/kg diet fed dry. Apparent P absorption criteria were increased by soaking (P < .01) and were increased linearly (P < .001) and quadratically (P < .03) by phytase. Phytase reduced fecal P excretion 37 to 40% with dry feeding (P < .03) and 48 to 49% with soaking (P < .01).

  5. Relative bioavailabilities of organic zinc sources with different chelation strengths for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Lu, L; Li, S F; Luo, X G; Liu, B

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate relative bioavailability of Zn in 3 organic zinc sources with different chelation strength (Q(f)) compared with ZnSO(4). A total of 1,092, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to 6 replicate cages (14 chicks per cage) for each of 13 treatments. Dietary treatments included the basal corn-soybean meal diet (27.82 mg of Zn/kg of DM) supplemented with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg of added Zn as reagent ZnSO(4), or Zn sources with Q(f) of 6.5 (11.93% Zn; Zn AA C), 30.7 (13.27% Zn; Zn Pro B), or 944.0 (18.61% Zn; Zn Pro A)/kg, which are considered as weak, moderate, or strong Q(f), respectively. Bone Zn, pancreas Zn, pancreas metallothionein (MT) concentration, and pancreas MT messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6, 10, or 14 d of age. The results showed that bone Zn, pancreas Zn, pancreas MT concentration, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P < 0.001) as dietary Zn concentration increased at all ages. At 6 d of age, pancreas MT mRNA differed (P < 0.001) among dietary Zn sources, and the same tendency was observed at 10 (P = 0.08) or 14 d (P = 0.06) of age. The R(2) for a linear model was greater on d 6 than d 10 or 14 for all the response criteria. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of pancreas MT mRNA concentration on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailability of Zn AA C, Zn Pro B, and Zn Pro A relative to ZnSO(4) (100%) were 100.0, 121.1, and 72.3%, respectively, at 6 d of age. The results indicated that MT mRNA concentration in pancreas was more sensitive in reflecting differences in bioavailability among organic Zn sources than the MT concentration in pancreas or other indices. Moreover, the bioavailability of organic Zn sources was closely related to their Q(f).

  6. Adding wheat middlings, microbial phytase, and citric acid to corn-soybean meal diets for growing pigs may replace inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Han, Y M; Roneker, K R; Pond, W G; Lei, X G

    1998-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 96 growing Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc crossbreds to determine the collective effectiveness of cereal phytase from wheat middlings, microbial phytase, and citric acid in improving phytate-P bioavailability in corn-soy diets. In Exp. 1, 40 gilts (7 wk old) were fed five diets for 8 wk. Diets 1, 2, and 3 were low-P, corn-soybean meal diets (CSB) + 0, .1, or .2% inorganic P (Pi) as calcium phosphate, respectively. Diet 4 was a similar corn-soy diet that included 15% wheat middlings (461 cereal phytase U/kg). Diet 5 was the CSB + microbial phytase (1,200 U/kg; Natuphos, BASF, Mount Olive, NJ). In Exp. 2, 16 barrows (8 wk old) were fed two diets for 6 wk. Diet 1 was the same as Diet 3 of Exp. 1 (.2% Pi). Diet 2 was Diet 4 of Exp. 1 + microbial phytase (300 U/kg). In Exp. 3, 40 barrows and gilts (6 wk old) were fed four diets for 6 wk. Diets 1 and 2 were the same as those in Exp. 2. Diet 3 was Diet 2 of Exp. 2 + 1.5% citric acid. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 3 but contained 10 instead of 15% wheat middlings. In Exp. 1, pigs fed the low-P, CSB (Diet 1) had lower (P < .05) ADG, ADFI, plasma Pi concentration, bone strength, and mobility score than pigs of the other four treatments. Measurements for pigs fed the 15% wheat middlings diet were not significantly different from those of pigs fed the CSB + .1% Pi or microbial phytase. In Exp. 2, ADG (P=.06) during wk 1 to 3 and gain:feed ratio (P < .02) and plasma Pi concentration (P < .005) during all weeks favored pigs fed the CSB + .2% Pi compared with the other diet including 15% wheat middlings. In Exp. 3, identical ADG during all weeks and similar plasma Pi concentrations at wk 4 and 6 were observed between pigs fed the two citric acid diets (Diets 3 and 4) and the CSB + .2% Pi (Diet 1). Pigs fed Diet 4 (10% wheat middlings) had even higher (P < .02) gain:feed ratio during wk 1 to 3 than those fed Diet 1. It seems feasible to completely replace calcium phosphate with 10 to 15% wheat

  7. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches.

  8. Effects of hirami lemon, Citrus depressa Hayata, leaf meal in diets on the immune response and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Lin, Hsueh-Li; Chi, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of leaf meal from Citrus depressa Hayata on the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 1% (C1), 3% (C3), and 5% (C5) leaf meal, respectively. During a 56 d feeding trial, fish survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all groups. For immune response, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities were not significantly different among all groups. However, fish fed the C5 diet for 56 d had significantly higher phagocytic activity. Also, fish fed C3 and C5 diets had significantly higher Mx gene expressions in spleens and head kidneys with nerve necrosis virus injections after 24 h. Disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was increased by the C5 diet. In this study, barramundi fed on a diet containing 5% C. depressa Hayata leaf meal had significantly better innate immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila.

  9. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05). Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05). When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05). Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05). A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01). Conclusion Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork

  10. Ketogenic Diet for Children with Epilepsy: A Practical Meal Plan in a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) is a dietary approach to treat intractable epilepsy. The KD begins with hospitalization and the child and their parents can adapt to the KD for 1-2 weeks. Recently, various type of dietary intervention such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) have been performed. Since 2010, we carried out the KD, MAD, and LGIT for total of 802 patients; 489 patients (61%) for the KD, 147 patients (18.3%) with the MAD, and 166 patients (20.7%) for the LGIT. In this report, application of these dietary practices in Severance Hospital is shared. PMID:26839878

  11. Comparison of Ground Raw Soybean and Soybean Meal Diets on Carcass Traits of Gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an ongoing reproductive efficiency study with gilts fed a raw soybean (RSB) diet, an assessment of carcass traits was performed to measure the effect of antinutritional factors present in RSB. Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred gilts (n = 20) were assigned to balanced isonitrogenous (crude pr...

  12. Gluten-free diet normalizes mouth-to-cecum transit of a caloric meal in adult patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Chiarioni, G; Bassotti, G; Germani, U; Battaglia, E; Brentegani, M T; Morelli, A; Vantini, I

    1997-10-01

    The mechanisms responsible for bowel disturbances in celiac disease are still relatively unknown. Recent reports suggested that small bowel motor abnormalities may be involved in this pathological condition; however, there are no studies addressing small bowel transit in celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. We studied the mouth-to-cecum transit time of a caloric liquid meal in a homogeneous group of celiac patients presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of malabsorption and complaining of diarrhea. Sixteen patients were recruited and investigated by means of hydrogen breath test through ingestion of 20 g lactulose together with an enteral gluten-free diet formula. A urinary D-xylose test was also done in each patient. Both breath tests and D-xylose tests were carried out basally and after a period of gluten-free diet. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group and underwent the same breath testing. At the time of the diagnosis, mouth-to-cecum transit time was significantly prolonged in celiacs with respect to controls (243 +/- 10 vs 117 +/- 6 min, P = 0.0001). The D-xylose test was also abnormal (average urinary concentration 2.8 +/- 0.25 g, normal values >4.5). No correlation was found in patients between mouth-to-cecum transit time and urinary D-xylose output (r = 0.22). After the gluten-free diet period, mouth-to-cecum transit time in celiacs was significantly reduced compared to prediet transit (134 +/- 8 vs 243 +/- 10 min, P = 0.0001) and did not show statistical difference when compared to that found in controls (P = 0.1). The D-xylose test reverted to normal in all but two subjects, who were found to be noncompliant with the diet. Mouth-to-cecum transit time is significantly prolonged in patients affected by untreated celiac disease when compared to healthy controls. This alteration might not be correlated to intestinal malabsorption, and the prolonged orocecal transit could be due to impaired small bowel function

  13. Effect of carbohydrase and protease on growth performance and gut health of young broilers fed diets containing rye, wheat, and feather meal.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Dibner, J J; Knight, C D; Vazquez-Anon, M

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to characterize a gut health challenge model consisting of a diet containing rye, wheat, and feather meal and a mild mixed-species Eimeria challenge, and to evaluate the effect of carbohydrase and protease on growth performance and gut health of young broilers. The study included 4 treatments: negative control, carbohydrase alone, protease alone, and combination of carbohydrase and protease. Each test diet was fed to 18 battery pens of broilers with 8 male birds per pen from 0 to 22 d of age. Carbohydrase improved body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) on d 7, 14, and 21(P < 0.01). Protease increased body weight on d 7 and 21 and improved 0 to 7 d FCR (P < 0.05). More lymphocyte infiltration was observed in small intestine mucosa of negative control birds on d 8, carbohydrase supplementation lessened this. Both carbohydrase and protease reduced digesta viscosity on d 22 with the carbohydrase effect being the greater of the two, and the combination effect was not different from the carbohydrase effect alone (P < 0.01). Ileal Clostridium perfringens of 15-day-old broilers was decreased by carbohydrase, a further reduction was achieved by combining carbohydrase with protease (P = 0.01). Liver vitamin E concentration on d 15 (P < 0.01) and 22 (P = 0.02) was increased by carbohydrase, and the carbohydrase effect was greater in the presence of protease on d 22 (P = 0.04). Plasma α-1-acid glycoprotein level and liver Zn and Cu concentrations of broilers were reduced by carbohydrase on d 15 (P < 0.01). Broilers fed carbohydrase had higher levels of plasma zeaxanthin on d 22 and higher levels of plasma lutein on d 15 and 22 (P < 0.01). In summary, a rye wheat based diet containing feather meal when fed to broilers in addition to a mild Eimeria challenge induced subclinical enteritis characterized by digestion inefficiency, dysbacteriosis, inflammation, and gut barrier failure; carbohydrase and protease could be effective

  14. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  15. Protein and fat modify the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato-based meal.

    PubMed

    Hätönen, Katja A; Virtamo, Jarmo; Eriksson, Johan G; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Valsta, Liisa M

    2011-07-01

    Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes, are known to result in high glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, in most meals, potatoes are accompanied by other foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate how glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato meal changed when a high-fat food (rapeseed oil), a high-protein food (chicken breast) and/or salad were added to the meal. Healthy subjects (n 11) ingested the test meals once and the reference food (glucose solution) twice in a random order at 1-week intervals. Capillary blood samples were then drawn for 2 h, and glucose and insulin were analysed. The 2 h glycaemic responses to six mashed potato-containing meals varied more than twofold. The glycaemic index (GI) of pure mashed potato was 108, whereas combined with chicken breast, rapeseed oil and salad, it was only 54. The latter GI also differed considerably from its predicted value of 103, which was based on the individual GI of the components of the meal. The insulinaemic indices of the mashed potato-based meals varied between 94 and 148. Chicken breast in the meal increased the insulinaemic response, and rapeseed oil diminished it. However, the insulinaemic response to mashed potato with chicken breast and rapeseed oil was lower than that to mashed potato alone. In conclusion, the protein, fat and salad contents of a meal exert considerable influence on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to mashed potatoes. Furthermore, the estimation of the GI of a mixed meal by calculation is imprecise.

  16. Effect of including high-lipid by-product pellets in substitution for barley grain and canola meal in finishing diets for beef cattle on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Castillo-Lopez, E; Joy, F; Chibisa, G E; McKinnon, J J; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    grain and canola meal linearly decreases the severity of ruminal acidosis in cattle fed a typical grain-based finishing diet. However, total tract nutrient digestibility was negatively affected.

  17. Effects of age on development of digestive organs and performance of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal versus a crystalline amino acid diet.

    PubMed

    Batal, A B; Parsons, C M

    2002-09-01

    Changes in growth performance and physical and morphological development of the digestive organs were examined in chicks fed a crystalline amino acid (AA) diet compared to chicks fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet. Six pens of eight New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks were assigned to one of three dietary regimens: (1) corn-SBM diet from 0 to 21 d of age; (2) cornstarch-crystalline AA diet from 0 to 21 d of age; and (3) corn-SBM diet from 0 to 7 d of age followed by the crystalline AA diet from 8 to 21 d of age. Weight gain was significantly reduced by feeding a crystalline AA diet from 0 to 21 or 8 to 21 d of age. Feeding a crystalline AA diet for the first 7 d of age depressed absolute weight of the small intestine, pancreas, liver, gizzard, and proven-triculus, and continual feeding through 21 d of age further depressed growth of these organs compared with birds fed a corn-SBM diet for 21 d. When expressing organ weight on a relative basis (g/100 g of BW), reductions were observed at 7 d of age due to feeding a crystalline AA diet but not at 21 d of age. Feeding a crystalline AA diet for the first 7 or 21 d of age depressed intestinal villi height and crypt depth. However, chicks fed the crystalline AA diet only from 8 to 21 d of age had further depressed villi height and crypt depth but greater villi width compared with chicks fed the crystalline AA or corn-SBM diet continually from 0 to 21 d of age. These results indicate that the reduced growth of chicks fed a crystalline AA diet is due in part to slower growth and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance.

  19. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

  20. The Feasibility of Achieving Low-Sodium Intake in Diets That Are Also Nutritious, Low-Cost, and Have Familiar Meal Components

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. Methods The mathematical technique of “linear programming” was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained “familiar meals” for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Findings Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of diets were all well below the 2300 mg/d (5.8 g salt/d) recommended maximum. The only diet to not consistently fall below the recommended “target” upper limit of 1600 mg/d included an evening meal with sausages (median  = 1640 mg/d, 95% simulation interval: 1551–1735 mg/d). Many additional nutritional aspects of these optimized low-sodium diets suggest that they would reduce cardiovascular disease risk in other ways (e.g., improved polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio) and also reduce risk of cancer and other chronic diseases (e.g., via higher intakes of vegetables, fruits and dietary fiber). Even healthier diets (e.g., with higher intakes of fruit) occurred when the cost constraint was relaxed to $NZ15/d (US$11.40). Similar results were obtained when the modeling considered diets for women. Conclusions These results provide some reassurance for the feasibility of substantially reducing population sodium intake given currently available low-cost foods and while maintaining some level of familiar meals. Policy makers could consider ways to promote such optimized diets and foods, including regulations on maximum salt levels in processed foods, and taxes on alternative foods that are

  1. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  2. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  3. Chemical composition and microstructure of uroliths associated with the feeding of high-level cottonseed meal diet to sheep.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Liang; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Zou, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, En-Ku; Kou, Huan-Qi; Xu, Zi-Rong; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition and microstructure of five urolith samples (4 bladder stones and one kidney stone) associated with the feeding of high level of cottonseed meal (CSM) diet to Chinese merino fine wool sheep (Junken breed, Xinjiang) were examined by optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and infrared spectroscopy analysis. The bladder stone samples appeared yellow or white, small powder and loose mass, and as finely granular under the optical microscope. However, the kidney stone samples from a experimental sheep were found as small brown mass, higher hardness, and as a cracklike structure. Oxygen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found as four major elements in these uroliths by X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Potassium magnesium phosphate (MgKPO(4)) and potassium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (MgKPO(4)·6H(2)O) were major components in the bladder stones, while less magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, the newly found prismatic crystals, which were rich in magnesium and pyrophosphate, were identified as magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg(2)P(2)O(7)) in the kidney stone. The bladder stone samples appeared irregular mass and balls, cracked under SEM with low magnification, while appeared cracked, irregular layer-like, honeycomb-like or tiny balls under high magnification. The kidney stone samples were observed as cone, irregular block or layered crystal structures.

  4. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  5. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments.

    PubMed

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G x E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G x E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use.

  6. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  7. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W; Fuller, Jennifer; Patterson, Katy; Blair, Robert; Tabor, Aaron

    2007-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that obese individuals lose weight more rapidly and lose more total weight with soy protein than with animal protein as a major diet component. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the weight-loss efficacy and changes in body composition, waist circumference, blood pressure, and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine from consumption of either 3 soy shakes or 3 casein shakes daily as part of a 16-week, energy-restricted diet for obese women. Forty-three women with body mass index values of 30 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomized to intensive dietary interventions using either casein (n = 21) or soy (n = 22) shakes. Subjects were instructed to consume 3 shakes, 1 prepackaged entrée, and 5 servings of fruits or vegetables daily to achieve an energy intake of 4.5 to 5.0 MJ/d. Subjects attended classes weekly or biweekly. Weight, body fat, lipid, and glucose measurements were obtained at baseline and at 8 and 16 weeks. For both groups combined, subjects lost 8.1% of initial body weight (7.7 kg) at 8 weeks and 13.4% (12.7 kg) at 16 weeks. Weight loss from baseline did not differ significantly by group and, for completing subjects, was 14.0% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SE) for casein and 12.8% +/- 1.4% for soy. With the intention-to-treat analysis, weight losses at 16 weeks were 12.5% +/- 1.4% for casein and 11.3% +/- 1.2% for soy. Body fat losses were 23.7% +/- 2.0% for casein and 21.8% +/- 2.4% for soy and did not differ significantly. Both study groups lost significant amounts of weight with a highly structured behavioral program incorporating 4 meal replacements and vegetables and fruits. Differences in weight loss and body composition changes between casein and soy treatments were not significant.

  8. Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. 1. Floor pen study.

    PubMed

    Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Méndez, J; Mateos, G G

    2012-11-01

    In total, 3,120 broilers were used to study the effects of feed form and source of soybean meal (SBM) of the diet on growth performance. From 1 to 21 d of age, there were 12 treatments arranged factorially with 3 feed forms (mash, crumbles, and pellets) and 4 commercial sources of SBM that differed in the CP content [48.1 and 46.2% CP from the United States (USA-1 and USA-2), 47.6% CP from Brazil (BRA), and 46.3% CP from Argentina (ARG)]. From 21 to 42 d of age, diets were fed as pellets. Diets were formulated assuming that all SBM had similar digestible amino acid content per unit of CP. From 1 to 21 d of age, chicks fed crumbles or pellets had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than chicks fed mash. Also, chicks fed pellets had better (P < 0.001) feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) than chicks fed crumbles, and both were better than chicks fed mash. However, from 21 to 42 d of age, F:G was best (P < 0.001) for chicks previously fed mash. For the entire experimental period, broilers that were fed crumbles or pellets from 1 to 21 d of age had higher (P < 0.001) ADG than broilers that were fed mash. Also, broilers that were fed pellets had better (P < 0.05) F:G than broilers fed mash, with broilers fed crumbles being intermediate. Broilers fed the USA-2 meal had higher (P < 0.01) ADG than broilers fed the BRA or the ARG meals, with broilers fed the USA-1 meal being intermediate. Feed efficiency tended (P = 0.07) to be hindered in broilers fed the BRA meal. The results show that pelleting improved growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 d of age with effects being less evident at 42 d than at 21 d of age. Source of SBM affected growth performance suggesting the need for a better control of chemical composition and quality of this ingredient before diet formulation.

  9. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Basavanta; Gloridoss, R. G.; Singh, K. Chandrapal; Prabhu, T. M.; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B. N.; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency. PMID:27047096

  10. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  11. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  12. Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette Bach; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine M; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2006-05-01

    Zn bioavailability is often lower in vegetarian diets mainly due to low Zn and high phytic acid contents. The objective of the present study was to determine the fractional and total absorption of Zn from a vegetarian diet in comparison with meat diets with equal concentrations of phytic acid. A randomized cross-over design, comprising three whole-day diet periods of 5 d each, with a vegetarian diet or diets containing Polish-produced meat or Danish-produced meat, was conducted. Twelve healthy female subjects completed the study. All diets had a high content of phytic acid (1250 micromol/d) and in the meat diets the main meals contained 60 g pork meat. All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope 65Zn and absorption of Zn was measured in a whole-body counter. The mean Zn content of the whole-day diet was: Polish meat diet 9.9 (SE 0.14) mg, Danish meat diet 9.4 (SE 0.19) mg and vegetarian diet 7.5 (SE 0.18) mg. No difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn (Polish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.2) %, Danish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.9) % and vegetarian diet: 23 (SE 2.6) %). A significantly lower amount of total Zn was absorbed from the vegetarian diet (mean Zn absorption of Polish meat diet: 2.7 (SE 0.12) mg/d (P<0.001), Danish meat diet: 2.6 (SE 0.17) mg/d (P=0.006) and vegetarian diet: 1.8 (SE 0.20) mg/d). In conclusion, the vegetarian diet compared with the meat-based diets resulted in lower amounts of absorbed Zn due to a higher content of Zn in the meat diets, but no difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn.

  13. Smart-card-based automatic meal record system intervention tool for analysis using data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Zenitani, Satoko; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2010-04-01

    The Smart-card-based Automatic Meal Record system for company cafeterias (AutoMealRecord system) was recently developed and used to monitor employee eating habits. The system could be a unique nutrition assessment tool for automatically monitoring the meal purchases of all employees, although it only focuses on company cafeterias and has never been validated. Before starting an interventional study, we tested the reliability of the data collected by the system using the data mining approach. The AutoMealRecord data were examined to determine if it could predict current obesity. All data used in this study (n = 899) were collected by a major electric company based in Tokyo, which has been operating the AutoMealRecord system for several years. We analyzed dietary patterns by principal component analysis using data from the system and extracted 5 major dietary patterns: healthy, traditional Japanese, Chinese, Japanese noodles, and pasta. The ability to predict current body mass index (BMI) with dietary preference was assessed with multiple linear regression analyses, and in the current study, BMI was positively correlated with male gender, preference for "Japanese noodles," mean energy intake, protein content, and frequency of body measurement at a body measurement booth in the cafeteria. There was a negative correlation with age, dietary fiber, and lunchtime cafeteria use (R(2) = 0.22). This regression model predicted "would-be obese" participants (BMI >or= 23) with 68.8% accuracy by leave-one-out cross validation. This shows that there was sufficient predictability of BMI based on data from the AutoMealRecord System. We conclude that the AutoMealRecord system is valuable for further consideration as a health care intervention tool.

  14. Effect of low doses of Aspergillus niger phytase on growth performance, bone strength, and nutrient absorption and excretion by growing and finishing swine fed corn-soybean meal diets deficient in available phosphorus and calcium.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Ellersieck, M R

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of low doses of Aspergillus niger (AN) phytase for growing and finishing pigs fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diets with narrow Ca:P ratios that were about 0.9 g/kg deficient in available P and Ca. Experiment 1 utilized 120 pigs with an early finisher period from 51.5 +/- 0.2 to 89.7 +/- 0.9 kg of BW and a late finisher period that ended at 122.5 +/- 2.0 kg of BW. During each period, treatments were the low-P diets with 0, 150, 300, or 450 units (U) of AN phytase added/kg of diet, and a positive control (PC) diet. There were linear increases (P < or = 0.001) in bone strength and ash weight, the absorption of P (g/d and %) and Ca (%), and overall ADG (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of AN phytase. Pigs fed the diets with 150, 300, or 450 U of AN phytase/kg did not differ from pigs fed the PC diet in growth performance overall, and pigs fed the diets with 300 or 450 U of AN phytase did not differ in P and Ca absorption (g/d) or bone ash weight from pigs fed the PC diet. However, only pigs fed the diet with 450 U of AN phytase/kg had bone strength similar to that of pigs fed the PC diet. Experiment 2 utilized 120 pigs in a grower phase from 25.3 +/- 0.1 to 57.8 +/- 0.8 kg of BW and a finisher phase that ended at 107.6 +/- 1.0 kg of BW. Treatments were the low-P diet with AN phytase added at 300, 500, or 700 U/kg of grower diet, and 150, 250, or 350 U/kg of finisher diet, respectively, resulting in treatments AN300/150, AN500/250, and AN700/350. Growth performance and the absorption (g/d) of P and Ca for the grower and finisher phases were not different for pigs fed the diets containing AN phytase and pigs fed the PC diets. However, pigs fed the PC diets excreted more fecal P (g/d, P < or = 0.01) during the grower and more P and Ca (g/d, P < 0.001) during the finisher phases than the pigs fed the diets with phytase. There were linear increases (P < or = 0.05) in bone strength and bone ash weight with

  15. [Plant-based diets: a review].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Attila; Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Andrea; Ungár, Tamás; Lászlóné Polyák, Éva; Szekeresné Szabó, Szilvia; Kovács, Réka Erika; Raposa, László Bence; Figler, Mária

    2016-11-01

    Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation. We discuss positive physiological effects of plant-based diet and its possible role in diseases risk reduction. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases developing due to obesity could be prevented by a properly compiled plant-based diet. For patients with cancer minimizing the intake of foods of animal origin - as opposed to plant-based ones - has proved to have positive effects. Our review suggests this diet can be used in a number of diseases and it also provides long-term sustainable solutions for the health care challenges of the newest era. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(47), 1859-1865.

  16. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  17. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  18. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environmentally friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainable c...

  19. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  20. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Sengpiel, Verena; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery. Methods This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: “snack meal”, “main meal”, and “evening meal”. Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery. Results After adjustments, the “main meal” pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery. Conclusion Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery. PMID

  1. Copper in organic proteinate or inorganic sulfate form is equally bioavailable for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Xie, Jingjing; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Runlian; Luo, Xugang

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of organic copper (Cu) proteinate relative to inorganic Cu sulfate for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 320 day-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of five treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of added Cu (125 or 250 mg Cu/kg) and two Cu sources (Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate) plus a control with no added Cu for an experimental phase of 42 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were collected at both 21 and 42 days of age, and bile samples were also obtained at 42 days of age for Cu analyses. The Cu concentrations in liver and bile increased linearly (P < 0.001) on both days 21 and 42 as dietary Cu levels increased. No significant (P > 0.17) linear regression relationships were observed between plasma Cu concentrations on days 21 and 42 or log10 liver Cu concentration on day 21 and daily analyzed Cu intake. Therefore, based on the slope ratios from multiple linear regressions of log10 liver and bile Cu concentrations with daily analyzed Cu intake on day 42, when Cu sulfate was set as 100%, the estimated relative bioavailability values of Cu proteinate were 78.8% for log10 liver Cu concentration and 79.3% for log10 bile Cu concentration, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.08) difference in bioavailability between Cu proteinate and Cu sulfate for broilers chicks in this experiment.

  2. The Brain’s Response to an Essential Amino Acid-Deficient Diet and the Circuitous Route to a Better Meal

    PubMed Central

    Gietzen, Dorothy W.; Aja, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential (indispensable) amino acids (IAA) are neither synthesized nor stored in metazoans, yet they are the building blocks of protein. Survival depends on availability of these protein precursors, which must be obtained in the diet; it follows that food selection is critical for IAA homeostasis. If even one of the IAA is depleted, its tRNA becomes quickly deacylated and the levels of charged tRNA fall, leading to disruption of global protein synthesis. As they have priority in the diet, second only to energy, the missing IAA must be restored promptly or protein catabolism ensues. Animals detect and reject an IAA-deficient meal in 20 min, but how? Here, we review the molecular basis for sensing IAA depletion and repletion in the brain’s IAA chemosensor, the anterior piriform cortex (APC). As animals stop eating an IAA-deficient meal, they display foraging and altered choice behaviors, to improve their chances of encountering a better food. Within 2 h, sensory cues are associated with IAA depletion or repletion, leading to learned aversions and preferences that support better food selection. We show neural projections from the APC to appetitive and consummatory motor control centers, and to hedonic, motivational brain areas that reinforce these adaptive behaviors. PMID:22674217

  3. Comparison of effect of high intake of magnesium with high intake of phosphorus and potassium on urolithiasis in goats fed with cottonseed meal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high intake of Mg on urolithiasis was compared with high intake of P and K in goats being fed with a cottonseed meal and rice straw diet. Eighteen wether goats were randomly allocated into group A, B and C evenly and fed with cottonseed meal and rice straw diet for three months. From day 60 onwards, KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) were provided via drinking water to goats in group B to increase the intake of P, K, and MgO to goats in group C to increase the intake of Mg. Blood and urine samples were collected to analyze the concentration of P, K, Mg and Ca, and the activity product (AP) of potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP) in urine was also calculated. The composition of calculi and urinary sedimentary crystals were examined by chemical qualitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the incidence of urolithiasis in group C (6/6) was higher than that in group A (1/6) and B (1/6) (P<0.05). The calculi were mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and partly composed of MKP. MKP presented in crystals of different phases in this experiment. The high intake of Mg contributed to a significant increase of plasma Mg, but additional P, K did not cause a further increase of plasma P, K. Urine P, K, Mg and Ca and AP of MKP in group C decreased significantly after the onset of urolithiasis. In conclusion, high intake of Mg was more important in inducing struvite calculi compared with high intake of K and P in goats under these feeding conditions. Cottonseed meal and rice straw with additional Mg is a good dietary model for inducing struvite calculi in castrated goats.

  4. Contribution of healthy and unhealthy primary school meals to greenhouse gas emissions in England: linking nutritional data and greenhouse gas emission data of diets

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasinghe, Kremlin Khamarj; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael; Townsend, Nick; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective School meals represent the largest sector in Government food procurement in the UK. This paper aims to quantify, simultaneously, the nutritional quality and carbon footprint of meals provided by primary schools in England. Methods The School Food Trust conducted the “Primary School Food Survey 2009” (PSFS) in a nationally representative sample of 139 primary schools in England. The survey included 6,690 students who consumed school lunches and 3,488 students who brought packed lunches. We estimated the total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) per Kg of the food items contributing to those lunches based on the results of a systematic review of life cycle analyses. Results In both school lunches and packed lunches the “meat, fish and alternatives” group contributed the largest share of GHGEs. The mean GHGE value per school lunch was estimated to be 0.72 (95% uncertainty interval 0.52-1.34) KgCO2e and per packed lunch as 0.70 (0.58-0.94) KgCO2e. The total GHGEs due to primary school meals in England per year is 578.1 million KgCO2e (455 million-892 million). Conclusion If all children achieved a healthy meal defined by having a low level of salt, free sugars and saturated fat the total GHGEs from primary school meals would be 441.2 million KgCO2e (384 – 1,192), saving 136.9million KgCO2e compared to the current total emissions from primary school meals. This paper demonstrates that changes in the primary school food sector can have an impact on UK greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:27329613

  5. Digestibility and digestive organ development in indigenous and improved chickens and ducks fed diets with increasing inclusion levels of cassava leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Borin, K; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, R B

    2006-06-01

    Growing indigenous Cambodian chickens and ducks, and broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were fed diets containing 0%, 7%, 14% and 20% of cassava leaf meal (CLM) to study the effects of CLM level on diet digestibility and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and organ development. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter (DM) and intake of digestible DM decreased with increased dietary CLM. DM and digestible DM intake was higher for local breeds than for the corresponding exotic breeds, and higher for ducks than for chickens (p < 0.001), although there were no species or breed effects on CTTAD of DM (p > 0.05). Weight of small intestine, caeca, gizzard and pancreas, expressed as per kg body weight, increased with increased CLM in the diet (p < 0.001). There was no consistent diet effect on liver weight. Length of small intestine and caeca, expressed on a mass-specific basis, increased with dietary CLM content (p < 0.001). When expressed as per kg body weight small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas and liver weights, and small intestine length, were higher in ducks than in chickens (p < 0.001), and were higher in the indigenous than in the improved breeds (p < 0.01), except for small intestine weights, which were similar. However chickens had higher weight of caeca (p < 0.001) and colon (p < 0.01) in absolute units and per kg body weight.

  6. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  7. The effects of whole grains on nutrient digestibilities, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in young chicks fed ground corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of whole wheat, whole sorghum, or whole barley on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations when supplemented primarily at the expense of corn in ground corn-soybean meal control diets. The first 4 experiments utilized New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks. In the first 2 experiments, feeding 5, 10, 15, or 20% whole wheat had no effect on growth performance at 21 d when compared with chicks fed the control diet. The third experiment tested 20, 35, and 50% whole wheat fed from 0 to 21 d of age and showed that a 50% whole wheat diet decreased (P<0.05) 21-d growth and feed efficiency when compared with chicks fed the control diet. In experiment 4, 10 and 20% whole sorghum reduced (P<0.05) growth at 21 d, whereas chicks fed 10 and 20% whole barley had similar weight gains to chicks fed a ground corn-soybean meal diet. The fifth experiment with commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks evaluated 10 and 20% whole sorghum or whole barley and 20 and 35% whole wheat. Growth at 21 d was unaffected by any dietary treatment. Feed efficiency was decreased (P<0.05) at 21 d with 20% whole wheat and improved (P<0.05) with 10% whole barley. Feeding whole grains to chicks resulted in an increase in gizzard weight, even as early as 7 d, in all experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 10 to 20% whole wheat generally had increased MEn values at 3 to 4, 7, 14, and 21 d and also had increased amino acid digestibility at 21 d in one experiment. At 21 d, cecal pH and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in all experiments were unaffected by feeding whole grains to chicks. The results of this study indicated that feeding whole wheat, sorghum, or barley increased gizzard weight, and feeding 10 to 20% whole wheat may increase ME and amino acid digestibility.

  8. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, J H; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Newman, M C; Nimmo, R D

    2007-09-01

    Evaluations of the nutritional effect of antibiotics have largely centered on effects related to the digestibility and utilization of protein and energy. The current study evaluated the potential effect of virginiamycin (VIR) on P digestibility in swine. A total of 70 barrows (mean initial BW = 51 to 64 kg) were used in 4 nutrient-balance experiments. A basal, corn-soybean meal diet that was not supplemented with any inorganic source of P was used in each experiment. In Exp. 1, two diets were tested: basal vs. basal plus 11 mg/kg of VIR. In Exp. 2, four diets were used with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 0 and 11 mg/kg of VIR and 0 and 750 phytase (PHY) units/kg of diet (PU/kg). Experiments 3 and 4 were the same as Exp. 2, except PHY was reduced to 300 PU/kg. For all experiments, VIR improved P digestibility (32.71 to 37.72%, P < 0.001) and Ca digestibility (54.99 to 58.30%, P = 0.002). The addition of PHY improved both P and Ca digestibility (P < 0.001); 750 PU/kg increased P digestibility 27.3% (from 34.6 to 61.9%, P < 0.001), whereas 300 PU increased it 13.8% (from 33.4 to 47.2%, P < 0.001). In an experiment conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of VIR on gut microbial profile, pigs (24 gilts and 8 barrows; mean BW = 29.1 +/- 0.50 kg) were fed a simple corn-soybean meal diet for 16 wk with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of VIR (0 and 11 mg/kg) addition and 0.15% dicalcium phosphate deletion. The long-term feeding of VIR in both the control diet and the diet with a marginally reduced P level resulted in a change in ileal microbial profile. A positive numerical increment in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria was observed in both the normal and P-deleted diets (log unit increments of 12.4 and 17.2% over the respective controls, P = 0.13) when VIR was added. The addition of VIR also tended to affect lactobacilli populations (main effect, P = 0.11; interaction, P = 0.02); VIR decreased lactobacilli in the normal-P diet but did not affect this bacterial

  9. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term.

  10. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Xu, Dandan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources.

  11. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources. PMID:27802317

  12. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

    PubMed Central

    Quatela, Angelica; Callister, Robin; Patterson, Amanda; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal. PMID:27792142

  13. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions.

    PubMed

    Quatela, Angelica; Callister, Robin; Patterson, Amanda; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley

    2016-10-25

    This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal.

  14. Effects of Substituting Soybean Meal for Sunflower Cake in the Diet on the Growth and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Boer Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Di Mambro Ribeiro, Cláudio Vaz; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; Leão, André Gustavo; Agy, Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the best level of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in diets for kids through the evaluation of quantitative carcass traits. Thirty-two Boer kids X 1/2 NDB (no defined breed), males, non-castrated, with 4 months of age and initial body weight of 15±3.2 kg, were randomly assigned to individual pens. The treatments contained four substitution levels of soybean meal by sunflower cake (0, 33, 66 and 100% DM). At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered. There was no influence of the treatments on any of the mean values of the evaluated measures (p>0.05): 21.78 kg (body weight at slaughter), 8.65 kg (hot carcass weight), 8.59 kg (cold carcass weight), 40.27% (hot carcass yield), 39.20% (cold carcass yield), 7.73 cm2(rib eye area), 46.74 cm (carcass outer length), 45.68 cm (carcass internal length), 36.92 cm (leg length), 26.04 cm (leg perimeter), 48.66 cm (hind perimeter), 58.62 cm (thoracic perimeter), 0.20 (carcass compactness index), 68.48% (total muscle of the leg), 2.79% (total leg fat), 55.19% (subcutaneous leg fat), 28.82% (total bone), 81.66 g (femur weight), 14.88 cm (femur length), 0.38 (leg muscularity index), 2.53 (muscle:bone ratio) and 33.42 (muscle:fat ratio). The substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake may be recommended up to a level of 100% without alterations to quantitative carcass traits. PMID:25049479

  15. Effects of substituting soybean meal for sunflower cake in the diet on the growth and carcass traits of crossbred boer goat kids.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Di Mambro Ribeiro, Cláudio Vaz; Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; Leão, André Gustavo; Agy, Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the best level of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in diets for kids through the evaluation of quantitative carcass traits. Thirty-two Boer kids X 1/2 NDB (no defined breed), males, non-castrated, with 4 months of age and initial body weight of 15±3.2 kg, were randomly assigned to individual pens. The treatments contained four substitution levels of soybean meal by sunflower cake (0, 33, 66 and 100% DM). At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered. There was no influence of the treatments on any of the mean values of the evaluated measures (p>0.05): 21.78 kg (body weight at slaughter), 8.65 kg (hot carcass weight), 8.59 kg (cold carcass weight), 40.27% (hot carcass yield), 39.20% (cold carcass yield), 7.73 cm(2)(rib eye area), 46.74 cm (carcass outer length), 45.68 cm (carcass internal length), 36.92 cm (leg length), 26.04 cm (leg perimeter), 48.66 cm (hind perimeter), 58.62 cm (thoracic perimeter), 0.20 (carcass compactness index), 68.48% (total muscle of the leg), 2.79% (total leg fat), 55.19% (subcutaneous leg fat), 28.82% (total bone), 81.66 g (femur weight), 14.88 cm (femur length), 0.38 (leg muscularity index), 2.53 (muscle:bone ratio) and 33.42 (muscle:fat ratio). The substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake may be recommended up to a level of 100% without alterations to quantitative carcass traits.

  16. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between colonic fermentation and improved glucose tolerance. This work can be seen as an extension of that study, focusing on the tentative role of specific colonic metabolites, i.e. SCFA. Plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were determined in the morning in healthy participants (5 women and 10 men, mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI < 25) following 8 different cereal-based evening meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P < 0.01) and acetate (r = -0.20; P < 0.05) concentrations. Evening meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-β-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P < 0.05). The results support the view that cereal products rich in indigestible carbohydrates may improve glucose tolerance through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular butyric acid may be involved. This mechanism may be one explanation by which whole grain is protective against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K

    2013-02-01

    Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60 min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n = 180; avg. wt. 3.2 ± 0.07 g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8 weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p < 0.05) higher than for all other groups, whereas growth hormone gene expression in brain, liver and muscle exhibited opposite trend. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in plasma did not differ significantly among the five groups. Conclusively, growth performance was in parallel with IGF-1 gene expression and exhibited negative trend with GH gene expression.

  18. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  19. Application of food waste based diets in polyculture of low trophic level fish: effects on fish growth, water quality and plankton density.

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Yin; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai Ming; Man, Yu Bon; Liu, Yihui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-08-30

    Food waste was collected from local hotels and fish feed pellets were produced for a 6 months long field feeding trial. Three types of fish feed pellets (control diet: Jinfeng® 613 formulated feed, contains mainly fish meal, plant product and fish oil; Diet A: food waste based diet without meat and 53% cereal; Diet B: food waste based diet with 25% meat and 28% cereal) were used in polyculture fish ponds to investigate the growth of fish (grass carp, bighead and mud carp), changes in water quality and plankton density. No significant differences in the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds of water body were observed between 3 fish ponds after the half-year feeding trial, while pond receiving Diet A had the highest density of plankton. The food waste combination of Diet B seems to be a better formulation in terms of the overall performance on fish growth.

  20. Nutrition of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.: an additional evaluation of the effects of soy-based diets and supplemental prebiotic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of a fishmeal- (FM) and two soybean- [SOY = soybean meal (SBM) + soy protein concentrate (SPC)] based diets [with or without prebiotic (GroBiotic® -A; GBA) supplementation] on the production performance, non-specific immunity, blood parameters, and gut microbiota diversity of...

  1. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P<0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P<0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P<0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P<0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P<0.004) and fat (P<0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat.

  2. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P < 0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P < 0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P < 0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P < 0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P < 0.004) and fat (P < 0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  3. Effects of concentration and composition of wet corn gluten feed in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2004-09-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (299 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain efficiency and ADG were similar (P > 0.25) among treatments. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.10) with 0% wet corn gluten feed than with concentrations of 20, 25, and 35% WCGF. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments containing wet corn gluten feed. In Exp. 2, 160 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (315 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (four pens/treatment). Treatments were assigned based on four ratios of steep to corn bran/germ meal mix in wet corn gluten feed plus a negative control (CON). Wet corn gluten feed was fed at 25% of the dietary DM and was made by mixing steep and corn bran/germ meal into the diet. The four concentrations of steep in wet corn gluten feed that comprised the ratios were 37.5, 41.7, 45.8, and 50% (DM basis), with the remaining proportion being the bran/germ meal mix. Bran/germ meal mix was comprised of 60% dry corn bran, 24% germ meal, and 16% fine-cracked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Daily gain did not differ (P = 0.18) among treatments. Gain efficiency did not differ between CON and 50% steep; however, G:F was decreased (P < 0.05) for concentrations of 37.5, 41.7, and 45.8% steep compared with CON. A linear improvement (P < 0.05) was observed for G:F as concentration of steep

  4. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P < 0.001) and feed intake (P < 0.05), and increased the relative weights of tibia ash (P < 0.05) and toe ash (P < 0.01). Phytases A and B increased the NE value of the diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds.

  5. Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans using rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanzhao; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai; Yin, Jingdong; Jin, Hong

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the safety of soybean meal prepared from genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready; RR) soybeans and conventional soybeans. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males and 40 females) were randomly allotted to one of four groups according to sex and body weight for a 13-week feeding experiment. The rats were fed corn-based diets containing 60% conventional soybean meal, a mixture of 30% conventional and 30% RR soybean meal, 60% or 90% RR soybean meal. All diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level except the 90% RR diet. The two soybean meals were similar in chemical analysis and amino acid composition. During the 13-week growth trial, body weight (P < 0.05) and feed intake (P < 0.05) decreased only in rats fed with 90% RR soybean meal at the first week. No treatment-related deaths occurred during the experiment. Gross necropsy findings, haematological or urinalysis values and clinical serum parameters showed no meaningful differences between rats fed the control and RR soybean meals. A 145 bp of cp4 epsps gene specific for the GM constructs from RR soybean meal or a 407 bp of lec gene from endogenous soybean DNA could not be detected in investigated masseter muscle samples. No adverse effects of glyphosate-tolerant soybean meal on rats were seen even at levels as high as 90% of the diet.

  6. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  7. Comparative study on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of two Mexican corn (Zea mays) based meals versus processed cereals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Herrera, Marissa; Martínez-Cano, Evelia; Maldonado-Santoyo, María; Aparicio-Fernández, Xochitl

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the chemical composition, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of two whole corn (Zea mays) based meals traditional from Mexico: "traditional pinole" and "seven grain pinole"; and compare it with information available from ready to eat cereal products based on refined corn and whole grain cereals. Proximate analyses (moisture, ash, fat, protein and fiber) were carried out according to the procedures of AOAC, sugars content was determined by HPLC method; calcium and iron were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Total phenolic compounds were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method; the antiradical capacity was determined by DPPH colorimetric method and total antioxidant capacity was determined by FRAP method. Traditional and seven grain pinole presented higher energy content and nutrient density (protein and fat) than processed cereals. Calcium content was higher in processed cereals than pinole; seven grain pinole presented the highest conentration of iron. Polyphenolic concentration was higher in both kinds of pinole compared to processed cereals; traditional pinole presented the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP methods. The results provide evidence about the important nutrient and antioxidant content of traditional and seven grain pinole compared to processed cereals based on corn and other grains. It is recommended their incorporation in to regular diet as a healthy food, with a good protein level, low sugar content and good antioxidant capacity.

  8. Postoperative diet advancement: surgical dogma vs evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy; Bhalla, Varun; Cresci, Gail

    2011-04-01

    Postoperative ileus is a natural part of recovery following abdominal and intestinal surgery. Research in the laboratory and clinical arenas has challenged the long-held belief that enteral nutrition (EN) should not be administered until bowel function has resumed, which is typically judged by a subjective bowel function assessment. Traditional postoperative management begins with clinical monitoring of return of bowel function, followed by a clear liquid diet that is advanced to regular solid food as tolerated. Studies have consistently demonstrated that early EN is safe and well tolerated, showing a reduction in wound morbidity and healing, fewer septic complications, diminished weight loss, and improved protein kinetics in patients administered early EN. Barriers to early enteral feeding include fear of GI morbidity, anastomotic disruption or leak but have not been proven valid in clinical or experimental trials. A clear liquid diet is the most frequently ordered first postoperative meal regardless of early or delayed administration. Although generally well tolerated, this diet fails to provide adequate nutrients to the postsurgical patient. In contrast, advancement to a regular diet as the initial meal has been shown to be well tolerated and provides significantly more nutrients than a clear liquid diet. This article reviews basic GI physiology, including motility, nutrient absorption, and the changes that occur in regulation and function of the GI tract following surgery, as well as clinical data regarding postoperative GI function and diet advancement. This will be applied to the clinical practices of postoperative dietary advancement to discuss the timing and choice of initial feeding in the postoperative patient.

  9. Effect of corn germ meal inclusion in pig diets on microbial ecology in the ileum, cecum and colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of bio-fuel co-products in swine diets is becoming more common due to greater availability and increasing cereal grain costs. As a result of the ethanol production process, these co-products have lower starch and higher fiber concentrations. In monogastrics, fiber digestion is mainly ach...

  10. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P < 0.01) final BW and ADG than CTR and HE steers. Concentrate intake was greater (P < 0.001) in CTR (6.6 ± 0.10 kg/d) than in HE steers (5.7 ± 0.10 kg/d), and HELM (5.2 ± 0.10 kg/d) consumed less concentrate than CTR and HE steers. However, HE and HELM steers were more (P < 0.01) efficient than CTR steers. The mean number of daily meals and eating rate were less (P < 0.05) for HELM than for HE or CTR. At d 163, serum concentrations of GLP-1, CCK, and insulin were lower (P < 0.05), and leptin (P = 0.10) and glucose (P = 0.08) concentrations tended to be lower for HELM than for CTR or

  11. Effects of lifestyle habits and eating meals together with the family on the prevalence of obesity among school children in Tokushima, Japan: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Takeda, Eiji; Ewis, Ashraf A; Munakata, Hokuma; Onishi, Chiemi; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in children has become a major global public health concern. The prevention of obesity must start from early childhood in order to establish sound lifestyle habits and promote healthy adulthood. In this study, we evaluated factors associated with the prevention of obesity and the development of healthy lifestyle habits in children. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was performed in elementary and junior high school students in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, during the summer of 2004. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items such as physique, sleep, eating habits, diet, exercise, free time, and attending after-school lessons. Our study revealed that eating meals as a family every day is associated with a lower rate of obesity as well as getting good lifestyle habits such as eating balanced meals and getting enough sleep. Of the 3,291 students who responded to the questionnaire, 2,688 (81.7%) reported that they eat meals with their family every day. The percentage of students who eat meals with their family every day decreased with increasing school grade, with the lowest percent in the junior high school students. However, the results regarding female junior high school students revealed a marked association between eating meals with the family every day and good lifestyle habits. We recommend that parents and school teaching staff encourage the establishment of sound, healthy lifestyle habits in children from early childhood as an effective measure for the prevention of obesity.

  12. Effects of fungal (Aspergillus niger or Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) fermentation on the nutritive value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2008-05-01

    1. Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) meal was fermented for 8 d with either Aspergillus niger, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora or a mixture of the two organisms. The fermentation was completed using two methods, an opened container or a closed container. 2. Each of the 6 samples was dried and incorporated into basal broiler diets at 90 g/kg. 3. In addition, the unfermented shea nut meal was incorporated in the diet at 90 g/kg and the basal diet (maize and soybean meal based) was also provided as an eighth dietary treatment to individually caged broiler chickens. 4. All fermented fungi-treated shea nut meals had similar proximate nutrient compositions to the unfermented shea nut meal, but there were substantial decreases in their hydrolysable tannins and saponin contents. Both fermentation methods gave similar reductions in the concentrations of tannins and saponins. 5. Shea nut meal fermented with individual or both fungal organisms gave greater (P < 0.001) growth performance than that of unfermented shea nut meal. However, all shea nut meals including the unfermented meal gave lower (P < 0.001) growth variables than those for the maize-soybean meal control. 6. The nutritional improvement of shea nut meal achieved in this study still falls far short of what is expected for it to become valuable for the poultry feed industry. These fermentation methods using A. niger or C. subvermispora require further improvements to provide satisfactory feed products.

  13. A scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale: the DIET-SE.

    PubMed

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-03-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of the 11-item DIET-SE. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 392) and confirmatory factors analysis (N = 124) revealed three internally consistent and reliable factors representing challenges to adhere to a diet (high-caloric food temptations [HCF], social and internal factors [SIF], negative emotional events [NEE]). Convergent validity is established with other measures of dieting self-efficacy, as well as measures of eating disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and weight loss competency. Criterion-related validity is provided through the assessment of goal adherence, and predictive validity is established for dieters' actual food intake (N = 68). The DIET-SE represents a short, reliable, and valid scenario-based measure of dieting self-efficacy.

  14. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.

  15. [Pharmaco and diet based prostate cancer prevention].

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Gravis, Gwenaelle; Rossi, Dominique; Cussenot, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, in France, 8,790 men died from prostate cancer despite a low and decreasing mortality rate. The individual risk/benefit ratio of prostate cancer screening is the focus of controversy and currently not in favor of a systematic screening program. Therefore, only prevention could reduce incidence, side effects of treatment and related mortality. Interestingly, prostate cancer prevention is also a field of controversy mainly about 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, it could be expected that pharmaco- or diet-based prevention will be a huge tool for cancer control, even more for prostate cancer burden. This review comprehensively analyses which molecules or compounds could be used in preventive trials. With regard to pharmaco-prevention, three different kinds of drugs could be identified. First drugs, which aim at mainly or even solely reduce prostate cancer risk such as 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Drugs, which aim at wider preventive impact such as: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or difluoromethylornithine. Lastly, drugs for which reducing prostate cancer incidence is merely a side effect such as statins, metformin or histones desacetylase inhibitors. With regard to diet-based prevention, two main approaches could be identified: aliments and nutriments, on one hand, and vitamin and minerals, on the other. Interestingly if compounds reach experimental plausibility, natural foods or even global diet seem to have a higher impact. Lastly, besides assessment of efficacy, effectiveness required the critical step of compliance, which might actually be the weakest link of the prevention chain.

  16. Utilization of dipeptide/protein based diets in larval and juvenile Koi carp--post-prandial free amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Kwasek, K; Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K

    2010-02-01

    We have shown previously that diets in which the nitrogen portion is based on synthetic dipeptides (PP) resulted in weight gain by rainbow trout alevins when free amino acid (FAA) based diets did not. However, the protein-based diet used as a control in the previous study resulted in a significantly better performance of fish than peptide- or FAA based diet fed fish. Therefore, the objectives of our study were (i) to test how stomachless fish respond to peptide-based diets, (ii) to evaluate PP and protein-PP mixture diets and (iii) to examine if post-prandial response to FAA concentrations in the fish body can be used as an indicator of the availability of dietary amino acid sources. The first experiment was conducted with a 4-day old Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and included groups fed a casein-gelatin (CG) based diet, a commercial diet and live Artemia nauplii. In the second experiment, fish fed live Artemia for 3 weeks (69 +/- 12 mg) were placed in glass aquaria in triplicate per dietary treatment. Four diets provided equivalent amounts of nitrogen in the form of a CG, a PP, a 50% PP and 50% CG (PP50) mix and as FAA. Fish were fed at 1 and 3 h intervals, and the survival and growth were monitored during the second and third weeks of experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Following the completion of feeding, juvenile carp were sampled prior to feeding and 3 h after a meal. Whole body FAA analyses were carried out. We observed marginal suitability of the CG diet for larval Koi carp, as earlier indicated in common carp. Juvenile Koi carp fed the CG diet achieved 236 +/- 19 mg, whereas PP50, PP and FAA diet fed fish grew to 140 +/- 37, 70 +/- 8 and 73 +/- 5 mg respectively. Free amino acids in the fish body, and in particular indispensable amino acids (IDAA), were excellent indicators of dietary availability. The present experiment shows that a dietary 1:1 ratio of protein to synthetic PPs results in better growth, survival and whole body IDAA concentrations in

  17. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  18. Are School Meals a Viable and Sustainable Tool to Improve the Healthiness and Sustainability of Children´s Diet and Food Consumption? A Cross-national Comparative Perspective.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Wang, Qing; Skuland, Silje Elisabeth; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Schjøll, Alexander; Pachucki, Mark C; Rozin, Paul; Stein, Jarrett; Lengard Almli, Valerie; van Kleef, Ellen

    2016-08-10

    There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.

  19. Effect of including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) meal in finishing pig diets on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Pietrosemoli, Silvana; Moron-Fuenmayor, Oneida Elizabeth; Paez, Angel; Villamide, Maria Jesús

    2016-10-01

    The partial replacement of a commercial concentrate at 10-20% and 15-30% (the first percentage of each dietary treatment corresponded to weeks 1-3 and the second to weeks 4-7 of the experiment, respectively) by sweet potato meal (SPM; 70% foliage: 30% roots) was evaluated for growth performance, carcass yield, instrumental and sensory pork quality using 36 commercial crossbred pigs (56.8 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight). Three dietary treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design. Most growth, carcass traits and pork quality variables were not affected by the SPM inclusion. Growth performance averaged 868 g/day and feed efficiency 0.24 kg/kg. However, feed intake increased 2.2% (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the 10-20% SPM diets, in a similar order of magnitude as the decrease in dietary energy. Despite an increase in gastrointestinal tract as a percent of hot carcass weight (+14.7%) (P = 0.03) with SPM inclusion, carcass yield averaged 69.4%. Conversely, decreases in loin yield (-4.2%) (P = 0.05), backfat thickness (-6.0%) (P < 0.01) and pork tenderness (-13%) (P = 0.02) were observed with 15-30% SPM inclusion. Results suggest that up to 20% SPM inclusion is a viable feed strategy for finishing pigs, easily replicable in small farm settings. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Lowering the dietary calcium to total phosphorus ratio increases phosphorus utilization in low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase for growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Veum, T L

    1998-03-01

    Crossbred growing-finishing pigs (n = 120) were used to investigate the effect of three dietary Ca:total P (tP) ratios (1.5:1, 1.3:1, or 1.0:1) on P utilization in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal grower (23 to 54 kg BW) diet contained .39% tP including .07% added inorganic P (iP), and the basal finisher (54 to 123 kg BW) diet contained .32% tP without added iP. An adequate-P positive control diet without phytase supplementation contained .60% Ca and .50% tP during the growing phase and .50% Ca and .40% tP during the finishing phase. Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased ADG during the growing phase (P < .03) and overall (P < .08), gain:feed ratio during the growing phase (P < .001), and P absorption during the finishing phase (P < .04). Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased BW at slaughter (P < .02), carcass weight (P < .04), bone breaking strength (P < .04), and bone ash weight (P < .06), whereas dressing percentage and backfat depth remained unchanged. In conclusion, pig performance and P utilization were increased by lowering the Ca:tP ratio from 1.5:1 to 1.0:1 in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

  1. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P < 0.02) and the DNC (P < 0.001) diets. Supplementing the NC diet with pyhtase tended to improve P digestibility (P < 0.10). However, addition of phytase to the DNC diet resulted in linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P < 0.03) increases in P digestibility with an overall improvement of 8% and 121% at 4000 phytase U/kg of diet, respectively, compared with the PC and DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P < 0.05) in the PC diet compared with the DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P < 0.10). No effect of phytase addition to NC was observed on Ca, N, DM and OM digestibility. Phytase addition to the DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in N, DM and OM digestibility but not Ca. Increasing the levels of phytase supplementation in the NC and the DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P < 0.05) content by 45 and 42%, respectively. Adding phytase at 1000 or 4000 U/kg increased P retention (P < 0.05) by 14.3 or 15.6% units, respectively, compared with the PC diet. Urinary P excretion was higher in the group fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC and DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase

  2. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  3. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  4. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY OF TRIGLYCERIDE RESPONSE TO A HIGH-FAT MEAL AMONG PARTICIPANTS OF THE NHLBI GENETICS OF LIPID LOWERING DRUGS AND DIET NETWORK (GOLDN)

    PubMed Central

    Wojczynski, M.K.; Parnel, L.D.; Pollin, T.I.; Lai, C.Q.; Feitosa, M.F.; O’Connell, J.R.; Frazier-Wood, A.C.; Gibson, Q.; Aslibekyan, S.; Ryan, K.A.; Province, M.A.; Tiwari, H.K.; Ordovas, J.M.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Arnett, D.K.; Borecki, I.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variants through a genome-wide association (GWA) study in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN). Methods The GOLDN GWAS discovery sample consisted of 872 participants within families of European ancestry. Genotypes for 2,543,887 variants were measured or imputed from HapMap. Replication of our top results was performed in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study (n=843). PPL TG response phenotypes were constructed from plasma TG measured at baseline (fasting, 0 hour), 3.5 and 6 hours after a high-fat meal, using a random coefficient regression model. Association analyses were adjusted for covariates and principal components, as necessary, in a linear mixed model using the kinship matrix; additional models further adjusted for fasting TG were also performed. Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies (n=1,715) was performed on the top SNPs from GOLDN. Results GOLDN revealed 111 suggestive (p<1E-05) associations, with two SNPs meeting GWA significance level (p<5E-08). Of the two significant SNPs, rs964184 demonstrated evidence of replication (p=1.20E-03) in the HAPI Heart Study and in a joint analysis, was GWA significant (p=1.26E-09). Rs964184 has been associated with fasting lipids (TG and HDL) and is near ZPR1 (formerly ZNF259), close to the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster. This association was attenuated upon additional adjustment for fasting TG. Conclusion This is the first report of a genome-wide significant association with replication for a novel phenotype, namely PPL TG response. Future investigation into response phenotypes is warranted using pathway analyses, or newer genetic technologies such as metabolomics. PMID:26256467

  5. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Baron, Kelly G; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-11-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that late meal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using 7 days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using 7 days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, sleep duration, and timing, eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management.

  6. The effect of different dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Elias, M C; Catalan, A A S; Castro, M L S; Nunes, A P; Roll, V F B

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different levels of canola meal in broiler diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and duodenal morphometry. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment. A completely randomized design with 5 levels of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%) as a substitute for soybean meal was used with 8 replicates of 8 birds each. The basal diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal to meet nutrient requirements of broiler chickens. The levels of canola meal were evaluated with a polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Weight gain and average BW showed a quadratic response (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively), decreasing with the addition of 40% canola meal. The apparent nutrient digestibility of DM (P < 0.0001), CP (P < 0.0001), and nitrogen-free extract (P < 0.0001) decreased linearly with increased levels of canola meal. A quadratic effect was observed for villus height (P = 0.003), decreasing up to a 20% inclusion of canola meal in the diet and increasing beyond that level. In conclusion, canola meal can be added up to 16.7% in diets for broilers without affecting the key variables of growth performance. It can be added up to 20% with no negative effect on the CP digestibility, but there was a linear decrease in the digestibility of DM and nitrogen-free extract with increased inclusion of canola meal. Additionally, a quadratic response to canola was observed for villus height with a maximum at 23.6% canola meal.

  7. Bt-maize (MON810) and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  8. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  9. Hippocampal GLP-1 receptors influence food intake, meal size, and effort-based responding for food through volume transmission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1.

  10. Hippocampal GLP-1 Receptors Influence Food Intake, Meal Size, and Effort-Based Responding for Food through Volume Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1. PMID:25035078

  11. Responses of milk production to the intravenous infusion of amino acids in dairy cows given diets of grass silage and cereal-based supplements.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    2001-10-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine responses of milk production to the intravenous infusion of amino acids in dairy cows given diets of grass silage and supplements based on barley, with or without added soyabean meal and ranging in crude protein content from 16 to 19% in dry matter. Particular attention was given to histidine, administered alone or in combination with methionine, lysine and tryptophan. Responses of milk protein secretion to infusion of histidine were seen only when the diet contained a supplement of barley alone. When soyabean meal was included, there were no responses of milk production to infusion of any of the infused amino acids. Calculations suggested that, although histidine remained first-limiting when soya was included in the diet, any response to infusion of histidine was blocked by the rapidly emerging deficiency of another amino acid, probably leucine. The results confirm that, for diets based on grass silage and supplements of cereal only, histidine is first-limiting such that increases of milk protein secretion can be obtained in response to infusion of histidine alone. In assessing the practical significance of this finding, it should be remembered that greater responses in the yield of milk protein can probably be obtained by substituting 1 kg of soyabean meal for 1 kg of cereal, which is likely to be an easier and cheaper option.

  12. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  13. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  14. Family factors for child meal skipping in low-income families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwa-ok; Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon-Myung

    2010-04-01

    The present study proposed to examine whether family factors are associated with child meal skipping in Korea. Family factors were divided into risk factors and protective factors on conceptual and theoretical bases. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. A final sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who are served by the public meal program. Child meal skipping was positively associated with risk factors and negatively associated with protective factors, as hypothesized. Single-father family, middle or small urban area, presence of caretaker after school, health level of caretaker, caretaker's concern about child's diet, and degree of family cohesion significantly predicted child meal skipping. The authors suggest a few implications for practice based on the study findings.

  15. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Shoulders, J; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 2 sources of high-protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (51.5 ± 4.0 kg initial BW) were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the 3 sources of canola meal or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME were 3,347 and 3,268 kcal/kg in corn, 3,312 and 2,893 kcal/kg in CM-HP1, 3,627 and 3,346 kcal/kg in CM-HP2, 2,798 and 2,492 kcal/kg in CM-CV, and 4,000 and 3,796 kcal/kg in SBM, respectively. Values for DE and ME were greater (P< 0.05) in SBM than in all other ingredients, but DE and ME were greater (P < 0.05) in corn and the 2 high-protein canola meals than in CM-CV. The DE and ME were also greater (P< 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-HP1. In Exp. 2, 10 barrows (65.3 ± 10.4 kg initial BW) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. A N-free diet and 4 corn starch-based diets that contained CM-HP1, CM-HP2, CM-CV, or SBM as the sole source of AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all AA except Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM than in the 3 sources of canola meal. With the exception of His and Lys, no differences in SID of indispensable AA were observed among the 3 sources of canola meal. The SID of His and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP1 and CM-HP2 than in CM-CV and the SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-CV, but no differences in the SID of indispensable AA were observed between CM-HP1 and CM-HP2. In conclusion, the 2 high-protein canola

  16. Effects of a dietary mixture of meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal on nitrogen utilization in finishing Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Knaus, W F; Beermann, D H; Robinson, T F; Fox, D G; Finnerty, K D

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to determine to what extent rate and efficiency of protein gain in finishing cattle can be enhanced by feeding an amino acid-balanced mixture of undegraded intake proteins. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) model was used to formulate a corn-based diet that would meet the rumen requirements for 410-kg large-framed steers with an estrogen implant and fed an ionophore. The CNCPS model was also used to formulate a highly undegradable intake protein (UIP) mixture from meat and bone meal, blood meal, fish meal, and hydrolyzed feather meal to provide the amino acids needed to supplement those derived from microbial protein to better meet amino acid requirements for growth. Four Holstein steers weighing 407 kg were offered a 90:10 concentrate-forage diet at hourly intervals at 95% of ad libitum intake. The steers were injected with 500 microg of estradiol-17beta at 12-h intervals to mimic the effects of an estrogenic implant. Treatments planned consisted of inclusion of the UIP mixture at 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of the diet DM. Dry matter intake was fixed at 6.4 kg/d, and DM digestibility was not significantly affected by varying the amount of UIP addition. Apparent digestibility of N increased (P = .011) from 63.8 to 65.8, 70.7, and 71.5%, the amount of N absorbed increased (P = .001) from 73 to 84, 100, and 106 g/d, and N balance increased (P = .003) from 20 to 30, 33, and 39 g/d when UIP was fed at 0, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8% of diet DM, respectively. The efficiency of N use increased 39.7%, and biological value increased 31.6% when the UIP mixture was added to the diet. Circulating concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN) were increased (P = .017) from 4.5 for the control diet to 5.7, 6.2, and 6.1 mg/dL when the UIP mixture was added at 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8%, respectively. Corresponding IGF-I concentrations were also increased from 491 to 558 and 624 ng/mL with 2.6 and 5.2% levels of UIP addition. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and insulin

  17. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P < 0.01) SID of CP and all AA except Thr, Trp, and Gly than 00-rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P < 0.05) among the 7 sources of canola meal, among the 10 sources of 00-rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00

  18. Effects of pH and storage time on the adhesive and rheological properties of cottonseed meal-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesive bonding is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. To increase the basic knowledge of cottonseed meal-based adhesives and optimize the operational parameters for practical applications, in this study, we investigated the effects of pH and storage t...

  19. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.

  20. Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate 8 week feeding trials were conducted to examine the impacts of fish meal replacement with an organically certifiable yeast-based protein source with and without supplementation of methionine, tryptophan, and taurine to diets for juvenile cobia. In the first trial, diets were formulated ...

  1. [Production of cassava whole meal (N. esculenta Crantz) to prepare a feed for growing chicks. II. Evaluation of cassava whole meal in growing chicks].

    PubMed

    Ballinas Díaz, J; Larios Saldaña, A; Cruz Mondragón, C; Castellanos Molina, R; Avila González, E

    1997-12-01

    About 50% of the raw materials used for poultry feeds are constituted of sorghum as a energy source. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional quality of a cassava whole meal (CWF: 61.2% and 38.8% of root and leaf flours, respectively) for growing chicks. The sorghum was partially substituted from a basal diet by 15, 30 and 45% of CWF. Four diets based of sorghum, soybean meal and CWF were formulated. Levels of 0.0, 8.6, 16.4 and 23.7% of CWF were included in the diets. White Vantress chicks (96) were used in the nutritional experiment during 28 days. Each treatment was assayed with 24 chicks. The diet containing 23.7% of CWF showed the lower weight gain and feed efficiency (p < 0.05) as compared with the other diets, and the liver/ bird weight relation increased directly with the increment of CWF.

  2. Arcuate nucleus homeostatic systems are not altered immediately prior to the scheduled consumption of large, binge-type meals of palatable solid or liquid diet in rats and Mice.

    PubMed

    Bake, T; Duncan, J S; Morgan, D G A; Mercer, J G

    2013-04-01

    Meal feeding is a critical issue in the over-consumption of calories leading to human obesity. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of meal feeding in rodents, we studied a scheduled feeding regime that induces substantial food intake over short periods of time. Male Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL6 mice were fed one of four palatable diets [45% fat pellet, 60% fat pellet or standard pellet supplemented with Ensure (EN; Abbott Laboratories, Maidenhead, UK) or 12.5% sucrose (SUC)] either ad lib. or with daily 2-h scheduled access and standard pellet available for 22 h. Energy balance gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) reward gene expression were assessed by in situ hybridisation. Rats fed ad lib. on 45% or 60% fat diet were heavier and fatter than controls, and had reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the ARC. Mice fed ad lib. on any of the palatable diets were heavier, fatter and had higher blood leptin than controls, and had reduced NPY and increased cocaine- and-amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA in the ARC. Schedule-fed rats and mice quickly adapted their feeding behaviour to 2-h access on palatable food. Three schedule-fed groups binged: the percentage of daily calories consumed in 2 h on 45% fat diet, 60% fat diet or EN, respectively, was 55%, 63% and 49% in rats, and 86%, 86% and 45% in mice. However, changed feeding behaviour was not reflected in an induction of orexigenic neuropeptide or suppression of anorexigenic neuropeptide gene expression in the ARC, in the 2-h period prior to scheduled feeding. The mechanisms underlying large meal/binge-type eating may be regulated by nonhomeostatic processes involving other genes in the hypothalamus or other brain areas. However, assessment of opioid and dopamine receptor gene expression in the NAcc did not reveal evidence of the involvement of these genes in driving large meals, at least at the investigated time point.

  3. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

    2009-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations.

  4. Economic analysis of a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Stephen; Mustad, Vikkie A; Lee, James; Sun, Jianqin

    2010-01-01

    This study extends nutritional intervention results reported by short-term clinical trials of a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement by assessing the ten-year impact of the interventions on patient outcomes and costs compared to usual care. We developed and validated a computer simulation of type 2 diabetes based on published data from major clinical trials. The model tracks patients through microvascular and macrovascular health states and reports cumulative costs and quality adjusted life years. We modeled different scenarios that include a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement as part of a structured lifestyle intervention, and also as the only difference between the intervention and usual care treatment groups, and compared them to usual care with diet and physical activity recommendations. We used sensitivity analysis to explore the robustness of results. When a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement is the only treatment difference and is considered an equal cost meal replacement, the diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement interventions are less costly and more effective than usual care. As an added cost meal replacement, the diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between $50,414 and $55,036 depending on improvement in percent glycated hemoglobin. A hypothetical lifestyle intervention using a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $47,917. The diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement was found to be cost-effective under the various conditions simulated.

  5. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p < 0.01); however, peak glucose was not higher after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal compared with the 105 kJ/kg BW meal [(mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.8 ± 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.07]. Times for insulin to return to fasting were not significantly longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (p = 0.29). d- and l-lactate concentrations were not associated with gastric emptying time or post-prandial blood glucose and insulin. Based on results obtained, prolonged gastric emptying contributes to prolonged post-prandial hyperglycemia in cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size.

  6. Evaluation of estrogenic activity in diets for experimental animals using in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideo; Iwata, Toshio; Katsu, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Hajime; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen

    2004-03-10

    We used a modified yeast-based human estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) bioassay to determine the estrogenic activity in 22 kinds of diets for experimental animals. The estrogenic activity of each diet was reevaluated by comparison with a calibration curve of 17 beta-estradiol. Almost all of the diets had estrogenic activity. The diets for rabbits and guinea pigs had the highest estrogenic activity compared to any other diets, including those for rats and mice. Estrogenic activity was found in dried skim milk, fishmeal, soybean meal, and alfalfa meal. In the NIH-07 diet opened for the ingredients, estrogenic activity was nearly all derived from the alfalfa meal. Multiple assays were performed to evaluate potential seasonal variations in the estrogenic potency in the raw materials of the rat and mouse diets. We found that the estrogenic activity in these raw materials changed throughout the year.

  7. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Pimentel, Marcia

    2003-09-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion people live primarily on a meat-based diet, while an estimated 4 billion live primarily on a plant-based diet. The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country. The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. The use of land and energy resources devoted to an average meat-based diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian (plant-based) diet is analyzed in this report. In both diets, the daily quantity of calories consumed are kept constant at about 3533 kcal per person. The meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet. In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet.

  8. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Cancer.gov

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  9. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorative secondary outcome analysis on data from 784 children from the OPUS School Meal Study, a cluster-randomised cross-over trial where children received school meals for 3 months and habitual lunch for 3 months. At baseline, and at the end of each dietary period, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD, IGF-1 or OC. However, season-modified effects were observed with 25(OH)D, i.e. children completing the school meal period in January/February had higher 25(OH)D status (5·5 (95 % CI 1·8, 9·2) nmol/l; P = 0·004) than children completing the control period in these months. A similar tendency was indicated in November/December (4·1 (95 % CI -0·12, 8·3) nmol/l; P = 0·057). However, the effect was opposite in March/April (-4·0 (95 % CI -7·0, -0·9) nmol/l; P = 0·010), and no difference was found in May/June (P = 0·214). Unexpectedly, the school meals slightly increased PTH (0·18 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods are needed.

  10. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly G.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2016-01-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:25439026

  11. Effect of anionic salts in prepartum diets based on alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Joyce, P W; Sanchez, W K; Goff, J P

    1997-11-01

    This study compared prepartum diets based on grass, alfalfa, or alfalfa and anionic salts to investigate their effect on Ca metabolism, acid-base status, endocrine response, disease incidence, and lactational performance of periparturient dairy cows. Forty-five nonlactating Holstein cows in their last 3 wk of gestation were fed a control diet based on grass hay with a dietary cation-anion difference [expressed as milli-equivalents of ((Na + K) - (Cl + S))/100 g of dietary dry matter] of +30 or diets based on alfalfa with a dietary cation-anion difference of either +35 or -7. Cows fed the diet with the dietary cation-anion difference of -7 had the lowest urine pH prepartum and had the highest concentrations of ionized Ca in blood and total Ca in serum at parturition. Increases in 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D per unit decrease in total Ca in serum were greatest for cows fed the diet with a dietary cation-anion difference of -7. Also, cows fed this same diet consumed the most dry matter postpartum. Incidences of health disorders were 13% (10 of 75), 12% (9 of 75), and 5% (4 of 75) for cows fed the diets with dietary cation-anion differences of +30, +35, and -7, respectively. Results indicate that alfalfa, when supplemented with anionic salts, is a viable forage for prepartum dairy cows.

  12. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  13. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  14. Extruded flaxseed meal enhances the nutritional quality of cereal-based products.

    PubMed

    Giacomino, S; Peñas, E; Ferreyra, V; Pellegrino, N; Fournier, M; Apro, N; Carrión, M Olivera; Frias, J

    2013-06-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequence of extrusion, phytic acid did not change and trypsin inhibitor activity was undetectable. Proximate composition and nutritional quality determined by biological and chemical indexes were compared among EFM, flour mixes (FM) and cereal bars (CB). They presented high protein levels (26, 20 and 17 %, respectively), good biological value (BV) (80, 79 and 65, respectively), acceptable true protein digestibility (TD) (73, 79 and 78, respectively), and high dietary fiber (33, 20.5 and 18 %, respectively). The ratio of ω6:ω3 for CB was within the WHO/FAO recommendations. These results open a new venue for the usefulsess of nutritious/healthy extruded flaxseed flours into ready-to-eat cereal-based products with improved nutritional quality.

  15. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    medium-chain fatty acid ( = 0.76), long-chain fatty acid ( = 0.74), or atherogenicity index values ( = 0.60) in the meat. The sensory attributes of the longissimus lumborum did not differ with the inclusion of peanut cake in the diet as a replacement for soybean meal. These results suggest that based on carcass and meat characteristics, peanut cake can completely substitute soybean meal in the diet of crossbred Boer goats.

  16. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  17. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew; Leitsberger, Madelaine

    2016-09-21

    Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and growing body of population studies and case reports have indicated that cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian diets may be healthy-including those exercising at the highest levels-and, indeed, may experience a range of health benefits. Such diets must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced, however, and owners should regularly monitor urinary acidity and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary.

  18. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Daily

  19. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range—from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  20. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-06-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range-from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  1. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N; Leakey, Louise N; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Richard E; Brown, Francis H; Grine, Frederick E; Hart, John A; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T; Wood, Bernard A

    2013-06-25

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range--from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  2. Blood meal-based compound. Good choice as iron fertilizer for organic farming.

    PubMed

    Yunta, Felipe; Di Foggia, Michele; Bellido-Díaz, Violeta; Morales-Calderón, Manuel; Tessarin, Paola; López-Rayo, Sandra; Tinti, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina; Klencsár, Zoltán; Fodor, Ferenc; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2013-05-01

    Prevention of iron chlorosis with Fe synthetic chelates is a widespread agronomical practice but implies high costs and environmental risks. Blood meal is one of the main fertilizers allowed to be used in organic farming. Through this work a novel blood meal fertilizer was audited. Measurements such as FTIR, Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, UV-visible properties, stability against pH, and batch experiments were performed to characterize and assess the reactivity on soil constituents and agronomic soils. The spectroscopy findings give clear indications that Fe is in the ferric oxidation state, is hexacoordinated, and has a low-spin form suggesting a similar structure to hemin and hematin. A spectrophotometric method at 400 nm was validated to quantify blood meal concentration at low electrolyte concentrations. Batch experiments demonstrated high reactivity of blood meal fertilizer with soil constituents, mainly in the presence of calcium, where aggregation processes are predominant, and its ability to take Fe from synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides. The beneficial profile of blood meal by a providing nitrogen source together with the capability to keep the Fe bound to porphyrin organic compounds makes it a good candidate to be used as Fe fertilizer in organic farming.

  3. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN): an interventional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were measured at 0 hr (fasting), 3.5 hr, and 6 hr after a standardized fat meal. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyses were stratified by baseline triglycerides (normal vs. elevated) and gender. The effect of PPL on changes in lipoprotein subclasses was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Postprandially, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides increased regardless of baseline triglyceride status, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased over the 6-hour time interval, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. HDL particles demonstrated minimal overall changes in total particle number. Conclusions We have characterized the changes in LDL and VLDL particle number, and their subclass patterns following a high-fat meal. PMID:22008512

  4. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Andrew; Leitsberger, Madelaine

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Many owners of companion animals are interested in vegetarian diets for their animals, as concerns increase about the consequences of animal farming, for health, animal welfare, and the environment. However, are vegetarian diets for cats and dogs nutritionally balanced and healthy? This article comprehensively reviews the evidence published to date from four studies that have examined the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets for cats and dogs. To obtain additional information, we surveyed 12 pet food companies detailed in the most recent study. We also examined the nutritional soundness of meat-based companion-animal diets, and reviewed the evidence concerning the health status of vegetarian, carnivorous and omnivorous companion animals. Both cats and dogs may thrive on vegetarian diets, but these must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced. Owners should also regularly monitor urinary acidity, and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary. Abstract Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and

  5. Influence of feed particle size on the performance, energy utilization, digestive tract development, and digesta parameters of broiler starters fed wheat- and corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Ravindran, V; Lentle, R G; Thomas, D G

    2008-11-01

    The influence of particle size and grain type on the performance, AME(n), and on gross morphological and histological parameters of the various segments of the digestive tract of broilers fed wheat- or corn-based diets was investigated. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 2 particle sizes (fine and coarse) and 2 grain types (wheat and corn). The 2 particle sizes were achieved by grinding the whole grains in a hammer mill to pass through 1-mm and 7-mm screen sizes. Broiler starter diets, based on wheat- or corn-soybean meal, were formulated, pelleted, and each diet was offered to 6 cages of 8 male broilers each from d 1 to 21 posthatching. The results showed that the differences in particle size distribution still existed between diets after pelleting especially in the proportion of coarse particles (1 mm and over). In corn-based diets, coarse grinding improved (P = 0.06) weight gains compared with fine grinding, but this particle size effect was not observed in wheat-based diets. In both diets, coarse grinding lowered (P < 0.001) feed per gain of broilers compared with fine grinding. In wheat-based diets, coarse grinding improved (P = 0.06) AME(n) compared with fine grinding. Heavier (P < 0.05) gizzard weights were observed in birds fed the coarse corn-based diet, but particle size had no effect on the gizzard size in birds fed wheat-based diets. Villus height, crypt depth, and epithelial thickness in the duodenum were unaffected (P > 0.05) by particle size and grain type. Overall, the present results showed that the effect of feed particle size varies depending on grain type.

  6. Meal Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, John T.

    Changing life styles for college students are causing food service directors to change their ways of serving students. Students today seem to prefer living in privately owned apartments and houses where they can provide and cook their own food to living on campus and having meals prepared for them. Many colleges and universities are eliminating…

  7. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  8. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    PubMed

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  9. Meal-based enhancement of protein quality and quantity during weight loss in obese older adults with mobility limitations: rationale and design for the MEASUR-UP trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F; Bales, Connie W

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity, and Strength: Understanding the Response - Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 g of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume ~30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity.

  10. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  11. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  12. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  13. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Mathai, J K; Usry, J L; Ratliff, B W; McKilligan, D M; Moline, J D; Xu, G; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    Dried fermentation biomass (DFB) and hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa are co-products of L-Lys • HCl production and heparin extraction, respectively. Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1), concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2), and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P (Exp. 3) in DFB and 2 hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and compare these values with values for fish meal. In Exp. 1, 12 ileal cannulated barrows (BW = 11.5 ± 1.1 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet, diet based on soybean meal (SBM), and 4 diets based on a combination of SBM and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. With the exception of Lys, there were no differences in SID of indispensable AA between DFB and fish meal. Except for Thr, no differences in SID of indispensable AA between PEP50 and fish meal were observed, but SID of all indispensable AA, except Lys and Trp, was less (P < 0.05) in PEP2+ than in the other ingredients. In Exp. 2, 40 barrows (BW = 12.8 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A basal diet containing 96.4% corn and 4 diets containing corn and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. The DE (5,445 kcal/kg DM) and ME (5,236 kcal/kg DM) in DFB were greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP50 (4,758 and 4,512 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively) and fish meal (4,227 and 3,960 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively). Also, DE in DFB was greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP2+ (4,935 kcal/kg DM), but ME in DFB was not different from that in PEP2+ (4,617 kcal/kg DM). Furthermore, DE in PEP50 and PEP2+ were greater (P < 0.01) than in fish meal, but ME did not differ from that in fish meal. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (BW = 12.4 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A P-free diet and 4 diets in which the sole source of P was from DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were

  14. Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity. PMID:23704846

  15. Novel starch based nano scale enteric coatings from soybean meal for colon-specific delivery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean meal was used to isolate resistant starch and produce nanoparticles, which could be potential coating materials for colonic nutrient and drug deliveries. The nanoparticles were in 40 +/- 33.2 nm ranges. These nanoparticles were stable under simulated human physiological conditions. The deg...

  16. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  17. What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning.

    PubMed

    Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Hinton, Elanor C; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-04-01

    The customary approach to the study of meal size suggests that 'events' occurring during a meal lead to its termination. Recent research, however, suggests that a number of decisions are made before eating commences that may affect meal size. The present study sought to address three key research questions around meal size: the extent to which plate-cleaning occurs; prevalence of pre-meal planning and its influence on meal size; and the effect of within-meal experiences, notably the development of satiation. To address these, a large-cohort internet-based questionnaire was developed. Results showed that plate-cleaning occurred at 91% of meals, and was planned from the outset in 92% of these cases. A significant relationship between plate-cleaning and meal planning was observed. Pre-meal plans were resistant to modification over the course of the meal: only 18% of participants reported consumption that deviated from expected. By contrast, 28% reported continuing eating beyond satiation, and 57% stated that they could have eaten more at the end of the meal. Logistic regression confirmed pre-meal planning as the most important predictor of consumption. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of meal planning as a key determinant of meal size and energy intake.

  18. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = -0.174, SE = 0.054, p < 0.05) and protein intake (β = -0.142, SE = 0.062, p < 0.05) compared to participants with low social desirability scores. Participants consuming a high percentage of meals at home were less likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (β = 0.181, SE = 0.053, p < 0.05) and protein (β = 0.127, SE = 0.06, p < 0.05) compared to participants consuming a low percentage of meals at home. In the calibration equations combining FFQ, 4DFR, 24HR with age, body mass index, race, and the psychosocial and diet behavior variables, the six psychosocial and diet variables explained 1.98%, 2.24%, and 2.15% of biomarker variation for energy, protein, and protein density respectively. The variations explained are

  19. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating…

  20. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  1. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share.

  2. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  3. Prediction of gross energy and digestible energy in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Son, A R; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    Many of the available prediction equations for feed energy value may not be applicable for ingredients such as copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR). Therefore, we developed novel equations for estimating GE and DE concentrations in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. Data for GE and DE concentrations were obtained from previous experiments in which the chemical composition in the ingredients and diets were determined. In addition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) values in 3 samples of ingredients including CM, PKM, and CR and 4 samples of diets including a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet and 3 diets containing CM, PKM, and CR were determined. Based on the model R(2), conceptual predictive criterion, and the P-value of the equation, the best equation for GE concentration (kcal/kg) was GE = 3313 + (24.81 × CP) + (9.83 × NDF) with R(2) = 0.93, root mean square error = 102, and P = 0.005 (CP and NDF values are percentages). Regression analysis was conducted between the DE:GE ratio and IVDMD (%). The DE:GE ratio was 0.81, 0.73, 0.83, 0.89, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.88 in CM, PKM, CR, a corn-soybean meal-based diet, and diets containing CM, PKM, or CR, respectively. The values for IVDMD were 70.3, 42.6, 88.2, 93.4, 86.7, 75.5, and 91.3%, respectively. The DE:GE ratio may be calculated by (0.0030 × IVDMD) + 0.5986 (R(2) = 0.91; P = 0.001). Using the estimated GE concentration and IVDMD, the prediction equation for DE concentration (kcal/kg) was DE = -1965 + (1.02 × GE) + (15.33 × IVDMD) with R(2) = 0.88 and P = 0.007. In conclusion, IVDMD values are useful in estimating energy digestibility in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients.

  4. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  5. Participants’ Perceptions of a Group Based Program Incorporating Hands-On Meal Preparation and Pedometer-Based Self-Monitoring in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Jarvandi, Soghra; De Civita, Mirella; Pillay, Sabrina; Hajna, Samantha; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Bader, Abeer; Da Costa, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition education (portion sizes, balanced meals) is a cornerstone of diabetes management; however, moving from information to behavior change is challenging. Through a single arm intervention study, we recently demonstrated that combining education with group-based meal preparation training has measureable effects on weight, eating behaviour, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we conducted an in-depth examination of participants’ perceptions of this strategy, through focus group discussion, to delineate effective elements of the strategy from participants’ perspectives. Methods Participants who had completed the nutrition education/meal preparation training program were invited to attend one of four focus group discussions. These were led by experienced facilitators and guided by questions addressing experiences during the intervention and their perceived impact. Audiotapes were transcribed and qualitative content analysis of transcripts was performed. We report herein themes that achieved saturation across the four discussions. Results Twenty-nine (80.6%, 29/36) attended a focus group discussion. The program elements perceived as effective by participants included the hands-on interactive learning approach to meal preparation, the grocery store tour, pedometer-based self-monitoring, experiencing the link between food consumption/physical activity and glucose changes during the program, and peer support. Discussants reported changes in eating and walking behaviour, greater confidence in ability to self-manage diabetes, reductions in glucose levels and/or need for glucose-lowering medications, and, in some cases, weight loss. Family members and friends were facilitators for some and barriers for others in terms of achieving health behavior changes. Conclusions Among adults with type 2 diabetes, a group based program that included hands-on meal preparation and pedometer-based self-monitoring was perceived as

  6. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  7. Do meal replacement drinks have a role in diabetes management?

    PubMed

    Ditschuneit, Herwig H

    2006-01-01

    The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two meals per day with a calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced commercial formulation, and allow prudent additional meals and snacks. In obese subjects, diets with meal replacements have proven to be more efficient than conventional diets. Patients on the meal replacement regimen lost 7.3 and 8.4% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively, whereas the patients on the conventional diet had lost 1.4% and 3.2% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively. The meal replacement plan has also proven to be effective in patients with type-2 diabetes. After 6 and 12 months, patients in the meal replacement group achieved on average a weight loss of 5.24 and 4.35% of their initial body weight, respectively. In contrast, after 6 and 12 months, patients on the individualized diet plan achieved on average a weight loss of 2.85 and 2.36% of their initial body weight, respectively. Meal replacements offer a promising strategy for treating obese patients with type-2 diabetes.

  8. Effects of nutritionally balanced and stabilized flaxmeal-based diets on Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Allen, P C; Danforth, H; Stitt, P A

    2000-04-01

    Twenty Sex Sal cockerels were randomly assigned to each of eight groups; each of four nutritionally balanced diets were fed to two groups from 1 d through 4 wk of age. These diets contained 0, 2, 5, or 10% stabilized flaxseed meal that provided a calculated 0, 0.45, 1.11, or 2.22% n-3 fatty acids, primarily linolenic acid. At 3 wk of age, one group of chickens from each diet treatment was infected with Eimeria tenella and was housed in separate but similar conditions to uninfected control chickens. At 6 d postinfection, chickens were weighed, bled, killed, and scored for lesions. No level of dietary flaxmeal tested provided protection against weight gain depression, increased feed conversion ratios, or lesions. We concluded that these diets did not protect against E. tenella infection because levels of linolenic acid were not high enough, and the oxidative potentials were well suppressed by vitamin E and other stabilizers present.

  9. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    PubMed

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested.

  10. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  11. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. PMID:28239492

  12. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  13. Effects of level of supplemental phytase on ileal digestibility of amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus in dehulled soybean meal for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Knabe, D A

    2001-10-01

    Ileally cannulated pigs were used to assess the effects of four dietary levels of microbial phytase (Natuphos) on the apparent and true digestibility of Ca, P, CP, and AA in dehulled soybean meal. Fourteen pigs (25 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum and assigned to diets in a replicated 7 x 7 Latin square design. Following a 14-d recovery, four diets consisting of 30.5% soybean meal with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 units of phytase/kg of diet were fed. Diets 5 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) and 6 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) contained 35.25% soybean meal and 27.0% soy protein concentrate, respectively. Diet 7 (0.37% lysine, 0.03% Ca, and 0.05% P) was a low-CP, casein-based diet used to estimate the nonspecific endogenous losses of Ca, P, CP, and AA in order to estimate the true digestibility of these nutrients. All diets contained cornstarch and dextrose and were fortified with vitamins and minerals. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible indicator. The diets were fed daily at 9% of metabolic BW (BW0.75). Apparent and true ileal digestibility of P increased quadratically (P < 0.01) and true digestibility of Ca increased linearly (P < 0.07) with increasing levels of phytase. Apparent digestibility of Ca was unaffected (P = 0.15) by phytase level. Apparent and true ileal digestibility of CP and most AA increased slightly with the addition of 500 units of phytase/kg of diet, but not at higher levels of phytase supplementation (in most cases, cubic effect, P < 0.05). Apparent and true ileal nutrient digestibility coefficients were unaffected by soybean meal source (Diet 1 vs Diet 5), except for arginine and Ca. The apparent and true digestibility coefficients for most of the AA tended (P < 0.10) to be lower in diets containing soy protein concentrate vs the common source of soybean meal used in Diet 5, but ileal digestibilities of Ca and P were unaffected (P = 0.15). In this study, supplemental microbial phytase

  14. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging.

  15. Comparison of dietary inclusion of commercial and fermented soybean meal on oxidative status and non-specific immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hung; Mui, Jia-Jinn

    2017-02-16

    This study compared the effects of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) protein with commercial soybean meal (SBM) or Lactobacillus spp. fermented SBM (FSBM) on the oxidative status and non-specific immune responses in white shrimps, Litopenaeus vannamei. A FM-based diet was used as the control. To prepare the two experimental diets, 25% of the FM protein was replaced with SBM and FSBM. Three experimental diets were fed to three groups of shrimps (initial wt: 0.63 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system for 12 weeks. The SBM-diet group had the highest hepatopancreatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance value, followed by the FSBM-diet group, and the lowest in control-diet group. The activity of hepatopancreatic superoxide dismutase was highest in the control-diet group, followed by the FSBM-diet group, and was lowest in the SBM-diet group. The total haemocyte, hyaline cell, semigranular cell, and granular cell counts were highest in the control-diet group, followed by the FSBM-diet group and the SBM-fed group. Haemolymph phenoloxidase activity was higher in the control-diet and FSBM-diet groups than in the SBM-diet group. The results indicate that replacing 25% FM protein with SBM significantly reduces non-specific immune responses and induces oxidative stress in white shrimps and that FSBM prepared using Lactobacillus spp. can reduce these negative effects.

  16. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management.

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  18. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  19. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established.

  20. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio in hens but lay percentage, feed intake, average egg weight, and egg mass were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed the SBM diet. Hens fed insect meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P < 0.01) than SBM, while the SBM group had a higher percentage of eggs from the large (L) class (P < 0.01). The levels of globulin and albumin to globulin ratio were, respectively, higher and lower (P < 0.05) in HILM than the SBM group. Cholesterol and triglycerides were higher (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in hens from SBM than in the HILM group. Blood levels of Ca were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed insect meal, while creatinine was higher (P < 0.01) in blood of hens fed SBM. Hermetia illucens larvae meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake.

  1. Comparison of Postprandial Responses to a High-Fat Meal in Hypertriglyceridemic Men and Women before and after Treatment with Fenofibrate in the Genetics and Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Stephen P.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Oberman, A. I.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Straka, Robert J.; Arnett, Donna K.

    2013-01-01

    Context The fenofibrate effect on the subclass size distribution of lipoproteins before and after a high-fat challenge is not well studied. Objective To characterize the baseline and post-prandial response (PPL) to a high-fat challenge following fenofibrate therapy, on changes in LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle subclasses, number, and size in 271 hypertriglyceridemic participants. Methods Participants from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study who conducted PPL studies both before and after three weeks of fenofibrate (160 mg/d) treatment were analyzed. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and lipid determinations were measured at fasting (0 hr), 3.5 hours, and 6 hours after ingestion of a standardized high-fat meal. Analyses were stratified by gender. Changes in particle subclass distributions were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance adjusted for pedigree. Results Before PPL, fenofibrate in men (adjusted for age, field center, smoking status, diabetes, and weight circumference) lowered fasting and postprandial VLDL primarily due to reductions in postprandial levels of large and medium VLDL particles (9 SE +/–0.7 to 4 +/–0.4 and 78 / –4 to 36 / –3 nmol/L both P < .0001, resp.). Fenofibrate also reduced fasting and postprandial total LDL particles, primarily a result of reduced small LDL particles (1497 = / – 37 to 1088 = / – 36 nmol/L, P < .0001). Directional changes were similar in men and women but the magnitude of change was different for some parameters. Conclusion Fenofibrate treatment resulted in a lower triglyceride excursion following a high-fat meal. This investigation provides new knowledge of the magnitude and time course of fenofibrate induced attenuation of Lipoprotein subclass size distribution following a postprandial lipid challenge. PMID:24971173

  2. Comparison of yogurt, soybean, casein, and amino acid-based diets in children with persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Angela P; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mendes, Patrícia S A; Valois, Sandra S; Mendes, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Hugo C

    2009-07-01

    Although previous studies have shown successful treatment of persistent diarrhea (PD) with the use of yogurt-based diets, some recent ones speculate the need of special formulas for the nutritional management of PD complicated cases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of 3 lactose-free diets, with different degrees of complexity, is associated with lower stool output and shorter duration of diarrhea when compared with the use of a yogurt-based one on the nutritional management of PD. A total of 154 male infants, aged between 1 and 30 months, with PD and with or without dehydration, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Throughout the study, the patients were placed in a metabolic unit; their body weights and intakes of oral rehydration solution, water, and formula diets, in addition to outputs of stool, urine, and vomit, were measured and recorded at 24-hour intervals. Four different diets were used in this study: diet 1, yogurt-based formula; diet 2, soy-based formula; diet 3, hydrolyzed protein-based formula; and diet 4, amino acid-based formula. Throughout the study, only these formula diets were fed to the children. The data showed that children fed the yogurt-based diet (diet 1) or the amino acid-based diet (diet 4) had a significant reduction in stool output and in the duration of diarrhea. The use of an inexpensive and worldwide-available yogurt-based diet is recommended as the first choice for the nutritional management of mild to moderate PD. For the few complicated PD cases, when available, a more complex amino acid-based diet should be reserved for the nutritional management of these unresponsive and severe presentations. Soy-based or casein-based diets do not offer any specific advantage or benefits and do not seem to have a place in the management of PD.

  3. Diets High in Heat-Treated Soybean Meal Reduce the Histamine-Induced Epithelial Response in the Colon of Weaned Piglets and Increase Epithelial Catabolism of Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Susan; Pieper, Robert; Schwelberger, Hubert G.; Wang, Jing; Villodre Tudela, Carmen; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Van Kessel, Andrew G.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of dietary fermentable protein (fCP) and fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) on the colonic epithelial response to histamine in pigs. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP/low fCHO, low fCP/high fCHO, high fCP/low fCHO and high fCP/high fCHO. After 21-23 days, the pigs were killed and tissue from the proximal colon was stimulated with carbachol, histamine, PGE2 or sodium hydrogen sulphide in Ussing chambers. Changes in short-circuit current and tissue conductance were measured. Diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, stem cell growth factor receptor, Fc-epsilon receptor I and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene expression was determined. Activities of diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase and numbers of colonic mast cells were measured. The change in the short-circuit current in response to histamine was lower (P = 0.002) and tended to be lower for PGE2 (P = 0.053) in high fCP groups compared to low fCP groups, irrespective of fCHO. Additionally, the change in tissue conductance after the application of histamine was lower (P = 0.005) in the high fCP groups. The expression of histamine N-methyltransferase mRNA (P = 0.033) and the activities of diamine oxidase (P = 0.001) and histamine N-methyltransferase (P = 0.006) were higher with high fCP in comparison with low fCP. The expression of mast cell markers, stem cell growth factor receptor (P = 0.005) and Fc-epsilon receptor I (P = 0.049) was higher with high fCP diets compared to diets low in fCP, whereas the mast cell count did not differ between groups. The expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator was reduced (P = 0.001) with high fCP diets compared to low fCP diets. The lower epithelial response to histamine and PGE2 and elevated epithelial histamine inactivation suggests an adaptation to high fCP diets. PMID:24260435

  4. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( < 0.01), as steers fed S7 diets had the greatest DMI ( ≤ 0.3), steers fed S0 diets had the least DMI ( ≤ 0.002), and DMI of steers fed S14 and S28 diets did not differ ( = 0.5). There was a diet × ENZ interaction for G:F ( = 0.02) in which S0, S0e, S14e, and S28e did not differ ( ≥ 0.3) and were greatest ( ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of diet or ENZ on DM, OM, or CP digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect

  5. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (P<0.05) than the ME in corn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (P<0.05) than the STTD of P in all the other ingredients except S-yeast (75.7%). The STTD of P in C-yeast (73.9%) was

  6. Effects of fish meals on rumen bacterial fermentation in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Hoover, W H; Miller, T K; Stokes, S R; Thayne, W V

    1989-11-01

    Effects of various forms of fish meal on microbial metabolism were investigated in continuous cultures of rumen contents. Five diets were formulated to contain 12% ruminally degradable protein and 47 to 48% nonstructural carbohydrate. Soybean meal was the major protein source in the control diet, whereas in the other four diets, various fish meals were substituted for 6% of total diet DM. Fish meals were: fish meal containing 34.4% FFA, fish meal containing 34.4% FFA with CaCl2 added, fish meal containing 65.6% FFA, and fish meal defatted using 1:1 ethanol:ether extraction. The five treatments were fermented with pH either held constant at 6.2 or not controlled. When pH was maintained at 6.2, the inclusion of any fish meal except defatted fish meal reduced the acetate:propionate ratio, decreased protein digestion, and reduced microbial N produced/per kilogram DM digested when compared with the soybean control. When not controlled, pH decreased after feeding to 6.0 or lower. Under these conditions, the soybean control had a lower acetate:propionate ratio and lower NDF digestion than all diets containing fish meal. In this study, oil-containing fish meal affected microbial metabolism more negatively when the fermentation pH was held at 6.2 than when the pH was 6.0 or lower.

  7. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  8. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  9. Soybean hulls, wheat middlings, and corn gluten feed as supplements for cattle on forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Poore, Matthew H; Johns, John T; Burris, W Roy

    2002-07-01

    Soybean hulls, wheat midds, and corn gluten feed are viable alternative supplements for forage-fed cattle. All three result from the processing of major Unites States agricultural crops, so large supplies are available. Their value is better for ruminant animals than for monogastrics because they contain digestible fiber components. These byproducts are widely available throughout the Unites States and will generally be more economical than traditional feed grains or commercial feeds when used appropriately as supplements to forage-based diets. Knowledge about the composition of base forage must be used in planning supplementation strategies because base forages vary in protein and mineral content [9]. Soybean hulls alone may be a good selection in situations in which forages are adequate or high in protein. In situations where forage is marginal or deficient in protein, wheat midds, corn gluten feed, or a mix of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed might be most desirable. All three feeds can be variable in nutrient composition, so they should be analyzed to ensure a balanced nutrient level in diets. Soybean hulls are especially variable in crude protein content and should always be analyzed when forages are marginal or deficient in protein. Despite the fact that published energy levels are substantially lower, research has shown that soybean hulls and wheat midds have a value comparable to corn and soybean meal in forage-based diets. Corn gluten feed has also been comparable to corn and soybean meal in most reports but is closer in value to its published energy levels. In general, results with soybean hulls have been surprisingly good and consistent, whereas responses to wheat midds and corn gluten feed supplementation have been more variable and sometimes disappointing. Feeding rates for soybean hulls can range from low to extremely high depending on forage availability and desired performance. Wheat midds should be limited in most situations to 50% of the

  10. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  11. Enzymes as feed additive to aid in responses against Eimeria species in coccidia-vaccinated broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets with different protein levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Clack, B A; Clemente-Hernández, S; Osborne, J; Remus, J C; Kettunen, H; Mäkivuokko, H; Pierson, E M

    2007-04-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of adding a combination of exogenous enzymes to starter diets varying in protein content and fed to broilers vaccinated at day of hatch with live oocysts and then challenged with mixed Eimeria spp. Five hundred four 1-d-old male Cobb-500 chickens were distributed in 72 cages. The design consisted of 12 treatments. Three anticoccidial control programs [ionophore (IO), coccidian vaccine (COV), and coccidia-vaccine + enzymes (COV + EC)] were evaluated under 3 CP levels (19, 21, and 23%), and 3 unmedicated-uninfected (UU) negative controls were included for each one of the protein levels. All chickens except those in unmedicated-uninfected negative controls were infected at 17 d of age with a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Live performance, lesion scores, oocyst counts, and samples for gut microflora profiles were evaluated 7 d postinfection. Ileal digestibility of amino acids (IDAA) was determined 8 d postinfection. Microbial communities (MC) were analyzed by G + C%, microbial numbers were counted by flow cytometry, and IgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. The lowest CP diets had poorer (P < or = 0.001) BW gain and feed conversion ratio in the preinfection period. Coccidia-vaccinated broilers had lower performance than the ones fed ionophore diets during pre- and postchallenge periods. Intestinal lesion scores were affected (P < or = 0.05) by anticoccidial control programs, but responses changed according to gut section. Feed additives or vaccination had no effect (P > or = 0.05) on IDAA, and diets with 23% CP had the lowest (P < or = 0.001) IDAA. Coccidial infection had no effect on MC numbers in the ileum but reduced MC numbers in ceca and suppressed ileal IgA production. The COV + EC treatment modulated MC during mixed coccidiosis infection but did not significantly improve chicken performance. Results indicated that feed enzymes may be used to modulate the gut

  12. Evaluation of wood bonding performance of water-washed cottonseed meal-based adhesives with high solid contents and low press temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) has been shown as a promising bio-based wood adhesive. Recently, we prepared WCSM on a pilot scale for promotion of its industrial application. In this work, we tested the bonding strength of WCSM slurries with high solid contents and low press temperatures per i...

  13. Effects of increasing concentrations of wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked, corn-based diets on energy metabolism, carbon-nitrogen balance, and methane emissions of cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-02-01

    The use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot diets has increased in the Southern Great Plains as a result of the growing ethanol industry. Nutrient balance and respiration calorimetry research evaluating the use of steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets in conjunction with WDGS is limited. Therefore, the effects of increasing concentrations of WDGS in a SFC-based diet on energy metabolism, C, and N balance, and enteric methane (CH4) production was evaluated in Jersey steers fed at 2 times maintenance, using respiration calorimetry chambers. Four treatments were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs, using 8 steers. Treatments consisted of: 1) SFC-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); and 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45). Diets were balanced for degradable intake protein (DIP) by adding cottonseed meal to the SFC-0 diet. As a proportion of GE, fecal, urinary, and CH4 energy increased linearly (P < 0.03) as WDGS concentration increased in the diet. In contrast, DE, ME, and retained energy decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as a proportion of GE as WDGS concentration increased. Increasing concentration of WDGS in the diet did not affect (P > 0.78) heat production as a proportion of GE. As a result of greater N intake, total N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDGS inclusion in the diet. Fecal C loss and CH4-C respired increased linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration increased in the diet whereas CO2-C respired decreased (linear, P = 0.05) as WDGS concentration increased. We conclude that CH4 production as a proportion of GE increases linearly (P < 0.01) when WDGS concentration in the diet is increased; however, dietary inclusion of WDGS at up to 45% seems to have no effect (P > 0.78) on heat production as a proportion of GE. The reason for a linear decrease in retained energy as WDGS increased was likely because of increased fecal energy loss

  14. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal.

  15. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (P<0.0001 for each) (two-proportion z tests). Parental responses concerning children's participation were more accurate for lunch than breakfast; parents overstated breakfast participation (both classroom and cafeteria) and lunch participation. Breakfast participation misclassification was not related to body mass index (P=0.41), sex (P=0.40), age (P=0.63), or socioeconomic status (P=0.21) (multicategory logistic regression controlling for school year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of

  16. Consumption of ready-made meals and increased risk of obesity: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Crichton, Georgina E; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-28

    The consumption of ready-made meals, such as pre-packaged dishes, available at grocery stores and fast-food restaurants, is a habit related to our modern fast-paced lives. No study has examined the association of daily ready-made meal consumption with diet quality or health-related outcomes. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported ready-made meal consumption and diet quality, as measured by compliance with dietary recommendations and with a set of adiposity measures, in a nationally representative sample of 1352 subjects, aged 18-69 years, participating in the nationwide population-based ORISCAV-LUX (Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg) survey. The daily consumption of ready-made meals was calculated as follows: frequency of consumption × portion size × number of portions consumed. The sum of the daily consumption values of the eleven pre-packaged dishes included in the FFQ represented the total daily consumption of ready-made meals (g/d) for each participant. About 97% of the participants reported daily consumption of ready-made meals. The intake was highly prevalent in men living alone and varied according to education level. Ready-made meal consumption provided >7% of total daily energy. The fractions (%) of macro- and micronutrients derived from daily consumption of ready-made meals varied from 10% for total cholesterol to 0.65% for total fibre. Increased consumption of ready-made meals was found to be independently associated with abdominal obesity. On controlling for age, sex, socio-economic status and lifestyle factors, daily consumption of ready-made meals was found to be associated with higher energy intake and with poor compliance with national nutritional recommendations, and hence it could plausibly increase the risk of central obesity and fat deposition.

  17. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  18. Use of corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles as a replacement for soybean meal and corn for supplementation in a corn silage-based stocker system.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L

    2013-02-01

    Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease

  19. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  20. Exogenous enzyme complex prevents intestinal soybean meal-induced enteritis in Mugil liza (Valenciennes, 1836) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Leonardo R V; Pedrosa, Virgínia F; Mori, Agnes; Andrade, Carlos F F DE; Romano, Luis A; Abreu, Paulo C; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2017-02-09

    Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively) and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0) were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.

  1. Nutrient requirements and low-cost balanced diets, based on seasonally available local feedstuffs, for local pigs on smallholder farms in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie Ann; Dewey, Catherine Elizabeth; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Lukuyu, Ben; Grace, Delia; de Lange, Cornelis

    2016-02-01

    Growth performance of pigs on smallholder farms in the tropics is low. Lack of feedstuffs, seasonal feed shortages, and feeding nutritionally unbalanced diets contribute to slow growth. Low-cost balanced diets are needed to improve pig performance. In this study, we estimated the nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya and developed balanced low-cost diets using seasonally available local feedstuffs. Diets were formulated to provide pigs with 80 % of the nutrient density in corn and soybean meal-based (reference) diets to minimize the cost per unit of energy and other nutrients. Estimated requirements for starting and growing pigs (8 to 35 kg body weight) were as follows: digestible energy (DE) 2960 kcal/kg of dry matter (DM), standardized ileal digestibility (SID) lysine 5.8 g/kg of DM, calcium 2.8 g/kg of DM, standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorous 1.4 g/kg of DM, and crude protein 85 g/kg of DM. Nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya were lower than those of exotic breed pigs raised in commercial settings. Seasonally available local feedstuffs were used to develop low-cost balanced diets. Twenty-two diets are presented based on season, cost, and feedstuff availability. This study has broad applicability as a case study of an approach that could be applied in other tropical regions in which smallholder pig keeping is practiced and where local feedstuffs for pigs are available seasonally.

  2. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  3. Dairy-based preexercise meal does not affect gut comfort or time-trial performance in female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Ross, Megan L; Cato, Louise E; Nana, Alisa; Knight, Emma J; Jenkins, David G; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M

    2014-10-01

    Some athletes avoid dairy in the meal consumed before exercise due to fears about gastrointestinal discomfort. Regular exclusion of dairy foods may unnecessarily reduce intake of high quality proteins and calcium with possible implications for body composition and bone health. This study compared the effects of meals that included (Dairy) or excluded (Control) dairy foods on gastric comfort and subsequent cycling performance. Well-trained female cyclists (n = 32; mean ± SD; 24.3 ± 4.1 y; VO(2peak) 57.1 ± 4.9 ml/kg/min) completed two trials (randomized cross-over design) in which they consumed a meal (2 g/kg carbohydrate and 54 kJ/kg) 2 hr before a 90-min cycle session (80 min at 60% maximal aerobic power followed by a 10-min time trial; TT). The dairy meal contained 3 servings of dairy foods providing ~1350 mg calcium. Gut comfort and palatability were measured using questionnaires. Performance was measured as maximum mean power during the TT (MMP10(min)). There was no statistical or clinical evidence of an effect of meal type on MMP10(min) with a mean difference (Dairy - Control) of 4 W (95% CI [-2, 9]). There was no evidence of an association between pretrial gut comfort and meal type (p = .15) or between gut comfort delta scores and meal type postmeal (p = .31), preexercise (p = .17) or postexercise (p = .80). There was no statistical or clinical evidence of a difference in palatability between meal types. In summary, substantial amounts of dairy foods can be included in meals consumed before strenuous cycling without impairing either gut comfort or performance.

  4. Comparison of acrylamide intake from Western and guideline based diets using probabilistic techniques and linear programming.

    PubMed

    Katz, Josh M; Winter, Carl K; Buttrey, Samuel E; Fadel, James G

    2012-03-01

    Western and guideline based diets were compared to determine if dietary improvements resulting from following dietary guidelines reduce acrylamide intake. Acrylamide forms in heat treated foods and is a human neurotoxin and animal carcinogen. Acrylamide intake from the Western diet was estimated with probabilistic techniques using teenage (13-19 years) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food consumption estimates combined with FDA data on the levels of acrylamide in a large number of foods. Guideline based diets were derived from NHANES data using linear programming techniques to comport to recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. Whereas the guideline based diets were more properly balanced and rich in consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other dietary components than the Western diets, acrylamide intake (mean±SE) was significantly greater (P<0.001) from consumption of the guideline based diets (0.508±0.003 μg/kg/day) than from consumption of the Western diets (0.441±0.003 μg/kg/day). Guideline based diets contained less acrylamide contributed by French fries and potato chips than Western diets. Overall acrylamide intake, however, was higher in guideline based diets as a result of more frequent breakfast cereal intake. This is believed to be the first example of a risk assessment that combines probabilistic techniques with linear programming and results demonstrate that linear programming techniques can be used to model specific diets for the assessment of toxicological and nutritional dietary components.

  5. School Meals and Nutrition of School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of the study discussed here was to assess the contribution of school meals to the nutrition of 778 primary and secondary school children attending schools in Kent using information collected during a survey made in 1968-1970 which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination.…

  6. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  7. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets.

  8. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).

  9. The effect of partial replacement of soyabean meal with sunflower meal on ileal adaptation, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Lecewicz, A; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A

    2011-08-01

    1. A 4 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of graded levels of sunflower meal (SFM; 0, 70, 140 and 210 g/kg) and enzyme supplementation on gut morphology, nutrient utilisation and growth performance of young turkeys from 0 to 8 weeks of age. The enzyme supplement used in the study contained non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading activities and supplied 500 U pectinase, 40 U cellulase, 1600 U xylanase, 800 U glucanase, 200 U mannanase, 20 U galactanase per kg diet. 2. The use of SFM resulted in an increase in the height and width of intestinal villi, and a linear decrease in crypt depth. Dry matter digestibility and energy metabolisability decreased in groups fed diets with a moderate (140 g/kg) and high (210 g/kg) SFM content. 3. A decrease in dry matter digestibility and energy metabolisability was most likely the reason for a reduction in body weights of 8-week-old turkeys fed on diets containing 140 g/kg (from 4 x 17 to 4 x 01 kg) and 210 g/kg (from 4 x 17 to 3 x 93?kg) of SFM. 4. The addition of enzyme resulted in a slight increase in villus height, a significant increase in the number of goblet cells and an increase in digestibility coefficients for crude fat. 5. The results of this study demonstrate that turkey diets can be effectively supplemented with high-quality sunflower meal at a concentration of approximately 70 g/kg. It should be noted, however, that at 8 weeks of age the body weight of turkeys fed on diets containing 140 and 210 g/kg of SFM could be lower by 4 and 6%, respectively, than in those receiving the soyabean meal-based diets.

  10. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mejicanos, G; Sanjayan, N; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-01-01

    Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  11. Growth performance, hematology, and meat quality characteristics of Mutton Merino lambs fed canola-based diets.

    PubMed

    Sekali, M; Marume, U; Mlambo, V; Strydom, P E

    2016-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding canola meal (CM) on growth performance, hematology, and meat quality parameters of lambs. Twenty lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 2.64 kg were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and fed in individual cages for 56 days. The soya bean meal (SBM) in the control ration was replaced with canola meal at 0 (CM0), 25 (CM25), 50 (CM50), 75 (CM75), and 100 % (CM100) inclusion levels. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher in the CM25 and CM50, respectively. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) (3.09-3.41) and slaughter weight (SLW) (33.2-34.7 kg) were, however, similar among the treatment groups. Diet had no effect on carcass length (78.7-83.7 cm) and ultimate meat pH (pHu) (5.70-5.81). Nevertheless, hot carcass weight (HCW) (16.5-18.7 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (16.2-18.2 kg) were higher (P < 0.05) in the CM0 and CM50 treatment groups. The shear force measurements (1.67-2.17 kg) differed (P < 0.05) across treatments. There was no dietary effect on the lightness (L*) (33.5-35.8), redness (a*) (11.35-12.7), and yellowness (b*) (13.4-14.8) of meat. In conclusion, CM can completely replace SBM in lamb diets without any negative effects on growth performance, general health, and meat quality of Mutton Merino lambs.

  12. Effects of diet form and type on growth performance, carcass yield, and iodine value of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of pelleting, diet type (fat and fiber level), and withdrawal of dietary fiber and fat before marketing on growth performance, carcass yield, and carcass fat iodine value (IV) of finishing pigs. Each experiment used 288 pigs (initially 49.6 and 48.5 kg BW, respectively) with 6 dietary treatments arranged as 2 × 3 factorials. In Exp. 1, main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet regimen. Diet regimens were 1) a low-fiber, low-fat (corn-soybean meal) diet from d 0 to 81, 2) a high-fiber, high-fat (30% dried distillers grains with solubles [DDGS] and 19% wheat middlings [midds]) diet from d 0 to 64 followed by the low-fiber, low-fat diet from d 64 to 81 (fiber and fat withdrawal), and 3) the high-fiber, high-fat diet fed from d 0 to 81. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased belly fat IV (2.9 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets, with a greater increase when fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout the entire study (interaction, < 0.05). Pigs fed the low-fiber, low-fat diet throughout had increased ( < 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed the other 2 treatments. Pigs fed low-fiber, low-fat diets throughout the study or pigs withdrawn from high-fiber, high-fat diets had increased ( < 0.001) carcass yield compared with pigs fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout. In Exp. 2, treatment main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet type (corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS and 19% midds, or the control diet with 3% corn oil). The diet containing corn oil was calculated to produce carcass fat IV similar to diets containing DDGS and midds. Overall, pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and belly fat IV (1.3 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS and midds had decreased ( < 0.05) ADG, carcass yield, and HCW compared with

  13. Effects of blackcurrant-based juice on atherosclerosis-related biomarkers in cultured macrophages and in human subjects after consumption of a high-energy meal.

    PubMed

    Huebbe, Patricia; Giller, Katrin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Arkenau, Anne; Adolphi, Berit; Portius, Sebastian; Arkenau, Cord N; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables may be associated with decreased CVD risk. In the present study, we investigated the effects of blackcurrant (BC) juice, rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in cultured macrophages in vitro and in human subjects with an atherosclerosis-prone phenotype (after consumption of a high-energy meal). In cultured macrophages (RAW264.7), BC treatment significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation as indicated by lower mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and lower nuclear p65 levels indicating decreased NF-κB activity. iNOS protein levels were lower and haem oxygenase 1 levels higher in BC-treated cells when compared with untreated controls. Subjects given a high-energy meal had elevated serum glucose and insulin levels with no significant difference between the BC-based juice and placebo treatment groups. TAG following meal ingestion tended to be attenuated after the BC treatment. Plasma ascorbic acid and radical-scavenging capacity were decreased following placebo meal consumption; however, BC significantly elevated both parameters compared with baseline and placebo ingestion. Plasma oxidised LDL, α-tocopherol and paraoxonase activity were unchanged in both treatment groups. Furthermore, production of TNF-α and IL-1β was not significantly changed by BC meal consumption. The present results suggest potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of BC in vitro in cultured macrophages. Although the observations were not directly transferable to a postprandial in vivo situation, the present results show that BC juice consumption may improve postprandial antioxidant status as indicated by higher ascorbic acid levels and free radical-scavenging capacity in plasma.

  14. Milk production and plasma gossypol of cows fed cottonseed and oilseed meals with or without rumen-undegradable protein.

    PubMed

    Blackwelder, J T; Hopkins, B A; Diaz, D E; Whitlow, L W; Brownie, C

    1998-11-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned at calving to treatment diets using a modified split-plot design to determine the effects of protein source on milk production and composition. The treatment diets consisted of an 80:20 combination of corn and alfalfa silages and whole cottonseed at 12% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The treatment diets were formulated to contain 17% crude protein (CP) and 20% acid detergent fiber on a DM basis. One of the following sources of supplemental CP was included in each treatment diet: 1) cottonseed meal, 2) cottonseed meal plus a rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplement, 3) soybean meal, and 4) soybean meal plus an RUP supplement. Cows were fed the initial treatment diet for 6 wk and then were switched to the other oilseed meal source but continued to receive the same amount of RUP during the second period of the study. Milk production and composition were not affected by treatment diet. Cows fed treatment diets without RUP supplementation consumed more DM and thus more CP. Supplementation with RUP resulted in greater milk production efficiency per unit of DM consumed. Cows fed treatment diets containing cottonseed meal had higher plasma gossypol concentrations than did cows fed treatment diets containing soybean meal. Plasma gossypol concentrations for all cows in each group were below the recommended upper limit that is considered to be safe. Data suggest that cottonseed meal in the diet can be substituted for soybean meal, resulting in similar milk production and composition.

  15. Toward a life cycle-based, diet-level framework for food environmental impact and nutritional quality assessment: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willett, Walter C

    2013-11-19

    Supplying adequate human nutrition within ecosystem carrying capacities is a key element in the global environmental sustainability challenge. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. Dietary choices and resulting consumption patterns are the drivers of production, however, and a consumption-oriented life cycle perspective is useful in understanding the environmental implications of diet choices. This review identifies 32 studies that use an LCA framework to evaluate the environmental impact of diets or meals. It highlights the state of the art, emerging methodological trends and current challenges and limitations to such diet-level LCA studies. A wide range of bases for analysis and comparison (i.e., functional units) have been employed in LCAs of foods and diet; we conceptually map appropriate functional unit choices to research aims and scope and argue for a need to move in the direction of a more sophisticated and comprehensive nutritional basis in order to link nutritional health and environmental objectives. Nutritional quality indices are reviewed as potential approaches, but refinement through ongoing collaborative research between environmental and nutritional sciences is necessary. Additional research needs include development of regionally specific life cycle inventory databases for food and agriculture and expansion of the scope of assessments beyond the current focus on greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. The effects of palm kernel cake based diet on spermatogenesis in Malin x Santa-Ines rams.

    PubMed

    Yaakub, H; Masnindah, M; Shanthi, G; Sukardi, S; Alimon, A R

    2009-10-01

    Testes from nine male Malin x Santa-Ines rams with an average body weight of 43.1+/-3.53 kg, were used to study the effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) based diet on spermatogenic cells and to assess copper (Cu) levels in liver, testis and plasma in sheep. Animals were divided into three groups and randomly assigned three dietary treatments using restricted randomization of body weight in completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were 60% palm kernel cake plus 40% oil palm frond (PKC), 60% palm kernel cake plus 40% oil palm frond supplemented with 23 mg/kg dry matter of molybdenum as ammonium molybdate [(NH(4))(6)Mo(7)O(24).4H(2)O] and 600 mg/kg dry matter of sulphate as sodium sulphate [Na(2)SO(4)] (PKC-MS) and 60% concentrate of corn-soybean mix+40% oil palm frond (Control), the concentrate was mixed in a ratio of 79% corn, 20% soybean meal and 1% standard mineral mix. The results obtained showed that the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and Leydig cells were not significantly different among the three treatment groups. However, spermatozoa, Sertoli cells and degenerated cells showed significant changes, which, may be probably due to the Cu content in PKC. Liver and testis Cu levels in the rams under PKC diet was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than rams in Control and PKC-MS diets. Plasma Cu levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) at the end of the experiment as compared to at the beginning of the experiment for PKC and Control. In conclusion, spermatogenesis is normal in rams fed the diet without PKC and PKC supplemented with Mo and S. However spermatogenesis was altered in the PKC based diet probably due to the toxic effects of Cu and the significant changes in organs and plasma. Thus, Mo and S play a major role in reducing the accumulation of Cu in organs.

  17. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  18. Development of Meal Assistance Orthosis and Its Controller for Challenged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Disable persons, motor functional disorder, can not take meal by their arms. Meal assistance orthosis, which assists to take meal, is developed for them. Meal assistance orthosis is actuated by use of human will which is analized based on EOG˜(Electroocurogram) signal. Besides, control theory for meal assistance orthosis is designed with safety policy. Effectiveness of the proposed meal assistace orthosis is assured by simulation and experimental work on normal person.

  19. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  20. Comparison of hormonal and metabolic markers after a high-fat, Western meal versus a low-fat, high-fiber meal in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Katcher, Heather I.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Dmitrovic, Romana; Demers, Laurence M.; Gnatuk, Carol L.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Legro, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of meal composition on postprandial testosterone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Randomized, crossover design. Setting Academic research center. Patients Fifteen women with PCOS. Intervention We evaluated changes in testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), DHEA-S, cortisol, glucose, and insulin for six hours after a high-fat, Western meal (HIFAT) (62% fat, 24% carbohydrate, 1g fiber) and an isocaloric low-fat, high-fiber meal (HIFIB) (6% fat, 81% carbohydrate, 27g fiber). Main outcome measure Change in testosterone. Results Testosterone decreased 27% within two hours after both meals (P<0.001). However, testosterone remained below premeal values for four hours after the HIFIB meal (P<0.004) and six hours after the HIFAT meal (P<0.004). Insulin was two fold higher for two hours after the HIFIB meal compared with the HIFAT meal (P<0.03). Glucose was higher for one hour after the HIFIB meal compared with the HIFAT meal (P<0.003). DHEA-S decreased 8−10% within 2−3 hours after both meals, then increased over the remainder of the study period (P<0.001). Cortisol decreased over the 6-hour period after both meals (P<0.001). Conclusions Diet plays a role in the regulation of testosterone levels in women with PCOS. Further studies are needed to determine the role of diet composition in the treatment of PCOS. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0455338). PMID:18331737

  1. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  2. Lentil-based high protein diet is comparable to animal-based diet in respect to nitrogen absorption and nitrogen balance in malnourished children recovering from shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Wahed, M Abdul; Khatun, Makhduma; Kabir, Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies showed better absorption of protein and catch-up growth with animal-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diets (AP) than plant-based diets. This study compared the intake and absorption of nutrients from a lentil-based high protein (15% energy from protein) diet (LenP), AP, and a low protein (7.5% energy from protein) diet (LP). A total of 31 moderately malnourished 24 to 59 month old children convalescing from shigellosis were randomised to these three diets: LenP (n=11), AP (n=9) and LP (n=11). After two weeks adaptation with the respective diets, a 72-hour metabolic balance study was performed. The children's baseline characteristics were comparable among the groups (one exception: children of LP group were less stunted). The costs of 1,000 kcal from LenP, AP and LP diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 0.11 US dollar, respectively. Average daily energy intake (115-119 kcal/kg/d), coefficients of carbohydrate (89-91%), fat (80-90%), and energy (87-89%) absorption were similar in all groups. Mean+/-SD coefficient of nitrogen absorption (%) and nitrogen balance (g/kg/day) were 81+/-6 and 0.35+/-0.21 in LenP, 82+/-5 and 0.36+/-0.08 in AP, and 73+/-4 and 0.13+/-0.06 in LP groups, respectively (for both the nitrogen absorption and balance comparisons: LenP vs. AP, p>0.05; LenP vs. LP, p<0.05; AP vs. LP, p<0.05). The results showed higher absorption of nitrogen and its balance from high protein diets whether derived from lentil or animal source, which may enhance tissue protein deposition. A lentil-based high protein diet, which is less expensive, may be useful for nutritional rehabilitation of moderately malnourished children.

  3. Selecting salmonids to better utilize plant based diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of genotype by diet interactions in aquaculture species for specific dietary components has only recently begun on a limited basis. Initial studies have examined such species as rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Because of the high-protein diet these species consume in the wild, commerci...

  4. Effect of level of whole cottonseed on intake, digestibility, and performance of growing male goats fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Luginbuhl, J M; Poore, M H; Conrad, A P

    2000-06-01

    Twenty-four purebred Boer (Capra hircus hircus) and 12 male kids of 1/2 Boer breeding (initial BW 21 +/- .5 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of increasing level of whole cottonseed (WCS) on ADG, serum urea N, plasma gossypol, live grades, and intake of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, ether extract, and free gossypol. A subgroup of 16 purebred goats was used to determine digestibility using a 5-d total fecal collection. Goats were blocked by BW and then assigned at random to one of four diets containing 0, 8, 16, or 24% WCS. All diets contained 71% chopped orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hay and 29% concentrate; WCS replaced corn and soybean meal to maintain calculated TDN and CP concentrations at 68 and 15% of DM, respectively. Concentrations of NDF in diet DM were 52.4, 55.9, 59.3, and 62.1% with increasing WCS, and the Ca:P ratio was maintained at 2:0. Goats were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Over the 90-d performance phase, DMI (P < .05), CP intake (P < .02), and ADG (P < .01) decreased linearly with increasing WCS in the diet, whereas ether extract (EE) intake increased in a cubic fashion (P < .01). Gain:feed decreased linearly (P < .02) with increasing level of WCS. Addition of WCS resulted in linear decreases in apparent digestibility coefficients of DM (P < .02) and NDF (P < .05), a linear increase in total plasma gossypol (P < .01), and a quadratic increase in serum urea N (P < .04). Apparent digestibility of CP was not affected by WCS level. At the 16 and 24% WCS levels, EE constituted 4.2 and 4.8% of total DMI, respectively. Adding WCS to diets for growing goats had detrimental effects on animal performance, and, based on the possible negative effects of dietary EE and NDF rather than gossypol, economics should dictate whether to use WCS in feeding programs.

  5. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  6. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... by diet because the chemical pathway in the liver that makes heme from porphyrins and other precursor substances registers changes between the fed and fasting states. The normal fast that occurs between meals and ...

  7. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  8. Bioavailability of phosphorus in meat and bone meal for swine.

    PubMed

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2005-05-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM), when supplemented with tryptophan, is an excellent protein source for pigs. It is also a rich source of Ca and P, but some research has suggested that the bioavailability of P is variable. Experiment 1 further examined the bioavailability of P in MBM. The MBM was obtained directly from a plant and was processed to pass through a 10-mesh screen. It contained 50.7% CP, 2.26% lysine, 10.0% Ca, and 5.0% P (air-dry basis). Individually penned pigs (n = 35; 17 kg initial BW) were fed (ad libitum basis) a low-P, corn-soybean meal-basal diet (0.95% lysine, 0.70% Ca, 0.34% P; as-fed basis) or the basal with graded levels of added P (0.067, 0.133, 0.200%) from monosodium phosphate (MSP) or MBM for 40 d. The Ca level was 0.70% in all diets. Diets were fortified with salt, vitamins, and trace minerals. At termination, the third and fourth metacarpals and metatarsals and femurs were removed from all pigs. Growth rate and feed:gain improved linearly (P < 0.01) with P addition, regardless of source, whereas ADFI was unaffected (P = 0.20). Bone strength and ash increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of P from either source. The main effect of P source (MSP vs. MBM) was not significant, except for the greater femur strength (P < 0.05) in the pigs fed the MSP-supplemented diets. Femur and metacarpal/metatarsal strength and metacarpals ash (grams) were regressed on grams of added P consumed for each P source, with the basal included in both regressions. Based on slope ratios (MSP considered as 100%), the relative bioavailability of P in MBM averaged 87% when the regression lines were forced through a common intercept and 95% when unforced. In Exp. 2, 100 pigs were fed fortified corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-MBM diets from 45 to 110 kg BW to evaluate MBM as the sole source of supplemental P. The MBM (54% CP, 2.3% lysine, 9.2% Ca, 4.4% P; air-dry basis) was substituted for corn and soybean meal on a lysine basis, and crystalline lysine

  9. Model-Based Quantification of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1–Induced Potentiation of Insulin Secretion in Response to a Mixed Meal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Man, Chiara; Micheletto, Francesco; Sathananthan, Matheni; Vella, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a powerful insulin secretagogue that is secreted in response to meal ingestion. The ability to quantify the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion could provide insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes. We used a modification of a model of GLP-1 action on insulin secretion using data from a hyperglycemic clamp with concomitant GLP-1 infusion. We tested this model using data from a mixed meal test (MMT), thereby measuring GLP-1-induced potentiation of insulin secretion in response to a meal. Materials and Methods: The GLP-1 model is based on the oral C-peptide minimal model and assumes that over-basal insulin secretion depends linearly on GLP-1 concentration through the parameter Π, representing the β-cell sensitivity to GLP-1. The model was tested on 62 subjects across the spectrum of glucose tolerance (age, 53 ± 1 years; body mass index, 29.7 ± 0.6 kg/m2) studied with an MMT and provided a precise estimate of both β-cell responsivity and Π indices. By combining Π with a measure of L-cell responsivity to glucose, one obtains a potentiation index (PI) (i.e., a measure of the L-cell's function in relation to prevailing β-cell sensitivity to GLP-1). Results: Model-based measurement of GLP-1-induced insulin secretion demonstrates that the PI is significantly reduced in people with impaired glucose tolerance, compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Conclusions: We describe a model that can quantitate the GLP-1-based contribution to insulin secretion in response to meal ingestion. This methodology will allow a better understanding of β-cell function at various stages of glucose tolerance. PMID:26756104

  10. Toxicological evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Oladiji, A T; Abodunrin, T P; Yakubu, M T

    2010-03-01

    The effects of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet on the growth performance and some biochemical constituents of rat tissues was investigated following a feeding period of 6 weeks. The results revealed that the volume of water taken, the amount of feed consumed and the weight gained by the animals maintained on the nut oil-based diet were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those fed on soybean oil-based diet. The reduction in the activities of ALP, GOT and GPT in the liver and heart of animals fed on the nut oil-based diet was accompanied by increase in the serum enzymes. The nut oil-based diet significantly reduced (P<0.05) serum concentrations of total cholesterol and HDL-C whereas triglycerides and atherogenic index increased. The serum LDL-C level of the nut oil-based diet fed animals compared well with those of soybean oil-based diet. These alterations suggested that adverse effects have occurred, possibly by altered membrane permeability of the hepatocytes and cardiac cells. Similar alterations in the serum lipids of animals maintained on nut oil-based diet also portends cardiovascular risk. Although, T. conophorum nut oil did not adversely affect growth performance and the feeding appetite of the animals, it is not completely 'safe' for consumption.

  11. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  12. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Jonna C.; Björck, Inger M. E.; Nilsson, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Method Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5–13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. Results With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0–120 min, P<0.001), GLP-1 (0–90 min, P<0.05) and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05), compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0–120 min, P = 0.001), serum insulin response (0–120 min, P<0.05) and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05). Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05), and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001), indicating increased colonic fermentation activity. Conclusion The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in

  13. Effects of Replacement of Soybean Meal by Fermented Cottonseed Meal on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Immune Function of Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    PubMed

    Tang, J W; Sun, H; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) by solid-state fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and immune function of broilers. After inoculated with Bacillus subtilis BJ-1 for 48 h, the content of free gossypol in cottonseed meal was decreased from 0.82 to 0.21 g/kg. A total of 600, day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of 50 chicks each. A corn-SBM based control diet was formulated and the experimental diets included 4, 8 or 12% FCSM, replacing SBM. Throughout the experiment, broilers fed 8% FCSM had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed 0, 4 and 12% FCSM. The feed intake in 8% FCSM group was superior (p<0.05) to other treatments from d 21 to 42. On d 21, the concentration of serum immunoglobin M in the 4% and 8% FCSM groups, as well as the content of complements (C3, C4) in 8% FCSM group were greater (p<0.05) than those in the SBM group. Besides, birds fed 8% FCSM had increased (p<0.05) serum immunoglobin M, immunoglobulin G and complement C4 levels on d 42 compared with bird fed control diet. No differences (p>0.05) were found between treatments regarding the serum biochemical parameters and the relative weights of immune organs. In conclusion, FCSM can be used in broiler diets at up to 12% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of SBM with FCSM may improve growth performance and immunity in broilers.

  14. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  15. Moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity changes in a church-based, multicomponent, lifestyle study: Delta Body and Soul III.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J L; Zoellner, J M; Tussing-Humphreys, L M; Goodman, M H

    2016-06-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence, the objective of this secondary analysis was to explore potential moderators of intervention dose effects on diet quality and physical activity outcomes in an effective lifestyle intervention. Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from 2011 to 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, multicomponent, educational intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in rural Southern African American adults. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine associations among indicators of intervention dose received by participants, potential moderators and health outcome changes. Results indicated only three baseline characteristics-employment status, food shopping frequency and individual with primary responsibility for meal preparation-moderated the effects of education session attendance on diet quality changes. No evidence for moderation of exercise class attendance effects on physical activity changes was found. Thus, this culturally targeted, multicomponent lifestyle intervention did induce positive health changes in participants with a range of sociodemographic characteristics and food shopping and eating behaviors.

  16. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  17. Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and recommend modest portions, according to Dr. David Katz. He is president of the American College of ... that you are actually able to stick to," Katz noted. The MIND diet, which incorporates elements of ...

  18. Solubilization of meat & bone meal protein by dilute acid hydrolysis for the production of bio-based flocculant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flocculants are substances that cause suspended particles to aggregate, therefore accelerating sedimentation to produce a clarified solution. They find use in a huge variety of applications including wastewater treatment, erosion control, and paper manufacture. Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a high pro...

  19. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet. A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease. This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. PMID:26824967

  20. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.

  1. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  2. Inpatient Trial of an Artificial Pancreas Based on Multiple Model Probabilistic Predictive Control with Repeated Large Unannounced Meals

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Günter; Wilson, Darrell M.; Bequette, B. Wayne; Benassi, Kari S.; Clinton, Paula; Buckingham, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Closed-loop control of blood glucose levels in people with type 1 diabetes offers the potential to reduce the incidence of diabetes complications and reduce the patients' burden, particularly if meals do not need to be announced. We therefore tested a closed-loop algorithm that does not require meal announcement. Materials and Methods: A multiple model probabilistic predictive controller (MMPPC) was assessed on four patients, revised to improve performance, and then assessed on six additional patients. Each inpatient admission lasted for 32 h with five unannounced meals containing approximately 1 g/kg of carbohydrate per admission. The system used an Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Navigator® continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and Insulet (Bedford, MA) Omnipod® insulin pump, with the MMPPC implemented through the artificial pancreas system platform. The controller was initialized only with the patient's total daily dose and daily basal pattern. Results: On a 24-h basis, the first cohort had mean reference and CGM readings of 179 and 167 mg/dL, respectively, with 53% and 62%, respectively, of readings between 70 and 180 mg/dL and four treatments for glucose values <70 mg/dL. The second cohort had mean reference and CGM readings of 161 and 142 mg/dL, respectively, with 63% and 78%, respectively, of the time spent euglycemic. There was one controller-induced hypoglycemic episode. For the 30 unannounced meals in the second cohort, the mean reference and CGM premeal, postmeal maximum, and 3-h postmeal values were 139 and 132, 223 and 208, and 168 and 156 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: The MMPPC, tested in-clinic against repeated, large, unannounced meals, maintained reasonable glycemic control with a mean blood glucose level that would equate to a mean glycated hemoglobin value of 7.2%, with only one controller-induced hypoglycemic event occurring in the second cohort. PMID:25259939

  3. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.05) and percentage of large-size eggs (P < 0.05) that were improved in hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Our results suggest that the replacement of conventional soybean with low-fiber sunflower meal may be a valid alternative in diets for laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  4. Effects of corn-based reduced-starch diets using alternative carbohydrate sources on performance of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Fredin, S M; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Kokko, C; Ji, P; Fujita, K

    2015-06-01

    Increases in grain prices have led to renewed interest in feeding reduced-starch diets to lactating dairy cows. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of altering carbohydrate sources and reducing dietary starch on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal measures of Holstein dairy cows. Fifteen multiparous cows (6 ruminally cannulated) were blocked and assigned to 1 of 5 squares and used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a control diet containing 20% brown midrib corn silage, 20% conventional corn silage, and 10% hay crop silage (CON); a reduced-starch high-forage diet containing 53% brown midrib corn silage and 10% hay crop silage (HFOR); and a reduced-starch diet containing the same forages as CON with partial replacement of corn meal by nonforage fiber sources (HNFFS). The CON diet contained (% of dry matter) 26.0% starch and 34.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), whereas the HFOR and HNFFS diets contained 21.4 or 21.3% starch and 38.3 or 38.0% NDF, respectively. Dry matter intake tended to be greater for cows fed the CON diet (28.2 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (27.2 kg/d). Dry matter intake for cows fed the HNFFS diet was intermediate (27.7 kg/d). Milk yield was greater for cows fed the CON diet (51.6 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (48.4 kg/d), but milk fat content tended to increase for cows fed the HFOR diet (3.98%) compared with those fed the CON diet (3.66%). Consequently, fat-corrected and solids-corrected milk yields were unaffected by dietary treatments. Total chewing, eating, and rumination times were similar across all dietary treatments. Rumination time per kilogram of DM was greatest for the HFOR diet, intermediate for the HNFFS diet, and least for the CON diet, whereas rumination time per kilogram of NDF was greatest for the CON diet and least for the HNFFS diet. Mean ruminal pH, NH3-N (mg/dL), and total volatile fatty acid

  5. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens.

  6. Vitamin D status and its determinants during autumn in children at northern latitudes: a cross-sectional analysis from the optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Ritz, Christian; Kjølbæk, Louise; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-28

    Sufficient summer/autumn vitamin D status appears important to mitigate winter nadirs at northern latitudes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate autumn vitamin D status and its determinants in 782 Danish 8-11-year-old children (55°N) using baseline data from the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, a large randomised controlled trial. Blood samples and demographic and behavioural data, including 7-d dietary recordings, objectively measured physical activity, and time spent outdoors during school hours, were collected during September-November. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Serum 25(OH)D levels ≤50 nmol/l were found in 28·4 % of the children and 2·4 % had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Upon multivariate adjustment, increasing age (per year) (β -2·9; 95 % CI -5·1, -0·7 nmol/l), female sex (β -3·3; 95 % CI -5·9, -0·7 nmol/l), sampling in October (β -5·2; 95 % CI -10·1, -0·4 nmol/l) and November (β -13·3; 95 % CI -17·7, -9·1), and non-white ethnicity (β -5·7; 95 % CI -11·1, -0·3 nmol/l) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). Likewise, immigrant/descendant background was negatively associated with 25(OH)D, particularly in females (β -16·3; 95 % CI -21·9, -10·7) (P<0·001) (P interaction=0·003). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (min/d) (β 0·06; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·12), outdoor walking during school hours (min/week) (β 0·4; 95 % CI 0·1, 0·6) and intake of vitamin D-containing supplements ≥3 d/week (β 8·7; 95 % CI 6·4, 11·0) were positively associated with 25(OH)D (all P<0·05). The high proportion of children with vitamin D status below the recommended sufficiency level of 50 nmol/l raises concern as levels expectedly drop further during winter months. Frequent intake of vitamin D supplements was strongly associated with status. MVPA and outdoor activity during school

  7. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  8. The Timing of Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, Jan H.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on obtaining food and few competing activities, 3 levels of…

  9. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  10. Factors Related to Healthy Diet and Physical Activity in Hospital-Based Clinical Nurses.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne

    2014-09-30

    Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.

  11. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  12. Mitochondria: The ketogenic diet--A metabolism-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh, Sepideh; Lambert, Bridget; Rutherford, Tricia; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Feichtinger, René G

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of the cell, generating ATP via oxidative phosphorylation mainly by using pyruvate derived from glycolytic processing of glucose. Ketone bodies generated by fatty acid oxidation can serve as alternative metabolites for aerobic energy production. The ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, mimics the metabolic state of starvation, forcing the body to utilize fat as its primary source of energy. The ketogenic diet is used therapeutically for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and for "rare diseases" of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency). As metabolic reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation toward increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer cells; there is increasing evidence that the ketogenic diet may also be beneficial as an adjuvant cancer therapy by potentiating the antitumor effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  13. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: The utility of lipid extracted algae as a protein source in forage or starch-based ruminant diets.

    PubMed

    Lodge-Ivey, S L; Tracey, L N; Salazar, A

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of lipid extracted algae (LEA) on OM digestibility, N flow, and rumen fermentation. Six samples of LEA were evaluated representing 2 genus of microalgae (Nannochloropsis spp. [n = 3] or Chlorella spp. [n = 3]). Four dual-flow continuous flow fermenters (2,700 mL) were used in a Latin square design to evaluate LEA in forage or concentrate diets compared with soybean meal. Temperature (39 °C), pH, solid (5%/h) and liquid (10%/h) dilution rates, and feed schedule were maintained constant for all experiments. Each experimental period consisted of 6-d adaptation and 4-d sampling periods. There were 7 treatments consisting of 6 different samples of LEA and a soybean meal control (SOY). Diets for Exp.1 were formulated to be 13.0% CP (DM basis) using either soybean meal or LEA and met or exceeded the requirements of a nonpregnant and nonlactating beef cow (450 kg). The forage portion consisted of sorghum-sudan hay (6.4% CP and 46.2% TDN, DM basis) and alfalfa (26.1% CP and 82.3% TDN, DM basis). Concentrate diets used in Exp. 2 met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of a (400 kg) growing steer and contained 85% fine ground corn and included 7% (DM basis) soybean meal or LEA. Data were analyzed as mixed model considering the effect of each LEA compared with soybean meal. Orthogonal contrasts were used to determine the overall effect of LEA genus vs. SOY. True OM digestibility were not influenced by LEA addition to forage diets (P ≥ 0.08) but increased with Chlorella LEA addition to concentrate diets (P < 0.01) but not Nannochloropsis LEA. Degradation of N was greater for SOY with forage diets and LEA for concentrate diets (P < 0.0001). Total VFA production was greatest for SOY in forage diets and increased when LEA was added to concentrate diets (P < 0.0001). Microbial efficiency did not differ between SOY and LEA in forage diets (P ≤ 0.08). In concentrate diets Nannochloropsis decreased microbial efficiency

  14. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  15. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  16. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  17. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch-based

  18. Microbiological sampling plan based on risk classification to verify supplier selection and production of served meals in food service operation.

    PubMed

    Lahou, Evy; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landeghem, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Food service operations are confronted with a diverse range of raw materials and served meals. The implementation of a microbial sampling plan in the framework of verification of suppliers and their own production process (functionality of their prerequisite and HACCP program), demands selection of food products and sampling frequencies. However, these are often selected without a well described scientifically underpinned sampling plan. Therefore, an approach on how to set-up a focused sampling plan, enabled by a microbial risk categorization of food products, for both incoming raw materials and meals served to the consumers is presented. The sampling plan was implemented as a case study during a one-year period in an institutional food service operation to test the feasibility of the chosen approach. This resulted in 123 samples of raw materials and 87 samples of meal servings (focused on high risk categorized food products) which were analyzed for spoilage bacteria, hygiene indicators and food borne pathogens. Although sampling plans are intrinsically limited in assessing the quality and safety of sampled foods, it was shown to be useful to reveal major non-compliances and opportunities to improve the food safety management system in place. Points of attention deduced in the case study were control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat spread and raw fish as well as overall microbial quality of served sandwiches and salads.

  19. Determination of relative protein degradation activity at different life stages in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or plant based diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainbow trout were reared on a diet formulated to supply the required protein from either fishmeal or protein meal sources. From liver and muscle tissue samples RNA and protein were isolated and analyzed for the expression of a number of muscle regulatory and protein degradation genes and enzymatic...

  20. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  1. A meal preparation treatment protocol for adults with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Neistadt, M E

    1994-05-01

    Adults with acquired brain injury often demonstrate dysfunction in meal preparation due to deficits in component cognitive-perceptual skills. Although occupational therapy for these clients routinely includes meal preparation training, there are no protocols in the occupational therapy literature to help structure that activity to address clients' cognitive-perceptual deficits. This paper describes a meal preparation treatment protocol based on cognitive-perceptual information processing theory that has been pilot tested in a treatment outcome study with adult men with traumatic or anoxic acquired brain injury. In that study, the group of 23 subjects treated with this meal preparation protocol showed significant improvement in their meal preparation skill, as measured by the Rabideau Kitchen Evaluation-Revised (RKE-R), a test of meal preparation skill, and in their cognitive-perceptual skill, as measured by the WAIS-R Block Design Test. The treatment protocol includes descriptions of the structure, grading, and cuing methods for light meal preparation activities.

  2. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in unfermented, fermented soybean meal and canola meal for weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Kim, In Ho

    2015-04-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter, nitrogen and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of nitrogen and amino acids were evaluated in six weanling pigs ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc)) fed unfermented soybean meal (SM), yeast fermented soybean meal (SMY), bacillus fermented soybean meal (SMB), yeast and bacillus fermented soybean meal (SMYB), canola meal (CM) and nitrogen-free diet. Pigs having body weights 17.00 ± 0.3 kg were surgically equipped with T-cannulas of approximately 15 cm prior to the ileo-cecal junction and randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments and a nitrogen-free diet in 6 × 6 Latin squares. AID and SID of nitrogen (N) was greater (P < 0.05) in SMYB and SMB compared with SM and CM. AID and SID of amino acids such as, Lys (lysine) and Phe (phenylalanine) as well as total essential amino acids were greater (P < 0.05) in SMB and tended to be low in CM compared with SM. AID and SID of aspartic acid (Asp) and glycine (Gly) tended to be higher in SMB compared with SM and other diets except CM. In conclusion, fermentation of soybean meal by Bacillus showed better digestibility of amino acid and nutrients.

  3. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P < or = 0.03) than for CON (0.89 kg/d), COT (0.87 kg/d), or SB (0.86 kg/d). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P < 0.10) acetate:propionate ratios and (P < 0.10) apparent ruminal OM and ruminal and total tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P < 0.10) total-tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P < 0.10), and long chain fatty acid flow to the duodenum increased (P < 0.10) with oilseeds. Biohydrogenation averaged 90.4% and increased

  4. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  5. Mineral and trace metal supplement for use with synthetic diets based on comminuted chicken.

    PubMed

    Thorn, J M; Aggett, P J; Delves, H T; Clayton, B E

    1978-12-01

    Earlier studies (Alexander et al., 1974; Lawson et al., 1977) suggested a suitable composition for a mineral and trace metal supplement for use with synthetic diets containing some natural food. Such a mixture has been evaluated in patients receiving a diet based on comminuted chicken and has been shown to be adequate. This conclusion was based on balance experiments measuring Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, and P.

  6. Effects of different forms of canola oil fatty acids plus canola meal on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Bayourthe, C; Enjalbert, F; Moncoulon, R

    2000-04-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 16-wk trial. A block of 10 cows received a control diet, based on corn silage, and the other block of 10 cows successively received four diets with 1) an extruded blend of canola meal and canola seeds, 2) canola meal and whole canola seeds, 3) canola meal and ground canola seeds, or 4) canola meal and calcium salts of canola oil fatty acids. Canola fat represented about 2% of dietary dry matter. Compared to control cows, treated cows had similar dry matter intake, milk production, and daily milk output of true protein or fat. Protein contents of milk was decreased by all treatments, with a lower effect of extruded or whole canola seeds. Milk fat contents was lowered by all treatments, extruded seeds and calcium salts resulting in most important effects. All treatments lowered the percentage of fatty acids with 12 to 16 carbons in milk fat, increased C18:0 and cis-C18:1 percentages, and the proportion of liquid fat in butter between 0 and 12 degrees C. Calcium salts and, to a lesser extent extruded seeds, resulted in most important improvements of milk fatty acid profile and butter softness, whereas whole seeds had low effects.

  7. Postprandial kinetics of gene expression of proteins involved in the digestive process in rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and impact of diet composition.

    PubMed

    Borey, Marion; Panserat, Stephane; Surget, Anne; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Herman, Alexandre; Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Médale, Françoise; Lauga, Beatrice; Burel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The impact of increased incorporation of plant ingredients on diets for rainbow trout was evaluated in terms of gene expression of gastric (gastric lipase, pepsinogen) and intestinal (prolidase, maltase, phospholipase A2) digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters (peptide and glucose transporters), as well as of postprandial levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides and total free amino acids. For that purpose, trout alevins were fed from the start of exogenous feeding one of three different experimental diets: a diet rich in fish meal and fish oil (FM-FO), a plant-based diet (noFM-noFO) totally free from fish meal and fish oil, but containing plant ingredients and a Mixed diet (Mixed) intermediate between the FM-FO and noFM-noFO diets. After 16 months of rearing, all fish were left unfed for 72 h and then given a single meal to satiation. Blood, stomach and anterior intestine were sampled before the meal and at 2, 6 and 12 h after this meal. The postprandial kinetics of gene expression of gastric and intestinal digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were then followed in trout fed the FM-FO diet. The postprandial profiles showed that the expression of almost all genes studied was stimulated by the presence of nutrients in the digestive tract of trout, but the timing (appearance of peaks) varied between genes. Based on these data, we have focused on the molecular response to dietary factors in the stomach and the intestine at 6 and 12 h after feeding, respectively. The reduction in FM and FO levels of dietary incorporation induced a significant decrease in the gene expression of gastric lipase, GLUT2 and PEPT1. The plasma glucose and triglycerides levels were also reduced in trout fed the noFM-noFO diet. Consequently, the present study suggests a decrease in digestive capacities in trout fed a diet rich in plant ingredients.

  8. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  9. Effect of feeding flax or linseed meal on progesterone clearance rate in ovariectomized ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovariectomized ewes (n = 22; 68.76 ± 2.34 kg initial body weight; 2.9 ± 0.1 initial body condition score) were individually fed one of three diets: 1) Control (phytoestrogen-free; n = 7), 2) Flax containing diet (n = 8), or 3) linseed meal (LSM) containing diet (n =7) to investigate the rate of prog...

  10. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active) diet (AD) with a control diet (CD) devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313). Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P < 0.05). CD did not modify the metabolic variables measured. AD promoted significant changes in total serum cholesterol (-26 ± 1% vs baseline; P < 0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (-34 ± 1%; P < 0.0001), triglycerides (-19 ± 3%; P = 0.0056), LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P < 0.0001), apoB/apoA1 (-10 ± 2%; P < 0.0001), HbA1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013), hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497) and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123). The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P < 0.0001) lower and the Reynolds cardiovascular risk score, which considers CRP values, decreased by 35 ± 3% (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD. PMID:22472183

  11. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-02-24

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

  12. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Xue, Jianping; Brown, G Gordon; McCombs, Michelle; Nishioka, Marcia; Michael, Larry C

    2014-01-15

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. From these nine participants, sixty-seven individual samples were collected and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were used to estimate dietary intakes for individuals and for the community. Individual intakes of total OP and pyrethroid pesticides ranged from 6.7 to 996 ng and 1.2 to 16,000 ng, respectively. The community intake was 256 ng for OPs and 3430 ng for pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticide was permethrin, but the highest overall intake was of bifenthrin followed by esfenvalerate. These data indicate that the community in Apopka, FL, as represented by the nine individuals, was potentially exposed to both OP and pyrethroid pesticides at levels consistent with a dietary model and other field studies in which standard duplicate diet samples were collected. Higher levels of pyrethroid pesticides were measured than OPs, which is consistent with decreased usage of OPs. The diversity of pyrethroid pesticides detected in food samples was greater than expected. Continually changing pesticide usage patterns need to be considered when determining analytes of interest for large scale epidemiology studies. The Community Duplicate Diet Methodology is a tool for researchers to meet emerging exposure measurement needs that will lead to more accurate assessments of intake which may enhance decisions for chemical regulation. Successfully determining the intake of pesticides through the dietary route will allow for accurate assessments of pesticide exposures to a community of individuals, thereby significantly enhancing the research benefit

  13. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  14. The leafy vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus) is a potent inhibitor of calcium availability and retention in rice-based diets.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Biswas, Sunil K; Tetens, Inge

    2003-09-01

    Improvement in the nutritional quality of Bangladeshi rice-based diets is sought through increasing the amounts of vegetables, fish and legumes consumed. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of rice-based diets on selected parameters of Ca and P availability and retention in young, growing rats. The study was designed as a randomised balance trial with five diets, eight animals per diet, and two balance periods of 1 week each. Apart from diet 1, which was a pure rice diet, the other four diets were composite diets and included the leafy vegetable, amaranth leaves (Amaranthus gangeticus), the small fish, mola (Amblypharyngodon mola), and lentils (Lens culinaris) in different amounts to simulate the average rural rice-based diet, the recommended diet, the recommended diet diluted with starch, and the recommended diet excluding amaranth leaves. The inclusion of amaranth leaves, mola and lentils significantly improved N and growth retention in the rats compared with the pure rice diet. However, a minor addition of amaranth (0.66 g/100 g DM) significantly reduced the fractional Ca absorption and retention. Femur bone mass and Ca and P densities were significantly lower in the rats fed the diets that included amaranth leaves. The observed inhibitory effect of the amaranth leaves on Ca absorption and utilisation was probably due to the oxalate content. It is concluded that the formulation of a recommended diet cannot be based only on nutrient content values of individual food components due to interactions between nutrients and anti-nutrients in the diet.

  15. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  16. Determination of pre-cecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphates and bone meal products in broilers.

    PubMed

    van Harn, J; Spek, J W; van Vuure, C A; van Krimpen, M M

    2017-02-22

    A broiler study was performed to determine the pre-cecal phosphorus (P) digestibility of 5 P sources, 3 from animal (Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal) and 2 of inorganic (monocalcium phosphate [MCP] and dicalcium phosphate [DCP]) origin. Delfos is processed from bones resulting in a dicalcium phosphate product, and Calfos is processed from bones in which part of the gelatin is removed but in which the hydroxy-apatite matrix is preserved. During the first 14 d, birds were housed in floor pens bedded with wood shavings and received a commercial starter diet. At d 14, broilers were randomly assigned to pens (0.9 m2, 10 birds/pen) with a slatted floor. From d 14 onwards, one of the 6 experimental diets (a basal diet, and 5 diets containing the P sources) was provided. Test diets were replicated 6 times, and the basal diet 8 times. Electron microscopy images of test products were made in order to verify whether the spatial structure of the test products could be related to the pre-cecal P digestibility of the same products. Diets met or exceeded CVB (2011) requirements for all nutrients except for P and were formulated to contain a calcium to total P ratio of between 1.4 and 1.6 and a minimal amount of phytate P. Diets contained 5 g/kg titanium oxide as a marker to determine digestibility of P. At d 24 all birds were euthanized, after which the content of the terminal part of the ileum was sampled. The P digestibility was calculated by linear regression according to World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) protocol for determination of pre-cecal P digestibility. Pre-cecal P digestibility of MCP, DCP, Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal was 88.5, 82.4, 94.5, 86.9, and 78.2%, respectively. Based on visual inspection of electron microscopy images of test products, the spatial structure of the test products might be related to P digestibility. It is concluded that processing of bone meal increases the pre-cecal P digestibility in broilers.

  17. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  18. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  19. [Miraculous low carbohydrate or carbophobic diets: evidence-based nursing perspective].

    PubMed

    Casado Dones, María José; Fraile Villar, María Isabel; Juárez Bonilla, Mónica; Moreno González, Cristina; Martín Rodríguez, María

    2016-01-01

    Given the obesity epidemic in Western society today, as well as its influence on population's health as a risk factor for the most pressing health problems, diet treatment to control overweight ought to be considered as a priority in the specialized and primary health nursing care. A review of some supposedly miraculous diets, based on drastic reduction of consumed carbohydrates, as well as the available scientific evidence show that such diets pose a health hazard besides being ineffective to control excess weight in the short- and long-term. The negative consequences of a reduction of the percentage of consumed carbohydrates, thus resulting in an increase of proteins in the diet are set forth. Besides, suitable recommendations for patients to get loss weight are presented in an effective and safe manner.

  20. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  1. LMI Based Robust Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetes Patient with Daily Multi-meal Ingestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, S.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Sutradhar, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper illustrates the design of a robust output feedback H ∞ controller for the nonlinear glucose-insulin (GI) process in a type-1 diabetes patient to deliver insulin through intravenous infusion device. The H ∞ design specification have been realized using the concept of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and the LMI approach has been used to quadratically stabilize the GI process via output feedback H ∞ controller. The controller has been designed on the basis of full 19th order linearized state-space model generated from the modified Sorensen's nonlinear model of GI process. The resulting controller has been tested with the nonlinear patient model (the modified Sorensen's model) in presence of patient parameter variations and other uncertainty conditions. The performance of the controller was assessed in terms of its ability to track the normoglycemic set point of 81 mg/dl with a typical multi-meal disturbance throughout a day that yields robust performance and noise rejection.

  2. A sucrose-based maintenance diet increases sensitivity to appetite suppressant effects of naloxone.

    PubMed

    Rudski, J M; Billington, C J; Levine, A S

    1997-11-01

    Rats maintained under restricted access to food (but at 100% free-feeding weights) received one of two diets in their home cages: a palatable sucrose-based diet, or regular chow (grain based diet), and could respond for either sucrose- or grain-based reinforcers under an FR 40 reinforcement schedule (crossover design). Naloxone (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) was more potent in reducing operant-chamber responding in rats maintained on a sucrose-based diet in their home cages than those fed a grain-based diet, regardless of the type of pellets available in the operant chambers. Whereas naloxone decreased response rate over the session, it had no effect on initiation of responding. Results support the hypothesis that opioids are involved in the maintenance, but not the initiation of consummatory behavior. Furthermore, increased potency of naloxone following chronic ingestion of palatable food is similar to that observed following chronic opiate administration, suggesting a relationship between palatability and opioids.

  3. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Ju, W S; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA (Exp. 1) and the concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2) in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (BW = 34.0 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. One diet contained 30% SBM and 4 diets were formulated with 20% SBM and 30% (as-fed basis) CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, or PKM. The last diet was an N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Met, Thr, and Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM, and the SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in PKE-IN than in SBM. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of CP and all indispensable AA between PKE-CR and SBM, but the SID of CP and all indispensable AA were less (P < 0.05) in PKM than in SBM. The SID of CP was less (P < 0.05) in PKM compared with CM and PKE-CR, but there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of all indispensable AA among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM. In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (BW = 35.2 ± 3.0 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets containing 70% of the corn diet and 30% of CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM were formulated, and the DE and ME in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM were calculated using the substitution procedure. The DE (3692, 3304, 2994, and 2905 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3496, 3184, 2883, and 2766 kcal/kg DM) in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM, respectively, were less (P < 0.05) than the DE and ME in SBM (4275 and 4062 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Copra meal had greater (P < 0.05) DE than PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM and greater (P < 0.05) ME

  4. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, M K; Patterson, J M; Jenkins, K H; Buttrey, E K; Davis, T C; Clark, B E; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDG; <15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility. In Exp. 1, six hundred crossbred steers (364 ± 35 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with 8 replications/treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a dry-rolled corn (DRC) control diet without WDG, a SFC control without WDG, and SFC with 4 WDG concentrations (15, 30, 45, 60% DM basis) replacing SFC, cottonseed meal, urea, and yellow grease. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, and 12th-rib fat depth were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for DRC compared with SFC. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, 12th-rib fat depth, and marbling score decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. In Exp. 2, six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (481 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design using the same diets as Exp. 1. Ruminal, postruminal, and total tract OM and NDF digestibility were not different (P > 0.14) for DRC compared with SFC. Ruminal and total tract starch digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter and OM intake were not different (P ≥ 0.43) among WDG treatments. Ruminal and total tract OM digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Intake, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility of NDF increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Starch intake decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Ruminal starch digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Total tract starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Feeding SFC improved steer performance compared with DRC. The concentration of WDG and corn

  5. Substitution of corn and soybean with green banana fruits and Gliricidia sepium forage in sheep fed hay-based diets: effects on intake, digestion and growth.

    PubMed

    Archimède, H; González-García, E; Despois, P; Etienne, T; Alexandre, G

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the substitution of imported corn and soybean by local feed resources from tropical production settings such as entire green banana and Gliricidia sepium forage as energy and protein sources, respectively, in sheep diets. Two experiments were conducted: first, a 'growth trial' and second, an in vivo digestion study. In the 'growth trial', 40 Martinik lambs [body weight (BW): 29.4 +/- 3.6 kg; 6 months old) were used and distributed into four groups of 10 lambs each according to treatment: HBGl (banana + gliricidia at low level; 1500 g/day; 119 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBGh (banana + gliricidia at high level; 3000 g/day; 238 g/kg BW(0.75)), HBS (banana + soybean cake) and Control (corn + soybean cake). In digestion trial, four Martinik rams (BW: 57.2 +/- 3.45 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used; treatments (HBG, HBS and Control) were similar but adjusted to metabolic body weight (MW) and just one level of gliricidia was used. Intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed intake to gain index (F:G), apparent total and ruminal digestibilities as well as nitrogen balance, microbial efficiency and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile were monitored. Lambs fed HBGh had greater dry matter (DM) intake based on MW and ADG (173 g/day vs. 141 g/day; p < 0.001), whereas HBGl lambs showed the lowest ADG (71.5 g/day) and the worst F:G (14.4; p < 0.001). The DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were not influenced by treatment, whereas crude protein digestibility was higher (p = 0.024) in diets offered banana or corn + soybean cake (687 g/kg DM and 658 g/kg DM, respectively). Ruminal DM and OM digestibilities did not differ among treatments. Total or individual VFA concentrations were also not influenced by the diet. Higher (p = 0.006) ruminal fluid pH values were recorded for diets combining banana and gliricidia (6.54) or banana and soybean (6.39) until 3 h after a meal. As all animals on

  6. Frequency of family meals and childhood overweight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Valdés, J; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Aguilar, L; Jaén-Casquero, M B; Royo-Bordonada, M Á

    2013-02-01

    Energy balance is influenced by understudied genetic, social and other environmental factors. The frequency of family meals (FFM) may be one of these factors since it is associated with a healthier dietary pattern in children and adolescents. The objective of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence on the association between FFM and the risk of childhood and adolescent overweight. The electronic literature search identified 394 articles published during 2005-2012. Of these, 15 studies gave precise information of the studied association, of which four were longitudinal. We found great variability regarding the measurement of FFM. Six out of 11 cross-sectional studies and 1 out of 4 longitudinal studies found statistically significant inverse associations between FFM and being overweight, mainly in children, with odds ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.93. Of those, only one adjusted for all the potential confounding factors considering socio-demographic, physical activity- and diet-related variables. Therefore, this review found inconsistent and weak evidence of an inverse association between FFM and risk of childhood overweight. In conclusion, further research is needed to establish whether family meals have an effect on childhood overweight. These studies ideally should have longitudinal or experimental designs, a clear and standardized definition of the exposure under study, a measure of the exposure based on direct observation or validated questionnaires and an adequate adjustment for potential confounders.

  7. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  8. Evaluation of low-protein alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus puncatus X Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate low-protein traditional or alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus punctatus × Ictalurus furcatus. Three 24% protein diets containing decreasing levels of soybean meal (30, 20, and 15%) and increasing levels of cottonseed meal and corn germ meal ...

  9. Effect of pancreatectomy or adrenalectomy on the responses of rats to meal-feeding.

    PubMed

    Kaul, L; Berdanier, C D

    1975-09-01

    The effects of partial pancreatectomy or adrenalectomy and insulin or corticosterone replacement on the responses of rats to meal-feeding were studied. Partial pancreatectomy lowered glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME) activities and resulted in higher blood glucose levels. Partial pancreatectomy did not affect the ability of the animals to adapt to meal-feeding. Insulin supplementation of the pancreatectomized rats restored G6PD and ME activities to those observed in the intact animals and normalized the blood glucose levels in the ad libitum-fed rats. Adrenalectomy decresed the survival of rats subjected to meal-feeding. Eighty percent of the rats died when meal-fed a high glucose diet. Survival was improved when either a 66.5% starch diet or a 40.5% fat diet was substituted for the 66.5% glucose diet. Adrenalectomized meal-fed animals fed 66.5% glucose had higher G6PD and ME activities and higher liver lipid levels than both the adrenalectomized ad libitum-fed and the sham-operated meal-fed rats. Glucocorticoid supplementation lowered G6PD activity in the adrenalectomized meal-fed rats but had no effect on ME activity or liver lipid. Meal-fed adrenalectomized rats had lower liver and serum cholesterol levels than meal-fed intact rats and ad libitum-fed adrenalectomized rats. These cholesterol levels were increased with glucocorticoid supplementation. It was concluded that adaptation to meal-feeding involves an adrenal response to the periodic absence of dietary energy intake, and that the degree of involvement of this response is determined by the composition of the diet.

  10. Influence of mineral supplementation on growth in yellow perch Perca flavescens fed a soy-based diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the nutritional requirements for the growth of yellow perch in intensive aquaculture. Consequently, commercial feed formulations are based on nutritional requirements for rainbow trout, containing large quantities of fish meal and oil which are not optimal for other species. Plant...

  11. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  12. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  13. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M.; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets. IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal

  14. Alternative Protein Sources in the Diet Modulate Microbiota and Functionality in the Distal Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Gajardo, Karina; Jaramillo-Torres, Alexander; Kortner, Trond M; Merrifield, Daniel L; Tinsley, John; Bakke, Anne Marie; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health

  15. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  16. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  17. A Plant-Based Diet, Atherogenesis, and Coronary Artery Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Stoll, Scott R; Li, William W

    2015-01-01

    A plant-based diet is increasingly becoming recognized as a healthier alternative to a diet laden with meat. Atherosclerosis associated with high dietary intake of meat, fat, and carbohydrates remains the leading cause of mortality in the US. This condition results from progressive damage to the endothelial cells lining the vascular system, including the heart, leading to endothelial dysfunction. In addition to genetic factors associated with endothelial dysfunction, many dietary and other lifestyle factors, such as tobacco use, high meat and fat intake, and oxidative stress, are implicated in atherogenesis. Polyphenols derived from dietary plant intake have protective effects on vascular endothelial cells, possibly as antioxidants that prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Recently, metabolites of L-carnitine, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, that result from ingestion of red meat have been identified as a potential predictive marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). Metabolism of L-carnitine by the intestinal microbiome is associated with atherosclerosis in omnivores but not in vegetarians, supporting CAD benefits of a plant-based diet. Trimethylamine-N-oxide may cause atherosclerosis via macrophage activation. We suggest that a shift toward a plant-based diet may confer protective effects against atherosclerotic CAD by increasing endothelial protective factors in the circulation while reducing factors that are injurious to endothelial cells. The relative ratio of protective factors to injurious endothelial exposure may be a novel approach to assessing an objective dietary benefit from a plant-based diet. This review provides a mechanistic perspective of the evidence for protection by a plant-based diet against atherosclerotic CAD. PMID:25431999

  18. A plant-based diet, atherogenesis, and coronary artery disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Tuso, Phillip; Stoll, Scott R; Li, William W

    2015-01-01

    A plant-based diet is increasingly becoming recognized as a healthier alternative to a diet laden with meat. Atherosclerosis associated with high dietary intake of meat, fat, and carbohydrates remains the leading cause of mortality in the US. This condition results from progressive damage to the endothelial cells lining the vascular system, including the heart, leading to endothelial dysfunction. In addition to genetic factors associated with endothelial dysfunction, many dietary and other lifestyle factors, such as tobacco use, high meat and fat intake, and oxidative stress, are implicated in atherogenesis. Polyphenols derived from dietary plant intake have protective effects on vascular endothelial cells, possibly as antioxidants that prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Recently, metabolites of L-carnitine, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, that result from ingestion of red meat have been identified as a potential predictive marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). Metabolism of L-carnitine by the intestinal microbiome is associated with atherosclerosis in omnivores but not in vegetarians, supporting CAD benefits of a plant-based diet. Trimethylamine-N-oxide may cause atherosclerosis via macrophage activation. We suggest that a shift toward a plant-based diet may confer protective effects against atherosclerotic CAD by increasing endothelial protective factors in the circulation while reducing factors that are injurious to endothelial cells. The relative ratio of protective factors to injurious endothelial exposure may be a novel approach to assessing an objective dietary benefit from a plant-based diet. This review provides a mechanistic perspective of the evidence for protection by a plant-based diet against atherosclerotic CAD.

  19. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR.

  20. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  1. A High Diet Quality Based on Dietary Recommendations Is Not Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mandalazi, Emmanuel; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality index based on Swedish nutrition recommendations has previously been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this diet quality index was associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes. Of 26,868 participants (44–74 years) in the MDC cohort study, 3838 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. A diet quality index (from a modified diet history method) was constructed based on adherence to the recommended intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, fish, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed no significant association between the diet quality index and type 2 diabetes risk. The HR for the highest vs. lowest index category was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.20; p-trend = 0.56). Because of the protective associations shown for cardiovascular disease and mortality, the specific dietary components that were chosen to represent adherence to the recommendations may be less applicable to type 2 diabetes risk. PMID:27338354

  2. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  3. Meals in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Kofod, Jens; Birkemose, Anna

    2004-06-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. In the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home. This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20. The study could not confirm the general hypothesis, as a consistent improvement in the meal situation was not found in the nursing homes studied. But an indication of improved nutritional status was found in two of the nursing homes where the degree of undernutrition was lower than generally found in Denmark. Furthermore, the study indicated that the staff and the residents conceived the nursing homes differently.

  4. Meeting the nutrient reference values on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle A; Marsh, Kate A; Zeuschner, Carol L; Saunders, Angela V; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    Surveys over the past 10 years have shown that Australians are increasingly consuming more plant-based vegetarian meals. Many studies demonstrate the health benefits of vegetarian diets. As with any type of eating plan, vegetarian diets must be well planned to ensure nutritional needs are being met. This clinical focus project shows that well planned vegetarian diets can meet almost all the nutritional needs of children and adults of all ages. Sample single-day lacto-ovo-vegetarian meal plans were developed to comply with the nutrient reference values - including the increased requirements for iron and zinc at 180% and 150%, respectively, for vegetarians - for both sexes and all age groups set by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council and the New Zealand Ministry of Health. With the exception of vitamin D, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and extended iron requirements in pregnancy for vegetarians, the meal plans meet key requirements with respect to energy; protein; carbohydrate; total fat; saturated, poly- and monounsaturated fats; α-linolenic acid; fibre; iron; zinc; calcium; folate; and vitamins A, C, E and B₁₂.

  5. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  6. Meal Detection and Carbohydrate Estimation Using Continuous Glucose Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Sediqeh; Turksoy, Kamuran; Hajizadeh, Iman; Feng, Jianyuan; Sevil, Mert; Cinar, Ali

    2017-03-03

    A meal detection and meal size estimation algorithm is developed for use in artificial pancreas (AP) control systems for people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm detects the consumption of a meal and estimates its carbohydrate (CHO) amount to determine the appropriate dose of insulin bolus for a meal. It can be used in AP systems without manual meal announcements, or as a safety feature for people who may forget entering meal information manually. Using qualitative representation of the filtered continuous glucose monitor signal, a time period labeled as meal flag is identified. At every sampling time during this time period, a fuzzy system estimates the amount of CHO. Meal size estimator uses both glucose sensor and insulin data. Meal insulin bolus is based on estimated CHO. The algorithm does not change the basal insulin rate. 30 in silico subjects of the UVa/Padova simulator are used to illustrate the performance of the algorithm. For the evaluation data set, the sensitivity and false positives detection rates are 91.3%, 9.3%, respectively, the absolute error in CHO estimation is 23.1%, the mean blood glucose level is 142 mg/dl, and glucose concentration stays in target range (70 to 180 mg/dl) for 76.8% of simulation duration on average.

  7. Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Khajali, F; Slominski, B A

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal (CM), including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed (that is, 10 vs. 120 μmol/g). Therefore, the rations for broilers or laying hens could now contain 20% of CM without producing any adverse effects. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. Sinapine has been implicated with the production of a "fishy" taint in brown-shelled eggs, which results from a genetic defect among the strain of Rhode Island Red laying hens. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Because CM contains more methionine and cysteine but less lysine, both meals tend to complement each other when used together in poultry diets. Canola meal is low in arginine (Arg) which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates. The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid. Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents. Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the

  8. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  9. Endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca in pigs are influenced by endogenous Ca lost from the gastrointestinal tract. The objective was to determine the endogenous loss of Ca, the ATTD of Ca, and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of Ca in canola meal without and with microbial phytase. The second objective was to determine the balance of Ca in pigs fed diets based on canola meal without or with microbial phytase. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 16.72 ± 2.52 kg) were allotted to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 pigs per treatment. Diets were based on sucrose, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, corn gluten meal, and canola meal. Diets were formulated to contain 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, or 0.32% Ca from canola meal. All diets were formulated with 0 or 1,500 units/kg of microbial phytase and contained 0.32% digestible P. Feces and urine samples were collected from d 6 to 11. Total endogenous losses of Ca were determined using the regression procedure. Results indicated that ATTD of Ca and Ca retention increased (P < 0.05) if dietary Ca increased and also increased (P < 0.01) when phytase was added to the diets. The estimated total endogenous loss of Ca was 0.160 and 0.189 g/kg DMI for canola meal without and with microbial phytase, respectively, and these values were not different. The TTTD of Ca increased (P < 0.01) if phytase was used but was not affected by the level of dietary Ca. As dietary Ca increased, the amount of Ca absorbed and retained increased (P < 0.01) to a greater extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was included in the diet (interaction, P < 0.05). Fecal P excretion increased (P < 0.01) as dietary Ca increased but was reduced (P < 0.01) by the use of phytase. The ATTD of P decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary Ca to a lesser extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was used (interaction, P < 0.01). In

  10. Effect of substitution of soybean meal by canola meal or distillers grains in dairy rations on amino acid and glucose availability.

    PubMed

    Maxin, G; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2013-01-01

    Canola meal (CM) or by-products of ethanol production (dried distillers grain, DDG) may offer an economical alternative to soybean meal (SBM) in North American dairy rations. These protein supplements can effectively replace SBM and, in 2 recent meta-analyses, CM had a positive effect on milk and milk protein yields compared with SBM. The objective of this study was to determine if the positive responses observed with inclusion of CM in dairy rations could be explained by an increased availability of His, Lys, Met, or glucose. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods. Cows were fed isonitrogenous (17.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy of lactation) diets formulated to slightly exceed nutrient requirements. Diets contained 38% grass hay and 62% corn-based concentrate including SBM, CM, corn high-protein DDG (HPDDG), or wheat DDG plus solubles (WDDGS) as the single protein supplement. The effect of protein supplements on availability of His, Lys, Met, and glucose was estimated using variations in the whole-body (WB) flux of these nutrients, determined by isotopic dilution. As planned, dry matter intake and milk and milk protein yields were not affected by treatments and averaged 23.7, 31.4, and 1.14 kg/d, respectively. Lactose yield did not differ among diets although milk lactose content tended to be lower with CM and WDDGS diets than with SBM and HPDDG diets. Lysine availability was affected by treatments: the highest WB irreversible loss rate (ILR) was observed for the CM diet (371 g/d) and the lowest for HPDDG diet (290 g/d); values for SBM and WDDGS were intermediate (330 and 316 g/d, respectively). Availability of His and Met did not vary among diets and WB ILR averaged, respectively, 129 and 124 g/d; the CM diet, however, had numerically the highest His and Met ILR. Plasma concentrations of most of the essential AA were higher with the CM diet and lower with the HPDDG diet, the

  11. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  12. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  13. Mechanisms of anti-atherosclerotic functions of soy-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy-based diets have been reported to protect against the deelopment of atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism (s) for this protection remains unknown. Althought atherosclerosis was traditionally considered a disease associated with impaired lipid metabolism, in recent years the infla...

  14. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  15. Use of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based growing diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based beef cattle growing diets. Experiment 1 utilized 50 crossbred steers (initial body weight (BW) = 282 +/- 2 kg) to determine the effects glycerin concentration (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% dry ma...

  16. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  17. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  18. Feasibility Study of a Novel Diet-Based Intervention for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Unive